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Spread Spectrum

Communications
Dr. Fahim Aziz Umrani
Department of Telecommunication, Room # 213
Institute of Information & Communication Technologies (IICT),
Mehran UET, Jamshoro
fahim_umrani@yahoo.com
Spread Spectrum Communications
Title of Subject : Spread Spectrum Communications
Disciplines : B.E. Telecommunication Engineering
Term : (7th Term)
Effective : 08TL Batch to Onwards
Pre-requisites : ADC Co-requisite: NIL
Assessment : 20% Sessional Work, 80% Written Examination
Marks : Theory : 100 Practical : 50
Credit Hours : 4+2
Minimum Contact Hours: 52 + 26

Aims
To introduce the concepts and applications of spread spectrum communications systems.
Objectives
Upon completion of this course work the students should be able to:
Understand the basic concept and terminology of spread communications.
Have awareness and familiarity of practical application of spread spectrum to various communication system such as CDMA systems
Review of noise and fading channels models
Introduction to Spread Spectrum (SS) Communications:
Concept and definitions of SS communications as compared with conventional types of communications, Origin of SS communications, Implementations of SS
communications, Spreading Sequences, Orthogonal and Semi-orthogonal sequences.
PN Sequences: Pseudo-noise (PN) sequences generation and its properties (balance, run and correlation properties).
M-sequences: Generation of m-sequence using shift registers (Fibonacci and Galois feedback generators), characteristics of m-sequence (near balance, correlation and
security etc.), polynomial representation of m-sequences,
Gold Sequences: Why Gold codes, generation of Gold codes, finding preferred pair of m-sequences, correlation properties of Gold sequences.
Orthogonal Sequences: Walsh Codes, Motivation, Generation and its properties, application of Walsh Codes, Variable length orthogonal codes (motivation, generation
and properties).
Spread Spectrum Communication Systems:
Fundamental of Spread Spectrum:: Concept of Spectrum and Bandwidth, Definition of SS Signals, Types of SS signals, Benefits of SS techniques.
Analysis of SS Systems: Direct Sequence SS systems, Frequency-Hopped SS systems, Synchronization of SS communication system (Acquisition and Tracking)
Application of Spread Spectrum: Anti-jamming, Ranging, multipath suppression, code-division multiple access, recent commercial applications.
CDMA Systems: Introduction to 2G/3G standards, CDMA 2000 Systems & Architecture, WCDMA System and Architecture.

Recommended Books:
R. Petersons, R. Ziemer “Introduction to Spread Spectrum Communications”, Prentice-Hall 1995.
R. C. Dixon, “Spread Spectrum System with Commercial Applications”, 4th ed. Wiley 2000.
Andrew J. Viterbi, “CDMA Principles of Spread spectrum Communication”, Adison-Wiley, 2004.

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Spread Spectrum Communications
Tentative Teaching Plan
Name of Teacher: Dr. Fahim Aziz Umrani Subject: Spread Spectrum Communications Batch: 08TL Year: 4th Term: 7th
Term Starting Date: 03 – 01 – 2011 Term Suspension date: 23 – 04 –2011
Sr. # Topics No. of Lectures
01 Introduction to the subject, Review of noise and fading channels models 02
02 Concept and definitions of SS communications 02
03 Origin of SS communications 02
04 Implementations of SS communications 02
05 Spreading Sequences, Orthogonal and Semi-orthogonal sequences 02
06 PN Sequences: Pseudo-noise (PN) sequences generation and its properties (balance, run & correlation prop.). 02
07 M-sequences: Generation of m-sequence using shift registers (Fibonacci and Galois feedback generators) 02
08 Characteristics of m-sequence (near balance, correlation and security etc.) 02
09 Polynomial representation of m-sequences 02
10 Gold Sequences: Why Gold codes, generation of Gold codes, 02
11 Finding preferred pair of m-sequences, correlation properties of Gold sequences. 02
12 Orthogonal Sequences: Walsh Codes, Motivation, Generation and its properties 02
13 Application of Walsh Codes, Variable length orthogonal codes (motivation, generation and properties). 02
14 Fundamental of Spread Spectrum: Concept of Spectrum and Bandwidth, 02
15 Definition of SS Signals, Types of SS signals, 02
16 Benefits of SS techniques 02
17 Analysis of SS Systems: Direct Sequence SS systems, 02
18 Frequency-Hopped SS systems 02
19 Synchronization of SS communication system (Acquisition and Tracking) 02
20 Application of Spread Spectrum: Anti-jamming, Ranging 02
21 Multipath suppression 02
22 Code-Division Multiple Access 02
23 Recent Commercial Applications 02
24 CDMA Systems: Introduction to 2G/3G standards 02
25 CDMA 2000 Systems & Architecture 02
26 WCDMA System and Architecture 02
Total Lectures 52
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Spread Spectrum Communications

The beginning – Mobile Communication

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Wireless Evolution

2009: Apple iphone 3G


Digital voice + 7.2 Mbps data + GPS
Analog voice + Full internet browsing
+ multimedia messaging
+ multimedia entertainment

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Impact of Wireless Communication

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Wireless Trends

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Cellular Wireless Evolution


System beyond IMT-2000 (IMT-Advanced)
4G LTE/LTE-Advanced, WiMax (802.16m)

IMT 2000 Global standard | Wideband CDMA (‘00s)


3G UMTS/WCDMA/HSPA, CDMA2000, TD-CDMA

Digital modulation & roaming | TDMA & CDMA (‘90s)


2G GSM, IS-95, PDC

1G Analog speech | FDMA (‘80s)


AMPS

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Towards 4G
§ ITU’s System beyond IMT-2000 (IMT-Advanced) is
set to introduce 4G.

§ 3GPP is currently developing


evolutionary/revolutionary systems toward 4G:
Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-advanced.

§ IEEE 802.16-based WiMax is also evolving


towards 4G through 802.16m.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Wireless Background
§ Introduction

§ Fundamental Limits

§ Multiplexing & Multiple Access Schemes

§ Broadband wireless channel basics

§ Cellular Systems

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Digital Communication System

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Spread Spectrum Communications

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Digital versus analog


§ Advantages of digital communications:
Ø Regenerator receiver

Original Regenerated
pulse pulse

Propagation distance

Ø Different kinds of digital signal are treated identically.


Voice
Data A bit is a bit!
Media
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Spread Spectrum Communications

Digital Communication System


§ In figure, the input information source is converted to
binary digits (bits), the bits are then grouped to form
digital messages or message symbols.
Ø Each such symbol (mi, where i =1,..., M) can be regarded as
a member of a finite alphabet set containing M members.
Ø M –ary is usually given to those cases where M >2
§ For systems that use channel coding (error correcting
codes), a sequence of message symbols becomes
transformed to a sequence of channel symbols (code
symbols), where each channel symbol is denoted ui.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Basic Terms & their meaning


§ Formatting transforms the source information into bits.
§ Modulation is the process by which message symbols or channel symbols are converted to
waveforms (line codes) that are compatible with the requirements of transmission channel.
§ The term baseband refers to a signal whose spectrum extends from (or near) dc up to some
finite value, usually less than few megahertz.
§ The term bandpass is used to indicate that the baseband waveform gi(t) is frequency
translated by a carrier wave to a frequency that is much larger than the spectral content of
gi(t).
Ø Bandpass modulation is required whenever the transmission medium will not support propagation
of pulse-like waveform such as RF transmission. For such cases, the medium requires a bandpass
waveforms si(t).
§ Equalization can be described as a filtering option that is used in or after the demodulator to
reverse any degrading effects on the signal that were caused by the channel.
Ø An equalizer is implemented to compensate for (i.e., remove or diminish) any signal distortion
caused by a non-ideal channel impulse response hc(t).
§ Demodulation is defined as recovery of a waveform (baseband pulse), and detection is
defined as decision-making regarding the digital meaning of that waveform.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Basic terms & their meanng


§ Source coding produces Analog-t-digital (A/D) conversion (for Analog
sources) and removes redundant (unneeded) information. Note that a
typical DCS would either use the source coding option (for both digitizing
and compressing the source information), or it would use the simpler
formatting transformation (for digitizing alone). A system would not use
both source coding and formatting, because the former already includes
the essential step of digitizing the information.

§ Encryption prevents unauthorized users from understanding messages


and from injecting false messages into the system.

§ Channel coding, for a given data rate, can reduce the probability of error,
PE, or reduce the required signal-to-noise ratio to achieve a desired PE at
the expense of transmission bandwidth or decoder complexity.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Basic Terms & their meaning


§ Demodulation is typically accomplished with signal attributes
(particularly phase), the process is termed coherent; when phase
information is not used, the process is termed non-coherent.

§ Waveform coding involves the use of new waveforms, yielding


improved detection performance over that of the original
waveforms.

§ Structured sequences involve the use of redundant bits to


determine whether or not an error has occurred due to noise on
the channel. One of these techniques, known as automatic repeat
request (ARQ), simply recognizes the occurrence of an error and
requests that the sender retransmit the message; other techniques,
known as forward error correction (FEC), are capable of
automatically correcting the errors (within specified limits).

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Basic Terms & their meaning


§ Symbol (digital message). A symbol is a group of k bits considered
as a unit. We refer to this unit as a message symbol mi.

§ Data rate. This quantity in bits per second is given by R=k/T=(1/ T


)log2M bits/s, where k bits identify a symbol from an M=2k –
symbol alphabet, and T is the k-bit symbol duration.

§ Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR): The figure of merit for analog


communication system is a fidelity criterion, such as SNR, percent
distortion, or expected mean-square error between the transmitted
and received waveforms. A figure for digital communication system
is the probability of incorrectly detecting a digit, or the probability
of error, PEs.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Fundamental Constraint
§ Shannon’s capacity upper bound
ØAchievable data rate is fundamentally limited by
bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Fundamental Constraints
§ Fundamental constraints for high data rate communications

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Challenges for Wireless Communications


§ Multipath radio propagation

§ Spectrum limitations

§ Limited energy

§ User mobility

§ Resource management

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Duplexing
§ Two ways to duplex downlink (base station to mobile) and
uplink (mobile to base station)
Ø Frequency division duplex (FDD)
Ø Time division duplex (TDD)

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Wireless Channel
§ Wireless channel experiences multipath-radio
propagation

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Multipath Radio Propagation

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Multipath Channel
§ Multipath channel causes:
Ø Inter-symbol interference and fading in the time domain
Ø Frequency-selectivity in the frequency domain

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Multipath Channel
§ For broadband wireless channel, ISI and frequency-
selectivity becomes severe.

§ To resolve the ISI and frequency-selectivity in the channel,


various measures are used.
Ø Channel equalization in the time domain or frequency domain
Ø Multi-carrier multiplexing
• Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
Ø Frequency hopping
Ø Channel-adaptive scheduling
Ø Channel coding
Ø Automatic repeat request (ARQ) and hybrid ARQ (H-ARQ)

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Mobile User
§ When the user is mobile, the channel becomes time-varying.

§ There is also Doppler-shift in the carrier frequency.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Time-Varying Multipath Channel

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Wireless Spectrum

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Cellular Wireless System


§ A large geographical region
is segmented into smaller
“cells”.
Ø Transmit power limitation
Ø Facilitates frequency spectrum
re-use

§ Cellular network design


issues
Ø Inter-cell synchronization
Ø Handoff mechanism
Ø Frequency planning

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Cellular Wireless System


§ Frequency reuse

Frequency re-use = 1 Frequency re-use = 7


-Higher spectral efficiency - lower interference for cell-edge users
-Higher interference for cell-edge users -Lower spectral efficiency

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Cellular Wireless System


§ Sectorized Cells

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Cellular Wireless System


§ Frequency reuse = 3

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Spread Spectrum Communications

What is Spread Spectrum?


§ A transmission technique in which a pseudo-
noise code, independent of the information
data, is employed as a modulation waveform
to “spread” the signal energy over a
bandwidth much greater than the signal
information bandwidth.
§ At the receiver the signal is “despread” using a
synchronized replica of the pseudo-noise
code.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Spread Spectrum
§ In spread spectrum (SS), we combine signals
from different sources to fit into a larger
bandwidth, but our goals are to prevent
eavesdropping and jamming.
§ To achieve these goals, spread spectrum
techniques add redundancy.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Why Spread Spectrum?


§ Hide a signal below the noise floor
§ Resistance to narrowband jamming and interference
§ Mitigate performance degradation due to inter-symbol
and narrowband interference
§ In conjunction with RAKE receiver, SS can provide
coherent combining of different multipath components
§ Allow multiple users to share the same signal
bandwidth
§ Wide bandwidth of SS signals is useful for location and
timing acquisition

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Spreading

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Spreading methods
§ Frequency Hopping
ØApplied in GSM, Military, ISM bands, Blue tooth
§ Direct sequence
ØApplied in IS-95 IS-136 Cellular CDMA, GPS, UMTS,
W-CDMA, Military
§ Multi-Carrier CDMA
Ø4G Networks
§ Ultra Wide Band
ØRADAR & Short range communications

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Spread Spectrum Properties


§ Signal occupies a bandwidth much larger than
is needed for the information signal
§ Spread spectrum modulation is done using a
spreading code independent of the data in the
signal
§ Despreading at the receiver is done by
correlating the received signal with a
synchronized copy of the spreading code

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Spread Spectrum Communications

A Short History
§ Spread-spectrum communications technology was first described on
paper by an actress and a musician! In 1941 Hollywood actress Hedy
Lamarr and pianist George Antheil described a secure radio link to control
torpedos.
Ø They received U.S. Patent #2.292.387. The technology was not taken seriously
at that time by the U.S.
§ Army and was forgotten until the 1980s, when it became active. Since
then the technology has become increasingly popular for applications that
involve radio links in hostile environments.
§ Typical applications for the resulting short-range data transceivers include
satellite-positioning systems (GPS), 3G mobile telecommunications, W-
LAN (IEEE® 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g), and Bluetooth®.
§ Spread spectrum techniques also aid in the endless race between
communication needs and radio-frequency availability situations where
the radio spectrum is limited and is, therefore, an expensive resource.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Multiplexing
§ Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)
ØMobile users use two different channels to transmit
and receive information simultaneously.
ØEach frequency channel is called simplex channel
(forward or reverse). A duplexer is used in MS/BS to
allow bi-directional transmission.
§ Time Division Duplexing (TDD)
ØMobile users transmit and receive information in
different assigned time slots. No Duplexer is needed if
single channel is used.
ØThe time separation between forward and reverse
time slots needs to be small for real time systems.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Differences between Multiplexing & Multiple Access

§ A communication resource (CR) represents the time and bandwidth


that is available for communication signaling associated with a
given system.
§ The terms “multiplexing” and “multiple access” refers to the
sharing of Communication resource.
§ With multiplexing, the sharing of CR is fixed, or at most, slowly
changing. The resource allocation is assigned a priori, and the
sharing is usually a process that takes place within the confines of a
local site (e.g., a circuit board).
§ Multiple access, however, usually involves the remote sharing of a
resource.
§ Multiplexing involves an algorithm that is known a priori; usually, it
is hard-wired into the system. Multiple-access, on the other hand, is
generally adaptive, and may require some overhead to enable the
algorithm to operate.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Allocation of Communication Resource


§ There are three basic ways to increase the
throughput (total data rate) of a
communication resource.
ØTo increase the transmitter’s effective isotropic
radiated power (EIRP), or to reduce the system
losses so that the received Eb/N0 is increased.
ØTo provide more channel bandwidth.
ØTo make the allocation of CR more efficient –
domain of multiple access.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Multiple Access?
§ Users share a common pool of radio channels,
and user can access to any channel.
§ A channel is portion of limited radio resource
which is temporarily allocated for a specific
purpose (e.g. phone call).
§ It is a technique to divide radio spectrum into
channels, and to allocate channels to number
channels
users simultaneously.
of users,

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Multiple Access Techniques


§ Three major MA techniques:
Ø Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) – specified bands of
frequency are allocated.
Ø Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) – periodically recurring time
slots are allocated.
Ø Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) - specified members of a set of
orthogonal or nearly orthogonal spread spectrum codes (each using
the full channel bandwidth) are allocated.
§ Other techniques include:
Ø Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) or multiple beam frequency
reuse – spot beam antennas are used to separate radio signals by
pointing in different directions. It allows for reuse of same frequency.
Ø Polarization Division (PD) or dual polarization frequency reuse –
Orthogonal polarizations are used to separate signals, allowing for
reuse of the same frequency band.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Narrowband MA Systems
§ Narrowband MA Systems:
Ø The transmission BW of single channel is same as
of the coherence BW of the channel
Ø In FDMA/FDD, each user is assigned a distinct
duplex channel for transmission (Tx) and reception
(Rx)
Ø In TDMA/FDD (TDMA/TDD), each user is assigned
a unique time slot for Tx and Rx on a different
(same) radio channel

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Wideband MA Systems
§ Wideband MA Systems
ØThe transmission BW of single channel is much
larger than the coherence BW of the channel
ØMany users can transmit on same radio channel
ØIn CDMA/FDD (TDMA/TDD), spread spectrum is
used to allow all transmitters to access the
channel simultaneously with FDD (TDD)
multiplexing techniques

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Spread Spectrum Communications

FDMA
§ The whole frequency band is divided into C non-overlapping channels
§ Each user is allocated a dedicated channel to use upon request
§ Selection of the channel is based on particular channel assignment
scheme
§ Transmission is continuous (FDD)

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Spread Spectrum Communications

TDMA
§ The whole frequency band is divided into C channels. Each channel is divided into
N time slots which comprises a frame.
§ Each user is allowed to transmit Tx or Rx in a particular time slot in each frame and
the user repeats transmission in the frame.
§ Share a channel with several users.
§ Can be user with FDD and TDD.
§ Transmission is not continuous.
§ Synchronization is required between MS and BS.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

TDMA

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Spread Spectrum Communications

CDMA
§ The narrowband signal is multiplied
by a very large BW signal called
spreading signal, which is a pseudo-
noise (PN) code sequence.
§ Each user can transmit information on
same frequency channel at any time.
§ The receiver needs to know the exact
codeword of the desired transmitter.
§ Can be user with FDD and TDD.
§ Soft capacity and soft handover are
two features.
§ Near-far problem occurs

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Orthogonal Signals
§ The key to all multiplexing or multiple access schemes is that various
signals sharing a CR does not create unmanageable interference.
§ Orthogonal signals on separate channels will avoid interference.
§ Signal waveforms xi(t), where i = 1, 2, …, are defined to be orthogonal if
they can be described as:

Time domain

§ where K is a nonzero constant.

frequency domain

§ Where the function Xi(f) are the Fourier transform of the signal waveform
xi(t).

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Spread Spectrum Communications

A Comparison

Power Density
Power Density

FDM
TDM
A
A

Frequency Frequency

CDM
Power Density

Frequency
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Spread Spectrum Communications

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum


(FHSS)
§ Signal broadcast over seemingly random
series of frequencies
§ Receiver hops between frequencies in sync
with transmitter
§ Eavesdroppers hear unintelligible blips
§ Jamming on one frequency affects only a few
bits

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Basic Operation
§ Typically 2k carriers frequencies forming 2k
channels
§ Channel spacing corresponds with bandwidth of
input
§ Each channel used for fixed interval
Ø300 ms in IEEE 802.11
ØSome number of bits transmitted using some
encoding scheme
• May be fractions of bit (see later)
ØSequence dictated by spreading code

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Frequency Hopping Example

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Bluetooth uses FH
§ Bluetooth is a FH-SS system, which achieves a
(coded) bit rate of 1 Mbps (potentially up to 3
Mbps), but uses 80 MHz of spectrum, in 79
different center frequencies, with a hopping
period Th = 1/1600 s/hop.

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Benefits of FHSS
§ Three benefits of FH-SS are:
Ø 1. Interference avoidance: There may be significant interference
at a few of the center frequencies. But even if we totally lose all
bits during those hops, we will be able to recover using the bits
received during successful (non-interfered) hops. We also avoid
being an interferer to someone else’s signal for too long.
Ø 2. Multiple Access: Two devices can occupy the same spectrum
and operate without coordinating medium access at all. Their
transmissions will “collide” some small fraction of the time, but
not often enough to cause failure.
Ø 3. Stealth: There is an advantage to switching randomly among
frequencies when an eavesdropper doesn’t know your hopping
pattern – they will not be able to easily follow your signal.
• This was the original reason for the discovery and use of FHSS (by
actor and inventor Hedy Lamarr, in 1940).

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Bandwidth Sharing

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)


§ Each bit represented by multiple bits using spreading code
§ Spreading code spreads signal across wider frequency band
Ø In proportion to number of bits used
Ø 10 bit spreading code spreads signal across 10 times bandwidth of 1
bit code
§ One method:
Ø Combine input with spreading code using XOR
Ø Input bit 1 inverts spreading code bit
Ø Input zero bit doesn’t alter spreading code bit
Ø Data rate equal to original spreading code
§ Performance similar to FHSS

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Direct Sequence
§ User data stream is multiplied by a high rate
(fast) code sequence EXOR
User Bits

§ Example: Code Sequence

ØUser bits 101 (+ - +)


ØCode 1110100 (+ + + - + - -); spead factor = 7
User bit-1 = 1 User bit0 = -1 User bit +1 = 1

1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 -1

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Spread Spectrum Communications
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
Example

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Spread Spectrum Communications

Processing Gain (PG)


§ It is the number of chips per bit.

§ Where Rc = 1/Tc is the chip rate.


ØFor example, 802.11b has a chip rate of 11 M-cps
(chips per second) and a symbol rate of 1 M-sbs
(symbols per second).
ØAs another example, in IS-95, the “short code” has
PG = 215+1 = 32768.

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