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Campus Network Infrastructure

– Academic Area (All Dept.)
– Hostel (1 - 13)
– Resnet
• Hardware
– 12 Mbps Internet (6 Links)
– 5000+ nodes (10.x.y.z)
– 50+ IP Subnets
– Gigabit L3 Switch

Servers of IITB
• Mail Server
– postoffice.iitb.ac.in (spam, virus)
– Lifetime email id – ldapid@iitb.ac.in (as forwarding)
• Storage Server
– Bighome.iitb.ac.in (How much space I have?)
– How to connect ?
• Ftp Server
– Mirror of various distribution of Linux
– Install Linux directly from ftp.iitb.ac.in (fast & easy)
– Almost all freeware
• nntp Server
– Newsgroup
– General, computers, humour etc
• Ldap Server
– Authentication (Forgot Password - sysad)
– Hierarchical Date Structure (Searching friends )
• Mailing List (Mailman)
– List.iitb.ac.in
– Seminar, Matlab-users, linux-faq
• Proxy server
– Netmon.iitb.ac.in (ldap authentication)
– Hostel Proxy ?
• DNS Server
• My personal Homepage ☺
– Homepages.iitb.ac.in
• VOIP (Yet to Come)

Computing Servers & Software

• brahma.cc.iitb.ac.in
– 16 nos 833 MHz Alpha Processors
– 32 GB Memory, 1 TB Disk space
• Licensed Softwares
– Ansys
– Matlab
– Mathematica
– Techplot

Nightmare Begins
• MisUse
– Heavy Download (Mp3, Movie)
– Bad Stuff (Pornography, Pirated Entertainment)
– Hacking
– Fake Mails
– Bombarding Network (Infected PC)
• Results
– IP Blocked
– Netmon Blocked
– Fine ?
Gnats: Are you in trouble?
• CC-FAQ (Before)
• Complaint Policies
– http://www.cc.iitb.ac.in/policies/complaint.php
• I have done everything now what ?
– http://www.cc.iitb.ac.in/report.html
– lost my Data (Backup)

• I want to buy new PC?
– Rate Contract Vendors
• Is my IP Blocked ? Why ?
– http://ldapweb.iitb.ac.in/cgi-bin/blockip.cgi
• My netmon is not working?
• New Student Info
– http://help.cc.iitb.ac.in/student/new.php
• How to connect IITB from Outside?
– http://web.iitb.ac.in/web/outside-access.php

Linux Command Prompt

0) passwd -- to change passwd
1) ls -- to list files and directories
Examples: ls Mail, ls –a
2) cd -- Type cd followed by the name of a directory to access that directory.
Examples: cd games, cd ..
3) pico -- To create or edit a file
Examples: pico myfile.txt, pico
4) vim -- Advance text editor
Example: vim myfile.txt
To learn basic vim, visit: http://www.dynamic-apps.com/linux_vim.jsp
5) chmod -- change file access permissions
Example: chmod -R 753 games
Permissions alias weightage
read r 4
write w 2
execute x 1

In 753, the first 7 (1st letter) represents the permissions to himself,

5 (2nd letter) represents the permissions to group.
3 (3rd letter) represents the permissions to others.
6) pwd -- shows the "present working directory"
7) cp -- copy the files/diectories
Examples: cp oldfile.txt newfile.txt
8) mv -- move or rename the file/directory
Examples: mv oldfile.txt newfile.txt
9) rm -- remove files/directory
Examples: rm file1.txt
10) mkdir -- make a new directory
11) rmdir -- deletes a (empty) directory
12) man -- show the manual pages
Examples: man mkdir ; man man
13) date -- show date and time
14) cal -- show calendar
15) du -- show file space usage
Examples: du -hs games; du ; du movie.dat
16) logout -- make you exit

More Basic Commands

1) tin -- to check newsgroups
2) telnet -- to login into other computer/server
Example: telnet
3) ssh -- secure login into other computer/server
Example: ssh agoyal@
4) finger -- look for information about users logged on server
Example: finger; finger agoyal
5) talk -- talk to other user
Example: talk agoyal
6) w -- Show who is logged on and what they are doing
7) write -- write to other users
Example: write agoyal
8) ftp -- to transfer files from one computer to another
Example: ftp
Use 'gftp' for graphical interface
9) cat -- print the file(s) on standard output
Example: cat myfile.txt
Imp: Try commands 'head', 'tail', 'less', 'more'
10) alias -- alias a command
Example: alias rm='ls'

Advance Commands
1) locate -- locate a file containing some expression
Example: locate games
2) grep -- print lines matching a pattern
Example: locate games|grep nfs
3) ps -- report process status
Examples: ps; ps –aux
4) tar -- compress/uncompress files/directories
Examples: tar -xvf file.tar -- uncompress a file 'file.tar'
tar -xzvf file.tar.gz -- uncompress a file 'file.tar.gz'
tar -xjvf file.tar.bz2 -- uncompress a file 'file.tar.bz2'
tar -cvf file.tar file -- compress the file 'file' to 'file.tar'
tar -czvf file.tar.gz file -- compress the file 'file' to file.tar.gz
tar -cjvf file.tar.bz2 file -- compress the file 'file' to file.tar.bz2

5) file -- determine file type

Computer Linux Workshop: Institute Rules
Please visit the CC webpage:
and MLC website for the full details:
• Regarding Password Security:
1. DO NOT SHARE your password with someone else
2. DO Keep reasonable complex passwords. A good password has both
upper and lowercase characters and numerals
3. DO NOT SAVE your Netmon (and or Hotmail / Yahoo!) password in the
browser of a public machine
• Regarding Login and Mail Security:
1. DO NOT KEEP the permissions of your directory open e.g. best do
“chmod 701 ~/”
2. Avoid using telnet, as far as possible use ssh secure shell
3. DO NOT LEAVE your login open, you will be held responsible in case of
misuse, always lock your terminal (using xlock) before leaving
• Concerning Cybercrime:
1. First and most important Rule: Take permissions before doing anything
illegal, developing fundaes and hacking is encouraged : )
2. Use of tools which invade for invading others privacy are strictly
3. You should not try to procure unauthorized entry into any machine
4. DO NOT ATTEMPT to get other’s password by fraud methods (by
writing/executing password hacking scripts)
5. Impersonation (Spoofing) of another user is a serious offence
6. Abuse of others via mail is punishable by the law. Mails which are
discriminating gender, religion are not allowed
• Newsgroup Postings:
1. Use of abusive words while posting to the news groups should be
2. DO NOT use the news groups for illegal work
3. You should NOT use newsgroups for commercial purposes
4. You are solely responsible for all the postings made by you and can be
considered as first hand evidence against you
• Internet Usage:
1. Visiting Pornographic sites and downloading pornographic material is
strictly prohibited
2. Excessive downloads (especially video and music) will lead to the loss
of netmon use
3. Avoid commercial and spam sites
4. Avoid giving you email address to some site, you may receive junk mail
a.k.a. spam
Linux File System

Main Features of Unix File System

- Support of file ownership by UserId and GroupId.
- High level of security
- Support for different degrees of access permission (for attributes read,
write and execute) for the owner, group or everyone.
- Ability to create very big partitions ( partitions to the tune of 4TB)
- Provides long file name and case sensitivity
- Lots of customizability like block size, node limit etc.

- Everything is file in linux
Keyboard , monitor , whatever
- Different file types
1) Ordinary files
2) Directories
3) Special files: presents a real physical device such as printer etc.
4) Pipes: acts as a temporary file which only exists to hold data from
one command until it is read by another.