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Contents

Предисловие ……………………………………………... 4
Unit 1. Careers ……………………………………………. 6
Unit 2. Selling online………………………………............ 13
Unit 3. Company ………………………………………...... 20
Unit 4. Great Ideas ………………………………………... 27
Unit 5. Stress ……………………………………………… 34
Unit 6.Entertaining.……………………………………….. 41
Unit 7. Marketing …………………………………………. 47
Unit 8. Planning …………………………………………... 55
Unit 9. Managing People …………………………………. 60
Unit 10. Conflict ………………………………………...... 66
Unit 11. New Business …………………………………… 72
Unit 12. Product …………………………………………... 80
Список литературы ……………………………………… 86
Appendix 1 ………………………………………………... 87
Appendix 2 ………………………………………………... 90
Appendix 3 ………………………………………………... 94
Appendix 4 ………………………………………………... 110

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Предисловие
Учебное пособие «Keys to Business English» адресовано прежде всего
студентам, изучающим английский язык на уровне Intermediate и впервые
приступающим к изучению делового английского языка, а также
предоставляет дополнительный материал преподавателям, которые
остановили свой выбор на учебнике «Market Leader Pre-Intermediate» для
аудиторной работы со студентами.
В пособии разработаны 12 тематических разделов, которые являются
информативной базой и основой для обсуждения, предлагаемой в рамках
учебника «Market Leader Pre-Intermediate», и охватывают основные темы по
бизнесу, маркетингу, менеджменту и экономике.
Цель предлагаемого пособия состоит в развитии мотивации речевой
деятельности, коммуникативных умений, ассоциативного мышления,
обогащения словарного запаса, навыков интерпретации и реферирования.
Предлагаемое пособие «Keys to Business English» состоит из 12 уроков-
циклов и дополнительных приложений. Каждый урок включает:
1) введение в тему (задания для развития ассоциативного мышления и
генерирования идей);
2) словарь-минимум;
3) основной текст, включающий базовые термины и последующие
дискуссионные вопросы;
4) упражнения для расширения и закрепления терминологии и лексического
материала в сфере бизнеса;
5) вопросы и речевые ситуации проблемного характера;
6) задания на реферирование англоязычных тестов и интерпретацию с
русского языка на английский.
Каждая тематическая серия формирует определённые разговорные
навыки и расширяет представление о предмете разговора. Все уроки-циклы
сопровождаются вспомогательным словарём, а также русскими
эквивалентами и формулировками специальных терминов, что значительно
облегчает усвоение дальнейшего материала. При работе с пособием в
комплексе с учебником «Market Leader Pre-Intermediate» мы рекомендуем
приступать к изучению каждого раздела, начиная с упражнений,
представленных в пособии под номерами I-IV. После введения основной
лексики и терминологии следует перейти непосредственно к учебнику
«Market Leader Pre-Intermediate», и все остальные упражнения использовать
по мере необходимости.
В приложении представлены правила написания резюме и
сопроводительного письма, рекомендации и ключевые фразы для написания
эссе и реферирования, основные сокращения деловой корреспонденции.
В заключение отметим, что задания, составляющие данное пособие,
были тщательно отобраны и прошли апробацию на занятиях со студентами
факультета коммуникативных технологий.

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Пособие предназначено для студентов всех специальностей,
изучающих дисциплину «Деловой английский язык» на допороговом уровне.
Пособие «Keys to Business English» рекомендуется использовать в комплексе
с учебником «Market Leader Pre-Intermediate» или как отдельное пособие.

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UNIT 1. CAREERS

I. Lead-in
 What words do you associate with the word career?
 Suggest different stages in typical career using expressions such as go
to school, go to university, get qualifications in, get a job in a company,
be promoted to, move to another company, retire, etc.

II. Study the vocabulary


to exaggerate – преувеличивать
outsourcing – передача организацией определённых проектов или
функций на обслуживание другой компании, специализирующейся
в соответствующей области
teleworking – удаленная работа; способ организации труда, при
котором сотрудники компании имеют возможность работать дома
freelancer – внештатный сотрудник
tenure – срок пребывания в должности
human resources department (HRD) – управление человеческими
ресурсами
recruitment – набор персонала
remuneration – заработная плата, вознаграждение
performance review – оценка эффективности работы персонала
annual – ежегодный
training – обучение
redundant – уволенный по сокращению штатов
delayering – сокращение управленческих слоев компании,
делающее структуру более "горизонтальной"
downsizing – сокращение общего количества работников в
компании
outplacement service – трудоустройство уволенного персонала
portfolio worker – «портфельный работник», профессионал,
который работает на множество различных компаний и
организаций
salaried – штатный (о должности)
employability – возможность устроится на работу
to keep up with – быть в курсе
give-and-take – компромисс, взаимные уступки
to attend meetings – посещать собрания

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career ladder – карьерная лестница
rapidly growing company – быстро растущая компания
unemployed - безработный
to make a fortune – разбогатеть
to make a living – зарабатывать на жизнь
to get the sack – быть уволенным
to do one’s best – сделать всё возможное
to take time off – взять административный отпуск
flexitime – свободный график рабочего дня
anti-social hours – работать сверхурочно не по трудовому кодексу
to work overtime – работать сверхурочно
spreadsheet – электронная таблица
subsidiary – дочерняя компания
vacancy - вакансия
staff - персонал
sales representative – торговый представитель
senior manager – старший менеджер
appointment - назначение
academic background – образование
numeracy – многочисленный

III. Read and translate the text


Reports of the death of the traditional career have been greatly
exaggerated. Despite the growth of outsourcing (buying in services that
were previously performed by a company's employees from outside the
organisation) and teleworking by freelancers working from home
communicating via the Internet, most professional people still go to what
is recognisably a job in a building that is recognisably an office. The
average tenure, the length of time that people spend in a particular job,
has remained unchanged (at about seven years) for two decades.
From the point of view of the human resources department
(HRD) of a large company, managing people's careers can still be seen
in the traditional activities of selection procedures and recruitment,
managing remuneration (how much people are paid) and working with
department managers on performance reviews: annual or more frequent
meetings with employees to tell them how well they are doing and how
they may progress further on the career ladder. The HRD will also be

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involved with training and professional development of the company's
staff.
A company's HRD may also be involved in making people
redundant. Redundancies may be the result of an economic downturn
with reduced demand for the company's goods or services, but they may
follow a decision by a company to delayer (to reduce the number of
management levels) and downsize. It may offer outplacement services,
advice to people on how they can find another job, perhaps after some
retraining.
A manager made redundant in this way may become a portfolio
worker, offering their services to a number of clients. But there are also
reports that many such managers describe themselves as consultants
when in fact they would prefer to be working in a salaried job in an
organisation like the one they have been forced to leave.
Others may enjoy their new-found freedom and embrace the
flexibility that it offers. (Companies too may talk about flexibility when
they use the services of freelancers in this way, rather than relying on
salaried employees.) Freelancers have to maintain their degree of
employability by keeping up with the latest trends and skills in their
profession or industry, for example by attending short courses. They may
complain that working outside an organisation gives them fewer
opportunities to learn these new skills. For many salaried employees, on
the other hand, developing one's career in an (enlightened) organisation
is a process of give-and-take - the environment they work in allows them
to keep their skills up to speed.

IV. Answer the following questions about the text


1. Why have reports of the death of the traditional career been
exaggerated?
2. What is tenure?
3. What are the functions of HRD?
4. What may redundancies be the results of?
5. When may HRD offer outplacement services?
6. Why do freelancers have to maintain their degree of employability?

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V. Find words according to the definitions. The words go across,
down and up
S T A F F Q A Z X S
W E D R P N M B V J
T D C E L O N O A I
E X P E R I E N C E
N E J L O T B U A O
U R M A I I V S N L
R F N N K B C D C K
E V H C I M X S Y J
G B Y E U A Z A F H
T T U R N O V E R G

1. A job that is available for someone to start doing.


2. The people who work for an organization or business.
3. Knowledge or skill gained from doing a particular job.
4. A person who works independently for several different
organizations.
5. The period of time when someone has an important job or position.
6. Money added to someone’s usual pay, especially as a reward for good
work.
7. A strong desire to do or to achieve something, to become successful
and powerful.
8. The amount of money a business earns during a particular period.

VI. Before reading the article from the “Financial Times” answer
the questions:
 What do you understand by 'midlife crisis'?
 What are the signs that someone is having one?

VII. Read the article and go back to ex.VI. Has your opinion
changed after reading this article?
Making the most of the midlife crisis
By Astrid Wendlandt
Feeling deeply bored and burnt out? If you are over 30, you may be
showing the first signs of a midlife crisis. You could completely
change your career, as did Gauguin, the French painter who gave up his
job as a stockbroker to travel the world and paint.

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But there are many ways of 'doing a Gauguin'. For some it means
going back to university, for others it may be opening a beach bar in the
Caribbean or finding a new partner. Those who have the money may take
a year off to sail around the world and think about the meaning of life.
Whatever the exit, it usually takes courage to find it.
Midlife crises can happen at 31, at 56 or several times during one's
life. As well as having a huge personal impact, they can have a
significant impact on organisations. At midlife, executives are normally
at the peak of their careers and charged with making critical decisions.
Manfred Kets de Vries, professor of management and leadership at
Insead business school, Fontainebleau, France, interviewed 200 senior
executives from around the world (average age 46) and published a study
of what they went through in midlife.
One interviewee, the chief executive of a Swedish newspaper,
explained his feelings: 'To my horror, I would begin to disappear
emotionally in the middle of presentations ... People would see it. They
would become nervous ... their attention would wander ...To this strange
state of mind was also added my inability to listen to and function with
other people.'
From the Financial Times

VIII. Imagine that each paragraph in the article has a heading.


Choose the best heading for each paragraph from the list below and
number them in the correct order
a) A business school professor interviewed 200 senior managers around
the world about the midlife crisis.
b) An example of someone in a midlife crisis.
c) Different people have different ideas about what they would do if they
had a midlife crisis.
d) Feeling bored may be the first sign of a midlife crisis.
e) Midlife crises can happen at almost any age from early 30s onwards.

IX. Choose the correct alternative. Then comment on the verb tenses
in italics
1. Feeling deeply bored and burnt out? If you are over 30, you may be
showing the first signs of a midlife crisis. This means that it is
a) certainly a midlife crisis
b) possibly a midlife crisis
c) certainly not a midlife crisis

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2. Those who have the money may take a year off to sail around the
world. This means that they
a) will possibly sail around the world
b) have permission to sail around the world
c) will certainly sail around the world
3. Midlife crises can happen at 31, at 56 or several times during one's
life. As well as having a huge personal impact, they can have a
significant impact on organisations. This means that midlife crisis …
a) always happen in the way described
b) sometimes happen in the way described
c) never happen in the way described
4. 'I would begin to disappear emotionally in the middle of presentations.
People would see it. They would become nervous ... their attention would
wander...'This means that people did these things
a) never
b) once
c) several times

X. A friend of yours is having a midlife crisis. Which of these things


would you recommend and why?
 sail around the world
 coach (= give advice to) young people in the organization
 take a job in the same company, but in another country
 do voluntary work (= low-paid or unpaid work with social objectives)
 stay at home for a year, read a lot of books and work on the garden

XI. Render the following text into English


Разрешите представиться – Лука Петрович Иванов
Люк Джонс
Иногда попадаются такие нелепые и забавные резюме!
Кандидаты любят писать кучу всякой ерунды: имена, возраст и
профессии их родителей, сколько у них детей и какого они возраста.
Абсолютно ненужную информацию.
В России комичность текстов CV связана чаще всего с
переводами. Кто-то пишет «analytical warehouse of mind», имея в
виду аналитический склад ума. Или другой кандидат написал:
«beforehand is grateful». Когда я что-то не понимаю, я перевожу

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обратно на русский. Перевёл и понял: «заранее благодарю»! Но для
английского уха это звучит странно.
Многие думают, что в резюме обязательно менять имена –
«переводить» их, то есть писать не Екатерина, а Кейт, не Евгений, а
Юджин. Я даже не знал, что есть такое имя, пока не приехал в
Россию. Представьте себе, если бы я написал на визитке не Люк
Джонс, а Лука Петрович Иванов. Все бы подумали, что я полный
идиот.
Кандидаты в России делают слишком большой акцент на
образовании. Раздел резюме про школу, университет и
дополнительные курсы часто больше раздела об опыте работы. У
тебя может быть пять высших образований. Это значит, что ты
умеешь учиться. Мне как рекрутеру и работодателю гораздо важнее
узнать, что соискатель делал и что он может делать.
Но в России люди пока не привыкли себя продавать. Эта
установка существует ещё с тех времён, когда был такой
менталитет: «О, надо быть поскромнее. Вот потом я выйду и всем
покажу, какой я замечательный». Но, извини, тебе никто не даст
шанс выйти! Коммерческие компании существуют по одной
причине: чтобы делать деньги. Есть ли в таких компаниях место
скромникам?
Может быть, продажа – это грязное слово по-русски. Но пока
ты не научишься продавать себя, в том числе с помощью резюме –
добьешься ли ты успеха? Я как рекрутер помогаю людям продать
себя. Всегда стараюсь выяснить, что человек из себя представляет,
что он делал, что может делать, чего он хочет добиться.
Думаю, HR-менеджерам стоит помнить, что идеальных людей
нет. Вам нужны компетентные люди, которые могут иногда делать
забавные ошибки в резюме и скрывать свои успехи.

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UNIT 2. SELLING ONLINE

I. Lead-in
Are you a ‘Nethead’ or a ‘Web-hater’? Discuss the following with a
partner.
1. How much time a day do you spend surfing the Net?
2. Do you ever join online discussion groups or chat rooms?
3. Do you book things like flights or hotel rooms on the Net?
4. Have you ever bought goods over the Net – books, DVDs and
software?
5. Would you search for a job in the Internet?
6. Would you consider looking for a partner in a cyberspace?

II. Study the vocabulary


e-commerce – электронная коммерция
dotcom – компания, осуществляющая бизнес посредством
Интернета
frenzy – неистовство, бешенство
to oversubscribe – превысить, преувеличить
preach – проповедовать
in conjunction with – вместе, сообща
retailing – розничная торговля
retail outlet – розничная торговая точка
clicks and mortar – фирма в Интернете, располагающая
производственными мощностями
e-tailing – электронная розничная торговля
to fall down – потерпеть неудачу
hurdle – препятствие
logistics – снабжение
warehouse – товарный склад
delivery – доставка
pure-play – букв. “чистая игра”; сленговый термин фондового
рынка, означающий компанию, которая занимается только одним
видом бизнеса.
range – ассортимент
e-fulfilment system – система выполнения электронных заказов
renowned [ri΄naund] – знаменитый, известный

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long – term – долгосрочный
profitability – прибыльность, доходность
to bear out – подтверждать, совпадать
cost reduction – уменьшение стоимости
elimination – упразднение, исключение
to ally – соединять, вступать в союз
bid for – предлагать цену
B2B (Business-to-Business e-commerce) – системы электронной
коммерции, в которых в качестве субъектов процессов продажи и
покупки выступают юридические лица
B2G (Business-to-Government e-commerce) – электронная
коммерция, где в качестве сторон выступают юридические лица и
государственные учреждения
refund – возмещение расходов
discount– скидка
to dispatch (also despatch) – отправлять товар
purchase – покупка
stock – имеющийся в наличии
bargain – выгодная покупка, дёшево купленная вещь
cooling off period – период обдумывания и переговоров
interest free credit – беспроцентный кредит
tricky – хитрый
enormous – огромный
arrangement – соглашение, договорённость
negotiations – переговоры, обсуждение условий
concession – уступка, соглашение
joint venture – совместное предприятие

III. Read and translate the text


The world of e-commerce moves fast. The dotcom frenzy of the
late 1990s, with companies raising vast amounts of money from
investors, for example just to sell dog food over the Internet, came and
went, and some organisations removed the dotcom suffix from their
names, so much did it become a synonym for failure.
E-commerce courses in business schools are no longer
oversubscribed and no longer preaching that 'everything has changed'.

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Companies look more at how e-commerce can be used in conjunction
with other methods of selling: in retailing this means clicks and mortar,
combining traditional retail outlets with online operations, rather than
pure e-tailing. Some old-economy companies like the UK supermarket
company Tesco have made a success of e-commerce by combining it
with their existing operations, rather than investing in a whole new
expensive infrastructure. Webvan, a pure online groceries company in
the US, fell down on the hurdles of logistics: warehousing and delivery.
Amazon is now almost the only pure-play (exclusively) online
seller of goods that has any sort of brand recognition. The range of goods
it offers is becoming ever broader, and its e-fulfillment systems (order
processing and delivery) are renowned for their efficiency. But its long-
term profitability is still not clear.
However, in services, low-cost airlines like Easyjet and Ryanair are
reporting that more than 90 percent of ticket purchases are now made
online. This bears out the prediction made a few years ago that online
sales would develop fastest where there are no goods that have to be
physically delivered.
And then there is business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce.
Competing companies, for example in the car industry, have set up
networks where they can get suppliers to do this. Orders are placed and
processed, and payment made over the Internet, hopefully with massive
cost reductions through the elimination of processing on paper. An allied
area is business-to-government (B2G) where companies can bid for
government contracts over the Net.

IV. Answer the following questions about the text


1. What were the results of the dotcom frenzy?
2. What do companies look at more nowadays? Why?
3. What is Amazon famous for?
4. What prediction was made a few years ago?

V. Read the definitions. Then put the anagrams in the correct order.
The first letter of each word is in bold
1. The basic systems and structures aftinuruestrcr
that a country or
organization needs in order to work properly.

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2. A large building for storing goods before they are rhsaeweuo
sold.
3. When something is taken to a place. verdiyel
4. The amount of profit that a business makes. otbpiriytfail
5. Something you buy cheaply or for less than the ranbaig
usual price.
6. To give someone their money back, because they deunrf
are not satisfied with the goods or services they have
paid for.
7. To offer something for sale at a lower price than tocidsun
usual.

VI. Before reading the article from the “Financial Times” answer
the questions:
 Do you read the news on the Internet?
 Which sites do you look at?
 Do you pay to read the news? If not, would you be willing to pay?

VII. Read this article from the “Financial Times”


How to make money from internet news operations
By Nicholas George
On the Internet since 1994, the Swedish newspaper Aftonbladet
claims to have been Europe's first major internet newspaper. What's
more, in an area characterised by financial losses, it has made a small
profit for the past four years.
But this year, things may be different. Despite huge viewing
figures, Aftonbladet's internet operations will make a loss as advertising
income, which accounts, for 85 percent of its revenue, slows sharply.
Now, along with other newspaper sites, Aftonbladet is looking at
how to charge for its services without losing readers who have come to
regard free access as a right. 'The present business model is just not
efficient, especially when advertising is falling,' explains Kalle
Jungkvist, editor-in-chief of Aftonbladet New Media.
Sweden is among the most advanced internet markets in the world
with internet penetration rates of about 58 percent. This is the highest in
the EU, according to Net Figures, the UK statistics group.
Yet high numbers of viewers have not been enough for advertisers
who are doubtful about online marketing - dotcom adverts have almost

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disappeared. Charging provides a much-needed new source of revenue.
But how to persuade people to pay for something that until now has
been free.
From the Financial Times

VIII. Say ‘true’ or ‘false’. If ‘false’, correct the sentence. Rely on the
information from the text
a) Aftonbladet has been available on the Internet for more than six years.
b) It has made a loss each year.
c) This year it will make a profit.
d) It is looking at ways of charging for access.
e) Its editor is happy with the present situation.
f) Sweden has one of the highest levels of internet use in the world.
g) High numbers of users means that advertising on the Internet is
profitable.
h) The writer suggests ways of making internet services profitable.

IX. Choose the alternative that best explains the word(s) in italics
1. Aftonbladet claims to have been Europe's first major internet
newspaper
a) was certainly b) says it was c) is uncertain if it was
2. [Internet newspapers are] an area characterised by financial losses
a) an activity with many losses
b) an activity with a few losses
c) an activity with no losses
3. The present business model is just not efficient ….The way we operate
the business at the moment is just not
a) profitable b) worthwhile c) interesting.
4. [Sweden has] internet penetration rates of about 58 percent. 58
percent of the population of Sweden
a) know about the Internet
b) use the Internet
c) think the Internet is useful
5. But how to persuade people to pay for something that until now has
been free?
a) force b) pressure c) convince

17
X. Discuss the following questions
 If you use the Internet, do you look at the advertisements on the sites
you use? Why or why not?
 After seeing an advertisement, have you ever looked at the site it is
linked to?
 Have you bought something that was advertised? If so, what was it?

XI. Render the following text into English


Развитие электронной коммерции
Из материалов журнала "Продовольственный бизнес"
Некоторые особенности электронной коммерции обеспечивают
ей привлекательность в глазах потребителей уже без всяких
дополнительных усилий: удобное время покупок, широкий
ассортимент предлагаемых товаров и услуг, сам процесс продаж и
некоторый развлекательный аспект (приобретение товаров и услуг в
онлайновом режиме часто более интересно, чем при
альтернативных вариантах). Но для потребителя наиболее важным
прежде всего является информационное наполнение сайта или его
содержание, форма подачи информации, ее структура, удобство
использования и навигация, общий вид сайта, расположенная на
нем графика. Все эти элементы должны быть продуманы и
реализованы таким образом, чтобы поддерживать и развивать еди-
ный бренд компании и/или конкретного товара.
С целью установления долговременных связей с посетителями
необходима разработка системы обратной связи (постоянная
поддержка клиентов, проведение консультаций по электронной
почте, в телеконференциях или чатах, поддержание в актуальном
состоянии раздела «ответы на часто задаваемые вопросы»).
Развитием упомянутых методов, включающих элемент people,
является использование подхода, получившего название
персонализация. Персонализация прежде всего требует проведения
систематической работы по сбору информации о посетителях с
целью ее дальнейшего использования для разработки
индивидуального подхода к каждому пользователю.
Роль персонализации важна и для компаний, работающих по
схеме В2В. В данном случае речь идет об информации о компаниях-
поставщиках и о компаниях-потребителях, и персонализация
рассматривается не как угроза нарушения приватности, а как способ

18
оптимизации издержек в цепочке поставок. Поэтому компании, как
правило, в полной мере осведомлены о потребностях партнеров и о
выполняемых ими операциях, и программы персонализации
осуществляются в рамках функционирования сетей экстранет. В
качестве примера можно привести деятельность компании Dell,
которая рассматривает объем персонализации в работе с
корпоративными партнерами в зависимости от ценности для
компании этих партнеров (объемов закупок). Такая стратегия
обеспечивает повышение объемов закупок и увеличение
показателей ценности партнеров.

19
UNIT 3. COMPANIES

I. Lead-in
Look through the table 1 and say what you have learnt about each type of
company:
 family-owned company;
 multinational company;
 your own company;
Table 1
Work May be more friendly in a small family business. But some
environment family-owned businesses are multinationals with thousands of
employees, and the environment may not be that different to
working in an ordinary multinational. Self-employed people
working on their own sometimes complain about feeling
isolated. You may feel more in control running your own
company, but there again, if you have employees to look after,
this can be a big responsibility.
Pay Small family companies may or may not pay good wages and
salaries. One issue here is that when multinationals come to an
area with low unemployment, they may make it more expensive
for firms in the area to employ people in office or factory jobs.
On the other hand, some multinationals are well known for
paying very low wages to people in places such as fast-food
outlets. The pay of self-employed people, of course, varies
enormously.
Promotion There will be fewer opportunities for promotion in family
possibilities companies, especially if family members are in key positions.
Multinationals will probably offer more scope – the fast-food
worker may become a branch manager and possibly go even
further, but examples of top managers who have risen all the way
from shop floor level rare.
Job security Family companies may hesitate longer before laying people off
( = probability out of a feeling of responsibility towards their employees.
that you will keep Multinationals have had different attitudes towards laying people
the job) off, but companies in general are probably quicker to lay people
off than before.

II. Study the vocabulary


multinational – международная компания
reach (n) – область влияния, охват
to owe – быть в долгу

20
prosperity – процветание, преуспевание
congenial – благоприятный, подходящий
sole trader – индивидуальный предприниматель
expertise – компетенция, знание дела
shareholder – акционер
return on investment – коэффициент рентабельности инвестиций
(финансовый показатель, характеризующий доходность
инвестиционных вложений)
share – акция
to demand – требовать
demand (n) – спрос, потребность, требование
shareholder value – биржевая стоимость акции
publicly quoted company – компания, акции которой котируются на
рынке
to list / quote – котироваться
scrutiny – исследование, внимательный осмотр
vehicle – транспортное средство
workforce – рабочая сила
profit – прибыль
turnover – оборот
market share – рыночная доля
head office – главный офис
financial performance – финансовый отчёт
competitive – конкурентоспособный
consequently – следовательно
asset – актив
long-term – долгосрочный
to launch – запускать товар на рынок
to achieve – достигать
to reduce – уменьшать, сокращать
to assess – оценить
in terms of – в исчислении, в переводе на
rather than – а не
overseas – заграничный, иностранный
SMEs – малый и средний бизнес

21
III. Read and translate the text
Multinationals are the most visible of companies. Their local
subsidiaries give them sometimes global reach, even if their corporate
culture, the way they do things, depends largely on their country of
origin. But the tissue of most national economies is made up of much
smaller organisations. Many countries owe much of their prosperity to
SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) with tens or hundreds of
employees, rather than the tens of thousands employed by large
corporations.
Small businesses with just a few employees are also important.
Many governments hope that the small businesses of today will become
the multinationals of tomorrow, but many owners of small companies
choose to work that way because they find it more congenial and do not
want to expand.
And then of course there are the sole traders, one-man or one-
woman businesses. In the professional world, these freelancers are often
people who have left (or been forced to leave) large organisations and
who have set up on their own, taking the expertise they have gained with
them.
But in every case the principle is the same: to survive - the money
coming in has to be more than the money going out. Companies with
shareholders are looking for more than survival - they want return on
investment. Shares in the company rise and fall in relation to how
investors see the future profitability of the company; they demand
shareholder value in the way the company is run to maximise
profitability for investors, in terms of increased dividends and a rising
share price. Publicly quoted companies, with their shares listed or
quoted on a stock exchange, come under a lot of scrutiny in this area.
Some large companies (often family-owned or dominated) are private:
they choose not to have their shares openly bought and sold, perhaps
because they do not want this scrutiny. But they may have trouble raising
the capital they need to grow and develop.
Profitability is key. Formulas for success are the subject of
thousands of business courses and business books. Of course, what
works for one person may not work for others.

22
IV. Answer the following questions about the text
1. What companies are the most visible and why?
2. What do many governments hope?
3. Do owners of small companies want to expand?
4. Who are sole traders?
5. What is the main principle in business?

V. Suggest the terms according to the following definitions


1. Organization which has offices, factories, activities etc. in many
different countries.
2. A company that is at least half-owned by another company.
3. A legal form of company in some countries for someone who has their
own business, with no other shareholders.
4. A market where company shares are traded.
5. A part of the profits of a company for a particular period of time that
is paid to shareholders for each share that they own.
6. Money from shareholders and lenders that can be invested by a
business in assets in order to produce profits.
7. The state of producing a profit.

VI. Study the scheme 1. Imagine that you are a member of one of the
departments and suggest your ideas about the functions of this
department
Board of Directors with a Chairman (GB)
or President (US)

Managing Director (GB) or


Chief Executive Officer-CEO (US)

HRD
Production Marketing Finance Research &
Development Resources

Market Sales Financial Accounting


Advertising &
Research Management
Promotions

Southern
Northern
Region
Region
Scheme 1

23
VII. Before reading the article from the “Financial Times” answer
the questions:
 What do you know about Ikea?
 Does Ikea have stores in your country?
 What sorts of people go shopping there?

VIII. Read the article from the “Financial Times” and express the
main idea of the text
One furniture store fits all
By Nicholas George
While multinationals are encouraged to follow Coca-Cola's lead
and 'think global, act local', Anders Dahlvig, chief executive of Ikea, the
world's largest home furnisher, sees no need to tailor Ikea stores to local
markets. 'Whether we are in China, Russia, Manhattan or London, people
buy the same things. We have the same range everywhere - we don't
adapt to local markets,' says Mr Dahlvig. He believes the group will
double its sales in the next five years, adding 60 to 70 new stores world-
wide and expanding many of its existing 139.
'Our strategy is to concentrate on existing markets, grow them and
penetrate them further,' he says. It is a strategy that recognises that even
in its largest markets, the UK and Germany, market share is still
probably less than 5 percent. (Europe is by far the biggest market, with
80 percent of sales, followed by North America with 17 percent and Asia
with 3 percent.)
But the strategy also reflects Ikea's need to consolidate its position
in the newer Russian and Chinese markets. 'Both Russia and China have
enormous potential for us. A lot of people with limited means - that's
perfect for our concept,' he says.
From the Financial Times

IX. Use the correct form of words from the article to complete the
statements about companies and markets
1. A company that sells the same things everywhere does not t_ _ _ _ _
its products to each market: it does not a_ _ _ _to its markets.
2. A company that attracts new customers to a market g_ _ _s this
market.

24
3. A company that sells more in a market where it already sells its
products p_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _s the market further and с_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _s its
position.
X. Discuss the following questions
 Is Ikea right trying to sell the same products all over the world,
without adjusting to local markets?
 What are the advantages of doing this?

XI. Render the following text into English


Как организовать семейный бизнес
Немаловажным было бы отметить, что семейный бизнес –
наиболее распространенный путь к богатству, но не самый
благодарный. Если у вас есть идея и есть некоторый капитал для
создания своего дела, вам непременно потребуется помощник или
единомышленник, при этом вы можете выбрать в "партнеры" (то
есть учредители) любимого мужа/жену или иного
заинтересованного родственника. Оптимальный вариант создания
семейного бизнеса, когда вы создаете свое дело, а муж (или отец)
лишь оказывает моральную или материальную поддержку, не
"варясь" в этом котле ежедневно.
Так сделали некоторые бизнес-леди, например известная Ольга
Слуцкер – владелец и президент всемирноизвестной сети фитнес-
клубов WorldClass. Сначала она не стояла у руля, а деньги взяла у
мужа и всё предоставила наемным сотрудникам. Клуб оказался
рентабельным и успешным бизнесом, и постепенно Ольга этим
заинтересовалась, заняла в нем ведущую позицию.
Итак, вы решились. Так с чего начать?
Во-первых, неплохо было бы определиться со сферой деятельности,
в которой вы хотели бы начать свое дело, и организационную
форму (ЗАО, ООО). Следующим пунктом идет бизнес-план для
получения кредита у банков или у государственных органов и для
того, чтобы узнать, принесет ли предприятие прибыль и что нужно
изменить, если предприятие на бумаге оказывается нерентабельно.
Теперь предстоит самое трудное: организация всего того,
что вы напланировали. Кроме того, если вы сами организуете
свое дело, вам непременно придется иметь дело с деньгами и
налоговыми инспекциями, поэтому если вы не имеете
бухгалтерского образования, лучше обратиться к

25
профессиональному бухгалтеру, и лучше, если это будет
хорошо знакомый вам и надежный человек.
В идеальном варианте можно попробовать поработать в той
сфере, которая вам интересна, по крайней мере несколько лет;
достигнуть каких-то положительных результатов и убедиться, что
это ваше, и потом только с наработанным опытом и связями, а
также некоторым капиталом приниматься за дело.

26
UNIT 4. GREAT IDEAS

I. Lead-in
 List as many inventions as you can think of from the last 150 years.
 Guess Game. One person thinks of an invention. The others ask
questions to guess what the invention is. The table 2 below can help you.
You can only ask yes/no questions. For example:
Was it invented in the 19th century? Yes.
Is it made of metal? Partly.
Does it work with electricity? No.
Table 2
Thermometer Piano Steam engine Vaccination
1591 1709 1712 1796
Typewriter Aspirin Postage stamp Matches
1829 1882 1842 1827
Refrigerator Dynamite Telephone Motor car
1851 1866 1876 1884
X-rays Radio Television Aerosol spray
1895 1900 1925 1941
Automated digital Microwave oven Soft contact lens Compact disk
computer 1947 1965 1979
1946

II. Study the vocabulary


resistance – сопротивление
to take to a meeting – вынести на обсуждение
to prevent from– препятствовать
computing – вычислительная техника
corporate venturing – управление корпоративными рисками
intrapreneurship – внутреннее предпринимательство;
предпринимательство, осуществляемое менеджером внутри
организации.
to encourage – поощрять, поддерживать
entrepreneur – бизнесмен, предприниматель
entrepreneurial – предпринимательский
to stifle [΄staifl] – душить, подавлять
skunk works – (букв. "кабинет скунса") маленький, часто
изолированный исследовательский отдел какого-либо предприятия,

27
функционирующий полусамостоятельно, практически без контроля
начальства
to hamper – мешать, препятствовать, затруднять
bureaucracy – бюрократизм
in-fighting – соперничество, распри между членами одной группы
или организации
to persuade to– уговорить
breakthrough – прорыв
continuous improvement – непрерывное совершенствование
market response – ответная реакция рынка
to eliminate – исключать, упразднять
irritation – недостаток
initial – первоначальный
beta version – (пробная версия) версия программного продукта,
предшествующая выпуску коммерческого продукта
beta-test – эксплуатационные испытания
trial – испытание, проба
enormous – огромный, громадный
niche – рыночная ниша; незанятый сегмент рынка товаров или
услуг
to exploit – воспользоваться
to extend – расширять
to enhance – увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать
to meet a need – удовлетворять требованиям
to fill a gap – заполнить нишу
mail order – заказ товаров по почте
to buy in bulk – закупать оптом
capacity – производительность
‘top up’ card – карта экспресс-оплаты
Post-it Notes – самоклеящиеся блоки
to overlap – частично покрывать, совпадать
licensing agreement - лицензированное соглашение

III. Read and translate the text


Resistance to new ideas is well known. In organisations, the best
way of killing an idea may well be to take it to a meeting. The very
things that make companies successful in one area may prevent them
from developing success in new activities. Early work on personal

28
computers at Xerox was dismissed by its senior managers because they
considered that the company's business was copying, not computing.
Company leaders talk about corporate venturing and
intrapreneurship, where employees are encouraged to develop
entrepreneurial activities within the organisation. Companies may try to
set up structures in such a way that they do not stifle new ideas. They
may put groups of talented people together in skunk works to work on
innovations - development of the PC at IBM is the most famous
example. Skunk works are outside the usual company structures and are
less likely to be hampered by bureaucracy, in-fighting and so on.
When innovators go to large companies with new designs for their
products, they face similar problems. The inventor of the small-wheeled
Moulton bicycle could not persuade Raleigh to produce it, so he set up
his own company. But a single innovative breakthrough is not enough.
There has to be continuous improvement and market response. The
current winners in bicycle innovation are producers of mountain bikes,
who have taken the original bicycle design and eliminated its irritations,
revolutionising an old concept by providing relative comfort, easy gear
changes, a 'fun' ride and so on.
The initial idea for a car will be turned into a series of prototypes
and tested. In software development, the final 'prototype' is the beta
version, which is beta-tested. Pharmaceuticals go through a series of
trials. Even the most brilliant entrepreneurs will not have the resources
to go it alone in industries like these, as the investment and experience
required are enormous. Cars, software and pharmaceuticals are examples
of industries dominated by giants. The 'rules of the game' are well
established, and newcomers are rare, unless they can find a small niche
unexploited by the giants. There may be more opportunity for innovation
where the rules of the game are not yet established. This may involve
selling and delivering existing products in new ways: think, for example,
of selling books and airline tickets on the Internet.
One thing is certain: business will continue to benefit from the
creativity of individuals and organisations which can develop great ideas
and bring them to market.

IV. Answer the following questions about the text


1. What do company leaders talk about and why?
2. What may companies do in order to not stifle new ideas?

29
3. What problems do innovators face when they go to large companies
with new ideas for their products?
4. Is a single breakthrough enough? Why?
5. Why are newcomers rare in industries like cars, software and
pharmaceuticals?

V. Match the words to their definitions


a) an important discovery or event that helps to
improve a situation or provide an answer to a
problem.
1. intrapreneur b) version of software that has been tested by
the people who developed it and then given to a
2. skunk works specially chosen group of users to find out if
there are any more small problems with it,
3. innovation before it is made available to the public.
c) a place where a large company gives a small
4. breakthrough group of workers the job of trying to develop
new products within a shorter period of time
than usual
5. beta version d) the amount of something that a factory,
company, etc. can produce.
6. trial e) someone who works for an organization,
but outside the usual management structure, and
7. capacity who develops new products and activities.
f) a process of testing a product to see whether
it is safe, effective, etc.
g) the introduction of new ideas or methods.

VI. Read the article and define the main idea


In the bag
Michael Skapinker
If you want to be a hero, an engineer once told Steve Gleich, then
solve the banana bag problem in Costa Rica. What, asked Mr Gleich, a
researcher at DuPont, the US science group, was the banana bag
problem?
The engineer pulled a bag from his drawer. Costa Rica used
millions of them to cover bunches of bananas, he said. The bags were
used as miniature hothouses to ripen the bananas while protecting them

30
during transport. Imagine the work involved in removing them from
every bunch and the financial and environmental cost of disposing of
them.
Mr Gleich had the answer: Biomax, a material that naturally
decomposes. The DuPont researchers who developed Biomax had first
thought of using it for disposable nappies*. Nothing had come of that.
Why not banana bags that would disintegrate as the fruit ripened?
Del Monte's Costa Rican banana operation was interested - but then
the country manager had an unrelated disagreement with his head office
and refused to take any more bags. More than a decade after DuPont first
came up with Biomax, it has yet to find a use for it.
From the Financial Times
*Nappies are worn by babies. AmE: diapers

VII. Say ‘true’ or ‘false’. If ‘false’, correct the sentence. Rely on the
information from the text
a) The article is about finding a use for Biomax, a material developed by
DuPont.
b) Biomax remains in the same state for many years.
c) It had been planned to use Biomax to make nappies, but this did not
happen.
d) Biomax was used to make special bags for bananas.
e) The bags were not a success for technical reasons.
f) DuPont has found many other uses for Biomax.

VIII. Choose the correct alternative


1. A hero is someone that people
a) dislike a lot b) admire a lot
2. A bunch of bananas is a group of them joined together. You can also
talk about a bunch of
a) oranges b) grapes
3. Something miniature is
a) very big b) very small
4. Hothouses are used to
a) ripen fruit b) store fruit
5. If fruit ripens , it is
a) ready to eat b) not ready to eat
6. If a material decomposes, it
a) remains the same b) decays and may eventually disappear

31
7. If a product is disposable, it is designed to be
a) thrown away b) kept and reused
8. If a material disintegrates, it
a) stays in one piece b) breaks into smaller pieces

IX. You are the boss of a company where a regional manager is


against an innovative product that you are trying to introduce on to
the market. What would you do and why?
 fire the manager
 try to persuade the manager that the product will be a big success
 find ways of selling the product that do not involve the manager in
question

X. Render the following text into English


Разлагаемые кредитные карты
Многие банки предлагают пластиковые карты, расплачиваясь
которыми пользователи способствуют некоторому приросту
средств у некоммерческих организаций, занимающихся
сохранением природы (например, WWF). Компания Discover,
являясь платежной системой Visa, решила продемонстрировать
заботу об окружающей среде иным образом и стала выпускать
кредитные карты из разлагаемого поливинилхлорида от Biotech
Products, не оставляя никаких токсичных элементов и соединений.
По словам изобретателя, технология совершенно новая,
поэтому независимых данных по BIOflex картам нет, и приходится
верить производителю. Использует ли Discover именно этот
материал, компания не сообщает. То есть действительно ли
пластиковые карты легко «переварятся» природой – еще вопрос.
Давайте вспомним, почему банковские карты получили такое
распространение на Западе. Основных популяризаторов «пластика»
два: банки и торговля. Банки получают в распоряжение средства
клиентов, а торговые предприятия защиту от фальшивок, удобство
расчетов и снижение риска ограбления. Но эти плюсы ничто, по
сравнению с тем, что показали западные исследования: покупатель,
расплачиваясь в магазине карточкой, в среднем тратит на 20%
больше средств, чем при оплате наличностью. Связано это с тем,
что в кошельках много денег разумные люди не носят. Получается,
что Discover способствует значительному увеличению потребления,

32
как правило, совершенно ненужных человеку товаров, а значит, и
большему загрязнению окружающей среды. В таком случае выпуск
разлагаемых пластиковых карт сродни лицемерию агентств,
размещающих социальную рекламу у эскалаторов метро,
призывающую население говорить курению «нет», при этом через
пару метров будет висеть реклама сигарет или женской водки.
Так что разлагаемые банковские карты, если они даже
действительно таковые, не более чем коммерческий ход Discover.
Выпуская для пользователя раз в несколько лет маленький кусочек
разлагаемого пластика, компания способствует в сотни раз
большему производству одного только неразлагаемого
упаковочного материала.

33
UNIT 5. STRESS
I. Lead-in
 Are you someone who gets stressed easily?
 What things make you stressed?
 How do you feel when you are stressed?
 Do the quiz and find out how stressed you really are: for each
situation, write your Stress Factor (1-5).
1. No problem!
2. Not happy, but keeping cool!
3. Getting a little tense!
4. Heart is beating faster!
5. Major stress alert!
Stress? What stress?
1. You wait in a bus queue for twenty minutes. When the bus comes,
you can’t get on because there are too many people on it.
2. You walk to work. It starts raining heavily and you haven’t got an
umbrella. You get completely soaked.
3. You take some clothes back to a shop. The assistant won’t give your
money back because you’ve lost the receipt.
4. You phone a customer services line to try and fix your computer. You
don’t manage to speak to a person, just a machine.
5. You’re in your car at traffic lights. Another driver shouts at you for
not driving away quickly enough.
6. You go to the cinema to see a really good film. Some people next to
you don’t stop talking and eating loudly.
7. You play a game of tennis with a friend. You don’t play well and
he/she beats you easily.
8. You’re just about to go to work/university. You realise you can’t find
an important document/piece of homework.
9. You’re in bed and you can’t sleep because the dog next door is
barking.
10. You want to pay for your shopping but the shop assistant is
chatting on the phone and not looking at you.
 Add up your Total Stress Factor and find out what it means:
10-15: You are one cool customer who is always calm under pressure.
Well done!
16-25: Not bad...you’re mostly stress-free-just a little hot sometimes!

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26-35: Keep an eye on yourself. You are nearly at dangerous levels of
stress.
36-50: Watch out! You are getting too stressed, too often. You need to
keep calm before you go completely crazy!

II. Study the vocabulary


rewarding – стоящий, полезный
reasonable – разумный, рациональный, здравый
to stretch – расширять, обогащать, улучшать
challenging – требующий напряжения, сил
to build up – накапливать, наращивать
to overwhelm – заваливать, переполнять
stressed out – быть очень уставшим, вымотанным
overwork – перенапряжение, переутомление
burn out – ‘сгорать’ на работе
consensus – единодушие, согласие
rat race – бешеная погоня за богатством, успехом; ожесточённая
конкуренция
treadmill – непрерывная монотонная работа
quality time – свободное время, время, которым человек может
распоряжаться сам
downshifting –отказ от массированного потребления как основной
жизненной ценности; сторонники этого движения стараются не
превращать жизнь в бесконечную гонку за материальными благами
counselor – консультант, советник
to lessen – уменьшать, сокращать
to be accustomed to – привыкший
‘spoilt’ – испорченный; избалованный
deadline – крайний срок выполнения работы
to cope with – справляться
to bet – делать ставки, заключать пари
to swap – менять
loan – заем, ссуда
overdraft – превышение кредита (в банке)
terminus – последняя остановка маршрута
workaholic – трудоголик; человек, "горящий" на работе
workload – объем работы
solicitor – адвокат

35
to merge – сливаться, соединяться
absenteeism – абсентеизм; намеренное игнорирование посещения
работы
emotional strain – эмоциональное напряжение, переутомление
rumour – слухи

III. Read and translate the text


People like work that is rewarding and gives them satisfaction.
For this, a reasonable amount of pressure may be necessary: many
employees want work that stretches them, to have the feeling that it can
sometimes be difficult, but that it is also stimulating and challenging.
This is necessary if one is to have pleasant feelings of achievement.
But when pressure builds up, it's easy to feel overwhelmed by
work and this can produce feelings of stress. It is possible to become
stressed out through overwork or other problems. People burn out, so
stressed and tired that they may never be able to work again. The general
consensus is that most jobs have become more demanding, with longer
hours and greater pressures.
More and more people want to get away from what they call the
rat race or the treadmill, the feeling that work is too competitive, and
are looking for lifestyles that are less stressful or completely
unstressful. They are looking for more relaxed ways of living and
working, perhaps in the country. Some people choose to work from
home so as to be nearer their families. People are looking for a better
quality of life, a healthier work/life balance. Perhaps they are looking
for more quality time with their partners and children. Choosing to work
in less stressful ways is known as downshifting.
A whole stress industry has grown up, with its stress counselors
and stress therapists giving advice on how to avoid stress and on how to
lessen its effects. However, other experts say that stress levels today are
lower than they used to be. They point to the difficult working conditions
and long hours of our great-grandparents. Perhaps the answer is that the
material advantages of modern times give us the illusion that we should
have more control over our lives. Like lottery winners who quickly
become accustomed to the idea of being rich, we become 'spoilt' by

36
material comforts and start to worry when we think we are losing even a
little control over events.
Whatever the truth, people love to talk about the stress of their
work. This stress might even be part of their job satisfaction.

IV. Answer the following questions about the text


1. Why may a reasonable amount of pressure be necessary?
2. What can produce feelings of stress?
3. Why do more and more people want to get away from the rat race?
How do they do it?
4. What do experts say about stress levels?

V. Complete these sentences with the words from the box


rat race downshifting workload stress out
quality time stressabsenteeism

1. Interviews always _______ me _____.


2. The trend towards ___________, where employees swap the stress of
corporate life for more quality time, tempted 6% of the UK workforce
last year.
3. The high rate of _________ is costing the company a lot of money.
4. People under a lot of ________ may experience headaches, minor
pains and sleeping difficulties.
5. Students do find that their _______ increases throughout the course.
6. He decided to get out of the _______, and went to work on a farm.
7. He makes sure he spends a few hours ______ with his children every
day.

VI. Before reading the article from the “Financial Times” answer
the question: What is your favourite way of controlling stress?

VII. Read the article and list all the types of food mentioned in the
article
The stress-free diet
Jerome Burne
When a friend told Tony Cozzi that diet was the answer to the
stress that he and his staff suffered from, he was sceptical. 'Massage,

37
meditation, exercise, all seem likely to reduce stress, but not whether you
eat nuts or crisps.'
Despite his scepticism, he went to a nutritionist and signed up the
staff for two months of rice, salads, fresh fruit, yoghurts and nuts in place
of the usual rolls, crisps, Mars Bars and the like.
The results at ASAP, the design and marketing company Cozzi
owns, were miraculous. All the seven staff who took part lost weight;
Cozzi started sleeping properly and stopped snapping at everyone.
Everyone claims to have more energy, and the number of days when
someone is sick has dropped from five a month to one. Only the one
individual who went back to his chips and chocolate seems to get sick
these days.
'This is a very stressful job,' says Cozzi. 'It's a great place to work
and we all love it, but it's deadlines, deadlines, deadlines all the time.
Everyone is stretched and when one person goes off sick everyone has to
work twice as hard. For some time I'd been looking for ways of helping
us all deal with stress better. Now I've found the answer.'
From the Financial Times

VIII. Say ‘true’ or ‘false’. If ‘false’, correct the sentence. Rely on the
information from the text
a) If you suffer from something, it is good for you.
b) If you are sceptical about something, you believe it.
c) Massage is a type of written communication.
d) Meditation is when you try to relax by emptying your mind of all
thoughts and feelings.
e) Exercise is what you get when you participate in sport.
f) Scepticism is the noun related to 'sceptical'.
g) If you sign someone up to do something, you make an agreement that
forces them to do it.

IX. Discuss the following


 Should companies try to persuade employees to eat better, take more
exercise, etc., or should this be left to individuals?
 What practical steps can companies take to persuade people to change
their behaviour?

38
X. Render the following text into English
Стресс от работы и методы борьбы с ним
Раньше к профессиям, наиболее часто вызывающим стресс,
относили те, на которых людям приходится постоянно находиться в
сосредоточенном напряженном состоянии (например, работа
сотрудников экстренных служб). Теперь же взгляд на эти вещи
несколько изменился. К наиболее стрессовым профессиям относят
работу преподавателей, менеджеров, сотрудников области услуг,
т.е. в тех отраслях, где приходится общаться с другими людьми.
Для людей таких профессий рекомендуется пройти
специальные курсы, где они бы могли научиться различным
техникам общения. Благодаря этому можно не только
усовершенствовать свои профессиональные навыки, а и избегать
нежелательных стрессовых ситуаций, которые неизбежно
возникают в процессе общения на такой работе.
Кроме этого, от стресса не защищены и люди других
профессий. В частности, в постоянном состоянии стресса находятся
люди, много работающие, занимающие руководящие должности,
вынужденные контролировать сразу несколько направлений в
работе или проектов. Они неустанно работают, это так называемые
трудоголики. Фактически это обозначает, что эти специалисты и
руководители уже не могут избавиться от мыслей о работе и
постоянно их прокручивают в мозгу. Получается, что они
постоянно двигаются по замкнутому кругу. Приходя домой, они
включают компьютер и продолжают работать, ни на минуту не
расслабляясь.
Такое положение вещей в очень скором времени приводит к
нервному истощению, хронической усталости, раздражительности и
болезням. Другими словами, сами себя вовлекают в стрессовое
состояние. В таких случаях рекомендуется постараться осознать
необходимость переключения на другие виды деятельности.Можно
провести время с семьёй, с друзьями или заняться своим хобби.
Такие вещи крайне необходимы для оздоровления нервной системы
и борьбы со стрессом. После полноценного отдыха любые рабочие
вопросы решаются намного быстрее и эффективнее. В голову
начинают приходить свежие идеи и варианты решения проблем.
В качестве отдыха от напряженной работы рекомендуются
физические нагрузки. Это может быть бег трусцой, занятия в

39
спортзале, езда на велосипеде или же просто ежедневная прогулка.
Физическая нагрузка восстанавливает ущерб, нанесённый
организму длительным воздействием стрессового напряжения.

40
UNIT 6. ENTERTAINING

I. Lead-in
 Suggest different forms of entertainment in general rather than in a
corporate context. Continue the list:
 shows
 concerts
 night clubbing
 _________
 _________
 Which of them can be the subject of corporate entertaining?
 Is it right to spend enormous sums of money on the best clients in
order to ‘keep them sweet’?
 When is a gift a bribe?
 To find out how ‘open to persuasion’ you are, try the following test:

What’s your Price?


1. One of the suppliers tendering for a contract with your company
invites you out for lunch at a top-class restaurant to ‘talk things over’. Do
you
a) insist that you cannot be bought and remove the supplier’s name
from your shortlist?
b) politely refuse, saying that you never mix business with pleasure?
c) take advantage of the situation by ordering a more expensive meal
than you usually have?
2. You have been asked to choose a venue (=place) for your company’s
annual conference. The manager of one of the hotels you are considering
mentions that there could be a week’s holiday in it for you and your
family. Do you
a) report him to his regional manager?
b) smile and point out that free holidays are not a condition for
winning the contract?
c) gratefully accept a large en suite room with minibar and a view of
the bay?
3. The father of an applicant for a post in your company sends you a
Rolex watch and a case of expensive champagne for Christmas. Do you
a) send them back with a note saying: ‘Thanks, but no thanks’?

41
b) return the watch, drink the champagne and forget the name of his
son?
c) give his son the job immediately and ask him if he has any other
children looking for work?

II. Study the vocabulary


to do a deal - заключать сделку
to establish a relationship – устанавливать связи
to ‘size up’ a potential business partner – определять
потенциального партнера по бизнесу
joint venture – совместное предприятие
an associate - компаньон
relationship building – установление отношений
corporate hospitality – корпоративное гостеприимство
corporate sponsorship – корпоративная поддержка, спонсорство
cultural awareness – осведомленность о культуре
avoidance of misunderstanding – избежание непонимания
cross-cultural training – межкультурная коммуникация
to facilitate – содействовать, способствовать
social interaction – социальное взаимодействие
small talk – светская беседа
to undervalue – недооценивать, преуменьшать
gaffe – оплошность, ошибка
economic decline – экономический спад
steep decline – резкий спад
reveal - обнаруживать
cost control – ценовой контроль
to enter the corporate dictionary – войти в корпоративную лексику
shareholder - акционер
conglomerate – корпорация (большая организация, состоящая из
различных компаний)
to spend run wild – тратить в огромных количествах
to retain the client – сохранить клиента
venue – место встречи, сбора
to gain a new client – найти нового клиента

42
III. Read and translate the text
It has been said that when two American or European
businesspeople meet, they are there to do a deal, but in Asia they are
there to establish a relationship. Entertaining in Asia is often used to
'size up' a potential business partner - partner in the sense of future
supplier or joint venture associate. Asians will want to know more about
their guest, their background and their contacts before going ahead and
doing business. This is an essential part of the business process, not just
polite etiquette.
Relationship building takes different forms in different places -
invitations to karaoke evenings in Japan or the yacht on the French
Riviera are not to be refused. The demand for corporate hospitality in
the UK has been criticised for making events such as grand prix racing or
Wimbledon more expensive for ordinary people. But corporate
sponsorship of sport and culture brings in large amounts of money, and
many such events benefit from this overall.
Entertaining in the form of invitations to your host's home exists
in some cultures but not others, where work and private life are kept
entirely separate.
Cultural awareness of norms in these and other areas can lead to
better communication and avoidance of misunderstandings. Companies
are spending more time and money these days on cross-cultural
training, often but not always in tandem with language training, in order
to facilitate better social interaction.
Socialising in another language is not easy. There is more focus
than in business discussions on the language itself. Learners, rightly,
demand formulaic expressions for particular situations. This is often
called small talk. But to refer to it as 'small' undervalues its importance.
Language learners see it as a minefield of potential problems and,
inevitably, gaffes. People have their favourite stories about such
mistakes, perhaps ones they made themselves.

IV. Answer the following questions about the text


1. What is the difference between doing a deal and establishing a
relationship?
2. What events do benefit from corporate sponsorship?

43
3. Why are companies spending time and money these days on cross-
cultural training?
4. Why is socializing in another language not easy?

V. The phrases below all include the word corporate. Match them to
their correct meanings
1) The way in which a company uses
similar designs and colours on all its
culture products, advertisements, letters etc. so that
people will become familiar with the
hospitality company.
2) When companies entertain clients, take
them on trips etc. in order to get business.
identity 3) Investment by business rather than by
orate
corp

the government.
investmen 4) A company’s aims in general, and the
t way it hopes to achieve them.
5) The attitudes or beliefs that are shared
planning in a particular organization or company.
6) When a company plans what it will do
strategy in the future. This involves deciding which
products it should be making, which
markets it should be in, and how profits can
be increased.

VI. Before reading the article from the “Financial Times” answer
the questions.
 Do you like watching sport or playing sport?
 Which sports do you watch and/or play?
 Could these sports be used for corporate hospitality events?

VII. Read the article


Doing business and having fun
Roger Bray
Corporate hospitality is evolving. Once it simply meant going to
watch horse racing and filling your clients with champagne. Now, more
and more, guests prefer entertainment in which they can take an active
part. The change is similar to what is happening in the leisure travel

44
market. There is now a desire for more than just going to Mediterranean
beaches for the sunshine, creating demand for what holiday operators
like to call 'soft adventure'.
Hosts see it increasingly as a more effective way of building
relationships. 'The trend is towards anything from flying light aircraft or
off-road driving to shooting and fishing,' says Wayne Moss, vice-
chairman of the UK Corporate Hospitality Association.
'Golf is now the number one hospitality sport - but people want to
play rather than just watch.' Five years ago, only about 25 percent of
entertaining involved some form of active participation. Now, he
estimates, the proportion is close to 40 percent. 'Many companies think
they can get closer to people by getting them to drive a tank*, for
example, rather than by just giving them drinks.
'Another big change has been the increasing involvement of women
in such activities. It used to be a "boys only club". When I came into this
industry in 1990, you hardly ever saw a woman at participation events.
Now they probably represent about 20 percent.'
* A tank is a powerful military vehicle with a very large gun.
From the Financial Times
VIII. Which do you think are the best ones for corporate
entertainment? Why?
o watching horse racing
o flying aircraft
o driving, but not on normal roads
o shooting
o playing football
o fishing
o watching football
o playing golf
o riding horses
o watching golf
o driving tanks
IX. Make a summary of the text

X. Render the following text into English


Как сплотить коллектив?
Эффективная командная работа – это неотъемлемая часть
корпоративной культуры организации и одно из главных

45
конкурентных преимуществ там, где необходимо групповое участие
– в бизнесе, политике, спорте. Многие компании работают для того,
чтобы помочь сделать бизнес более успешным и создать
комфортную атмосферу для сотрудников.
Компании по организации праздников могут предложить вам
корпоративные мероприятия и тренинги по командообразованию
различного уровня сложности, праздники и отдых с элементами
командообразования (teambuilding), спортивные соревнования и
эстафеты, туристические корпоративные и детские программы. Они
разработают сценарий оригинальных корпоративных мероприятий
и специальных проектов (выездной кейтеринг, спортивные
корпоративные мероприятия, организация PR-акций), тест-драйвов
и презентаций.
В современном бизнесе эффективная командная работа (Team
work) – одно из главных конкурентных преимуществ, слагаемое
успеха. Корпоративные мероприятия, корпоративные тренинги и
тимбилдинг как раз направлены на то, чтобы коллектив превратился
в команду или эффективно работающую группу. Тренинговые
компании создают условия, в которых каждый член команды в
отдельности и команда в целом сможет проявить себя, выработать
эффективные схемы взаимодействия и получить новый опыт.
Надо помнить, что любое грамотно построенное
корпоративное мероприятие – это новый этап в развитии вашего
бизнеса. Корпоративные мероприятия и праздники – это
возможность в неформальной обстановке формировать
корпоративную культуру, укреплять лояльность сотрудников,
эффективность коммуникаций между подразделениями компании,
поддерживать дружеские отношения с партнерами и решать многие
задачи Вашего бизнеса.

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UNIT 7. MARKETING

I. Lead-in
 What do such words as selling, salesperson and advertising have in
common?
 Think of effective methods of gathering market information.
 Would you agree to participate as a potential consumer in marketing
research?

II. Study the vocabulary


in simple terms – простыми словами, проще говоря
in order to – для того чтобы
to satisfy – удовлетворять (требованиям, запросам)
profitable – прибыльный
marketing mix – комплекс маркетинга, маркетинг-микс (набор
основных компонентов маркетингового воздействия, поддающихся
контролю со стороны фирмы и используемых ею при продаже
товара)
‘levers’ – рычаги
to refer to – ссылаться, относиться, иметь отношение
to charge for – затрачивать
pricing option – ценовая политика
wholesaler – оптовик, оптовый торговец
customer segment / market segment – потребительский сегмент,
группа потребителей, объединенных по определенному признаку
(возраст, доход, социальная группа)
distribution channels – каналы распределения
pre-sales information – сведения о товаре до продажи
after-sales services – гарантийное обслуживание; сервисное
обслуживание
four Ps – термины маркетинга: продукт, цена, место и продвижение
four Cs (customer solution / customer cost / convenience /
communication) – термины маркетинга: решение покупателя,
стоимость товара, наиболее подходящий способ распространения
товара для покупателя, распространение информации о товаре
customer cost – потребительская стоимость товара
to determine – определять, устанавливать

47
to match consumer needs – соответствовать требованиям
покупателя
to mold – формировать по образцу, делать по шаблону
customer helpline – ‘горячая’ линия для клиентов
customer orientation – ориентирование на потребности покупателя
consumer profile – характеристика потребителя, перечень основных
демографических и психографических характеристик потребителя
конкретного товара. Данные включают возраст потребителя, его
семейное положение, уровень дохода, образование, профессию, пол,
место жительства и характер потребительского поведения.
high profile – заметная позиция
to draw the crowds – привлекать большое количество покупателей
per capita – на человека, на душу населения
relaunch – повторный выпуск; повторное продвижение продукции
на рынок после некоторого перерыва, во время которого были
внесены некоторые усовершенствования и изменения
to reinforce – укреплять, усиливать

III. Read and translate the text


Buying, selling, market research, transportation, storage,
advertising – these are all part of the complex area of business known as
marketing. In simple terms, marketing means the movement of goods
and services from manufacturer to customer in order to satisfy the
customer and to achieve the company’s objectives. Marketing can be
divided into four main elements that are popularly known as the four Ps:
 product: deciding what products or services to sell in the first place
 prices: setting prices that are attractive to particular groups of
customers (segments) and that are profitable for the company
 place: finding suitable distribution channels to reach these customer
groups and
 promotion: all the activities, not just advertising, used to support the
product - everything from pre-sales information to after-sales service.
These are the four Ps of the marketing mix, the 'levers' of a
company's marketing machine. Each one plays a vital role in the success
or failure of the marketing operation
The product element of marketing refers to the goods or service
that a company wants to sell. This often involves research and

48
development (R&D) of a new product, research of the potential market,
testing of the product to insure quality, and then introduction to the
market.
A company next considers the price to charge for its product. There
are three pricing options the company may take: above, with or below the
prices that its competitors are charging. For example, if the average price
of a pair of women’s leather shoes is $47, a company that charges $43
has priced below the market; a company that charges $47 has priced with
the market; and a company that charges $53 has priced above the market.
Most companies price with the market, selling their goods or services for
average prices established by major producers in the industry. The
producers who establish these prices are known as price leaders.
The third element of the marketing process – placement – involves
getting the product to the customer. This takes place through the
channels of distribution. A common channel of distribution is:
manufacturer wholesale retailer customer
Wholesalers generally sell large quantities of a product to retailers,
and retailers usually sell smaller quantities to customers.
Finally, communication about the product takes place between
buyer and seller. This communication between buyer and seller is known
as promotion. There are two major ways promotion occurs: through
personal selling, as in a department store; and through advertising, as in a
newspaper or magazine.
Another way of looking at this is from the point of view of
customers, with the four Cs. From this perspective, the marketing mix is
expressed in terms of:
 customer solution: offering the right product to satisfy particular
customer needs
 customer cost: the price paid directly by the customer to buy the
product, including the 'price' involved in not buying another product of
the same or another type
 convenience: distributing the product in the way most suitable for
each type of customer
 communication: exchanging information with the customer.

49
The elements of the marketing mix focus on the consumer. In order
to develop a successful marketing mix, researchers first ask two
important questions:
 Who is going to buy the product?
 What is the potential to sell this product?
The group of customers who will probably buy the product is
known as the target market. The company directs its marketing efforts
toward this group of potential customers who form the target market.
Once market researchers have determined the target market they wish to
appeal to, the company can develop an appropriate mix of product, price,
placement, and promotion. The company attempts to match consumer
needs or mold consumer desires to the product being offered. For
example, if the target market is middleclass teenagers, the marketing mix
might consist of the following:
Product: blue jeans
Price: with the market
Placement: department store
Promotion: advertisement on a “pop music” radio station
Customers are informed about products through advertising, sales
literature and so on, but customers also communicate with the seller, for
example through customer helplines. This is a good way for sellers to
find out more about customers and their requirements and to change or
improve their offer.
Thinking of the marketing mix in these terms helps sellers maintain
a customer orientation - a focus on customer needs.

IV. Answer the following questions about the text


1. What does the marketing mix imply?
2. Can selling be successful without any of the four Ps? Why?
3. What three pricing options are there the company may take?
4. What does selling of a product involve?
5. What are other components of successful selling?
6. What is promotion?
7. What is known as the target market?

50
V. Match the words to form compound nouns according to the
following definitions as in the example
Work done to find out why people buy certain products or services -
customer research

mass awareness
mix
direct marketing
research
consumer customer

1. The activities involved in obtaining information about a particular


market, including how much of a product is being sold, who is buying it,
why they are buying it etc.
2. The mix of marketing actions.
3. The marketing of products that are bought by a lot of people, by using
methods designed to reach large numbers of people.
4. The degree to which people know about a particular product,
company.
5. Any form of marketing where possible customers are contacted
directly by the seller.

VI. Before reading the text think of two or three companies/products


that you associate with each of the colours below: red, blue, green,
yellow, brown, purple, orange

VII. Read and translate the text


First impression last
First impressions last. And in terms of corporate identity nothing
creates a more powerful first impression than colour. But what do the
different colours say to us?
Red. Red means power and energy and suggests a bold,
competitive, go-getting attitude. Red excites us. It particularly prevalent
on anything designed to appeal to men. In the Far East, the colour also
symbolizes good luck is consequently used by many Asian companies
such as Canon, Sharp and HSBC. It is no surprise that arguably the
world’s most recognisible logo, Coca-Cola, predominantly features red.

51
Blue. Blue is the world’s favourite corporate colour and evokes
coolness, calmness and authority. It also denotes intellect,
trustworthiness and dependability, which is why it is a favourite with
sectors such as banking and insurance. Over 60% of all company logos
are blue. Well-known corporate blues include IBM, General Motors,
Ford, Pepsi, Wal-Mart and Microsoft.
Green. Green is the colour of money, nature and, in many cultures,
jealousy. While its money connotations are exploited by companies such
as Britain’s biggest bank Lloyds TSB, the colour is also used by
petroleum giant BP, for whom it represents an environmental stance.
Green now generally stands for something quite specific and often very
political.
Yellow. Yellow is a youthful and fun colour. For this reason, it is
the perfect colour for the photographic company Kodak. Many coutries’
business telephone directories are yellow and the colour is also popular
with construction companies.
Brown. Brown suggests solidity, neutrality and
straightforwardness. Perhaps the most recognisable corporate brown is
that of the United States delivery company UPS. However, the company
actually started using the colour in 1917 for the simple common sense
reason that brown vehicles didn’t show the dirt picked up from dust
roads.
Purple. Purple has been the colour of leadership and luxury since
the Roman Empire, when only the imperial family were allowed to wear
it. Although Yahoo! and the telecommunications company NTL pair it
with yellow and green, purple is rarely used on its own as a corporate
colour. The big exception to this is the confectionary giant Cadbury, who
originally chose purple in the late 19th century because it was said to be
Queen Victoria’s favourite colour.
Orange. Being bold, bright and lively, orange catches the eye. It’s
young, fresh, energetic and dynamic. The phone company previously
known as Microtel was so dedicated to the colour that it simply renamed
itself after it. Other notable oranges include budget airline easyJet and
the drugs giant GlaxoSmithKine. Pentium and Reuters have both
incorporated orange into their existing blue colour scheme.

52
VIII. Choose some of the following businesses and discuss what
corporate colour(s) would be most appropriate for them. You could
also discuss other businesses
 investment fund
 electronic goods
 fast food restaurant
 upmarket restaurant
 car hire
 courier service
 health food products
 estate agent
 fitness club
 music shop
 waste disposal
 clothing for teenagers
 energy supplier
 supermarket
 beauty salon
 toyshop
 airline
 advertising agency
 language school

IX. Render the following text into English


Рекламный образ продуктов не всегда отражает их реальный
вид и вкус. Чтобы продукт продавался успешнее, он должен
выглядеть аппетитно, поэтому создатели рекламы зачастую
вынуждены прибегать к рекламным трюкам. Сок обязательно
должен выглядеть холодным, хлеб — свежеиспеченным, фрукты —
зрелыми и сочными. При этом вместо сока может быть
использована подкрашенная вода, а вместо фруктов — папье-маше.
В рекламе продуктов важно использовать движение и звук,
которые неизменно воздействуют на психологию зрителя. Вы
наверняка захотите пить, если перед вашими глазами будут
наливать сок (тем более, если eго пьют дети), а хруст чипсов сразу
вызовет у вас воспоминание об их вкусе
Цвет продуктов и упаковки также немаловажен. Если продукт

53
выглядит на рекламе ненатурально, мало кто захочет его купить.
Оформление же упаковки во многом говорит за сам продукт.

54
UNIT 8. PLANNING

I. Lead-in
 Are you a good organizer?
 What words do you associate with the word planning?
 Put the following step into the right order when you are planning
something: plan, proposal, forecast, intention, objective, goal, aim.

II. Study the vocabulary


resource allocation – распределение ресурсов
to deploy – использовать, применять
urgency – безотлагательность
to pursue – выполнять, совершать
single-mindedly – первоочередная задача
distraction – отвлечение внимания
to delegate – поручать, делегировать
Gantt chart – график Гантта; планово-контрольный график,
который даёт графическое изображение и последовательность всех
видов деятельности, компонентов и зависимых переменных проекта
project management tools – средства управления проектом
contingency planning – планирование непредвиденных затрат,
планирование чрезвычайных обстоятельств
disaster recovery – чрезвычайный план, предопределённый план
действий в критических ситуациях
grand (adj) – важный
team of scenario planners – команда по планированию возможных
ситуаций
to anticipate – предвидеть
to estimate – оценивать
to rearrange – менять, переустраивать
to keep within – придерживаться
to implement – выполнять, осуществлять
devaluation – обесценивание, девальвация
to kick-start – давать импульс, подхлестывать
payback period – срок окупаемости капиталовложений
business update – обновление бизнеса
short-term/ long- term planning – краткосрочное/долгосрочное
планирование

55
III. Read and translate the text
Planning is about resource allocation, the way that individuals and
organisations deploy their (by definition) limited resources such as
time, money and expertise.
In the case of individuals, you could say that there is a worldwide
planning industry, with its calendars, diaries, electronic personal
organisers and time management training. These (often very expensive)
courses tend to hand out some fairly obvious advice.
 Make lists of things you have to do. Classify them in terms of urgency
and priority.
 Pursue tasks single-mindedly. Do not allow yourself to waste time
through distractions and interruptions.
 Delegate. Do not try to do everything yourself.
 Do not try to be a perfectionist in everything. Do each task so that it is
'good enough' for the circumstances.
But all these things are easier said than done.
For complex projects involving many people and tasks, the Gantt
chart is the tool of choice. This is a diagram that shows the different
stages of a project, indicating the tasks that can be done at the same time
as others, and those that must wait until other tasks are completed.
Originally conceived about 100 years ago, Gantt charts are now
produced using computer software. Other computer-based project
management tools have been developed by particular companies or are
available commercially.
Companies also have to plan for events that they do not want, such
as disasters. Contingency planning is designed to prepare for the worst,
with specific plans of action for disaster recovery, including handling of
the media and protecting as far as possible the company's reputation.
Organisational planning in its grandest form is one element of
strategy, where companies make long-term plans about the future
development of their activities. Here they have to anticipate competitors'
activities as well as trends in the general economic and political
environment. Very large organisations have teams of scenario planners
trying to predict how this environment may change and how they might
prepare for and perhaps influence this change.

56
IV. Answer the following questions about the text
1. What is planning?
2. What can help individuals in planning?
3. Why is it helpful to use the Gantt chart for complex projects?
4. What is contingency planning?

V. Find words according to the definitions. The words go across,


down and up

T I M E T A B L E H
M A J X P R X J C G
E S K P O E C K O T
E D D E A D L I N E
T F K R I W V B T G
I G L T U Q G N R D
N H T I Y A O M O U
G Q W S T Z A L L B
S C H E D U L E P O

1. A list of the times when events are planned to happen.


2. A date or time before which something must be done.
3. A list of planned activities or things to be done showing the times or
dates when they are intended to happen or be done.
4. An occasion when people come together intentionally or
unintentionally.
5. A high level of knowledge or skill.
6. The end toward which effort is directed.
7. A plan to show how much money a person or organization will earn
and how much they will need or be able to spend.
8. Power or authority to guide or manage.

VI. Before reading the article from the “Financial Times” answer
the questions
 Do you manage your time well?
 What techniques do you use?

VII. Read the article from the “Financial Times” and express the
main idea of the text

57
Personal time management for busy managers
By Gerard M. Blair*
Personal time management is about controlling the use of your
most valuable (and undervalued) resource. Consider these two questions:
what would happen if you spent company money in the same way as you
spend company time? When was the last time you reviewed the way
you use your time?
Without personal time management there are last minute rushes to
meet deadlines, meetings which achieve nothing, days which seem
somehow to go by unproductively, crises which come unexpectedly from
nowhere. This sort of environment leads to stress and poor performance:
it must be stopped.
Poor time management is often a sign of over-confidence:
techniques which used to work with small projects are simply reused
with large ones. Working inefficiently was perhaps unimportant in the
small role, but it becomes unacceptable in the large one. You cannot
drive a motorbike like a bicycle, nor can you manage a supermarket
chain like a market stall.
* The writer was a Senior Lecturer at the University of Edinburgh,
Scotland, and is now a design engineer with Agere Systems in
Allentown, Pennsylvania.

VIII. Number the paragraph summaries in the correct order. Two of


the summaries are not used
a) Bad time management can be the result of too much confidence in
your own abilities.
b) Time can be wasted in supermarkets.
c) Bad time management leads to a number of problems.
d) Check your own time management.
e) Use a motorbike to drive to work and save time.

IX. Use the correct form of words from the article to complete the
definitions
a) If something is not given enough importance, it is under................
b) If days go by when no work is done, they pass un................
c) When you feel too certain of your ability to do some thing, you are
over - ................
d) If you do something in a way that wastes time, you do it in................

58
e) If a situation cannot be accepted, it is un................

X. How would you answer the two questions in the first paragraph?

XI. Render the following text into English


Искусство управления временем
Время — это уникальный, невосполнимый ресурс. Его нельзя
вернуть, купить, передать, приостановить или ускорить. Временем
невозможно управлять. Им можно только пользоваться. Управление
временем в действительности является самоорганизацией.
Однако каким бы организованным человек ни был, он не может
добиться полного контроля над своим рабочим временем,
поскольку каждого всегда поджидает большое количество Воров
Времени. Среди них: важные, но не запланированные посетители,
телефонные звонки, просьбы коллег, совещания, время на проезд
для встречи с партнерами, откладывание дел, нереалистичные
планы, спешка, суетливость, конфликты и т.д.
Если вы наблюдаете перечисленные симптомы в своей работе,
значит, ваше время неправильно организовано.
Наиболее распространенный способ планирования — это
составление списка дел. Многие составляют его каждый день и по
мере выполнения вычеркивают из него завершенные дела, а также
вписывают новые.
Это полезная привычка, однако, составляя список дел,
распределите их по степени важности и выделите примерно по
четыре самых приоритетных для каждой цели; начинайте с самых
важных дел; не попадайте в ловушку первоочередного исполнения
легких дел с целью скорейшего вычеркивания их из списка;
выбирайте для выполнения важных дел наиболее продуктивное
время дня; для менее значимых задач используйте стратегию
ожидания дополнительного сигнала о необходимости их
выполнения. Пока сигнала не последовало, не делайте их.
Освоив хотя бы часть описанных инструментов, вы наверняка
обнаружите, что тотальная неразбериха, стресс и суета отступили, а
вы стали больше успевать не за счет увеличения рабочего дня, а за
счет успешного тайм-менеджмента.

59
UNIT 9. MANAGING PEOPLE
I. Lead-in
 What do managers have to manage apart from people? Complete the
chart, use initial letters as clues.
people
s_______
Managing r_______
b_______
c_______

 What is the difference between a manager and a leader?

II. Study the vocabulary


Theory X – теория управления персоналом, которая гласит, что
средний человек не любит трудиться и избегает работы
Theory Y – теория управления персоналом, которая гласит, что для
человека расходовать моральные и физические силы на работу
естественно; человека можно стимулировать на труд, если дать ему
возможность брать на себя ответственность, ощущать свою
значимость для организации
enlightened – прогрессивный, передовой
to whiplash – работать из-под палки
coercion – принуждение, применение силы
subordinate – подчинённый
supervision – надзор, наблюдение, контроль
to impose without consultation – налагать обязательством
безоговорочно
to make for – способствовать, содействовать
authoritarian – авторитарный
consensus – единодушие, согласие
consensual – согласованный; всеобщий
empowerment – доверенность; полномочие
front-line managers – младший управленческий персонал
delegation – распределение обязанностей
off-site / virtual management – удаленное управление; управление
при помощи Интернета
firm (adj) – конкурентоспособный, устойчивый, строгий
to take up a position – занимать должность

60
assignment – назначение на должность
to set goals – ставить задачи
to apply rules – применять правила
to ‘check up’ on staff – контролировать сотрудников
deputy sales manager – заместитель менеджера по продажам

III. Read and translate the text


In the 1960s, Douglas McGregor, one of the key thinkers in this
area, formulated the now-famous Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X is
the idea that people instinctively dislike work and will do anything to
avoid it. Theory Y is the more enlightened view that everybody has the
potential to find satisfaction in work. (Others have suggested Theory W
(for 'whiplash'), the idea that most work since the beginning of human
society has been done under conditions of total coercion, i.e. slavery.)
In any case, despite so much evidence to the contrary, many
managers still subscribe to Theory X, believing, for example, that their
subordinates need constant supervision if they are to work effectively,
or that decisions must be imposed from above without consultation.
This, of course, makes for authoritarian managers.
Different cultures have different ways of managing people. Some
cultures are well known for the consultative nature of decision-making -
all members of the department or work group are asked to contribute to
this process. This is management by consensus. Many western
companies have tried to imitate what they see as more consensual Asian
ways of doing things. Some commentators say that women will become
more effective managers than men because they have the power to build
consensus and common goals in a way that traditional male managers
cannot.
A recent trend has been to encourage employees to use their own
initiative, to make decisions on their own without asking managers first.
This empowerment has been part of the trend towards downsizing:
reducing the number of management layers in companies. After
delayering in this way, a company may be left with just a top level of
senior managers and front-line managers and employees with direct
contact with the public. Empowerment takes the idea of delegation much
further than has traditionally been the case. Empowerment and
delegation mean new forms of management control to ensure that the

61
overall business plan is being followed and to ensure that operations
become more profitable under the new organisation, rather than less.
Another trend is off-site or virtual management, where teams of
people linked by e-mail and the Internet work on projects from their own
premises. Project managers judge the performance of the team members
in terms of what they produce and contribute to projects rather than the
amount of time they spend on them.

IV. Answer the following questions about the text


1. What do Theory X and Theory Y mean?
2. What is management by consensus?
3. How can empowerment reduce the number of management layers?
4. What is off-site management?

V. How can you describe these pictures according to theory X and


Y?

I won’t work. Hurrah, work!


Scheme 4

VI. Match the words to their definitions


empowerment downsizing delayering supervision
subordinate front-line manager initiative

1. Supervisor whose job involves meeting or communicating directly


with workers.
2. The ability to make decisions and take action without waiting for
someone to tell you what to do.
3. When workers in a company are given more responsibility by
allowing them to organize their own work, make decisions without
asking their managers.

62
4. The work of making sure something is done properly and according to
all the rules.
5. When the managers of a company decide to reduce the number of
people working for the company in order to save money or increase
profits.
6. Someone who has a lower position and less authority than someone
else in an organization.
7. Reducing the number of management levels an organization has.

VII. Look through the text. In the second part of the text you will
find a mixture of the Theory X and Theory Y basic principles.
Arrange these sentences into the Theories X and Theory Y
Douglas McGregor’s XY Theory
Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his
famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book ‘The Human side Of Enterprise’.
Theory X and theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of
management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have
questioned the rigidity of the model, McGregor’s X-Y Theory remains a
valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style
and techniques. McGregor’s X-Y Theory remains central to
organizational development, and to improving organizational culture.
McGregor’s X-Y Theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the
natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-
day business are all too easily forgotten.
McGregor maintained that there are two fundamental approaches to
managing people. Many managers tend towards theory X, and generally
get poor results. Enlightened managers use theory Y, which produces
better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop.

Theory X Theory Y
(‘authoritarian management’ style) (‘participative management’ style)
V  The average person dislikes work and will avoid it. ______
_____  Effort in work is as natural as work and play. ______
_____  In industry the intellectual potential of the average ______
person is only partly utilized.
_____  People usually accept and often seek responsibility. ______
_____  Therefore most people must be forced with the ______
threat of punishment to work towards

63
organizational objectives.
_____  The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid ______
responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants
security above all else.
_____  People will apply self-control and self-direction in ______
the pursuit of organizational objectives, without
external control or the threat of punishment.
 Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards
_____ associated with their achievement. ______
 The capacity to use a high degree of imagination,
_____ ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational ______
problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the
population.

VIII. Which theory do you prefer?

IX. Render the following text into English


Психологические теории мотивации персонала
Хотя менеджмент столь же стар, как история, изучение
различных его аспектов не перестало быть необходимостью и в
нашем столетии. Одной из традиционных теорий управления
является теория Х, которая гласит, что люди ленивы и ненавидят
работу до такой степени, что стараются ее избежать. У людей нет
амбиций, инициативы, и они избегают ответственности. Все, что
они хотят — это безопасность, и чтобы они выполняли работу, их
нужно вознаграждать, принуждать, запугивать и даже наказывать.
Это так называемая философия "кнута и пряника". Если бы эта
теория имела силу, менеджеры должны были бы постоянно
наказывать свой штат, особенно тех, кому они не доверяют и кто
отказывается сотрудничать. В такой репрессивной атмосфере ни
для менеджера, ни для сотрудника нет никакой возможности для
достижений и креатива в работе.
Теория Y – противоположность теории X – МакГрегор
полагал, что работа — это естественный путь к развитию и
самодисциплине. Люди видят награду не столько в деньгах, сколько
в возможности самостоятельно достигнуть успехов в сложной
работе. И задача менеджера в данном случае: максимально

64
использовать человеческое желание саморазвития для достижения
эффективной работы организации.
Слишком хорошо, чтобы быть правдой? Некоторые могут
назвать эту теорию управления мягкой и слабой. Это не так, и
доказательство тому уже было получено в США и других странах.
Существует ещё одна теория управления – теория Z, автором
которой является Абрахам Маслоу. Он главный основатель
гуманистической школы, которая утверждает, что людям от
рождения свойственны хорошие качества, но со временем они
постепенно теряются.
Центральная тема трудов Маслоу – значение работы в
человеческой жизни, к которой люди обращаются из-за скуки,
недостатков и бедности. Основными человеческими потребностями,
согласно Маслоу, являются физиологические потребности,
потребности в безопасности, потребности в любви, потребности в
уважении, потребности в самоактуализации, которые он представил
в виде пирамиды.
Советуем менеджерам внимательно изучить эту пирамиду для
того, чтобы наладить эффективную работу коллектива.

по материалам сайта http://www.accel-team.com/

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UNIT 10. CONFLICT

I. Lead-in
 Have you ever experienced any conflict? How did you solve it?

II. Study the vocabulary


inevitable conflict [ınә'vıtbl]– неизбежный конфликт
airing different ideas – высказывание различных идей
become apparent – становится явным
unwillingness to “lose face” – нежелательность «потерять лицо»
to abandon– отказаться от чего-либо
a long-term cherished idea – долго хранимая в памяти идея
hierarchy ['haıәrakı]- иерархия
hostility to ideas – враждебность к идеям
not-invented-here syndrome – синдром избегания придуманного не
у себя; считается классической патологией управления, в которой
команда отказывается от использования или покупки продукта или
технологии, которую они не создали сами
unproductive conflict – непроизводственный конфликт
to resolve dispute – разрешить спор
high level of employee protection – высокий уровень защиты
служащих
to dismiss troublesome employee – уволить недисциплинированного
работника
consultation – совещание
litigation - законодательство
sue the company for dismissal [sju:]– подавать иск на компанию за
увольнение; преследовать судебным порядком
to distract from a company’s normal business – отвлекать внимание
компании от текущих дел
labour-management conflict – конфликт между подчиненными и
руководством
strike - забастовка
go-slow – снижение темпа работы
time-consuming – отнимающий много времени
goodwill of a company’s customers – ценность компании,
определяющаяся ее клиентурой; репутация
disruption - разрушение

66
to gain sympathy – вызывать сочувствие, сочувствовать
compulsory - обязательный
cooling-off period – период ожидания
arbitration – арбитраж, третейский суд
supplier-customer relationship – отношение между поставщиком и
клиентом
to degenerate into conflict – перерастать в конфликт
endemic - насущная проблема
protracted legal proceeding – продолжительное слушание дела
alternative dispute resolution – альтернативное решение споров
(ДОПОГ); процессы являются альтернативными методами помочь
людям решить юридические проблемы, прежде чем переходить к
суду. ДОПОГ предусматривает независимого третьего лица,
называемые «нейтральные»
wrangling – прения, пререкания, спор, ссора

III. Read and translate the text


Conflict may well be productive in some cases. In any business
situation, there are often a number of different ideas about the way to
proceed. Usually only one way can be chosen, so conflict is inevitable.
Ideally, airing the different ideas in discussion will lead to the best one's
being chosen. But the process may become political, with an idea being
defended by the person or group putting it forward after it has become
apparent that it is not the best way to go, and unwillingness to 'lose face'
by abandoning a long-cherished idea. There may be conflict between
different levels in an organisation’s hierarchy or between different
departments, with hostility to ideas from elsewhere - the not-invented-
here syndrome.
Examples of unproductive conflict include disputes between
colleagues or between managers and subordinates that go beyond ideas
and become personal. Companies can spend a lot of time and energy
resolving these disputes. In countries with high levels of employee
protection, dismissing troublesome employees can lead to a long
process of consultation with the authorities and even litigation, for
example where an employee sues their company for unfair dismissal.
Defending an action like this is of course costly and a distraction from a
company's normal business.

67
Labour-management conflict in the form of tactics such as
strikes and go-slows can also be very expensive and time-consuming.
The goodwill of a company's customers, built up over years, can be lost
very quickly when they are hurt by such a dispute. But there are
sometimes cases where the public sympathise with the employees and
don't mind the disruption. Both sides may put a lot of effort into
presenting their case and gaining public sympathy with the use of
advertising, public relations firms, and so on. Many countries have
legislation with compulsory cooling-off periods before strikes can begin,
official procedures for arbitration between the two sides, and so on.
In dealings between companies, supplier-customer relationships
can degenerate into conflict. Conflict seems to be endemic in some
industries, for example construction, where contractors are often in
dispute about whether the work has been performed properly or whose
responsibility a particular problem is. This can lead to protracted legal
proceedings.
More and more companies in the US are specifying in contracts
that any disputes should be settled using alternative dispute resolution
(ADR), avoiding expensive legal wrangling. Specialised organisations
have been set up to facilitate this.

IV. Answer the following questions on the text


1. Why may conflict be productive in some cases?
2. What are the examples of unproductive conflict?
3. How do people solve conflicts in countries with high level of
employee protection?
4. How are conflicts between companies solved?

V. Read the definitions. Then put the anagrams in the correct order.
The first letter of each word is in bold
1. An active disagreement between people with opposing
opinions or principles nlocticf
2. An argument or disagreement, especially an official
one between, for example, workers and employers ptedsui
3. The process of taking a case to a law court so that an
official decision can be made: tagnotliii
4. When an employer officially makes someone leave
their job: simdsials

68
5. A planned way of doing something: catisct
6. An argument, especially one which continues for a
long period of time: ranglwngi
7. An agreement in an argument in which the people
involved reduce their demands or change their opinion in
order to agree: opmriosemc

VI. Before reading the article from “The Economist” answer the
question: Have you ever sent an e-mail message that you later regretted?

VII. Read and analyse the article


Negotiating by e-mail
Who has not typed out an angry reply to an e-mail message, hit the
send button - and then regretted it? Surely no technology has led to so
many conflicts and lost friendships as electronic mail. But nowhere is e-
mail more dangerous than in negotiations.
Experiments by Michael Morris, an academic at Stanford Business
School, and a group of colleagues have now demonstrated what many
people have always thought: negotiations are more likely to go well if
they are conducted, at least in part, face-to-face, rather than between
strangers with keyboards and screens. E-mail is not necessarily a bad
way to negotiate, but the research suggests that it needs to be used
carefully.
Together with Leigh Thompson, of the Kellogg Graduate
Business School at Northwestern University, and several other
academics, Mr Morris studied mock negotiations that used only e-mail
and compared them with ones where there was a brief getting-to-know-
you telephone call before the negotiations. The second type went more
smoothly. Other experiments found that electronic negotiations were
easier when the negotiators began by swapping photographs and personal
details, or when they already knew each other.
From The Economist

VIII. Imagine that each paragraph in the article has a heading.


Choose the best heading for each paragraph from the list below and
number them in the correct order. Two of the headings are not used
a) Examples of real-life negotiations.
b) Face-to-face negotiations work better than ones bye-mail.

69
c) Negotiations in the construction industry.
d) E-mail can easily lead to conflict.
e) Studies of negotiation.

IX. Choose the correct alternative


1. If you regret something you did, you are
a) happy about what you did.
b) unhappy about what you did.
2. If you demonstrate something, you
a) show that it is true.
b) just say that it is true.
3. If you conduct negotiations, you
a) take part in them.
b) observe them from the outside.
4. Academics are
a) full-time businesspeople.
b) university teachers.
5. Mock negotiations are
a) real. b) experiments.
6. If you swap photographs, you
a) exchange your photographs for others.
b) keep your photographs.

X. Are face-to-face meetings necessary when you do business with


someone? Or can everything be done by phone and e-mail?

XI. Render the following text into English


Как избежать конфликтов на работе
Елена Егорова
Многие убеждены, что конфликт на работе неизбежен просто
потому, что один человек – начальник, а второй – его подчиненный.
А, значит, повод для конфликта уже есть. Но ведь повод – это еще
не сам конфликт! Как же предотвратить его появление?
Основа любого конфликта – накопившиеся противоречия,
объективные и субъективные, реальные или иллюзорные.
Достаточно малейшего повода, неосторожно сказанного слова,
неудачно брошенного взгляда, вызывающей позы, – и вот уже

70
пылает костер наших эмоций. Иначе говоря, схема выглядит так:
конфликтная ситуация + повод = конфликт.
Характерная черта большинства конфликтов –
неопределенность исхода: ни один из участников заранее не знает,
чем закончится конфликт. Каждая из сторон делает все, чтобы была
принята ее точка зрения или цель и мешает другой стороне делать
то же самое.
Многие теоретики и практики менеджмента считают, что с
точки зрения эффективного управления организацией конфликт
помогает выявить разнообразие точек зрения, дает дополнительную
информацию, позволяет проанализировать большое количество
альтернатив, наконец, дает людям выразить свои мысли и чувства,
удовлетворяет потребности в самоуважении или, например, во
власти. И в результате создаются условия для интенсивного
развития организации в целом.
Но так бывает не всегда. Говоря о конфликтах на рабочем
месте, выделяют две группы – функциональные (ведут к
повышению эффективности работы) и дисфункциональные.
(заканчиваются общей неудовлетворенностью, разрушением
группового сотрудничества).
Соответственно и последствия конфликта могут быть
конструктивными – поиск и выработка взаимоприемлемого
решения, снятие враждебности, разрядка эмоций, анализ проблем и
разработка различных вариантов их решения или разрушающими –
неудовлетворенность работой, плохое самочувствие, увольнение по
собственному желанию.
На самом деле основные виды конфликтов в реальной жизни
не бывают абсолютными – они перекрещиваются, переходят один в
другой. И то, каким станет возникший в коллективе конфликт, в
какую форму перерастет и какие последствия будет иметь, во
многом зависит от руководителя коллектива.

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UNIT 11. NEW BUSINESS

I. Lead-in
Look through the table 3 and say what you have learnt about conditions
and difficulties of starting new business.
Table 3
Low taxes → imply a flexible labour market, where there are not only
low taxes on companies but also low social cots (low
payments from companies and employees for benefits
such as health care and unemployment benefit ), where
it is easy to fire people when activity decreases, and
where people quickly find new jobs when activity
increases again.
Skilled staff → imply the requirement for a good national education
system and good company training of employees.
Low interest mean that it is cheap to borrow money to develop new
rates → business activities.
Cheap rents → for office and factory space are of course more attractive
than expensive ones, but having your office in the right
place at a higher rent may be more attractive than having
it in the wrong place at a lower one.
Stable economy → is beneficial because businesspeople are able to plan
better when there is less uncertainty about future
inflation, taxes, etc.
Good transport are important for employees to get to work and for
links → salespeople to get to customers, but also for distribution
of goods if your business does this.
Training courses→ provided or funded by the government can be helpful in
developing the skills of budding entrepreneurs.
High may mean that the wages you can pay are lower, but you
unemployment → may not be able to find the people with the skills you
want if you set up your business in an area with a high
level of joblessness.
Strong currency → in manufacturing means that imported raw materials are
cheaper but that your exports will be more expensive
than those from some competing countries. But if your
products offer more benefits, they may justify a higher
price.
Government may be used to try to persuade companies to set up in
grants → areas with high unemployment but, if the area is
unsuitable for other reasons (such as unskilled staff,
distance from markets, etc), these grants will not be
enough

72
II. Study the vocabulary
merit – заслуга, достоинство
to drum up – созывать, организовывать
mutual benefit – взаимная выгода
play off against – стравливать кого-л. в своих интересах
just-in-time delivery – доставка точно в срок, только вовремя
(термин JIT используется по отношению к промышленным
системам, в которых перемещение изделий в процессе производства
и поставки от поставщиков тщательно спланированы во времени, в
результате получается система, в которой отсутствуют любые
пассивные единицы, ожидающие обработки, а также
простаивающие рабочие или оборудование, ожидающие изделия
для обработки)
total quality management – тотальное управление качеством
start-ups – новая фирма, новое предприятие, предприятие в
начальной стадии развития, особенно часто в настоящее время
новая "интернет-компания"
to strike out – выходить из игры, терпеть неудачу
serial entrepreneurs – серийный предприниматель, основатель
компании, для которого она – не первая в его жизни
viable – жизнеспособный
mundane – светский, обычный
to break into new markets – неожиданно появляться на рынке
growth rate – темп роста, уровень прироста доходов
tax incentives – налоговые льготы, частичное или полное
освобождение от уплаты налогов
GDP (gross domestic product) – валовой внутренний продукт
balance of trade – активный баланс, разница между стоимостью
экспорта и импорта государства
monetary policy – кредитно-денежная политика, валютная политика
benchmark – какой-либо переменный показатель, который
измеряется до и после проведения маркетинговой кампании для
определения ее эффективности
approximately – приблизительно
bribery – взяточничество

73
III. Read and translate the text
A recent TV ad for an airline shows an executive receiving an e-
mailed presentation from a potential supplier and then quickly forgetting
about it when another potential partner walks into the room and gives his
presentation in person. The ad is trying to persuade businesspeople of the
merits of face-to-face contact in drumming up new business. Flying to
meetings is still the preferred way of doing things: companies worldwide
spend $3 billion on video-conferencing equipment every year, but US
companies alone spend $410 billion a year on business travel.
Clients and suppliers refer to each other as partners to underline the
fact that they are in a relationship with mutual benefits: the supplier is
making money out of helping the client to make money by providing
products or services to customers. Some cultures give great importance
to getting to know potential partners before working with them. There is
some truth in the idea that Americans walk into a room expecting to
reach a deal immediately; Asians, to build a relationship that may later
lead to a deal.
In the past, companies often worked with large numbers of
suppliers. Car manufacturers, for example, worked with numerous
component suppliers, perhaps playing them off against each other to
demand lower and lower prices. The tendency now is to work more
closely with fewer suppliers. This is a necessary part of just-in-time
(JIT) delivery and total quality management (TQM). It is much easier
to make improvements in these areas when dealing with fewer
organisations. This means that it is difficult for new suppliers to break
into the privileged circle and get new business.
Another form of new business is start-ups. At one end of the scale
there are one-person operations, often started by people who have gained
expertise as salaried employees in organisations and then struck out (or
been forced to strike out) on their own. At the other end, there are serial
entrepreneurs who are gifted at transforming ideas into businesses, and
who found a number of start-ups, moving on when each business
becomes viable. Their talent lies in combining ideas with people and
finance, and they may be less interested in the more mundane activity of
running established operations.
Breaking into new markets is another form of new business. A
company may try to break into e-commerce and may often spend large
amounts of money before making any. Likewise, a company trying to

74
establish itself in a country where it has not been present before can
make large losses before seeing any return on investment. It may be
necessary to have local partners who are already familiar with the market
and are willing to invest in a joint venture.

IV. Answer the following questions about the text


1. Why is face-to-face contact important in drumming up new business?
2. What is the difference between the Americans and the Asians in
starting new business?
3. Why is the tendency now to work more closely with fewer suppliers?
4. What are start-ups?
5. What is another form of new business?

V. Complete these sentences with the words from the box

bribery incentive backup drum up


start-ups debt play off against

1. He was trying to ______ some enthusiasm for the project.


2. Management policy seemed to be to ____ one department ________
another.
3. The organization was rife with _______ and corruption.
4. We're going to need some professional _______ for this project.
5. Bonus payments provide an _______ to work harder.
6. ______ are very vulnerable in the business world.
7. The company is deep in _______.

VI. Read the following text and find out how to write a business plan
Setting up a successful business requires careful preparation and
planning but also involves a degree of risk-taking. There are a number of
questions that all entrepreneurs must ask themselves concerning the
products or services that they intend to sell, the competition that they will
face, the structure of the business itself and the sources of finance that
they need to open their new venture. This means that all of these
parameters must be defined in a business plan: a document that shows
how the entrepreneur will organize his or her business, how much he or
she expects to sell and where the capital will come from. Once this

75
information has been put down on paper, the entrepreneur can then
choose an appropriate form for the company, register it with the
authorities and open for business.

Business plan checklist


Details of the business
Name of business; type of business (limited company, partnership etc.)
Personal details
Relevant work experience
Personnel
Number of people / job function
Product / Service
Description
Market
Describe your market.
Who are your customers?
Is your market growing, static or in decline?
Who are the main competitors?
What are the advantages of your product or service over the
competition?
Marketing
What sort of marketing or advertising do you intend to do?
Premises / machinery / vehicles
Where do you intend to locate the business and why?
What sort and size of premises will you need?
What machinery / vehicles do you require?
Objectives
What objectives do you have for the business?

76
VII. Read these extracts and decide which sections of the checklist they
come from.
a) At first I will be concentrating on getting the business into profit. But
if I am successful I would then consider looking for other sites in the city
area and expanding the management team. Eventually it might be
possible to set up shops in different locations around the country.
b) The Tea Set. Initially the business will be registered as a limited
company with ten shareholders.
c) In a street with pedestrian access only, which leads into the main
shopping area and market square in a town of 70,000 inhabitants. The
shop is also close to the station, which is used by several thousand
commuters daily. The surface area is 45 square meters at a rent of 1000
euros per month.
d) Retail outlet selling a wide range of specialist teas and tea-related
giftware. Sales will be made direct to customers and also by mail order.
e) I plan to advertise on local radio and in the local press and free press.
This will be complemented by flyers distributed directly through
letterboxes to residents in the area.
f) I have already worked as an employee in two different companies,
where I was involved in both marketing and customer service at junior
management level.
g) It is not easy to give a precise estimate but it would seem to be
essentially passing trade within the shopping area. The target consumer
is middle-aged and with a comfortable income. There is no competition
in the area as the concept for this type of shop is new and comparable
products are not currently available in other outlets.
h) Two full-time sales staff for the shop. One personal assistant to do
secretarial work and general office administration.

VIII. You have decided to set up your own business together and
have approached the bank for advice. They have asked you to
prepare a business plan. Decide what type of business you are going
to set up, then discuss each of the points listed in the business plan.
When you have finalized all the details of your business, prepare a
written plan to give to the bank

IX. Read the article


A price that's hard to refuse

77
By W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne
The relevant questions when launching a new product are: what
products are alternatives to the product a company intends to launch?
What is their price and how many customers do they win?
Consider, for example, air travel for corporate executives. There
are two main alternatives: one is business- and first-class tickets, priced
at several thousand pounds; the other is corporate jets, which cost tens of
millions of pounds.
Executive Jet came up with a breakthrough pricing model: instead
of selling jets, it sold shares of time in using a jet. This allowed it to price
jets per year at roughly the amount a company would spend on business-
and first-class tickets. It won orders both from business-class customers
and from executives who preferred a relatively cheap time-share in
Executive Jet to full ownership of a Gulfstream or Lear jet that would
spend much of its time sitting on the ground.
Executive Jet created a pricing model in which companies got the
convenience of private air travel at the price of the annual business-
class travel budget.
From the Financial Times
X. Which of these ideas are mentioned in the article? When you
launch a new product, think carefully about
a) its design.
b) pricing.
c) the convenience of the product in relation to competing products.
d) the technical qualities of competing products.
e) how many people buy competing products.
f) the person in the organisation who is actually responsible for buying
it.

XI. Use the correct form of verbs or phrasal verbs from the article to
complete the expressions
a) to ............... a new product, (paragraph 1)
b) to ............... new customers (paragraph 1)
c) to........... .................. ..............a completely new idea (paragraph 3)
d) to...............orders (paragraph 3)
e) to...............a cheaper scheme to an expensive one (paragraph 3)
f) to...............a lot of time doing something (paragraph 3)
g) to...............a new model (paragraph 4)

78
XII. Think of a company that had success with an original idea and
that became less successful. Why did this happen?

XIII. Render the following text into English


Как государство контролирует цены?
Антон Гладченко
Существуют различные способы, которые использует
государство для того, чтобы тем или иным образом влиять на цены.
1) Тарифы
Тариф представляет собой пошлину или налог, который
взимается с единицы товара поставляемого в страну. Очевидно и
влияние тарифов на устанавливаемую цену. Товар, который
подвергается тарифу, будет стоить дороже, чем в той ситуации,
когда тариф отсутствует. Обычно правительство обращается к
тарифам в тех случаях, когда хочет поддержать какую-то
отечественную отрасль.
2) Замораживание цен
Замораживание цен может применяться как к экономике в
целом (теоретически), так и к отдельным отраслям (практически).
Делается это для того, чтобы ослабить последствия роста темпов
инфляции, внести какую-то стабильность в цены, которые не дают
потребителям свободно вздохнуть. Периодически замораживание
цен можно наблюдать там, где присутствуют монополии.
В целом, замораживание цен в какой-то мере защищает не только
потребителей, но и способствует тому, чтобы не появился черный
рынок. Заморозка цен способна защитить в некоторых случаях и
самих производителей. Применяется данный инструмент не очень
часто.
3) Квоты
Квота – это одна из форм протекционизма. Ее суть
заключается в том, что на некоторое время ограничивается импорт
того или иного товара. Обычно квоты устанавливаются для того,
чтобы поддержать отечественных производителей. Часто без квот
они не могут выжить. Хорошо это или плохо – вопрос спорный. В
любом случае, квоты существуют давно и применяются многими
странами.

79
UNIT 12. PRODUCTS

I. Lead-in
 Arrange the words in order of stages in the launch of a new product:
launch, develop, make, distribute, market, invent, sell, buy, improve, test.
 Do you know any product you or your family prefer because of its
packaging or styling?

II. Study the vocabulary


tangible – осязаемый, реальный
primary – первичный, основной
coal – уголь
diminishing – уменьшающийся, убывающий
advanced – развитый
lean – малозатратный, бережливый
widespread – широко распространённый
to flourish – процветать, преуспевать
intangible – неосязаемый
mortgage – закладная
to define – определять
to perceive – понимать, воспринимать
newly – недавно, только-что
consumer durables – потребительские товары длительного
пользования (такие товары, как автомобиль, холодильники,
телевизоры, использование которых продолжается в течение
относительно длительного периода времени).
replacement – замена, обновление
designed-in obsolescence – продукт устаревающий на стадии
разработки
sophistication – усложнение, совершенствование, модернизация
consumerism – 1) стимулирование потребительского интереса;
защита интересов потребителя; 2)социальное явление,
характеризующееся выдвижением потребления и потребительских
благ в качестве высших ценностей, господствующих над другими
ценностями человеческой жизни.
to reckon with – считаться, учитывать
hard-wearing – практичный, ноский
long-lasting – долговечный

80
to discontinue – прекращать, останавливать
to enhance – увеличивать, усиливать, улучшать
to emphasise – придавать особое значение; подчеркивать;
акцентировать
tray – лоток, поддон
to refine – очищать (от примесей), рафинировать
to mine – разрабатывать рудник, добывать
robust – крепкий, твёрдый
elegant – изысканный, сделанный со вкусом
user-friendly – удобный для пользователя

III. Read and translate the text


When we think of business, we usually think of tangible products
that we can see and touch: computers on the desk or cars in the
showroom. We may also think of primary products like coal or
agricultural goods. But manufacturing forms a diminishing part of most
advanced economies: only 17 percent of the US economy, for example.
What manufacturing there is increasingly lean with 'Japanese' techniques
such as just-in-time (JIT) ordering of components and total quality
management (TQM) becoming widespread.
There is an unresolved argument about whether economies need
manufacturing at all to survive and flourish. In many people's minds,
nevertheless, there is great regret when a factory closes in a 'traditional'
industry: there is something more 'real' about work in a car plant than in
a call centre. (The call centre may be selling intangible products such as
mortgages: more and more services are described in product terms.) But
the car plant may provide more work indirectly, for example at the
component manufacturers that supply it.
We define ourselves partly by the products we own and use,
wherever they are made. Economies in different parts of the world are at
different stages of development in the way products are bought and
perceived. In newly industrialised countries such as some of those in
Asia, more and more people are now able to afford consumer durables
like washing machines for the first time, and companies that sell these
types of goods can make large amounts of money. In the West, the
market for televisions or washing machines is basically one of
replacement. In a situation like this, design, brand and image become

81
more important. Previously prestigious products, like certain makes of
luxury car, become increasingly affordable, and manufacturers have to
be careful to stay ahead of the game to avoid their brands being
perceived as 'ordinary'.
The cars, televisions and washing machines of the 1950s may have
had more style, but modern products are technically far better now than
they were then. Consumers may complain about designed-in
obsolescence and unnecessary sophistication of products with too many
features that are never used, and manufacturers may have started to take
this into account, simplifying the ways they are used. Consumers are also
able to obtain and compare information about different products more
and more easily. Consumerism is a force that manufacturers
increasingly have to reckon with.

IV. Answer the following questions about the text


1. What kinds of products are mentioned in the text?
2. What techniques do most advanced economies use?
3. Why do design, brand and image of the product become more
important nowadays?
4. What may consumer complain about?

V. Complete the crossword

1 P
2 R
3 O
4D
5 U
6 C
7T
1. The process or result of becoming more complex, developed, or
subtle.
2. A class of goods identified by name as the product of a single firm or
manufacturer.
3. The furtherance of the acceptance and sale of merchandise through
advertising, publicity, or discounting.

82
4. A preliminary sketch or outline showing the main features of
something to be executed.
5. The state of advanced industrial society in which a lot of goods are
bought and sold.
6. An occasion at which a new product is shown or made available for
sale or use for the first time.
7. An act of using something to find out whether it is working correctly
or how effective it is.

VI. Making luxury goods available to consumers at affordable prices


is a very powerful marketing idea. Can you think of examples when
retailers or manufacturers have done this?

VII. Before reading the article from the “Financial Times” answer
the questions
 Do you think that cures will be found for all diseases in the next 50
years?
 Or will some diseases remain untreatable?

VIII. Read the article and go back to ex.VII. Has your opinion
changed after reading this article
New medical products
Peter Marsh
Medtronic of the US, the world's biggest maker of medical
implants*, also continues to develop new products. In the late 1980s,
most of its annual sales came from heart pacemakers*, but other new
products will this year contribute to sales of more than $5 billion.
The company specialises in implanted devices that manage -rather
than cure - heart disease, as well as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's
Diseases.
Medtronic has developed an implantable device for treating
epilepsy* and could start trials in humans next year. The implant is
inserted under the skin by the chest and wired up to receive signals from
the brain.
Through this mechanism, the device could tune into the signals
which indicate an epileptic attack is about to take place. These would
trigger electric signals from the implant which would counteract the

83
brain signals and prevent the attack. If all goes well in the clinical trials,
products could be in routine use later this decade.
From the Financial Times
* An implant is a device put into a person's body to control a
particular function. For example, a pacemaker is an implant used to
control the heart.
* Epilepsy is a disease where people are suddenly unable to control
their movements.

IX. Number the paragraph summaries in the correct order. Two of


the summaries are not used
a) Medtronic is also working on devices that can be worn outside the
body.
b) Medtronic used mostly to make pacemakers, but now other products
are also important.
c) One of its products is for treating epilepsy.
d) The cause of Alzheimer's Disease is now understood.
e) The company makes products that control diseases, not cure them.
f) The device works by picking up signals from the brain and then
producing other signals to prevent an attack from happening.

X. Use the correct form of words from the article to replace the
words in italics
a) Money from new products will be part of sales of $5 billion,
(paragraph 1).
b) Medtronic develops and sells only devices that can be implanted,
(paragraph 2).
c) The devices keep the diseases under control. They don't make the
diseases disappear, (paragraph 2; two words).
d) The product will be tested in experiments with users next year,
(paragraph 3).
e) The device is put under the skin and connected so as to receive
signals from the brain, (paragraph 3; two expressions).
f) The device could detect the signals before an attack happens,
(paragraph 4; two expressions).

XI. Render the following text into English

84
Зачем создают псевдоиностранные бренды?
Антон Гладченко
Известно, что в сознании людей определенные страны
ассоциируются с какими-то конкретными видами продукции. Mы
все знаем, что лучшие автомобили делают в Германии, там же варят
лучшее пиво, а вино мы предпочтем из Франции. Потребители при
выборе товара в обычном супермаркете предпочтут итальянские
макароны российским, бразильский кофе украинскому. При этом
даже будут готовы заплатить за иностранные товары более высокую
сумму.
 Естественно, что маркетологи не могли не воспользоваться
таким преимуществом, как национальная принадлежность бренда.
А потому на свет появились псевдоиностранные бренды, основное
преимущество которых заключается в том, что у них уже есть
определенная реклама. Английский чай будет проще продать, чем
российский. Ведь все знают, что именно в Англии лучше всего
делают чай! Однако, во-первых, нужно во время выпустить
продукт. Кроме того, нужно понимать, что такое мифотворчество
опасно. Конкуренты могут репозиционировать  продукт, тем самым,
отвернув от него потенциальных покупателей.
Конечно, создание псевдоиностранных брендов подходит
далеко не для всех видов товаров. В основном, это массовая
продукция среднего или высокого качества (но никак не «люкс»).
Сложные товары вроде автомобилей также не подходят для данного
вида брендинга. Товары класса «люкс» не попадают в эту
категорию, так как их потребители достаточно хорошо разбираются
в том, что берут. Им важна история компании, ее мировая
известность. А вот последнего, как раз и не может дать
псевдоиностранный бренд.
Также, стоит отметить, что к преимуществам использования
псевдоиностранного бренда относятся такие факторы как: более
дешевая рекламная кампания; игра на мировоззрении потребителей;
проще продвигать товар при выходе на западный рынок;
исторический момент.
В качестве дополнительных минусов к псевдоиностранным
брендам можно отнести политическую обстановку в стране.
Например, резкое ухудшение отношений между Великобританией 
и Россией может привести к тому, что товар выкинут с прилавков
многих магазинов. Или потребители станут покупать его менее
активно.

85
Список литературы

1. Кузьмин А.В. Learn English, teach English (Учите


английский. Учите английскому) / А.В. Кузьмин – Санкт-
Петербург: Изд-во Каро, 2003, 165 с.
2. Толстоухова В.Ф., Сидоренко Г.И. Английский язык.
Бизнес-курс / В.Ф. Толстоухова, Г.И. Сидоренко – Минск: Изд-во
ТетраСистемс, 2001, 208 с.
3. Adam Gadsby, Della Summers. Longman business English
dictionary / Gadsby Adam, Summers Della – Longman, 2000, 534 p.
4. Bill Mascull. Market Leader Pre-Intermediate Business
English (Teacher’s book) / Mascull Bill – Longman, 2002, 160 p.
5. David Cotton, David Falvey, Simon Kent. Market Leader
Corse Book Pre- Intermediate Business English / Cotton David, Falvey
David, Kent Simon – Longman, 2009, 160 p.
6. John Rogers, Market Leader New Edition Pre-Intermediate
Business English Practice File – Longman, 2007, 96 p.
7. http: // www.accel-team.com/
8. http: // www. wikipedia.org/

86
Appendix 1
Resume

First name: Ivan


Last name: Ivanov
Date of birth: 03/23/1986 (MM/DD/YYYY)
Dates of employment: 06 June 2006 – 15 September 2006 (please write
real dates you will be available to work)
Address: 33 Lenin st., #1(apt), Moscow, 123456, Russia.
Phone: +7 (095) 123-4567
E-mail: IvanIvanov@mail.ru
Do you have drivers’ license: yes
Education: Moscow State University, Department of Mathematics.
September 2004 – present.
Expected date of graduation: June 2009
Major: Algebra
Work experience:
 September - December 2004 Restaurant “Café Del
Mar”, Moscow, Russia Hostess
 Summer 2004 “Baltic” café, Moscow, Russia Waiter
 September 2003 - May 2004 Restaurant “Vena”,
Moscow Server
Skills:
 English (Upper-Intermediate)
 German (very good)
 Russian (native)
 PC, user-level
 Promoting skills
 Cooking skills
 Communicative, honest, hard working

Interests/hobbies:
 Skating
 Playing the guitar
 Reading
 Swimming

87
 Dancing
Three of your best characteristics:
 Hardworking
 Reliable
 Outgoing

Job application
1. Greeting
2. Reason for writing
For example: where (and when) you saw the advertisement and
which job you are interested in.
3. Your background and experience
For example: your age (optional); present job and/or studies; your
qualifications (or if you are a student what you hope to do in the
future); a description of your recent work experience.
4. The job
For example: mention the skills and personal qualities that make
you suitable for this job.
5. Refer to you CV
Ask the reader to look at your CV/Resume, and focus on one or
two key points.
6. Final comments
For example: say that you hope your application will be
considered; say who will give you a reference; say when you are
available for interview; say who you can be contracted.
7. Standard final sentence
8. Formal ending

Dear Sir/Madam
With reference to your advertisement on the JobFinders.com
website, I am interested in applying for the post of tour leader for Italian
school students.
I am 26 years old and I am currently for a diploma in Tourism at
Naples University. After that I hope to follow a career in the travel
industry. During the last few summer holidays I have worked as a youth
leader in Italy, and I enjoyed the work very much. Next summer I would
like to do something more varied and challenging, and for this reason I
am interested in the job of tour leader, taking students to London.

88
I feel that I would be well-suited for that job as I enjoy working
with young people. I have a lot of energy and enthusiasm and I am also
responsible and reliable.
I have attached my CV as a word document. You will notice that I
have supervised children on a range of sports and cultural activities as
well as dealing First Certificate grade A.
I would be grateful if you would consider my application. You will
see from my attached CV that two people can be contacted as references,
one is a university professor and the other is from the summer
programme where I worked last year. I am available for interview in
Naples any weekday afternoon, and you can email me or telephone me
on the number below.
I look forward to hearing from you soon.
Yours faithfully
Andy Worhole

89
Appendix 2
Writing essays
Writing tips

Give your essay a clear structure with a beginning (introduction),


middle and end (conclusion).
Do not use contracted forms such as don’t and can’t. These are used
in spoken and formal English.

Essay questions usually ask you to do one of three things:


1. Compare two or more things and decide which is the best.
2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of doing something.
3. Discuss a problem and suggest a solution.

Organizing your essays


You need to present your ideas in a clear and organized way. It is helpful
to organize your essay like this:
1. Introduce the subject by the thing you want to discuss. Say why the
subject is important.
2. Describe the main points of the situation or problem in a sensible
order. Organize your discussion into paragraphs. Each main point should
have its own paragraph.
3. Always use clear, short sentences. Use common words that you know
well but avoid very informal words.
4. Give a summary of the points you have made and present your
conclusion.

Useful phrases
If you understand and learn these useful phrases, it will help you to
organize your essay and make your argument clear.

Introduce the subject It is a well-known fact that …


Many people believe that …
It is often claim that …
By way of introduction, I would like to point out
that…

90
There are several ways of looking at the
problem of …
One of the most important issues in society
today is …
Start the discussion First of all/Firstly/to begin with/in the first
place …
Let us begin by looking at …
First of all, let us consider …
The first thing that should be noted is …
It is worth starting from the outset that …
Continue the If you want to continue discussing one side of
discussion the question:
Secondly (NOT Second or secondly of all)
As far as … is concerned / As regards/ As for …
This brings us to the question of (whether/how/
who etc.)
It should also be noted/stress that …
If you want to show the other side of the
questions:
However/Nevertheless…
The opposite may also be true.
There is more than one way of looking at this
problem.
Present a conclusion Lastly / finally
or solution to the On balance,…
problem To sum up / in summary/conclusion, it would
seem that …
This brings us to the conclusion that …
To conclude, it seems likely that …
Express your personal In my opinion,…
opinion My personal opinion is that…
My own view of this is that …
It is my opinion that …

Link your ideas


 You can link your ideas by using these words at the start of each
sentence: Firstly, … Secondly, … Thirdly, …

91
 Remember that it sounds unnatural to do this more than three times.
Do not use fourthly and fifthly.
 If you use On the one hand … , you should also use On the other
hand … in the following sentence or paragraph.
 Try not to use these words or phrases more than once in the same
essay. Find words or phrases which have a similar meaning. For
example, here are some other ways to say also: furthermore, moreover,
what is more, besides, in addition. Use these at the start of a sentence.

Writing a summary

You should use the following points for rendering the articles (the texts)
or writing a summary.

1. The head – line of the text.


The text is head-lined …
The head-line of the text under discussion is …
2. The author of the text
The author of the text is written by…
The author of the text is …
3. The main idea of the text
The text is about …
The text deals with …
The text touches upon …
The purpose of the text is to give the reader some information on
4. The contents of the text
The author starts telling the readers about …
The author writes (states, thinks) that …
According to the text …
Further the author says that …
In conclusion …
The author comes to the conclusion that …
5. Your opinion of the text
I found the article (the text) important/dull/too hard to understand …

Useful phrases
If you learn these useful phrases, it will help you to organize your
summary clear.

92
This text is about (the)…
The book deals with the problem of…
article touches upon the question(s) of …

This

The considered is of much interest study/


problem/ discussed some importance for are
question / in question great use those interested
presents who in/ etc.
subject/ under no
fact consideration

points out
The author states that …
makes it clear
draws our attention to the fact

It is necessary to bear in mind that…


interesting emphasize (in this
important mention connection)
useful say

There are some examples


The author gives two (three) good and interesting illustrating the …
many useful

realized
made clear
It should be pointed out that…
borne in mind
mentioned

The author arrives at the following conclusions:…

or:
To sum up I’d like to say that …
In conclusion

93
Appendix 3
Тексты для реферирования

Me plc
Hired Guns
What do Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Computers, Karl von der
Heyden, former CFO of PepsiCo., and twenty other top executives at
Fortune 500 companies have in common? The answer is they have all
been “interim managers”, hired on a temporary basis to come in and
revitalise a firm with their own special brand of magic. And then leave.
In fact, such short-term employment contracts are now becoming the
norm at all management levels. And if they're good enough for the likes
of Jobs, they're good enough for the rest of us.
Employability
Provided you can stand the insecurity, there has never been a better
time to get a job. The old “smokestack industries” of mining,
shipbuilding and steel may be gone, but with the arrival of the New
Economy, what we're now increasingly seeing is highly paid project
teams created for particular assignments for a specific period of time.
Once the project is completed, the team is simply disbanded. No hard
feelings - just thanks and goodbye. There's no promise of more work, but
if you've done a good job, you've added to what human resources people
call your 'employability'. You've enhanced your career prospects with
another firm on a similar short-term basis.
The Corporate Ladder
In the past it was different. You worked hard, pleased an
insufferable boss - you had a job for life. True, you were little more than
a wage slave, but if you stuck to the dress code, played by the rules and
made a few powerful friends along the way, you could climb to the top
of the corporate ladder by the age of fifty, take early retirement at fifty-
five and drop dead at fifty-six.
Re-engineering
Then along came the “re-engineered” 90s and changed all that.
According to Jerry Yoram Wind and Jeremy Main at the world-leading
Wharton School of Management, big companies like AT&T "finally
woke up in 1995 and said 'Oh my goodness, we have 40,000 people too
many'." Mass redundancies followed. In April 1997 Newsweek ran a
cover story entitled “Corporate Killers, the Public is Scared as Hell”. The

94
killers were giants like General Electric and IBM. Now managers were
kicked out at forty-five and on the scrap heap at forty-six.
Empowerment
The tables have turned. The forty-three million jobs lost in the
United States alone since 1979 are more than compensated for by the
70.2 million jobs created in the same period. Now it's our employers who
are afraid we'll take our expertise elsewhere. With so many job
opportunities, severe skills shortages in many industries, fewer barriers
to entrepreneurship and easier access to start-up capital, we've never
been so empowered. Never mind the corporation. What about me?
Telecommuters
In a study carried out for Management Today by RHI Management
Resources, sixty-seven per cent of managers put a job for life at the
bottom of their list of priorities. Amongst the under-35s the figure was
seventy-seven per cent. Ninety-one per cent of those younger managers
said career development was the responsibility of the individual. Fifty-
five per cent of them wanted to retire at fifty-five or younger. All of them
wanted the flexibility to work from home or even telecommute. All of
them said they would dump their present company in an instant if they
were offered something “sexier” by another employer.
The Rat Race
Mark Albion, founding partner of You & Co., and co-founder of
Students for Responsible Business, approves of this new opportunism.
"You learn where you fit in by not fitting in," he says. "You learn what
you want to do by doing what you don't want to do. If you're offered a
“big” job, take it. You might love it. But you might not find it as
satisfying as you'd hoped, and it will be a jumping-off point for what you
really want to do." His simple message seems to be: "Don't get really
good at something you don't want to do." And remember to get a life
along the way. For, as comedian, Lily Tomlin once put it: "The trouble
with the rat race is that even if you win, you're still a rat".

Entrepreneurs
“The ultimate risk is … not taking a risk.”
Entrepreneurs come in all shapes and sizes – the dynamic, the
cautious and the greedy. But all of them hold an equal fascination for us.
How do they do it? What’s their secret? Some of the world’s biggest
corporations would like to know, too. For enterpreneurism is in. And

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these days everyone wants to be an entrepreneur.
But an entrepreneur is not what you are, it's what you become, and
real entrepreneurs exist only in retrospect. At first, nobody takes them
seriously. They're crackpots, dreamers, unemployables. And by the time
they've finally earned the respect of the business community, they've
already made it. So cancel the classes on entrepreneurship and throw out
your business plan. For the road to entrepreneurial success can't be
mapped out in advance. You get there one sale at a time. In the
beginning, only the entrepreneur needs to see the goal, nobody else. And
the goal is quite simple: you get an idea; you identify your customer; you
make a sale. Then you make another and another and another until your
office in the spare bedroom has turned into the tower block in Manhattan
you always wanted. Forget about marketing strategy at this stage. What
you need first is a steady cash flow. Bide your time. Focus on the little
things. That's how it works. Big companies are just small companies that
got bigger.
Take Richard Branson, for instance. For the founder of Virgin, the
first ten years were a struggle, with his company suffering some cash
flow problems until as late as 1980. By then, the Virgin Group was
running eighty different operations, none of them making large amounts
of money and some of them losing money hand over fist. Yet in 1992
Branson's music business alone sold for £560 million.
Or take Nicolas Hayek, the man who invented the Swatch and
brought the Swiss watch-making industry back from the dead. Hayek
took on Japanese market leaders, Seiko and Citizen, and beat them on
quality and price. Today the Swatch Group, which includes many
famous names such as Omega, Longines, Calvin Klein and Tissot, sells
114 million watches a year. With annual sales of over four billion Swiss
francs and a twenty-five per cent share of the global market, the group is
now by far the largest manufacturer and distributor of finished watches
in the world. The Swatch was a 20th century icon and some of the highly
collectable early designs are now classed as art and fetch more than
£20,000 - not bad for a plastic watch!
So what is it that makes a good entrepreneur on the scale of a Bill
Gates, a Jeff Bezos or a Michael Dell? Clearly, not the same thing that
makes a good manager. For good managers tend to come from fairly
conventional backgrounds. They're the bright kids everyone knew would
do well, born organizers, who rise through the ranks to reach the top of

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large corporations. But the budding entrepreneur is more likely to be an
outsider, a troublemaker, a rebel who drops out of college to get a job,
discovers a flair for building companies from nothing, gets bored quickly
and moves on. Most of all, the entrepreneur will be a master of risk-
management. For risk doesn't mean the same thing to the entrepreneur as
it does to the rest of us. The king of corporate raiders, Sir James
Goldsmith, summed it up best: “The ultimate risk,” he said, “is not
taking a risk.” And that's probably how he got to be a dollar billionaire.

Dot-con?
Hype
The IT industry has a tendency to exaggerate. Take Y2K, the
supposed “Millennium Bug”. It was widely predicted to wipe out
seventy-five per cent of the world's computers in the very first second of
the 21st century. Planes were going to fall from the sky, hospitals to be
thrown into chaos and anarchists to take to the streets as the lights went
out on the stroke of midnight in the civilised world. Over an eighteen-
month period of corporate panic, programming experts, called in to
debug doomed mainframes, amassed vast fortunes in consultancy fees. In
the end, little more than minor technical problems were reported with
two pocket calculators and a Gameboy.
E-volution
So it came as no surprise when those same experts announced the
death of business as we know it and the arrival of the New, Weightless,
Wireless, Connected Economy. “Welcome to the Age of the Network”
declared Fortune magazine. “E-business: What Every CEO Needs to
Know” said Business Week. There followed a frenzy of financial
speculation not seen since the American Gold Rush. For a while, it
seemed like every post-adolescent with a laptop and a business plan
written on the back of a rock concert ticket could get access to unlimited
venture capital. Popular domain names like business.com and
houses.com were snapped up for millions of dollars. Then came a flood
of more exotically named start-ups like ScreamingMedia, Egghead and
AtomicTangerine.
Dot.bomb
Bust followed boom. In the race to outgrow the competition, most
e-businesses burned up capital and never turned a profit. At one point e-
shopping site, letsbuyit.com was getting through three and a half million

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dollars a month. Normally conservative organizations like Goldman
Sachs, who had poured $850 million into groceries-by-Net company
Webvan, saw their investment reduced to zero in two years. The
prestigious Janus Mutual Fund lost a similar amount on health site
WebMD. Hungry for further capital, the more dynamic dotcoms decided
to issue shares. The stockmarket flotation of lastminute.com, to take
one example, raised $ 175 million overnight and made the company's
founders multi-millionaires. But shareholders were less fortunate. On
April 14th 2001 more than one trillion dollars in market capitalisation
was lost in six and a half hours of corporate madness on Wall Street. The
dotcom phenomenon was over.
Return of the Dotcom
Or was it? Some say the dramatic fall in share prices reflected more
the instability of the market than the commercial potential of the dotcoms
themselves. New technology always leads to some kind of market
correction. The same thing happened when the railways first went public.
The truth is that of the 10,000 start-ups to attract major funding in the
late 90s, 9,500 are still in existence. Some have “morphed” into new
companies with new names and new management. Significantly, those
whose success is built on technological superiority have survived. So too
have those who added “bricks” to their “clicks” like bancol.net, Brazil's
first virtual bank, which finally decided to open conventional highstreet
branches in response to customer demand.
В2В
Part of the dotcom disaster was that the media focused on the
retailers, or e-tailers, like eBay and Amazon. But worries about security
have prevented most of these e-tailers from ever breaking even. Less
than one per cent of consumer sales are currently conducted through the
Internet. In the US people spend more on dog-food than they do online!
Only seven per cent of SMEs even attempt to carry out online
transactions. Consumer sales, B2C, were never going to be exciting. The
real growth area was always B2B. Business-to-business trading between
suppliers, manufacturers and distributors over the Internet is forecast to
reach $20 trillion by 2010 and, for once, the forecasts may be right. For
production and logistics departments the “friction-free” environment of
the Internet is the answer to their prayers.
E-pitaph
But what about all the dotcoms that have failed? A successful

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industry has grown out of them, too. At NetSlaves, for example, you can
visit a virtual museum of dead dotcoms. Steve Shah, the co-founder of e-
business ‘health-checker” DotCom Doom.com says business has never
been better. And at dotcomfailures.com you used to be able to buy up
dotcoms on the verge of bankruptcy, but unfortunately that is no longer
possible. A short while ago dotcomfailures.com itself... failed.

Brand Wars
Coke versus Pepsi; Nike versus Reebok; Nintendo versus Sega –
the battle is on amongst the world’s top brands.
Aggressive comparative advertising has now reached fever pitch;
extra millions are pouring into R&D, and the market leaders are under
constant pressure to slash their prices in a cut-throat struggle for market
domination. When Philip Morris knocked 40c off a packet of Marlboro,
$47-and-a-half billion was instantly wiped off the market value of
America's top twenty cigarette manufacturers. Lesser brands went to the
wall. And that's just one example of how fair competition within a free
market has rapidly escalated into all-out brand war.
Own-label products
Yet, in spite of the efforts of the corporate heavyweights to win
market share, when it comes to fast-moving consumer goods, more and
more consumers are switching to the supermarkets' own-label products.
And brand loyalty is fast becoming a thing of the past. The once
unchallengeable Nescafe and Kellogg's are actually losing sales, as their
higher price is no longer automatically associated with higher quality.
And in many supermarkets across Europe and the States own-labels now
account for over fifty-five per cent of total sales. Their turnover has
never been higher.
Lookalike Coke
Of course, the big brands are not giving in without a fight. When
British supermarket chain, Sainsbury's, led the attack on Coke by
launching its own similarly packaged product, it managed to secure
fifteen per cent of the total UK cola market in just two months. But
Coca-Cola was quick to respond. Sainsbury's was told to change its
packaging fast or Coke would cut its prices to rival supermarkets and
leave Sainsbury's hopelessly overpriced. Some people say the
Sainsbury's cola tastes as good as Coke. But they're the ones who
underestimate the power of the brand.

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Big Brands - Big Business
Brand names are still the reason Omega can put a 300% mark-up
on their watches, the reason Nestle spent a fortune buying Perrier, the
reason investors are prepared to pay up to twelve times the book value
for a company's stock. Big brands remain big business in the City.
Brandstretching
Brandstretching is another way in which the household names are
fighting back. By putting their familiar trademark on attractive and
fashionable new products, companies can both generate additional
revenue and increase brand-awareness, hence Pepsi Maxwear, Virgin
Cola, Camel Adventure Gear clothing and even jewellery by Cadbury!
The high-life image suits companies like Philip Morris, for whom, as the
restrictions on tobacco ads get tougher, brandstretching is the perfect
form of subliminal advertising.
Buyer Beware
So much for the high-street brands. Further upmarket, the luxury
branded goods manufacturers are facing an even greater enemy of their
own, namely, the pirate brands. And as the trade in lookalike products
increases, companies like Ray-Ban and Reebok, Yves Saint Laurent and
Armani are calling for a crackdown on the pirates. In Europe over ten per
cent of clothes and footwear sold are said to be fakes, costing the firms
who make the real thing nearly $7 billion a year. For a fraction of the
recommended retail price you can pick up fake Gucci, fake Lacoste, fake
Lego, fake Disney, fake Nintendo, fake anything. But buyer beware!
Your case of Moet et Chandon will probably turn out to be cider and
your bottle of Calvin Klein more like industrial cleaner than perfume.
Market Saturation
But, brand wars aside, the single biggest threat to the market
remains saturation. For it seems there are just too many products on the
shelves. In the States they call this “product clutter” and it is currently
the cause of a strong anti-consumerism movement. In fact, product
proliferation and widespread 'me-tooism' mean that some Boots stores
actually stock seventy-five different kinds of toothbrush and 240 types of
shampoo. It would take you over twenty years to try them all, assuming
you even wanted to! And that's just got to be crazy when you think that
eighty to ninety per cent of new brands fail within their first six months.

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If the Price is Right
A personal computer wouldn't cost twice as much in the UK as it
does in the States and you wouldn't need to take out a bank loan to buy a
coffee in the Champs-Elysees. Of course, strictly speaking, the computer
is tradeable and the coffee non-tradeable. For tradeable goods are
exported all over the world, but non-tradeables have to be consumed
where they are produced. And, since a cafe noir halfway up the Eiffel
Tower can only be purchased in Paris, frankly, they can charge what they
like for it. But, tradeable or not, as every salesperson knows, "The price
of a thing is what it will bring." And when it comes to price, the buyer is
his own worst enemy. Show me a high price and I'll show you too many
customers prepared to pay over the odds.
The truth is, people pay the price they deserve. A massive twenty
per cent mark-up does not stop people buying a billion cans of Coke a
day. And with profit margins of up to a phenomenal fifty per cent, Philip
Morris can still gross around $100 billion a year, making the makers of
Marlboro cigarettes the most profitable company in the world.
In fact, product-pricing lies at the very heart of the marketing
process itself. Its impact is felt in sales volume, in the product's
contribution to overall profits and, above all, in the strategic position the
product occupies in the marketplace. For a higher price will often raise a
product's profile and a high product profile commands a higher price.
Product profile is basically the difference between a Rolex and a Timex,
a bottle of Chanel No.5 and a bottle of Boots No.7. So, of course, is
price.
But it isn't as simple as that. Economic, as well as market forces are
at work. If they were not, we might expect international competition to
equalise prices everywhere, but in spite of all the talk of a single market,
a borderless Europe and a common currency, prices remain alarmingly
elastic. And what goes for a song in one country can cost a bomb in
another.
For one thing, most commodities, particularly agricultural products,
are usually heavily subsidized. So, in the absence of free trade, food will
tend to be cheap in the USA, cheaper still in Central and South America,
expensive in Europe and outrageously so in Japan. Trade barriers
compound the problem. For sadly, those who took part in the last round
of GATT could barely reach general agreement on where to have lunch.
So how do you put a price on things? An everyday supermarket

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item in one country might be a luxury item in another and cost
considerably more. Scotch, for instance, is a mass market product in
Aberdeen but understandably a niche market product in Abu Dhabi. No
prizes for guessing where it's cheaper.
Then, of course, there are taxes. By imposing wildly different rates
of tax on otherwise homogeneous commodities like petrol, governments
distort prices even further. If you're driving through Europe, you'd
certainly do better to fill up in Luxembourg than in Italy. Tax is also the
reason why a Jaguar car costs less in Brussels than in Britain, where it
was built.
So buy your car in Belgium, your fridge and other 'white goods' in
the UK; stock up on medicines in France and on CDs in Germany. That
way you'll be sure to get the best deal. For where you spend your money
is almost as important as what you spend it on, but neither is as important
as the fact that you're prepared to spend it. In the words of film actor
Cary Grant, "Money talks, they say. All it ever said to me was
Goodbye."

Looking after the twenty percent


There's no doubt about it, corporate entertainment is big business.
In Japan, for example, where relationship-building is a fundamental part
of business life, a staggering £40 billion of marketing expenditure goes
on corporate entertainment annually. That's roughly equivalent to
Romania's GDP or Venezuela's total foreign debt. The infamous Recruit
Group, which has been the subject of repeated scandals in Japan, once
paid $15,500 for a single meal for a dozen executives at a favourite
restaurant. So it's easy to see how the money the Japanese spend in a
year on wining and dining important clients could add up to the cost of
365 brand-new jumbo jets!
Tо some, corporate entertainment is merely an expensive and
perhaps unnecessary luxury. To those who take a dimmer view, it's
nothing short of bribery. But the truly corrupt corporate entertainer is
relatively rare. Famous fraudsters, the Bank of Credit and Commerce
International, did indeed specialise in “sweetening” their most valued
clients - frequently international terrorists, drug barons and Third World
dictators -with shopping sprees in London and endless lines of credit at
Las Vegas casinos. But this is a million miles away from an everyday
business breakfast at the Hilton or a power lunch at the Savoy. For most

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successful business people would agree that goodwill is a crucial part of
clinching lucrative deals and these days goodwill costs more than a
smile.
A few years ago, the Ritz Hotel, recognising the major contribution
made by executive diners to its restaurant turnover, invented the award
of Business Luncher of the Year to honour, in their words, "the executive
who does most to help the recovery of the economy by lunching out".
Only those who spent in excess of £5,000 a year stood a chance of
winning, but there was no shortage of candidates willing to compete.
What the Ritz was acknowledging is that business lunches are an
important part of corporate culture, whether to consolidate professional
relationships between colleagues and charge it to expenses or to
manipulate over-cautious clients into an immediate agreement. After all,
it's rather difficult to reject your host's proposal (however unspeakable)
when you have just eaten a hundred dollars' worth of their entertainment
budget!
How cost-effective it really is for Fiat to own an art gallery so it
can take customers on special conducted tours or for the German
Neckermann company to have a whole department organising weekends
in the Mediterranean for important clients is, of course, open to question.
Certainly in Austria, where corporate entertaining is tax-free, offering
Mozart festivals to music-lovers and Klosters to corporate skiers seems
to promise a good return on an initial investment. But can it legitimately
be considered part of a company's overall marketing effort?
It can. What more and more companies are realising is that across-
the-board marketing doesn't work. Marketing in the future will have to
be more clearly focused. And it may turn out that big above-the-line
marketing campaigns prove less effective in moving goods than simpler
strategies for getting the client on your side. Of course, in times of
recession, corporate hospitality looks extravagant and doesn't make for
good public relations. But it still makes sense to target your best clients.
For if the so-called Pareto Principle is true and eighty per cent of your
business really does come from twenty per cent of your customers, then
shouldn't you be looking after the twenty per cent?

Bright Ideas
The scene is the boardroom of a multinational cosmetics company
at the end of an exhausting all-day meeting. The conference table is

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littered with screwed up papers and empty Perrier bottles. The financial
controller is tearing his hair out and the director of R&D is no longer on
speaking terms with the head of marketing. The launch of a new
shampoo has backfired badly. All decisions have had to be deferred until
the next meeting. Nobody even wants to think about the next meeting.
At this point a young marketing consultant cuts in. “Ladies and
gentlemen, I have an idea which is guaranteed to double sales of your
new shampoo. Now, believe it or not, my idea can be summed up in just
one word and for $30,000 I'll tell you what it is.” Naturally, objections
are raised, but the chairman finally agrees to the deal. “Here is my idea.
You know the instructions you put on the back of the shampoo bottle? I
suggest you add one word to the end. And the word is: “repeat”.”
Not all good ideas are this simple, but in business a surprising
number of them are. At least, they seem simple after they've been
thought of - the secret is to think of them in the first place. As someone
once remarked, “If you can't write your idea on the back of your business
card, you don't have an idea.”
So what are the conditions for creativity in business? And is there a
blueprint for having bright ideas? Here's what the psychologists think:
1. Be a risk-taker. Those who are reluctant to take risks don't innovate.
2. Be illogical. An over-reliance on logic kills off ideas before they have
a chance to develop.
3. Let yourself be stupid from time to time. Great ideas often start out as
stupid ideas.
4. Regularly re-think things. Problem-solving frequently involves
breaking up problems into parts and putting them back together again in
a different way.
5. Take advantage of lucky breaks. The most creative people never
ignore an opportunity.
They say the West creates and the East innovates, and there may be
some truth in this. Take British entrepreneur. Sir Clive Sinclair, the great
electronics inventor of the 70s, whose C5 electric car flopped when
people found it quicker to get out and walk. Then take Akio Morita, the
chairman of Sony, who has seen his company claim eighty-five per cent
of the world personal stereo market with the much imitated Sony
Walkman - a masterly innovation which merely took advantage of
existing technology. The comparison speaks for itself.
And maybe one reason high-technology companies seek to merge

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multinationally is so that they can combine both creative and innovative
strength. For anything that won't sell isn't worth inventing and it's an
expensive waste of time coming up with ideas you can't exploit. But it's
even more expensive if your competitors can exploit them. And there's
not much point doing the research if another company is going to end up
doing the development, and making the profit.
The lateral thinker
In his book on creative problem-solving, 'Breaking Through', Tom
Logsdon tells the story of a bright young executive hired to manage a
San Francisco hotel. One of the first problems the young executive has to
face is a flood of complaints about the hotel lifts, which are infuriatingly
slow. Guests are actually starting to demand rooms on lower floors. But
an upgrade of the lift system is ruled out when the lowest estimate for
reconstruction comes to $200,000. Clearly something else has to be
done, and pretty quickly, before people start checking out.
Finally, a creative solution occurs to the young executive. The key
to the problem, he decides, is boredom. With only the lift doors and a
blank wall to stare at, guests are understandably getting bored, and when
people are bored they tend to complain. So instead of speeding up the
lifts, full-length mirrors are installed both inside and directly outside the
lifts on each floor - at a cost of just $4,000. Now, with their reflections to
look at when they use the lift, people stop complaining, thereby saving
the hotel $196,000.
This is what Edward De Bono called lateral thinking, and it's the
result of looking at the problem in a different and unusual way. Indeed,
reformulating and redefining a problem is just one of the ways in which
you can create a climate for creativity in business. And an increasing
number of companies now see such creative strategies as vital to their
survival.
At 3M, for example, employees spend as much as fifteen per cent
of their time on new ideas and twenty-five per cent of every manager's
product portfolio consists of products that are less than five years old. At
Hewlett-Packard more than half their orders in 1992 are for products
introduced in the previous two years. It's a similar story at Glaxo, ICL
and SmithKline Beecham. For it's no coincidence that in research-driven
industries, like computers and Pharmaceuticals, an innovative lead
creates the market leaders. Management guru, Tom Peters, talks
nowadays of a company's whole culture being creative. But creativity

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would be useless without innovation, and the two terms should not be
confused.
According to the team running creativity courses at the Cranfield
School of Management, creativity is essentially about generating, not
judging, ideas. Innovation, on the other hand, is the successful
implementation of those ideas on a commercial basis. In a brainstorming
session, you don't criticise ideas before they're fully formed. That would
be counter-productive. Evaluation comes in at the innovation stage,
where you're turning good ideas into a commercial proposition. It
follows that you cannot be both creative and innovative at the same time.
For making a discovery is one thing; exploiting it quite another, as
the Xerox Research Centre found out to its cost when its system for
making personal computers easier to use was copied by Apple
Macintosh. Apple led the market for almost ten years with the
enormously successful desktop system it 'borrowed' from Xerox. But
Apple had the foresight to copyright the system. Xerox didn't.
Originality, it seems, is the art of concealing your source, and too many
companies fail to see an opportunity until it ceases to be one.

She's the Boss


Business has traditionally been and to a certain extent still is “a
boy's game”. Less than six per cent of executive management positions
in American and European companies are held by women, and of the
Fortune 500 only four have a female CEO! Yet in Britain one in three
new businesses are started up by women, and according to John Naisbitt
and Patricia Auburdene, authors of “Megatrends”, since 1980 the number
of self-employed women has increased twice as fast as the number of
self-employed men.
The Glass Ceiling Syndrome
Is it just a case of women whose career progress has been blocked
by their male colleagues - the so-called “glass ceiling syndrome” - being
forced to set up their own businesses? Or do women share specific
management qualities which somehow serve them better in self-
employment? As many as forty per cent of start-ups fold within their first
two years, but the failure rate of those run by women is substantially
lower than that. It's hardly surprising, therefore, that though male bosses
tend to be reluctant to promote women, male bank managers seem only
too happy to finance their businesses.

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The Roddick Phenomenon
Anita Roddick, founder of the Body Shop empire, is the perfect
example of the female entrepreneur, with her company growing from
zero to £470 million in its first fifteen years. Perhaps the secret of her
success was caution. Rather than push ahead with the purchasing of new
shops, Roddick got herself into franchising - the cheapest way to expand
a business whilst keeping overheads down. Caution, forward planning
and tight budgeting seem to be more female characteristics than male.
They are also the blueprint for success when launching a new company.
The recent internet boom allowed women like Martha Lane Fox to set up
the massively successful web travel agency lastminute.com. In
cyberspace nobody cares what sex you are.
More Sensitive
When women join an existing company, it's a different story. Less
ruthlessly individualistic in their approach to business, women are more
sensitive to the feelings of the group or team in which they work. They
are generally more cooperative than competitive, less assertive, less
prepared to lead from the front. Though they usually manage their time
better than men and may even work harder, they are much less likely
than their male counterparts to take risks. And, above all, it is risk-taking
that makes corporate high fliers. As one male director put it: “I'm not
paid to make the right decisions. I'm just paid to make decisions.”
Better Communicators
It's an overgeneralisation, of course, but it remains true that men
will more readily take the initiative than women. The female style of
management leans towards consensus and conciliation. Women seem to
be better communicators than men - both more articulate and better
listeners. And perhaps it is women's capacity to listen which makes them
particularly effective in people-oriented areas of business. In any mixed
group of business people the ones doing most of the talking will almost
certainly be the men. But perhaps only the women will really be
listening.
The New Achievers
It was predominantly men who led the hierarchical corporations of
the nineties. But it may be women who achieve the most in the more
democratic, people-centred years to come.

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The Death of Economics
The world economy is falling apart. And no one has a clue what's
going wrong - least of all the economists.
Whereas in the past, supply and demand had a way of evening
themselves out, we now swing from hyperinflation to soaring
unemployment as slump follows boom. The once predictable business
cycles which drive the market economy have gone out of control. The
economic statistics issued by governments seem more unreliable than
ever. And, for the first time, politicians have started talking about “the
death of economies”.
Speculative Greed
A major cause of the crisis has been the business sector's ruthless
pursuit of capital. It was largely corrupt property speculators and poorly
managed financial institutions that caused the collapse of the Japanese
economy in the 90s and the subsequent “Asian meltdown”. The dotcom
boom at the beginning of the 21st century was also motivated by short-
term speculative greed. More money actually changes hands in four and
a half days on the global currency markets than is exchanged annually
through trade in merchandise and services. Business, it seems, is a very
slow way to make money. The fastest way to make money is money.
Merger-mania
Two decades of bigger and bigger mergers and acquisitions have
compounded the problem. In 1997 alone $1.6 trillion were spent on
M&As. For the board members and shareholders of the companies
concerned, there were huge windfall profits to be made, but for the
companies themselves it was not always good news. Nor was it good
news for the thousands laid off as a result of bringing ex-competitors
together. In the new globalised economy, the need to grow at all costs
has also led companies like Enron and WorldCom to become
increasingly creative in their accounting methods. In some companies,
hiding debts to finance acquisitions has become common practice.
Different Worlds
But the real long-term crisis is the widening gap between rich and
poor. Thirty per cent of the world's population represents ninety per cent
of the world's GDP, whilst the other seventy per cent have to survive on
the remaining ten per cent. The income ratio between the richest and
poorest countries went from 30:1 in 1960 to 74:1 in 1997 - and it's

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getting worse. So it isn't trade deficits, post-communist chaos or the
global arms build-up that pose the greatest threat to the world economy.
Nor is it political instability in Africa and the Middle East, international
terrorism or the Latin American debt crisis. It is the emergence
throughout both the developed and developing world of a vast and
permanent underclass of seriously poor.
Cheap Labour from the East
In some cities in Central and Eastern Europe, unemployment is
running as high as eighty per cent. Wages have fallen so far behind
escalating inflation that immigration controls in the West have had to be
tightened to prevent an influx of workers from the East. But, of course,
this hasn't stopped some Western companies exploiting cheap labour in
both Eastern Europe and South-East Asia, and putting their own
employees out of work.
The Working Poor
In the USA, where unemployment benefit is cut after six months
and staying out of work is not an option, they are creating jobs at the cost
of decreased incomes. For in many of the inner cities of the USA they
have something approaching a Third World economy. According to the
latest figures, 12.7% of Americans currently live below the poverty-line.
The problem is not so much unemployment as underemployment, with
millions of people in low-paid, dead-end, so-called “McJobs” that have
zero prospects.
Corporate Rule
The result of all this is that corporations now exercise an
unprecedented influence on the global economy and the distribution of
wealth, as the world's governments, powerless to regulate them, become
increasingly irrelevant. Near-monopolies like Microsoft are hard to fight
and in industries like telecoms, the top ten companies control eighty-six
per cent of the market. In fact, half the world's richest institutions are not
countries but companies. No wonder then that both countries and
companies try to conceal the real figures. As the famous saying goes,
“It's often easier to be economical with the truth than truthful about the
economy”.

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Appendix 4
Список основных сокращений, используемых в деловой корреспонденции:
А/С, а/с, асе. (account current) - текущий счет
adsd (addressed) - адресовано
adse (addressee) - адресат, получатель
ad (advertisement)- рекламное объявление (множ. число - ads)
AOB (any other business) - раздел «разное» в повестке дня собрания
арр. (appendix) - приложение
Attn. (attention) - вниманию (кого-либо)
cc, cc (copies) - указание на адресатов копий письма
CEO (chief executive officer) - исполнительный директор
Co. (company) - компания
contr. (contract) - контракт
Corp. (corporation) - корпорация
cur. 1. (currency) - валюта; 2. (current) - текущий
CV (curriculum vitae) - краткая биография
dd 1. (dated) - датированный; 2. (delivered) - доставленный
Dep., Dept (department) - 1. отдел; 2. министерство
doc. (document) - документы (множ. число - docs.)
eaon (except as otherwise noted) - если не указано иначе
e.g. (exempli gratia, лат.) - например
enc., encl. (enclosed, enclosure) - вложенный, прилагаемый, вложение,
приложение (к письму и т. п.)
etc. (et cetera, лат.) = and so on – и т.д.
exc, excl. (except, excluding, exception, exclusion) - исключая, исключение
expn (expiration) - истечение (срока)
fig. (figure) - 1. цифра; 2. рисунок, схема
FY (fiscal year) - финансовый год
h.a. (hoc anno. лат.) - в текущем году
hf. (half) - половина
H.Q., HQ, h.q. (headquarters) - главное управление (компании, организации)
id. (idem, лат.) - тот же
i.e., ie (id est, лат.) - то есть
inc., incl. (including) - включая
Inc, inc. (incorporated) - зарегистрированный как юридическое лицо
(корпорация)
info (information) - информация
inv. (invoice) - счет-фактура
IOU (I owe you) - долговая расписка
L/C, l.c., l/c (letter of credit) — аккредитив
LLC (limited liability company) - компания с ограниченной ответственностью
Ltd., ltd. (limited) - с ограниченной ответственностью
LOC (letter of commitment) - гарантийное письмо

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mdse (merchandise) - товары
memo (memorandum) - записка
M.O., m.o. 1. (mail order) - почтовый перевод; 2. (money order) - денежный
перевод, платежное поручение
N/A (not applicable) - не применимо (напр., пункт в анкете)
N.B., NB (nota bene, лат.) - важное замечание
NC, N.C., n/c (no charge) - бесплатно
o/l (our letter) - (ссылаясь на) наше письмо
PA (power of attorney) - доверенность
р.а. (per annum, лат.) - в год
par. (paragraph) - абзац, параграф, пункт
Plc, PLC (public limited company) - открытая акционерная компания с
ограниченной ответственностью
РО (post office) - почтовое отделение
pp. (pages) - страницы
рр, р.р. (per pro, лат.) - от имени и по поручению
qv (quod vide, лат.) - смотри (там-то)
rct (receipt) - расписка, квитанция
rept. (report) - отчет
re (regarding) - относительно
ref. (reference) - ссылка
sig. (signature) - подпись
tn. (ton) - тонна
urgt (urgent) - срочный
v., vs. (versus, лат.) - против
VAT (value-added tax) - НДС
V.I.P., VIP (very important person) - особо важное лицо
v.s. (vide supra, лат.) - см.выше
v.v. (vice versa, лат.) - наоборот
w/o (without) - без
@ - коммерческое at
# (number) - номер (амер.)

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