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Kauno technologijos universitetas

Stanislovas SAJAUSKAS

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE
ACOUSTIC WAVES
(CREEPING WAVES)

Kaunas ✳ Technologija ✳ 2004


UDK 534
Sa79

S. Sajauskas. Longitudinal surface acoustic waves (Creeping waves).


Monograph. Kaunas: Technology, 2004, 176 p.

Surface acoustic waves of new type, such as surface longitudinal or


creeping acoustic waves propagating on the surface of the isotropic
solid surface are described in this monograph. The peculiarities of those
waves are researched theoretically and experimentally comparing them
with transversal surface (Rayleigh) waves. Longitudinal surface
acoustic wave application to nondestructive tests, measurements, in
UHF electronics, and their seismic evidence are surveyed. Longitudinal
surface acoustic waves exciting in ultrasonic frequency band are
discussed also; the results of experimental research are given.

Reviewers:

Prof. Habil. Dr. E. L. Garška (Vilnius University)


Prof. Habil. Dr. L. Pranevičius
(Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas)
Prof. Habil. Dr. S. Rupkus (Kaunas University of Technology)

Translated into English language by L. Ancevičienė

© S. Sajauskas,
2004
ISSN 9955-09-777-9
In memoriam of my Mother

Elzbieta VISKAČKAITĖ-SAJAUSKIENĖ
CONTENTS

SYMBOLS 7
PREFACE 11

1 INTRODUCTION 13

2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW) 19


2.1 LSAW and TSAW theory 23
2.2 LSAW exciting and receiving methods 34
2.2.1 LSAW exciting by X-cut quartz crystal 34
2.2.2 Y-cut quartz crystal method 35
2.2.3 Periodical mechanical linear structure method 36
2.2.4 Angular method 36
2.2.5 Electromagnetic acoustic method 41
2.2.6 Thermo-acoustic method 42

3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE 44


3.1 LSAW usage in nondestructive testing 44
3.2 LSAW application for measurement of physical and
mechanical constants 48
3.2.1 Sound velocity measurements 48
3.2.2 Measurement methods of elasticity constants 53
3.2.3 Measurement of surface hardness characteristics
with LSAW 56
3.3 LSAW in seismology 60
3.3.1 Seismic waves and their velocity 60
3.3.2 Simulation of seismic phenomena 63

4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS 67


4.1 Angular-pulse method 67
4.1.1 Equipment of immersion research 71
4.1.2 Calibration of anglular measurement device 73
4.2 Pulse-time method 75
4.2.1 Experimental equipment for the prism research
method 76
CONTENTS

4.2.1.1 Influence of ultrasound attenuation in prism 79


4.2.1.2 Research of angular transducer acoustic contact 83
4.2.1.3 Research of transducer with variable angle 85
4.1.4.4 Constructions of double angular transducers 89
4.1.4.5 Influence of diffraction to the effectiveness
of LSAW exciting 90
4.3 Experimental SAW research 95
4.3.1 LSAW and TSAW comparative research 95
4.3.1.1 LSAW and TSAW propagation on the rough
surface 99
4.3.1.2 SAW interaction with the corner 106
4.3.2 Research of SAW propagation on the cylindrical surface 111
4.3.2.1 SAW propagation on the convex surface 111
4.3.2.2 SAW propagation on the concave surface 118
4.3.3 Investigations of LSAW excitation by piezoelectric
grating 119
4.3.4 Investigations of LSAW and TSAW excitation by
pulse laser 127
4.3.5 Lamb waves exciting by LSAW and TSAW
transducers 131
4.3.6 Investigation of mechanical tension in sheet
products by symmetrical Lamb waves 135

REFERENCES 142

APPENDIXES 151

SUMMARY (In English) 170

SUMMARY (In Lithuanian) 172


SYMBOLS
Latin
A amplitude
AL amplitude of bulk longitudinal wave
AT amplitude of bulk transversal wave
ALSAW amplitude of longitudinal surface acoustic wave (LSAW)
ATSAW amplitude of transversal surface acoustic wave (TSAW)
cL velocity of bulk longitudinal wave
cLW velocity of Lamb wave
s velocity of symmetric Lamb wave
cLW
cLSAW velocity of LSAW
c
cLSAW velocity of LSAW propagating on cylindrical surface
cSAW velocity of surface acoustic waves (SAW)
cT velocity of bulk transversal wave
cTSAW velocity of TSAW
c
cTSAW velocity of TSAW propagating on cylindrical surface
c0 velocity of imerse liquid
D diameter
d distance; thickness
E Young module
ELSAW energy of LSAW
ETSAW energy of TSAW
e = 2.73 natural logarithm base
f frequency
G shear module
h depth
I0 light intensity
K amplification coefficient
k = 2π/λ wave number
kL bulk longitudinal wave number
kLWs symmetrical Lamb wave number

7
SYMBOLS

kT bulk transversal wave number


kSAW SAW number
c
k LSAW cylindrical LSAW number
c
kTSAW cylindrical TSAW number
l distance
ln wave path
N pulse number
R Earth radius
S attenuation
t time
Ti delay time
Txx, Txz, Tzz mechanical tension components
r
U particle displacement vector
U voltage, voltage amplitude
r
UL particle displacement vector component along the surface
r
UT particle displacement vector component across the surface
vx particle vibration speed along x axis
vz particle vibration speed along z axis
Z0 comparative acoustic impedance
Zp penetration depth of SAW
ZLSAW penetration depth of LSAW
ZTSAW penetration depth of TSAW

Greek
α damping coefficient
α0 light absorption coefficient
α LSAW
c
damping coefficient of cylindrical LSAW
α c
TSAW damping coefficient of cylindrical TSAW
β angle of corner
βL bulk longitudinal wave reflection angle
βT bulk transversal wave reflection angle

8
SYMBOLS

γL bulk longitudinal wave refractive angle


γT bulk transversal wave refractive angle
∆ Laplacian operator; absolute uncertainty
ϑ SAW incidence angle
ϑ crI first critical angle
ϑcrII second critical angle
Λ laser radiation wavelength
λ acoustic wavelength
λ’ Leme constant
λLs symmetric Lamb wavelength
λLSAW wavelengths of LSAW
λTSAW wavelengths of TSAW
µ Poisson’s ratio
ξn particle vibration amplitude square to the surface
ξSx tangentiale particle vibration amplitude of Lamb wave
ξSz normale particle vibration amplitude of Lamb wave
ξt particle vibration amplitude along the surface
ξx particle vibration amplitude along x axis
ξz particle vibration amplitude along z axis
ρ density
ρb density of basalt
ρg density of granite
τi pulse length
ϕ potential of longitudinal SAW component
ψ potential of transversal SAW component
ω angular frequency

Abbreviations
AFCh Amplitude–Frequency Characteristic
BLW Bulk Longitudinal Wave
BTW Bulk Transversal Wave
FFT Fast Fourier Transformation

9
SYMBOLS

LW Lamb Wave
FPRF Finite Pulse Response Filter
LSAW Longitudinal Surface Acoustic Waves
NDT Nondestructive Testing
PC Personal Computer
SAW Surface Acoustic Waves
SHF Super High Frequency
TSAW Transversal Surface Acoustic Waves (Rayleigh Waves)
UVH Ultra High Frequency
PREFACE
Surface acoustic waves (SAW) comprise a class of widely encountered
ultrasonic phenomenon in nature. Alfred Nobel Prize laureate Lord
Rayleigh was the first to describe them in his work on surface ground
motion during seismic events at the end of the 19th century. As a result,
SAW propagating on the surface of solids are named as Rayleigh
waves. Since Rayleigh’s days, many types of surface waves were
discovered. They propagate in isotropic solids, also in crystals, as well
as piezoelectric materials, manifesting not only in free surfaces, but
also in the boundaries of joined media, when a solid is overlayed with
another thin solid, or a liquid film.

The theory and practice of SAW that flourished in the second half of
the twentieth century were motivated by ultra high frequency (UHF)
electronics, inherent possibilities in miniaturization, and demand to
create acousto-electronic SAW devices. Useable frequency range for
SAW devices in UHF acousto-electronics now exceeds 1010 Hz (10
GHz). The main interest for microelectronics lies in micro-
miniaturization. However, the frequency range of interest also turns out
to be an impediment to acousto-electronics: the length of waves
exceeds the atomic distances of solids some 100 times, resulting in
complex technological manufacturing obstacles. The only solution here
is to search for new materials and special crystal cuts where SAW
would propagate with the higher phase velocity, much greater than that
of Rayleigh waves. Promising results in this field were realized at the
Kaunas University of Technology (KTU) when new types of SAW,
longitudinal surface acoustic waves (LSAW), were shown to exist.
LSAW propagate in materials with small Poisson ratios at a maximal
phase velocity, exceeding even the content of longitudinal wave
velocity. Using pseudo-longitudinal surface acoustic waves by acousto-
electronic resonance filter in crystals of lithium niobate (LiNbO3),
lithium tantalum (LiTaO3), and lithium tetraborate (Li2B4O7), it was
possible at KTU to increase the desired frequency range of the phase
velocity to 5 GHz.

11
PREFACE

This study is the result of an extensive experience at the Prof.


K. Baršauskas Ultrasonic Science Center and the Department of
Electronics Engineering of the Kaunas University of Technology.

I wish to thank my colleagues Dr. Virgilijus Minialga and Dr. Naglis


Sajauskas for their assistance while experimenting with LSAW; Dr.
Algimantas Valinevičius, the Chair of Electronics Engineering
Department; reviewers of the text, Prof. Habil. Dr. Liudvikas
Pranevičius, Prof. Habil. Dr. Evaldas Leonardas Garška, Prof. Habil Dr.
Stasys Rupkus for their valuable comments and advices. I also convey
special thanks to the Chair of the KTU Research Planning Committee,
Prof. Habil. Dr. Alfonsas Grigonis, and the Chair of KTU Senate
Scientific Committee, Prof. Habil. Dr. Algirdas Žemaitaitis for their
significant assistance in publishing this study.

I am also very appreciative to my friend A. V. Dundzila for productive


discussions and technical assistance translating the book into English
language.

Prof. Habil. Dr. S. Sajauskas


1 INTRODUCTION
Surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating without attenuation in free
solid surfaces were discovered and described by Lord Rayleigh (John
William Strutt) [1] at the end of the 19th century. Lately they became an
irreplaceable instrument in acousto-electronics, material science,
nondestructive ultrasonic testing, and seismic research. Since Rayleigh
waves are nondispersive (their phase velocity does not depend on
frequency), and their attenuation in solids is zero, they are suitable
especially in nondestructive testing (NDT). Rayleigh waves are used to
discover surface defects, to determine the depth and degree of thermal
hardening, residual stresses, and to evaluate the quality of surface
finishing. Usually the characteristics of subject materials are
determined by measuring SAW velocity and attenuation, two acoustic
parameters directly affected by mechanical and chemical surface
attributes.

Distinct types of SAW were discovered researching SAW propagation


in other media than the free solid body surface. A. Love found and
described in 1911 transversal SAW on the surface of a solid body
covered by a thin layer of material of different acoustic properties.
Today they are called Love waves. Dispersion is a significant
characteristic of Love waves. Their phase velocity is always less than
the velocity of transversal waves in a solid body and greater than the
velocity in a solid mass.

First described by H. Lamb in 1916, Lamb waves constitute a case of


Rayleigh SAW propagating in a thin plate. Although different from
Rayleigh waves, they are of dispersive nature. They can be symmetrical
or unsymmetrical (flexible), and their velocity depends not only on
frequency, but also on the thickness of the plate. In literature Lamb
waves sometimes are referred to as normal waves of vertical
polarization. Another type of normal waves propagating in plates are
the tangential normal waves (of horizontal polarization, transversal), in
cases when the plate surface does not deform during propagation.

13
1 INTRODUCTION

Another category of electro-acoustic waves named after their founders,


J. L. Bleustein and J. V. Gulyaev, differ from Rayleigh waves by
propagating in some piezoelectric crystals but to depths of hundreds of
wavelengths. The phase velocity here is less than that of transversal
waves propagating in the same direction in the piezo-crystals.

Surface waves propagating at the junction of two solids were found by


R. Stoneley and are named after him. Stoneley waves are nondispersive
and their penetration depth is approximately equal to the wavelength.
Their phase velocity is always less than bulk longitudinal and
transversal wave velocities in boundaries of solid bodies.

The application of SAW in information processing devices (ultrasound


signal delay lines, wave band filters, signal branching, phase tommy-
bars) stimulated scientists of this sphere to develop broadly scientific
research. The subtlest effects, such as features of SAW propagation in
irregular surfaces, characteristics of Rayleigh pseudo-waves
propagating on the surface bordering with liquid, SAW diffraction’s,
reverberation’s regularities were investigated and SAW gyroscopic
effect in piezoelectrics was found, SAW wave interferometers were
generated and those waves were visualized by the help of laser
technique. World famous scientists, such as B. A. Auld [2, 3], G. S.
Kino [4, 5], L.M. Brekhovskich [6], W. P. Mason [7], R. M. White [8]
and others [9-19] made significant strides here.

In Lithuania SAW waves were investigated at the Ultrasonic Research


Laboratory established by Professor K. Baršauskas. L. Sereikaitė-
Juozonienė was the first to describe in 1972 the new type SAW,
different from Rayleigh waves [20, 21]. They were the longitudinal
surface acoustic waves (LSAW) in accordance to their physical origin
that dominated their longitudinal (tangential) vibration component.
Recognizing this distinction, Rayleigh surface acoustic waves could be
called transversal surface acoustic waves – TSAW. (The suggestion is
made with due respect to Lord Rayleigh’s accomplishments, it simply
articulates similarities and differences of the waves). After TSAW
discovery for a long time there was an ongoing debate regarding any
practical application because of their inherent damping.

14
1 INTRODUCTION

For example, I. Viktorov denied SAW existence altogether [22-25]. But


significant works by L. Juozonienė and S. Sajauskas (Lithuania) [26-
34], J. C. Couchman and J. R. Bell (USA) [35], I. Yermolov, N.
Razygraev and others (Russia) [36-42], I. A. Ehrhard, H. Wüstenberg
and M. Kröning (Germany) [43-47], Charleswort and J. A. G. Temple
(USA) [48] not only demonstrated the new type of surface waves, but
also entrenched international acceptance of the new phenomenon.
Ultrasonic testing with LSAW presently is included in procedural
manuals at most major companies [49] and international standards.
Two doctoral theses [50, 51] and a habilitation [52] have been defended
on investigations of LSAW properties and usage.

Incidentally, many contradictory propositions published by some


researchers were either repudiated or confirmed by experiments with
enhanced instrumentation and capabilities of personal computers. For
example, there were issues regarding the existence of LSAW in
materials with the Poisson ratio µ > 0.26 or where LSAW velocity was
greater than that of BLW; or because of attenuation in LSAW
propagation on a surface covered by a layer of liquid.

Possibilities are being investigated to apply LSAW in nondestructive


testing that allow examination of coarse surfaces, as well as surfaces
inside liquid and gas tanks or pipes, and nuclear reactors. LSAW are
less suitable in material science when measuring elasticity constants;
also in seismology − with ideal models of earthquakes when evaluating
the destructive nature of seismic LSAW around epicentre.

SAW main types may be divided into two groups: LSAW in isotropic
materials and in monocrystals (Fig. 1.1). This classification is not
comprehensive because some pseudo-waves can propagate only in
piezoelectric monocrystals, while others also in non-piezoelectric
materials. In addition to Rayleigh waves propagating in piezoelectric
monocrystals (in literature they are sometimes called pseudo-Rayleigh
waves), also pseudo-Love, pseudo-Stoneley, or pseudo-Lamb wave
types are known to spawn.

15
1 INTRODUCTION

SAW PROPAGATING IN SAW PROPAGATING IN


ISOTROPIC SOLIDS MONOCRYSTALS

RAYLEIGH WAVES PSEUDO-RAYLEIGH


(TSAW) WAVES

LSAW SEZAWA WAVES

STONELEY WAVES BLEUSTEIN-GULYAEV


WAVES

LOVE WAVES PSEUDO-STONELEY


WAVES

LAMB WAVES PSEUDO-LOVE


WAVES

NORMAL PSEUDO-LAMB
WAVES WAVES

PSEUDO-NORMAL
WAVES

Fig. 1.1. Classification of surface acoustic waves

In this case, a feature of all acoustic waves in piezoelectric materials


should be noted. They cause not only mechanical deformations, but
also related changes in electric charge. It can be said that propagating
electroacoustic waves may be viewed as a particular field of

16
1 INTRODUCTION

acoustoelectronics science. Acousto-electronics evolved after 1965,


when R. White and F. Wolmer invented new type converters for
exciting SAW on piezoelectric surface [53]. Electrode converters
created a revolution in this sphere of research because modern
microelectronics technology could be applied in their manufacturing.
This permitted to reduce the size and price of acusto-electronic devices,
and made them more reliable. High equivalent quality (to 12000, low
losses (7-10 dB), and high parameter stability allow using diphase
SAW resonators in the design of very stable generators and filters of
required frequency characteristics. The frequency passbandwidth of
wave band filters can be of 0.01 to 0.5 percent, with their approximate
rectangular shape.

On the other hand, with the spread of acousto-electronics, the new types
of waves were discovered, such as the gap waves which propagate on
both sides of a narrow crack in piezoelectric crystal. Their propagation
parameters may be managed by imposing an electric field on both sides
of the gap. One more type of acousto-electric waves are the Sezawa
waves. They are excited by transformation reflecting Rayleigh pseudo-
waves. Their phase velocity is much greater than that of pseudo-
Rayleigh waves [54, 55]. These waves may be called pseudo-
longitudinal surface waves. Depending upon monocrystals (LiNbO3,
LiTaO3), their velocity and attenuation may vary. The phenomenon is
influenced by monocrystal cut and directional UHF propagation with
respect to crystallographic axes. In literature these waves are known as
longitudinal surface acoustic waves, surface waves of horizontal
polarization, leaky SAW, and others.

Besides acousto-electric waves, the acousto-magnetic waves are to be


noted. They propagate in magnetic materials where mechanical
vibrations are related to movement of magnetic charge. Their properties
may be controlled by magnetic field.

Also, it should be mentioned that, even in isotropic solids, if their


surface is non-planar (cylindrical or spherical), or covered with a layer
of other solid (metalization), or a liquid, TSAW (Rayleigh) and LSAW
may acquire other properties and become nonhomogeneous, eradiating,

17
1 INTRODUCTION

dispersive. For this reason such waves are called transversal and
longitudinal surface acoustic pseudo-waves.

Surface acoustic phenomenon in solids varies greatly. Only LSAW


propagating in isotropic solids will be considered here, nevertheless
touching upon some application possibilities of longitudinal pseudo-
waves. Principal attention will be focused in particular on experimental
research of LSAW physical properties, and their use in ultrasonic
technology.
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC
WAVES (LSAW)
L. Sereikaitė-Juozonienė was the first to describe the longitudinal
surface acoustical waves (LSAW) [20,21]. Measuring velocity of
surface acoustic waves (SAW) with an ultrasonic interferometer, she
observed a strange side effect. At times apparently a “false” value of
surface wave phase velocity differed appreciably from Rayleigh wave
velocity and turned out to be near the bulk longitudinal wave (BLW)
velocity value. Investigating the reason, it was determined that the fact
was due to the surface manifestation associated with the angle of
incidence to the solid of BLW. Such incidence angle, also called the
first critical angle, is equal to the angle of refracted longitudinal wave.
Creeping along the surface of a solid, the BLW excites LSAW. The
observed phenomenon was published in the scientific journal
“Ultrasound” (In Russian) [20]. This unexpected, apparently “present at
the surface” physical manifestation attracted scientific interest from all
over the world. However, the phenomenon was not recognized as a
discovery in the former USSR [56] because of doubts by an expert
I. Viktorov. Nevertheless, such doubts did not mislead other scientists.

The “boom” of LSAW research in the world started around 1976 and is
continuing to the present day. Independent researchers validated
previously published experimental results [35–37], thus confirming the
existence of LSAW. Furthermore, they determined LSAW distinct
features, such as the phase propagation velocity being near the
longitudinal wave velocity value and side bulk transversal wave (BTW)
propagation [36]. The discovery of LSAW was explained as an
inevitable phenomenon when propagating waves, LSAW, are faster
than the waves of some other, transversal, type (the Tcherenkov effect
in SAW acoustics). Using ultrasonic angular transducer data was
obtained about diffraction influence to the LSAW excitation
effectiveness. Similarly, influence of small surface irregularities to
LSAW propagation, as well as the longitudinal distance of LSAW

19
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

propagation up to 300 mm was recorded. Subsequently, experimental


work yielded transversal wave transformation to the secondary LSAW,
excited in the other surface of a flat sample [37]. These experimental
results appeared at approximately the same time with theoretical works
of I. Viktorov [22–25] the latter arguing that LSAW was only a
theoretical fiction, having no practical application because their
propagation path length does not exceed one wave length! Naturally,
such a case may foster only philosophical discussion. Bitter debate in
scientific media showed that conclusions of a famous theoretician were
wrong, I. Viktorov having ignored not only results obtained by L.
Sereikaitė-Juozonienė but also those announced by other researchers (I.
Jermolov, N. Razygraev). Two divergent positions, one expounded by
I. Viktorov [24] and another by I. Jermolov [38], about the place of
LSAW in the context of surface waves and nondestructive testing
appeared. I. Viktorov maintained [24] that the “effluent” surface waves
propagate in the boundary with a liquid layer and dissipate rapidly.
While I. Jermolov [38] analysed the development and effectiveness of
nondestructive, ultrasonic testing theory and practice and LSAW
practical application possibilities.

L. Sereikaitė-Juozonienė published the article on the LSAW theory in


1980 [27]. With classical wave analysis, using Helmholtz equations and
Rayleigh equation solutions, she calculated amplitudes of LSAW
normal and tangential vibrations and presented prospects for LSAW
applications. Subsequently L. Basatskaja and I. Jermolov in their article
[40] (by the way, published before L. Juozoniene’s [27]) solved the
same equations with Fourier integrals, calculated longitudinal and
transversal LSAW component directional characteristics and their
dependence on the product f·D, where f is frequency, D − the diameter
of disk piezo-crystal. It was shown that varying this product value, it
was possible to alter the LSAW excitation effectiveness and its
propagation direction.

Presently a number of works appeared dealing with practical LSAW


applications, on special LSAW ultrasonic transducers, and describing
their construction as well as technical characteristics [41, 42, 54]. These
are angular transducers where the prism is made of material featuring a
small sonic velocity and damping, e. g., Plexiglass (cL = 2670 m/s).

20
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

It should be noted that while researching LSAW, LSAW application


ideas were being patented quickly as well. The first inventions using
LSAW for nondestructive testing were registered in 1975 [26, 57].
Several inventions were announced by L. Sereikaitė-Juozonienė and S.
Sajauskas on LSAW applications to materials science in measurements
of physical mechanical constants [29, 30, 32, 34] and velocities of
acoustic waves [28, 31, 33]. The group of A. Erhard, H. Wüsterberg,
M. Krönung, E. Shulz and others began their work on LSAW in 1981
in Germany. Having patented a LSAW transducer, they broadly
researched LSAW use in nondestructive testing, quality control of
austenitic welding seams [45–47], described the secondary LSAW
energized on inner surfaces of vessels, and researched applications for
inner surfaces of nuclear reactor component's [44]. For their work A.
Erhard and M. Krönung were awarded the prestigious Berthold prize in
1984. Surface longitudinal wave applications by other authors are
known on nuclear reactors and inner pipe walls [49, 57–59].

Practical issues of LSAW usage, such as LSAW transducers [61–64],


wave testing methodology [65–68], development of standards [69]
subsequently received appreciable attention by world scientists.

Research of LSAW forms generated some nuisances in communication


due to redundant but different terminology for the same phenomenon,
e.g. longitudinal surface acoustical waves. Thus the term “creeping
waves” got entrenched in Western literature [43–48, 57, 58, 63–68],
denoting the wave characteristic to propagate not on the surface as
Rayleigh waves do, but a bit deeper and with weaker surface
interaction. Meanwhile, other authors tended to emphasize maximal
LSAW velocity, calling them Kőpfwellen in German, golovnyie volny
in Russian [36, 38, 41, 42]. This term was borrowed from seismology
where the fastest seismic signal pulses are known as primary waves.
Interestingly, in other publications the same authors call LSAW as
longitudinal pre-surface waves (prodolnyje podpoverchnostnye volny in
Russian). Still several others call them LCR critically reflected
longitudinal waves [70].

Even though inside solids LSAW eradiated BTW in certain acute


angle [22–24], but to call them leaky surface acoustic waves

21
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

(vytekajushchiesia poverchnostnyje volny in Russian) is a gross


misnomer. The issue remains that LSAW are not the only ones to lose
energy (by eradiating, leaking) during propagation; energy losses are
manifested also in other heterogeneous surface waves. For instance,
Rayleigh type waves, TSAW, propagating through either uneven or
smooth surface that borders with a liquid or its layer, propagate
longitudinal waves sidewise and this is also leaking process. Precisely
because of such a peculiarity Rayleigh waves propagating on the
surface bordering with a liquid are called pseudo-Rayleigh waves.
Moreover, it may be noticed that the English term “leaky surface
acoustic waves”, leaky SAW, also are called SAW. They propagate in
certain cut anisotropic piezoelectric monocrystals of LiNbO3, LiTaO3,
Li2B4O7.

The term “creeping waves” (Kriechwelle in German, polzuchie volny in


Russian) precisely brings to mind one − albeit not essential −
characteristic to propagate near the surface. However, since “to creep”
is to move slowly or timidly, a mistaken impression about the velocity
is produced as well. On the contrary, these surface waves propagate
most rapidly, their phase velocity cLSAW can be even greater than that of
cL, velocity of the BLW. For no other reason in this work we will use
the term longitudinal surface acoustic waves, LSAW, emphasizing the
underlying difference of such waves from the others − such as
Rayleigh’s, the transversal surface acoustic waves (TSAT). In addition,
this essential distinction underlines the differences in main physical
properties of LSAW and Rayleigh (TSAW) waves, such as phase
velocities (cLSAW ≈ cL; cTSAW ≈ cT , where cT is the BTW velocity) and
excitation angles (the first critical angle ϑ crI by LSAW and the second
critical angle ϑcrII by TSAW).

Let it be noted that LSAW are mostly applied in nondestructive testing,


using experimental research in SAW excitation, signal identification,
acoustic geometry, and other practical considerations. Meanwhile,
LSAW physical characteristics were researched only theoretically and
there are almost no publications on experimental phase velocity and
attenuation measurements, LSAW transformation into other type

22
2.1 LSAW and TSAW theory

waves, and research about other types of propagation. There are no


attempts to employ experimental methods to metrology, material
science, nor seismology. In seismic events these waves manifest a
startling destructive force near the epicentre when the seismic focus is
not deep. Typically in scientific literature LSAW are not uniquely
identified; they are enfolded with BLW, denoted by the letter P (in
English primary wave), mostly called head wave.

Thus, according their origin and behaviour, LSAW are similar to


TSAW (Rayleigh waves) and, in particular, constitute a Rayleigh wave
antipode because of many opposite characteristics. In order to underline
physical similarities and differences, in this book Rayleigh waves will
be called transversal surface acoustic waves (TSAW), the term better
suited for comparative analysis.

2.1 LSAW and TSAW theory

Theoretically LSAW and TSAW are described analyzing bulk


longitudinal waves (BLW) refraction in solid body. Generally, when
incident wave is plane and does not diffract, in the boundary between
two solid body forms not only reflected from the boundary and
refracted in the second body longitudinal waves are composed but also
transversal waves (Fig. 2.1) with the propagating angles described by
the Snell’s law:
AT'
βT AL'
ϑ
βL

First solid body

Second solid body γT AL"


γL
AT"

Fig. 2.1. Transitions of BLW in the boundary of two solid bodies

23
LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

sin ϑ sin βT sin γ L sin γ T


= = = , (2.1)
cL' cT' cL'' cT''

where ϑ is the longitudinal wave incidence angle, βL and βT are the


angles of reflected BLW and excited bulk transversal waves (BTW) in
the first solid body; γL and γT are the angles of refracted BLW and
excited BTW in the second solid body; cL' and cT' are the velocities of
BLW and BTW waves in the first body; cL'' and cT'' are the velocities of
BLW and BTW in the second solid body.

The total reflection can occur in the second solid body if cL' > cT'' > cL'' ,
when refracted wave (BLW or BTW) creeps along the boundary line
(Fig. 2.2). The total reflection incidence angle of BLW is called the
I and is equal to
first critical angle ϑcr

 c L' 
I
ϑcr = arcsin  ; (2.2)
 c '' 
 L 

II
the total reflection angle of BTW is called the second critical angle ϑcr
and is equal to

 cL' 
II
ϑcr = arcsin  . (2.3)
 c '' 
 T

The condition cL' > cT'' > cL'' always fulfilled in immersion case (when
the first material is liquid, AT' = 0 ). If two bodies are solid, the first
body is usually from organic material where the sound propagates in
low speed (organic glass, polystyrene, kind of nylon) [71]. The
additional condition to the first solid body, essential in ultrasonic wave
band is minimal sound damping.

24
2.1 LSAW and TSAW theory

The longitudinal wave that has fallen in the first solid body to the first
I , BLW creeping along the surface of the second solid
critical angle ϑcr
body, excites LSAW in it (Fig. 2.2 a). Similarly, the longitudinal wave
II , BTW creeping along the
that has fallen to the second critical angle ϑcr
surface of the second body, excites TSAW there (Fig. 2.2 b).

ϑcrI βT AT'
AL'
βL

First solid body AL0 ALSAW

Second solid body γL = 90°


γT

AT''
a)

βL
ϑcrII AT'
βT
AL'

First solid body


AL 0
ATSAW

Second solid body


γT = 900

b)
Fig. 2.2. Diagrams of LSAW (a) and TSAW (b) exciting by angular
method

The harmonic wave of ω frequency propagation along the surface of


homogeneous ideal isotropic solid body bordering with vacuum
(Fig. 2.3) would be studied further.
25
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

Vacuum y x

Solid body

Fig. 2.3. Co-ordinate system on the solid surface

The motion of such body is described by the equation [72, 73]


r
∂ 2U r r
ρ = G ∆U + (λ + G ) grad divU , (2.4)
d t2
r
where U is the particle displacement (shift) vector; t is the time, ρ −
∂2 ∂2 ∂2
density; λ’ is Leme constant; G is shear module, ∆ = + +
∂x 2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2
is the Laplacian operator.
r r r r
Having resoluted shift vector U = U L + U T into two components: U L
r
along the surface and U T across the surface, associated with scalar ϕ
and vectorial ψ potentials
r
U L = grad ϕ , (2.5)
r
UT = rotψ , (2.6)

two independent equations [70]

26
2.1 LSAW and TSAW theory

r
ρ
∂ 2U L
∂t2
(r
− λ' + 2G ∆U L = 0, ) (2.7)

r
∂ 2U T r
(2.8)
ρ − G ∆U T =0
∂ t2

are obtained from Eq. (2.4).

Potentials ϕ and ψ are the solutions [73] of wave equations

∂ 2ϕ ∂ 2ϕ 1 ∂ 2ϕ
+ = , (2.9)
∂ x2 ∂ z2 cL2 ∂ t 2

∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ 1 ∂ 2ψ (2.10)
+ = .
∂ x2 ∂ z2 cT2 ∂ t 2

Potentials ϕ and ψ on the surface of free solid body depend only on co-
ordinates x and z and are expressed by equations [6, 73]:

ϕ = A exp − z k 2 − k L2 + i (k x − ω t ); (2.11)


 

ψ = B exp iz kT2 − k 2  + i(kx − ω t ); (2.12)


 

where

ρ
kL = '
is the number of BLW,
λ + 2G

ρ
kT = ω is the number of BTW,
G

27
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

kL < k < kT , ω is the angular frequency, A = const, B = const.

The amplitudes of solid body particles vibration along x and z axes are:

∂ϕ ∂ψ
ξx = − , (2.13)
∂x ∂z

∂ϕ ∂ψ
ξz = + . (2.14)
∂z ∂x

Having solved those wave equations, the natural (Rayleigh) equation of


the sixth order [27] is got and has the form

( ) ( )
16 1 − r 2 m 6 + 8 2r 2 − 3 m 4 + 8 m 2 − 1 = 0, (2.15)

where

k
m= (2.16)
kT

is the number of BLW,

k cT
r= L = (2.17)
kT cL

is the number of BTW.

As it is shown in [27], this equation for the real solid bodies has only
one real radical

k cT
m2 = 2 = (2.18)
kT cTSAW

28
2.1 LSAW and TSAW theory

that describes TSAW, propagating in solid bodies (0.26 < µ < 0.5) and
one complex radical

k cT
m1 = = (2.19)
kT cLSAW

that corresponds LSAW; where m1 = n1 + in 2 ,


n1 = k1 kT = cT c LSAW , k2 is the TSAW number; cTSAW is the TSAW
phase velocity; cLSAW is the LSAW phase velocity;
c LSAW = c LSAW (1 + iα 1 ) , α LSAW = n 2 n1 is the standard attenuation
coefficient for the wavelength λLSAW.

The complex character of phase velocity c LSAW shows that LSAW


even in perfect material is the damped surface wave. This “natural”
LSAW attenuation is induced by BTW eradiation into solid body
propagating along the surfaces. LSAW attenuation coefficient depends
on Poisson’s ratio µ, when µ > 0.26 and grows together [27].

The vibration velocity components of solid surface layer along x and z


axis on the LSAW are described by formulae [27]:

v x = ik A exp  − z k 2 − k L2 + i (kx − ω t ) +


 

2k k 2 − k L2 kT2 − k 2 v
A exp iz kT2 − 2k 2 + k x − ω t ,
+
2
(
kT − 2k
v2
)  
(2.20)

(
v z = − k 2 − k L2 A exp − z k 2 − k L2 + i k x − ω t ) −
 

2k 2 k 2 − k L2
− A exp iz kT2 − k 2 + k x − ω t . (2.21)
2
kT − 2k 2  

29
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

The surface tensions in LSAW are:

[ ( )(
Txx = 2G k L2 − k 2 − λ' − 2G k L2 × ) ]
× A exp − z kT2 − k 2 + i (k x − ω t ) +
 

4iG k 2 kT2 − k 2 k 2 − k L2
+
(kT2 − 2k 2 ) ×

 
× A exp  i z kT2 − k 2  + k x − ω t , (2.22)
   


Txz = 2iGk A k 2 − k L2 exp i  k x − ω t + z kT2 − k 2  −
  

− exp  − z k 2 − k L2 + i (k x − ω t ) ,

(2.23)
 

[ ] (
Tzz = 2G k 2 − (λ + 2G )k L2 A exp − z k 2 − k L2 + i k x − ω t

) −

4iG k 2 kT2 − k 2 k 2 − k L2

(kT2 − 2k 2 ) ×

 
× A exp  i  z kT2 − k 2  + k x − ω t . (2.24)
   

30
2.1 LSAW and TSAW theory

The material point of surface body surface (z = 0) in LSAW propagating


in ideal solid surface is described by (2.20) and (2.21) formulae. It
moves in ellipse trajectory with major axis pointed parallel to the
surfaces; so tangential (to the direction of x axis) vibration component
ξx is bigger than normal (to the direction of z axis) component ξz (Fig.
2.4, a).

ξz ξx

ξz

ξx

z z

a) b) c)

Fig. 2.4. Movement trajectory of the surface point (a) and its vibration
amplitude dependence on depth z during LSAW propagation by the
normal (b) and tangential (c) directions

LSAW penetration depth in z axis direction does not exceed 2λL; so


LSAW energy is concentrated in the layer of particular thickness near
the surface of solid body. It is dependent to LSAW that maximal
density of acoustic energy (ELSAW)max is not on the surface wall (z = 0),
but a bit deeper.

The material surface point moves in the ellipse trajectory when TSAW
propagates on the surface of ideal isotropic body surface, but its major
axis differently than in LSAW case is perpendicular to the surface, so
the amplitude of normal vibrations is bigger than tangential (ξz >ξx)
(Fig. 2.5, a).

31
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

TSAW maximal density of acoustic energy (ETSAW)max is on the surface


of solid body (z = 0) and so it differs from LSAW.

Theoretical research shows that LSAW phase velocity cLSAW is


Poisson’s ratio µ function also to the materials with µ < 0.32, cLSAW >cL.

The penetration depth of the LSAW and TSAW commonly does


not exceed surface wavelength ( z LSAW ξ →0 ≈ λ LSAW ,
x, z

zTSAW ξ ≈ λTSAW ).
x, z → 0

ξz ξx
ξz

ξx

z z

a) b) c)

Fig. 2.5. Movement trajectory of the surface point (a) and its vibration
amplitude dependence on depth z during TSAW propagation by the
normal (b) and tangential (c) directions

The main characteristics of LSAW and TSAW (given in comparative


Table 2.1) allow understanding the differences of those waves that
determine the sphere of their use and availability for solving different
acoustic problems.

32
2.1 LSAW and TSAW theory

Table 2.1. The main LSAW and TSAW characteristics

N Property LSAW TSAW

1 Angular exciting ϑmax = ϑcr


I II
ϑmax = ϑcr
conditions(ϑmax)

2 Propagation nature: ELSAW Solid body


ETSAW TSAW
− direction LSAW
− localization BTW λTSAW
λLSAW z

ELSAW ETSAW
αLSAW > 0
− attenuation αTSAW = 0
x x

αLSAW > 0, when 0.26 < µ < 0.5 αTSAW ≈ 0


αTSAW → 0, when µ → 0

− wave interaction Weak Strong


with the surface

3 Trajectory of Ellipse with the major axis Ellipse with the major axis
particle vibration perpendicular to the surface parallel to the surface

4 Components of the ξx > ξz ξx < ξz


surface particle
vibrations

5 Velocity cLSAW ≈ cL cTSAW ≈ cT


6 Vibration amplitude Exponential attenuation, Exponential attenuation,
change character, penetration depth penetration depth
receding from the z LSAW ξ →0 ≈ z TSAW ξ →0 ≈
surface x, z x, z
≈ λ LSAW > λTSAW ≈ λTSAW < λ LSAW

33
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

2.2 LSAW exciting and receiving methods

LSAW in isotropic solids can be excited in the same ways as TSAW [9,
73], but the efficiency of LSAW and TSAW exciting differs greatly.
LSAW has “natural” attenuation depending on solid body properties
(Poisson’s ratio, solidity, fragility), the most active methods and rather
sensitive ultrasonic transducers must be used for their exciting.

The classical ultrasonic frequency band SAW exciting methods are:


‰ exciting by X-cut quartz crystal attached to the edge of
solid body;
‰ exciting by Y-cut quartz crystal having acoustic contact
with the surface;
‰ exciting by the oscillating periodical line structure;
‰ exciting by the angular transducer;
‰ exciting by electromagnetic acoustic method;
‰ exciting by thermo-acoustic method.

2.2.1 LSAW exciting by X-cut quartz crystal

The vibrant quartz surface excited edge in the range of the right angle
propagates spherical transversal and LBW that propagating along the
free surface can excite not only TSAW but also LSAW, when X-cut
quartz crystal will be attached to the edge of the right angle (Fig. 2.6 a).

45°
P SAW SAW
P
SAW

a) b)

Fig. 2.6. SAW exciting by X-cut quartz crystal P

34
2.2 LSAW exciting and receiving methods

Unfortunately, only rather weak LSAW can be excited by this method


because only a small part of piezo-crystal acoustic energy becomes
LSAW energy [74]. The efficiency of exciting is the biggest when
quartz crystal makes 45° angle with the surface, but because of the
small contact area and small vibration amplitudes of quartz piezo-
crystal, such case of exciting is not sufficiently efficient and is used
rarely. Sometimes for enlargement of piezoelectric transducer vibration
amplitude are used more effective piezo-crystals (lithium niobate
LiNbO3, barium titanate BaTiO3, or plumbum-zirconium-titanate
piezoceramics PZT).

Exciting by piezo-crystal, attached to the right angle wall near the edge
perpendicular to the exploratory surface is one version of the use of this
method (Fig. 2.6, b) [75]. Yet even having used the modification of this
method for special LSAW exciting [25], the authors could not register
LSAW on the free surface of quartz sand [76]. So, X-cut quartz
method, as non-efficient, does not fit for LSAW exciting.

2.2.2 Y-cut quartz crystal method

Two SAW propagating into opposite sides (x and –x directions) are


excited near the edge quivering Y-cut quartz crystal acoustically
contacting with the solid body (agglutinated, edged through the viscous
liquid, e.g., epoxy) (Fig. 2.7).

P
SAW SAW
x

BTW
z
Fig. 2.7. SAW exciting by Y-cut quartz crystal P

Such SAW (TSAW and LSAW) exciting method is non-efficient


because in this case the most part of acoustic energy falls on the BTW.

35
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

2.2.3 Periodical mechanical linear structure method

SAW transducer formed from piezo-crystal and periodical linear


structure is used for LSAW exciting by this method (Fig. 2.8).
Electrodic SAW type exciting method in piezo-materials is simulated
by such transducer. Periodical mechanical stresses with dimensional
frequency are equal to surface wavelength λSAW and are formed on
isotropic solid body by such transducer.

P PS

SAW SAW
x

Fig. 2.8. SAW exciting by linear periodical vibration structure, where


P is piezo-crystal, and PS is periodical structure

Nevertheless, the great progress in the sphere of precision mechanics


allows producing precise periodic structures, suitable for exciting SAW
of hundreds of megahertz frequency [77]; the energetic efficiency of
such transducers is small because of inevitable losses associated with
diffractive bulk wave propagation into solid body. Besides, LSAW and
TSAW are excited at the same time using this method, so the acoustic
energy is lost and its efficiency diminishes.

2.2.4 Angular method

Periodical mechanical stresses on the solid surface are designed by


angular method just in the same case as by periodic linear vibration
system but much more simpler. The angular methods can be:
ƒ immerse (liquid prism);
ƒ solid body prism.

36
2.2 LSAW exciting and receiving methods

Solid body, analyzed by immerse method, is plunged into a liquid (e.g.


water) and a plane ultrasonic wave is oriented to its surface by acute
angle ϑ. So, the periodical mechanical tension area with the length
depending on the dimension of piezo-crystal and fixed incidence angle
ϑ are formed on the solid surface. SAW (LSAW and TSAW) are exited
on the surface if the ultrasonic incident critical angles ( ϑ = ϑcrI or
( ϑ = ϑcrII ) are set.

The advantage of immerse method is that the ultrasonic incidence angle


to the surface can be easily changed. The ultrasonic velocity in liquids
is always less than BLW velocity in solids (in water c = 1480
m/s, when T = 20°C), so not only LSAW but also TSAW can be excited
almost in all solids (also in plastics). One of the mentioned advantages
is less ultrasonic wavelength in liquid; so ultrasonic wave diffracts less
(is more “plane”) when piezo-crystal has constant transverse dimension
of invariable frequency. Such directional characteristic of ultrasonic
transducer is narrower and this is very actual carrying out angle
research.

The immerse method has several shortcomings also. One of the major
shortages is that ultrasonic attenuation in liquids is bigger than in solids
and for this reason the efficiency of SAW in high (megahertz)
frequency exciting is becoming weaker. TSAW excited on the surface
of plunged into liquid investigative solid body (product) becomes
inhomogeneous wave (pseudo-Rayleigh wave), eradiating side bulk
waves into immerse liquid in its propagation path. The damped TSAW
loses the main advantage with regard to LSAW. The angular
transducers with liquid prisms are constructed for the elimination of
those shortcomings. This is the combination of immerse and prism
methods useful because BTW do not propagate in liquid prism and the
inner reverberations of transducers can be easier reduced. The
construction of such prisms is complex, especially when prism has the
variable angle.

The working principle of solid body prism method is similar to


immerse method, but the triangular solid body prism with the attached

37
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

piezo-crystal on one edge and creating plane BLW is used there. The
other prism edge is attached to the solid surface through thin liquid
layer (usually motor oil) that makes the acoustic contact in the place
where SAW is excited (Fig. 2.9). It would be simple to achieve h << λ
(where h is the thickness of the layer, λ is the bulk wave length in
liquid) in the case when the research is carried out in comparably low
ultrasonic frequency range (megahertz) and then the coefficient of bulk
acoustic wave crossing the liquid layer becomes close to zero.

In order to excite LSAW, prism must be made from the material with
the longitudinal wave velocity cL' lower than longitudinal wave velocity
in investigative solid cL'' . The condition cL' < cT'' must be met in order to
excite TSAW. Prism is usually made of plastics (cL of Plexiglass is
2680 m/s, cL of nylon is 2680 m/s, cL of polystyrene is 2320-2450 m/s)
[76] and this allows exciting not only LSAW but TSAW also.

Piezo-crystal ϑ
Prism
d

cL SAW
N x

Fig. 2.9. SAW angle exciting method, where N is bulk wave incidence
point and d is the cross size of piezo-crystal

The appropriate angles of LSAW and TSAW exciting by prism method


are the same as if exciting by immerse method. The maximal TSAW
transducer sensibility is achieved when piezo-crystal’s front point of
eradiated BLW projection to the surface coincides with the prism angle
(Fig. 3.9) as prism surface damps TSAW. While it is not relevant to
LSAW because it weakly interacts with the surface propagating not on

38
2.2 LSAW exciting and receiving methods

the surface but a bit deeper and the attached prism has a little influence
(does not damp). While, SAW is excited not only to the x direction but
to the opposite also, but practically TSAW amplitude to the –x direction
is 30-40 dB and in the case of LSAW is 25 dB less than to +x direction.

The transducers with variable angle must be used for exciting LSAW
and TSAW in unknown or with different acoustic properties solids
having the same transducer. Having evaluated the sound velocity
dependence change in solids on temperature, the variable angular
transducer would allow the precise fixing of the most effective exciting
angles of LSAW and TSAW after the change of the temperature. The
variable angular transducers are especially useful for NDT or
measurements alternately using SAW of different type (LSAW and
TSAW) [26, 28, 32]. The transducers of different structure variable
angle are used in practice [51, 65]. The cylindrical polystyrene prism
with the polystyrene slipper and adjusted piezo-crystal can be used for
the change of ultrasonic incidence angle (Fig. 2.10).

ϑ
Piezo-crystal

Slipper
l(ϑ)
Prism
SAW

Fig. 2.10. Prism SAW transducer with variable angle

This transducer is superior because acoustic wave access to solid body


point N does not change its place changing the incidence angle ϑ. It is
especially convenient for measurement the distances by SAW. But it
has several shortcomings. The principal shortages are:

39
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

• changing the position of the slipper 2, the couplant (motor oil)


removes under it, and the quality of acoustic contact changes;
that determines instability of research for SAW and reduces the
reliability of the results;
• the front part of solid prism with the thickness d acoustically
damps SAW (especially TSAW);
• the prism damping part area l depends on incidence angle ϑ (l =
l(ϑ)), so SAW attenuation varies without forecast if SAW
excitation angle ϑ is changed.

Variable angular SAW transducer of better construction (simplified


company’s Krautkramer-NDT transducer’s [65]) is shown in Fig. 2.11
[51].

Lateral bulk wave


Prism
Scattering surface Couplant
structure ϑ
Piezo-crystal

Cylindrical body

cSAW
N

Fig. 2.11. Simplified SAW transducer’s construction of variable angle

This SAW angular transducer consists of Plexiglass prism with the hole
where the cylindrical figure piezo-crystal header from the same
material is set. The plane is milled in the header till the axial line with
the agglutinated piezo-crystal made from PZT piezoceramics. The
entire empty cavity and a narrow gap between the body (prism and
cylindrical header) are filled with couplant (silicone oil). The bulk
plane ultrasonic wave crosses the cylindrical insert into prism almost
without losses because acoustic contact is made between two concentric
cylindrical surfaces of the same material and the thickness of the

40
2.2 LSAW exciting and receiving methods

couplant layer is << λ. Exciting SAW by the angular method a part of


bulk acoustic wave reflects to the solid prism and attenuates
propagating in it or is scattered because of multiplex reflection on the
structures formed on the prism surface.

The described SAW transducer has several advantages, such as: good
acoustic contact persistent stable changing incidence angle ϑ; minimal
acoustic energetic losses because of the change of incidence angle ϑ;
right geometry. The only shortage is the dependence of acoustic energy
access to the researched solid surface point N of incidence angle ϑ that
yet has no reason when the measurements are conducted in the same
solid; so, the acoustic properties remain constant when the fixed
optimum incidence angle is ϑ = const.

It should be noted that the efficiency of LSAW exciting by universal


angular transducer couldn’t be optimal, because angle is always
ϑcrI < ϑcrII (cT < cL). The transducer’s sensibility material of prism should
be chosen so that ϑcrI = 45° for maximal LSAW.

2.2.5 Electromagnetic acoustic method

The non-contact electromagnetic acoustic method is broadly applied for


SAW exciting in magnetic materials. Using this method the coil is set
in magnetic field near the surface and it is excited by alternating
electric current. Generated alternating magnetic field on the surface of
metal creates vortex current that interacting with extra-enclosed
constant magnetic field excites SAW because of acoustomagnetic
phenomenon [78]. The surface of electrically nonconducting materials
is metallized for exciting vortex SAW [79]. This method is broadly
applied in NDT for the railing and carriage wheels [80].

The biggest shortcomings of electromagnetic acoustic transducers are


that the sensibility in comparison to piezoelectric transducers is in two
ranks less and the resistance to electromagnetic interference is small.

41
2 LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES (LSAW)

2.2.6 Thermo-acoustic method

Thermo-acoustic method originated and had spread together with lasers


that can establish electromagnetic (luminous) fluxes of concentrated
high energy. They can heat the solid surfaces locally and during the
very short time. The solid surface (e.g. metal) during few nanoseconds
can be heated even to the melting point when the electromagnetic
density is high. Very high temperature and mechanic stress gradients
generating metal deformations propagating in solid body in the shape of
sound (ultrasonic) waves [81–84] are designed by short pulse (duration
τi = 10…30 ns) of pulsed lasers (e.g. Nd:YAG laser, wavelength Λ =
1.06 µm, ruby – Λ = 0.694 µm). Linear optical lattice [85], composed
of unique width transparent and non-transparent tapes set alternately
and after lightening by powerful laser with the periodical mechanical
tensions can be used for exciting harmonic SAW. Harmonic SAW is
excited on the surface by this method if the lattice period is equal to the
surface wavelength.

Space laser pulse is designed on solid surface while mechanical tension


(pressure) pulse in non-modeled; its shape is shown in Fig. 2.12.

If τi << l/α0 c, where α0 is the surface light absorption coefficient, c is


sound velocity in solid body, so the intensity of Gauss form laser pulse
is

[ ]
I 0 f (t ) = I 0 exp − (t / τ i )2 , (2.25)

where f is the frequency; t is the time; τi is laser pulse duration.

Pressure pulse front length ~l/∆ f is designed on the solid surface, if α0


= const in broad frequency range ∆ f (Fig. 2.12, curve 1). Pressure pulse
front on the dielectric surface is described by exponent exp(α0 c τi) (Fig.
2.12, curve 2).

42
2.2 LSAW exciting and receiving methods

The advantage of acoustic wave exciting by laser method in


comparison to others is that the analysis can be done in a distance, even
in transparent environment without the influence on the exploratory
surface. The precise acoustic measurements on NDT in hostile
environment and also in vacuum placed objects can be done by it. But
in many cases of pulse measurements, several types of acoustic waves
(BLW, BTW, LSAW and TSAW) with the signals that can coincide
regarding the time are exited simultaneously; the signals of slower
waves can be summed with the inner reflections of faster waves. This
deforms the dimensional signal form and for this reason the precision of
the measurements becomes lower. Besides, the problems of signal
interpretation and identification in small or complex objects can arise.

Fig. 2.12. Pressure gradient form induced by pulse laser on the


solid surface [86]: 1 – highly mechanically damping
surface; 2 – free dielectric surface

In this regard LSAW in many cases being the quickest wave has great
advantage because its signals come into recipient the first and LSAW
measurements cannot be disturbed. Laser exciting method allows
performing precise comparative LSAW and TSAW velocity and
attenuation measurements.

43
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE
According to theory (Chapter 2), velocities on solid isotropic surfaces
essentially differ from velocities previously attributed to TSAW,
Rayleigh waves. Until LSAW discovery, LSAW were registered only
in seismograms, and were viewed rather disapprovingly as potentially
destructive mechanical energy. Nowadays LSAW are used as handy
SAW, generated by special means, such as ultrasonic transducers or
laser pulses. Unique LSAW features facilitate quantitatively different
results in otherwise traditional SAW applications, such as
nondestructive ultrasonic testing. LSAW also opened new fields
offering original, qualitative findings.

More expansive LSAW use, in conjunction with bulk acoustic waves


(longitudinal, transversal) and also with SAW of a different type, such
as TSAW, opens new possibilities. Just as TSAW (Rayleigh waves) are
used widely in microelectronics for novel UHF devices, LSAW use in
this area is also promising [87–93]. UHF-type LSAW devices are of
bigger parameters because of high LSAW propagation speed in
piezoelectric materials (cLSAW > cTSAW); it allowed broadening the range
of device processing to 2,5–5 GHz [89, 90, 94]. By the way, analogous
LSAW waves in crystals UHF in SAW technique frequently are called
pseudo-Rayleigh waves (pseudo-SAW) or leaky SAW. At times, rarely
they are called longitudinal leaky SAW [91, 92]. Since the object of our
research lies in isotropic solids, propagation of LSAW in crystals will
not be considered to any extent in this work.

3.1 LSAW usage in nondestructive testing

NDT with LSAW is based on their distinct properties as compared to


TSAW. As can be seen in Table 2.1, LSAW and TSAW differ in many
properties and propagation characteristics. Phase velocity is an
important parameter here: the value of TSAW phase velocity is close to

44
3.1 LSAW usage in nondestructive testing

BTW value while LSAW velocity is similar to that of BLW. The fact is
due to different LSAW and TSAW excitation conditions. In solids,
LSAW-impacted surface particles move with trajectory of ellipse
which semimajor axis is parallel to the solid surface (Fig. 2.4).
While in the case of TSAW the semimajor axis of ellipse is
square to the surface (Fig. 2.5).

Very important LSAW characteristic in NDT practice is self-eradiation.


LSAW loses a part of its energy (i.e. damps) because propagating
LSAW even in free solid surface eradiates BTW receding from the
surface deeper into the solid.

Otherwise, this property is used for exciting secondary LSAW


(LSAW II) by side waves in the other (inner) surface of
exploratory shell (Fig. 3.1).

ϑcrI Angular transducer

LSAW I

Defect d
Shell BTW

LSAW II

Fig. 3.1. Registration of inner surface defects by secondary LSAW II


on an inner surface of a solid shell

It is known that SAW penetration depth is ∆ zp ≈(1.2-1.4)λp; where


index p signifies surface wave. ≈97% of wave acoustic energy is
concentrated in the layer of ∆ zp thickness. SAW propagates deeper

45
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

than TSAW because cLSAW > cTSAW and λLSAW > λTSAW. Energetic
maximum in LSAW is not on the surface but in particular depth
(≈0.1λLSAW). This is one more fundamental difference between TSAW
and LSAW that can give new LSAW application opportunities.
The assumption to use LSAW for the NDT of near surface layer is
LSAW property to propagate near the surface layer. LSAW is not
sensitive to the surface mechanical state (coarseness, corrosion, and
paint) because of this property and this is especially useful while
exploring coarse thread surfaces (Fig. 3.2).

LSAW transducer
DEFECTOSCOPE
Solid surface

LSAW Defect
a)

LSAW transducer

DEFECTOSCOPE Welding seal

LSAW Defect
b)

LSAW transducer
DEFECTOSCOPE
Defect Thread surface

LSAW

c)
Fig. 3.2. NDT using LSAW: a) the pre-surface defect; b) the crack
under the welding seal; c) the defect under the thread surface

46
3.1 LSAW usage in nondestructive testing

The place of surface defect can be fixed even in those objects where
phase velocity is unknown when LSAW and TSAW are used together
for the NDT [26]. In this case having measured LSAW and TSAW
signal maximal reflection from defect angles ϑ1 = ϑcrI , and ϑ2 = ϑcrII ,
and the time interval between those signals (Fig. 3.3).

ϑcrII GENERATOR
ϑcrI
Angle beam
transducer
AMPLIFIER OSCILLOSCOPE

LSAW, TSAW

M
d

Defect

Fig. 3.3. Schematic of measurement of the distance to the defect


by SAW

The distance from LSAW and TSAW introduction point M to the


defect is

c0 ∆ t
d= ; (3.1)
 sin ϑ1 
2 sin ϑ2 1 − 
 sin ϑ2 

where: c0 is sound velocity in prism; ∆ t is time interval between LSAW


and TSAW signals.

47
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

3.2 LSAW application for measurement of physical


and mechanical constants

3.2.1 Sound Velocity Measurements

The material BLW and BTW phase velocity cL and cT necessary for
defining the inner defect co-ordinates and material elasticity constant
can be calculated as it is shown in [27, 28]. Such possibility is useful
when the exploratory object has only one smooth surface, or only one
surface is available.

Method appeals to theoretical (2.18) and (2.19) connections obtained


after solving Rayleigh equation:

k cT
m2 = 2 = , (3.2)
kT cTSAW

k cT
m1 = 1 = , (3.3)
kT cLSAW

it makes the relation

c m
s = LSAW = 2 . (3.4)
cTSAW n1

After calculation of theoretical dependencies

c c  c  c 
r = T = f  LSAW , n1 = f  LSAW , m2 = f  LSAW ,
cL  cTSAW   cTSAW   cTSAW 

the parameters r, n1, and m2 are estimated graphically (Fig. 3.3,


Fig. 3.4, Fig. 3.5) according to the measured relation cLSAW /cTSAW . Then
velocity of the bulk waves is calculated according to formulae

48
3.2 LSAW application for measurement of physical and mechanical constants

cT = n1 cLSAW = m2 cTSAW , (3.5)

nc m c
cL = 1 LSAW = 2 TSAW . (3.6)
r r

0.60
0.55
0.50
0.45
r

0.40
0.35
0.30
2.0 2.1 2.2
cLSAW / cTSAW

Fig.3.3. Theoretical ratio r = ct /cL dependence on cLSAW /cTSAW

0.53

0.52

0.51
n1

0.50

0.49

0.48
2.0 2.1 2.2
cLSAW /cTSAW

Fig. 3.4. Theoretical Rayleigh equation radical n1 dependence


on ratio s = cLSAW /cTSAW

49
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

1.10

1.09

1.08
m2

1.07

1.06

1,05
2.0 2.1 2.2
cLSAW / cTSAW

Fig. 3.5. Theoretical Rayleigh equation radical m2 dependence


on ratio s = cLSAW /cTSAW

2.17
2.15
cLSAW/cTSAW

2.13
2.11
2.09
2.07
2.05
0.27 0.32 0.37 0.42
µ
Fig. 3.6. Theoretical cLSAW/cTSAW dependence on Poison’s ratio µ

Ratio s = cLSAW/cTSAW depends on Poison’s ratio µ (Fig. 3.6) connected


to cTSAW by known empirical Bergman’s equation [9]

50
3.2 LSAW application for measurement of physical and mechanical constants

0.87 + 1.12µ E 0.87 + 1.12µ (3.7)


cTSAW = = cT .
1+ µ 2 ρ (1 + µ ) 1+ µ

After simple calculation it is obtained that cLSAW also depends on µ. The


dependencies cLSAW /cT and cTSAW on Poison’s ratio µ are calculated and
shown in Fig. 3.7 and Fig. 3.8.

2.04
cTSAW /cT

1.99
1.94
1.89
0.27 0.32 0.37 0.42
µ

Fig. 3.7. Theoretical cLSAW /cT dependence on Poison’s ratio µ

0.95
0.945
0.94
cTSAW/cT

0.935
0.93

0.925
0.92
0.27 0.32 0.37 0.42
µ

Fig. 3.8. Empirical cTSAW / cT dependence on Poison’s ratio µ

51
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

Having compared the dependencies in Fig. 3.7 and Fig. 3.8 we can see
that cLSAW much more (about three times) depends on materials Poison’s
ratio than cTSAW. LSAW velocity in many materials with µ < 0.33 is
bigger than longitudinal wave velocity (cLSAW > cL) and grows when µ
is getting less.

One of practical LSAW and TSAW speed measurement in solid surface


schemes is shown in Fig. 3.9. Angle immerse method and two identical
piezoelectric transducers (emitter and receiver) are used there. The
mechanism used for measurements is composed from two articulately
jointed plates P1 and P2 with the ultrasonic emitter E and receiver R
fastened to them. The bearings are used for the smooth change of angle
ϑ and relief of mechanical friction with researched solid surface. The
specific angles ϑLSAW = ϑcrI and ϑTSAW = ϑcrII are measured by the
protractor when maximal signal amplitude received by receiver R
according which cLSAW and cTSAW are calculated when the sound velocity
c0 is known. Solid surface Poisson’s ratio value µ is obtained according
to the ratio s = cLSAW /cTSAW from the diagram in Fig. 3.6. Then bulk
wave velocities cL and cT are set from theoretical diagrams (Fig. 3.7,
Fig. 3.8 and Fig. 3.3)

SECOND
INDICATOR
AMPLIFIER

Square

FIRST
AMPLIFIER

I
P1 A ϑcr

PULSE P2
GENERATOR
Emitter Receiver
BLW LSAW

Solid body

Fig. 3.9. Schematic of angle measurements by two types of ultrasonic


waves: P1 and P2 are plates
52
3.2 LSAW application for measurement of physical and mechanical constants

3.2.2 Measurement methods of elasticity constants

The main elasticity constants (shear modulus G and Young modulus E)


can be determined using theoretical Rayleigh equation radical m1 and
m2 dependencies on ratio s = cLSAW /cTSAW and the relationship of this
ratio with Poisson’s ratio µ according to the measured vales of the
II
angles ϑLSAW = ϑcrI and ϑTSAW = ϑcr . The ratio sinϑTSAW /sinϑLSAW must
be measured by sine potentiometer for the increase of angle
measurement accuracy when the object of research has only one
smooth surface or there is no possibility to reach the other surface. It
must be noted that even the shortcoming of those waves (natural
attenuation in the way of propagation) has no influence on the
reliability of angle measurements of LSAW results. As

sin ϑTSAW c LSAW


= = s, (3.9)
sin ϑ LSAW cTSAW

so according to measured ratio s and having estimated m1, m2, and µ


given theoretical reliance in Fig. 3.4, Fig. 3.5 and Fig. 3.6, shear and
Young modules are calculated from formulae

2 2
 c0   c0 
G= ρ n12   = ρ m22   ; (3.10)
 sin ϑLSAW   sin ϑTSAW 

2
 c0 
E = 2G (1 + µ ) = 2 ρ n12   (1 + µ ) = 2G (1 + µ ) =
 sin ϑ LSAW 

2
 c0 
= 2 ρ m22   (1 + µ ), (3.11)
 sin ϑ TSAW 

where ρ is the solid body density, c0 is the sound velocity in immerse


liquid or prism.

53
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

Time intervals can be measured in practice more precisely than angles


and their sinus, so time method is used for measurement of tension
constant in the objects with right configuration (in special samples)
[39]. By this method two types of waves (LSAW and BLW) are excited
in solid body of right configuration and the terms tLSAW and tL of pass
through the sample of length d are measured. The process of
measurement can be automatic, synchronically switching ELSAW and EL
emitters near the output of pulse generator and receiver RLSAW and RL
near the amplifier input.

Synchronization
PULSE
PROCESSOR AMPLIFIER
GENERATOR

ELSAW LSAW RLSAW tLSAW; tL

FIRST BLW SECOND


COMMUTATOR COMMUTATOR

EL RL

Fig. 3.10. Schematic of tension constants measurement

Having measured crossing time tLSAW and tL in both channels, according


to the ratio tLSAW / tL = cL /cLSAW shear and Young modulus are calculated
by processor

d2
G = ρ 2 r2, (3.12)
tL

d2
E = 2 ρ 2 r 2 (1 + µ ) . (3.13)
tL

54
3.2 LSAW application for measurement of physical and mechanical constants

µ and r are set in usual case from theoretical dependencies given in Fig.
3.11 and Fig. 3.12. Significant physical parameter of material is the
velocity cT of transversal waves and is calculated according to equation
rd
cT = . (3.14)
tL

0.60
0.55
0.50
r

0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30
0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
tLSAW / tL
Fig. 3.11. Theoretical r(tLSAW / tL) dependence

0.42

0.37
µ

0.32

0.27
0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
µ(tLSAW / tL)

Fig. 3.12. Theoretical r(tLSAW /tL) dependence

55
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

3.2.3 Measurement of surface hardness characteristics


with LSAW

The surface hardening by chemical, mechanical, or thermal influence is


broadly used for the increase of mechanical surface resistance. Its
resistance to wear and other mechanical influences are increased almost
not changing the elasticity features (fragility, flexibility, flow, and
resistance to fatigue). Usually the surface hardness (micro hardness) is
measured recording the interaction of indenter with the exploratory
surface in the particular small sphere. The big scattering is typical to the
results obtained by local measurement methods depending on the
surface structure and coarseness. The hardness measurements by
mechanical indenters impressed into the exploratory surface is
frequently unacceptable because of the violation of surface solidity. So,
sometimes the integral surface characteristics and also the hardness
measurement methods are more useful. Material hardness boundary
σmax is related with acoustic material properties and is defined by
formula

kρ 2c 4
σ max = , (3.15)
χ
where: k and χ are the coefficients depending on the properties of
material, and c is the sound velocity.

II I
Experimentally measuring ϑcr and ϑcr by angular method [96, 97], it
was estimated that integral hardness of hardened and partially free steel
surface determines cTSAW and cLSAW. Obviously, measuring in different
frequencies, the law of hardness change in the direction of z co-ordinate
can be estimated considering that SAW penetration depth is close to the
wavelength. Otherwise, probing the surface layers of 0.3 < z < 1.5 mm,
the ultrasonic velocity must be measured in 11 > f > 2 MHz range of
frequency [97]. The angle measurements of real analysis objects in such
high frequencies without special treatment of the surface subject are
rather difficult and could not be very exact because of the propagation
induced by the surface coarseness.

56
3.2 LSAW application for measurement of physical and mechanical constants

The method for measurements [98] performed by the lowest frequency


of LSAW by spot sensor, measuring the dependence of received signal
amplitude on the depth z and LSAW propagation path length x, was
created as alternative (Fig. 3.13).

AMPLITUDE
INDICATOR
AMPLIFIER

PULSE PROCESSOR
GENERATOR

ϑcrI LSAW transducer

βLSAW
z HRC

∆x x
z

Solid body Point sensor

Fig. 3.13. LSAW schematic of hardened surface research

The maximum LSAW energy is concentrated not on the very surface


but by the certain acute angle βLSAW in the bordering surface layer with
the thickness depending on material’s Poison’s ratio µ and wave length
λLSAW. For this reason LSAW output through the final surface point co-
ordinate is zmax ≠ 0. Thereby, zmax depends on the depth of surface
hardening. In CT.3 steel products, processed by shot flow method
(lifetime is 300 s, diameter of shots is 1 mm) was experimentally
measured. Normalized ∆U/∆x dependence on z was measured while
changing LSAW propagation way x and having measured depth zmax in
the condition of point sensor where the LSAW signal amplitude
received by the sensor ∆U is maximal (Fig. 3.14). LSAW propagation
velocity as depth z function is calculated deflecting LSAW sensor
lengthwise wave propagation way by the distance ∆x and digitally
having measured the change of delay ∆ tLSAW (Fig. 3.15):

57
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

∆x
c LSAW = = F (HRC ). (3.16)
∆ t LSAW

The change of steel depth mechanical properties (hardness) in the level


of 3 dB was evaluated to ≈1.5 mm according the curve in Fig. 3.15.

The measurer for the solid surface measurement in absolute HRC units
was calibrated in the same mark of steel in calibrated hardening
samples of 40 × 30 × 60 mm (Fig. 3.16). It should be noted that the
empirical relation between cLSAW and hardness was not estimated,
because those parameters also depend on other physical and mechanical
constants associated with hardness, e.g., density ρ.

∆U ∆U
∆x ∆x max

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5
z, mm

Fig. 3.14. Experimental normalized LSAW signal relative amplitude


dependence on depth

58
3.2 LSAW application for measurement of physical and mechanical constants

5070
5060
5050
∆cLSAW, m/s

5040
5030
5020
5010
5000
40 45 50 55 60 65
HRC

Fig. 3.15. Experimental ∆ cLSAW dependence on depth

14
12
10
∆cLSAW, m/s

8
6
4
2
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
z, mm

Fig. 3.16. Calibration dependence ∆ cLSAW on hardness in


standard sample of CT.3 steel

59
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

3.3 LSAW in seismology

3.3.1 Seismic waves and their velocity

LSAW are registered in seismograms during the Earthquake as primary


seismic waves (Fig. 3.17). The truth is that they were treated as
longitudinal waves propagating terrenely.

Fig. 3.17. The seismogram of the Earthquake in Isle of South Sandwich on


January 30, 1963. The seismogram was registered in Scot seismic
station [99] (the focal depth was 33 km, strength was 6.8 point
according to Richter scale): P is direct longitudinal wave; PP is
longitudinal wave reflected from the Earth surface; S is
transversal wave; PS is transversal wave transformed by reflection
from the surface longitudinal wave; SS is transversal wave,
reflected from the surface; SSS is transversal wave reflected
twice; LR is surface Rayleigh wave (TSAW)

The semantic difference of the concepts “longitudinal acoustic waves”


and “longitudinal waves propagating on the surface” seems small, but it
is essential. It shows that the acoustic (infrasound) phenomena going on
the Earth surface were interpreted and modelled wrongly. Having not
evaluated surface mechanical oscillation, when the longitudinal surface
waves propagate along the surface, the resistance of building
constructions to such waves and the character of geotectonic processes
could not be exactly forecasted. It is relevant for the research of seismic
motion near the surface Earthquake epicentre (focal depth up to 30 km),
because the destructive force of LSAW horizontal component is the
biggest. LSAW energy is maximal near the epicentre; it is not

60
3.3 LSAW in seismology

diminished because of irradiation of side longitudinal seismic wave


irradiation when LSAW propagates along the surface. It must be
noticed that very small Poisson’s ratio (µ = 0.17−0.22) [99] on which
depends LSAW strength is typical to the constituents of the Earth crust
(granites ρg ≈ 2.8 g/cm3, basalt’s ρb ≈ 3.0 g/cm3).

Fig. 3.18 shows the scheme of the Earth cut and it explains the
seismogram shown in Fig. 3.17. It was set that sound velocity changes
(Fig. 3.19) and the biggest value of 8100 m/s reaches in the upper layer
of the mantle (below the limit of Mochorovich situated in the depth of
30−33 km) because of solid density and compressibility change in the
deeper layers pressed by the upper ones.

LR PS PP, SS SS

Seismic focus
K
Seismic station

P, S

Earth core
Mantle

O RE ≈ 6370 km

Fig. 3.18. Seismic wave trajectories, when the distance between the
Earthquake focus and seismic station is big

The attention was focused on the strange phenomenon while exciting


seismic waves by explosion on the Earth surface [99]. It was observed
that the measured longitudinal surface wave velocity excited by the
artificial blow was greater than the velocity of seismic waves at the
same place. Considering that seismic waves propagate not on the
surface but deeper, the result was likely opposite.

61
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

8500

8000

7500
Sound velocity, m/s

7000

6500

6000

5500

5000
0 10 20 30 40
Depth, km

Fig. 3.19. Hypotethic depending

This “mysterious” result is easily explained by LSAW properties in


solid bodies with the Poisson’s ratio µ < 0.26. It is known that cLSAW >
cL. The different conditions of the research must be mentioned as the
main reason for the mistake. Usually the Earthquakes happen not near
the seismic station, so the structure of registered signals reflect many
bulk wave transformations formed in seismic focus. While during the
experimental explosion transducers can be near the modelled focus of
seismic blow for the exact measurement of the primary wave velocity,
attenuation, explore their spectra and other characteristics. Seismic
wave scheme near the surface explosion epicentre is shown in
Fig. 3.20.

62
3.3 LSAW in seismology

LSAW TSAW
E K
BTW BTW
h
F BLW, BTW
x

Fig. 3.20. Trajectories of seismic waves situated near of explosion


focus, where F is the explosion focus, E is the epicentre,
K is the place for registration of signals (seismic station)

The quickest wave (LSAW) signal is registered the first, and the last
registered signal is of the slowest (TSAW) wave when the focus depth
is h << x and cLSAW ≥ cL (µ < 0.26).

It was set that seismic waves are dispersive because of the character
(change of physical and mechanical properties depending on depth) of
the Earth upper layers (crust, mantle). So, the form and spectrum of
seismic pulse signal changes and it is difficult to interpret seismograms.
Seismic waves induced by the earthquakes allowed to set the structure
of the Earth abyss (to find the liquid Earth core and the solid phase in
the centre), but to use them for the seismic prospects of minerals are
rather difficult. For this purpose seismic waves were excited artificially
(e.g., exploding, or by shocks to the surface) [99, 100]. Artificially made
seismic waves are used for the scientific purposes simulation the
Earthquakes.

3.3.2 Simulation seismic phenomena

Seismic processes are usually simulated and explored in the ultrasonic


frequency range in laboratory conditions. The simplest Earth crust
seismic model designed for the research of the waves propagating on
the surface is shown in Fig. 3.21. This is the glass plate with a soldered
light-adsorbing gasket A in the particular depth. The gasket can be

63
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

spherical, cylindrical, tetrahedron, cubic, or of irregularly shaped form


depending on simulation seismic phenomena and waves. Seismic blow
(push) in such a model is excited by the pulse laser with the light
focused to the gasket.

Light pulse

Linse

LSAW TSAW TSAW LSAW

Glass h
A
d
BLW BLW
BTW BTW

Fig. 3.21. The flat ultrasonic model of the Earth crust


(the ultrasonic wave receivers are not shown)

The pulses of the excited by ultrasonic longitudinal, transversal, surface


waves (LSAW, TSAW, Love waves) are received by broadband
piezoelectric or optic receivers of appropriate waves. Wave reflections
from the upper plate surface and their transformations simulate the
reflection of seismic waves from the Mochorovich line, where
mechanical and physical properties of the Earth deep saltatory changes
(the density and bulk waves velocity cL and cT grow). But in this case
the phase change mark during the reflection is not considered because
waves reflect from the boundary with the acoustically soft material
(air).

The experiments with pulse laser (ruby; Λ0 = 0.694 µm, τi ≈ 1 µs)


exciting the ultrasonic waves on the surface of glass plate were
performed for the checking the model. The received signal by 1.8 MHz
angle converter with the registered LSAW and TSAW pulses is shown
in Fig. 3.22.
64
3.3 LSAW in seismology

Fig. 3.22. Ultrasonic signals excited by two laser pulses and


received on glass plate near the exciting point (“focal”)

The ultrasonic frequency band cylindrical Earth seismic model


evaluating the curvature of the Earth surface better suits for the
simulation of the seismic phenomenon.

The minimum attenuation in materials with the particularly small


Poisson’s ratio is the precondition for the use of LSAW. The Poisson’s
ratio of the Earth deep rocks (basalt and granite) is µ ≤ 0.3, so the
fastest wave of the seismic phenomenon usually is called the primary
and is identified as LSAW. The research of LSAW is relevant because
those fastest waves are responsible for the first destroys. At the same
time they are the first information source about the forthcoming much
more strong TSAW (Rayleigh) waves. Their simulation in the range of
ultrasonic frequency can be very effective taking into account the
occasional character and particularly low frequencies.

65
3 LSAW APPEARANCE AND USE

Seismic wave propagation on the surface of the ocean is relevant


seismic occasion. It is known that TSAW propagating on the surface
bordering with the liquid excites longitudinal waves there and they
propagating into the liquid bring the most part of the acoustic energy.
So, the TSAW damps.

Otherwise, analyzing Stoneley waves in the boundary between solid


body surface and liquid, I. Viktorov made the deduction [24] that in the
thick liquid layer situated near the solid surface the slow wave
(c < cliq) with the energy concentrated in the liquid propagates on the
bottom of the ocean during the Earthquake.

LSAW propagation on the Earth surface layer under the ocean bottom
is the other seismic wave propagation mechanism. As it is
experimentally set (Chapter 4.3.1.1), LSAW weakly interacts with the
solid surface, so the surface state (roughness, contact with the liquid)
almost has no influence on their propagation (attenuation). So, LSAW
can propagate in big distances and raise the first destructions on the
coast.
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS
In order to establish an envelope of application and usefulness,
principal LSAW characteristics are of interest to research. They are the
phase velocity and its dependence on physical parameters and the
configuration of the solid, as well as the attenuation inside the material.
The angular pulse and pulse methods in LSAW velocity measurements
are the most efficacious in such work. They are used to determine
attenuation as well.

4.1 Angular-pulse method

The angular-pulse method co-ordinates the advantages for the


measurement of pulse method time intervals and wave velocities, and
the angular method for SAW exciting also.

Plane wave piezoelectric transducers must be used to excite surface


ultrasonic waves by the angular method. In NDT a flat frontal
longitudinal wave is radiated by transducers, with the aperture of
transducers S much greater than the acoustic wavelength (S0 >> λ) and
with equal oscillation distribution in aperture. Usually it is assumed that
those conditions for the accepted in practice precision are fulfilled in
the range of megahertz, if S0 ≥ 10λ.

Incidence angle of a plane frontal wave is determined with respect to


the surface normal, though practically the direction of this normal not
necessarily coincides with that of the transducer surface. For this reason
the normal direction will be taken along the bearing where the frontal
acoustic wave reflects from a smooth surface with the maximal
amplitude. Thus the incidence angle of a plane frontal acoustic wave
will be determined with respect to the direction of maximal reflection
from the surface. As is known, because of unavoidable acoustic wave
diffraction, angular-amplitude characteristic of a transducer has a finite

67
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

width. As a result, the maximal directional angle ϑ0 of the signal is set


with a particular uncertainty, which is not equal to zero. For more exact
estimation of the angle ϑ0 the “fork” method is adopted. Here, taking
the assumed flat, symmetric, directional characteristic of the transducer,
two angles ϑI and ϑ2 corresponding to the fixed amplitude of the signal
(usually it is 0.7) are measured on both sides of the incidence angle ϑ0
(Fig. 4.1) and is calculated as the average of the angles.

U/Umax

1.0

0.7

0
ϑ1 ϑ2 ϑ
ϑ0

Fig. 4.1. Incidence angle λ0 estimation using the received signal


amplitude

However, satisfactory results are not always obtained using the “fork”
method. This is due to the lack of precision when measuring the angles
ϑ1 and ϑ2. Besides, in such measurements the maximal amplitude value
must be known.

Schematic for the incidence angle indicator is shown in Fig. 4.2; it


makes use of flat ultrasonic waves, it is automatic [101]. Activated
electric motor starts to rotate the ultrasonic transducer around axis,
located on the surface of the tested solid body. With rotation of the
transducer, the contacts are connected and first electronic key is
supplied. At that time, radio pulses from a high frequency generator and
pulse modulator are sent through the first commutator and the first
electronic key to initiate the transducer.

68
4.1 Angular-pulse method

FIRST
a
FIRST NOISE ENVELOPE
ELECTRONIC AMPLIFIER
COMMUTATOR LIMITER DETECTOR
KEY

b
PULSE DIFFEREN−
GENERATOR TIATOR

c
d
ELECTRIC SECOND ZERO LEVEL
MOTOR COMMUTATOR COMPARATOR

SECOND ANGLE
REVOLIUTION TRIGGER
REDUCER ELECTRONIC
COUNTER INDICATOR
KEY

e
Contacts

Transducer
ϑ

LSAW

Solid body

Fig. 4.2. Schematic for incidence angle indicator

The ultrasonic pulses U1 irradiated for transducers (Fig. 4.3 a) are


reflected from the surface of the solid, and, in case of the incidence
angle ϑ ≈ 0, are received by the same transducer; subsequently the
reflected pulses are directed through the amplifier and amplitude noise
limiter (Fig. 4.3 a) to the voltage envelope detector. The dependence of
the voltage U2 in the output of the envelope detector on time and angle
ϑ is the same (Fig. 4.3 b). Rectangular electric pulse U4 (Fig. 4.3 d)
formed by the second comparator sets the time interval when the zero
level comparator can function. The voltage is given into its signal input

69
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

obtained after differentiation of envelope voltage U3 (Fig. 4.3 c). The


zero value voltage U3 corresponds the maximal amplitude instant
(incidence angle) of ultrasonic pulse, thus the produced pulse U5 (Fig.
4.3 e) at the output of zero comparator coincides with the time instant
when the ultrasonic pulses reach the surface perpendicularly (ultrasonic
transducer incidence angle ϑ = 0°). This pulse opens the switch to the
second electronic key to initiate the counting of revolutions. For this
purpose in the schematic there is an electro-optical revolution counter
with the identifiable angle markings (pulses) to be counted. The pulses
are counted while the ultrasonic transducer rotates, till the position
where it excites in a solid body and receives the reflected LSAW pulses
of maximal amplitude.

U1

a)
ϑ, t
U2
E0
b)
ϑ, t
U3

c) 0
ϑ, t

U4

d)
ϑ, t
U5

e)
ϑ = 0° ϑ, t
ϑ = ϑcrI

Fig. 4.3. Time (angular) diagrams: a) received and reinforced acoustic


signals; b) the voltage of pulses envelope; c) differentiated
voltage of pulse envelope; d) output voltage of zero comparator;
e) pulse, corresponding the maximum of pulse envelope

70
4.1 Angular-pulse method

This happens in the position of sensor in marked by the dotted line


when the pulse obtained in the zero position of comparator output
disconnects the second electronic key and breaks the counting of angle
markings. The number of pulses registered by the counter is
proportional to the LSAW excitation angle (ϑLSAW = ϑcrI ).

Having set contacts into the other position where the pulses of maximal
amplitude in the output of noise limiter are obtained, the other typical
incidence angles, such as the TSAW excitation angle ϑLSAW = ϑcrII , can
be measured. The control of the contact position can be monitored
visually from the screen of the oscilloscope (not shown in the schematic
of Fig. 4.2).

It is to be noted that the precision of the described incidence angle


indicator does not depend upon speed stability of the electric motor.
Increasing the reduction coefficient N and the number of angular
markings in the optic-electric sensor may improve the precision.
Practically it is not at all problematic to obtain from 60 to 90 angular
markings per revolution. In this case, when N = 100, the incidence
angle measurement error is ≤ 4’.

4.1.1 Equipment for immersion research

Transformation of longitudinal waves into transversal followed by


subsequent excitation of SAW, is used in NDT with angular pulse
waves excitation and reception. However, such practice is not without
problems. They are rooted in the methods of time interval
measurement, attributes of angular measurements, and measurement
instrumentation. In the situation on hand, measurements yield the best
precision when the impulse immersion method is employed.

The immerse measuring device reported in [102] is used for that


purpose. It measures LSAW speed in the samples with the fixed
dimension, mechanically changing the position of the transducer for
excitation longitudinal ultrasonic waves. Changes in the transducer
position should be such that the longitudinal wave incidence to the

71
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

surface point would not be altered. This is accomplished by matching


the rotation centre of the ultrasonic transducer with the surface of the
sample under investigation and turning on an axis of the transducer in a
plane perpendicular to the sample surface. Schematic for the device to
determine angular measurements of immersed bodies is shown in Fig.
4.4. SAW are excited in the sample immersed in a distilled water tank
by a revolving ultrasonic transducer which is connected to a standard
ultrasonic defectoscope.

ULTRASONIC DEFECTOSCOPE

PULSE
OSCILLOSCOPE AMPLIFIER GENERATOR

Transducer

H2O ϑ MOTOR,
REDUCER,
GEAR
Tank cLSAW

Sample

PC Reverser signal
OPTICAL SENSOR
PROCESSOR OF THE ANGLE
SIGNAL

MONITOR
I
KEYBOARD
NLSAW, ϑcr , cLSAW

Fig. 4.4. Schematic of the experimental device for LSAW velocity


measurements

The angle ϑ of the ultrasonic transducer is managed mechanically. The


output of an electric motor through a double reducer is slowed down
1.6⋅105 times from 3000 rot/min for the task. A digital optic-electrical
sensor providing rotational angle markings at the output reads the

72
4.1 Angular-pulse method

resulting shaft revolutions. A special electronic indicator was designed


to read such rotational values of the output shaft, in turn connected to a
personal computer, programmed to calculate and display parameters of
interest [101]. With such set up not only the revolution count NLSAW at
the reducer output, but also the positional angle of the transducer ϑLSAW,
and the energized LSAW velocity cLSAW in the sample are calculated
with the formula (4.1) and displayed.

cliq cliq
cLSAW = = , (4.1)
I
sin ϑcr sin (ψ * N LSAW )

where cliq is sound velocity of the immersion liquid; Ψ is constant of


the ϑLSAW positioning system; NLSAW is the number of pulses
corresponding to the deflection angle ϑLSAW of the transducer.

4.1.2 Calibration of angular measurement device

The precision of measuring depends much on the work of mechanical


system of angle change. The influence of axle angle freedom grows
evaluating big coefficient of engine axle rotation reduction coefficient.
The angle sensor must be connected not with the reducer but with the
engine axle in order to obtain minimal errors of measurement. The
angle backlash of reducer axle is the systematic error of angular
measurement. The transducer of speed measurement is turned in the
same direction for its removal as in the case of fixing zero position of
the converter where the ultrasonic pulses of maximal amplitude having
reflected from the smooth sample surface are received.

The other important systematic error is the calibration error of angle


measurement. It depends on calibration methodology and the precision.
The angle signal sensor is calibrated counting the number of pulses
obtained turning the ultrasonic transducer by 360° (Fig. 4.5).

2,5 MHz frequency transducer П111-2,5-K12-002 was used for the


measurements. The zero position of the transducer is fixed when
ultrasonic pulses amplitude is maximally reflected from the surface.

73
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

The number of indicated on monitor value (N = 0) is fixed in this


position and the engine is switched on. After the transducer turns 360°
the engine is stopped in the same position fixed according to the
maximal ultrasonic pulses (seen on the monitor of defectoscope)
amplitude. The experimental dependence from angle ϑ [102] of
reflected pulses amplitude from the surface is shown in Fig. 4.6.

O A

ULTRASONIC
Transducer DEFECTOSCOPE

ϑ MONITOR
NLSAW., ϑLSAW , cLSAW

d = 20 mm

Plane solid surface

Fig. 4.5. Schematic of angle device calibration

1.0
0.9
0.8

0.7

0.6
∆ϑ
A/Am

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2
0.1
ϑ1 ϑ0 ϑ2
0
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 ϑ°

Fig. 4.6. Angular dependence of normalized amplitude of reflected


ultrasonic pulses
74
4.1 Angular-pulse method

This dependence reflects the ultrasonic diffraction wherefore the width


of ultrasonic transducer’s directivity characteristics is ∆ϑ0.5 = 2.4° and
it determines the setting uncertainty of ultrasonic transducer zero
position measuring the angle according to the maximum of the signal.

The ultrasonic transducer’s position determination uncertainty is


connected with the sharpness of dependence A/Am(ϑ) close to zero in
the zone of ϑ ≈ 0°. In the described case this uncertainty reaches ± 0.2°;
for its reduce the “fork” method is used; the position of maximum is
calculated according two measurements in the spheres of the biggest
curve sharpness. The exact value of the maximal angle ϑ0 = (ϑ1 + ϑ2)/2
is calculated having measured the values of the angle ϑ1 and ϑ2
obtained in the position of the transducer where the signal amplitude is
equal to A/Am = 0.5.

Using the described technique of angle measurement, such calibration


results were obtained: the impulses N360 = 137166 were counted after
the ultrasonic transducer has turned by 360°; calibration constant,
showing the angular value of one impulse; Ψ = 9.449”, the mechanical
angular backlash of the axle ∆ϑ = ± 2.36°.

4.2 Pulse-time method

SAW Phase velocity is measured using pulse method exciting


frequency f acoustic pulses and measuring their propagation time t
according which they propagate the distance l according classical
equation

∆l
cSAW = . (4.2)
∆t

The difficulties for setting SAW pulse exciting time moment and wave
propagation distance l conditioned by the SAW pulse exciting point
uncertainty on the solid surface rises SAW pulses exciting by angular
method, e.g. prism transducer. In this case SAW pulse exciting by the
focused pulse laser light is more superior.
75
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

4.2.1 Experimental equipment for the prism research method

The digital signal analyzer PCS64i [103] (Appendix 1) was established


for the measurement of the form of LSAW pulse signals and spectrums.
The structural schematic of the ultrasound pulses analyzer is shown in
Fig. 4.7.

The problem how to emit topical acoustic pulse from the complicated
signal seen in the analyzer’s screen is met while measuring in SAW
(Fig. 4.8). Besides useful component, residual excitation pulse
induction is in this signal also and the side reflections of the BTW and
BLW are possible in the prism of angular transducer and in measuring
sample.

All the side pulses are emitted using rectangular electric pulse (time
“window”) with the length τi and delay Ti with the regard to exciting
electric pulse is exactly regulated. It controls the electronic key: the
pulse signal reflected from the exploratory defect penetrates through it
and accesses the digital analyzer, when the electronic key is conductive.

PULSE PULSE
FORMER GENERATOR

ELECTRONIC
ATTENUATOR AMPLIFIER
KEY

SIGNAL Angular
ANALYZER transducer ϑ
PCS64i

Sample
SAW
PC
Defect

Fig. 4.7. Schematic of SAW pulse signal analyzer


76
4.2 Pulse-time method

Fig. 4.8 Typical ultrasonic pulse signal on the screen of the digital
analyzer

Triple electronic key is switched for the avoidance of side electric


disturbances and for the effective repression of exciting signal
induction ( > 60 dB) beyond the time “window” borders. Besides, it is
constructed so that the input of analyzer is additionally electrically
shortly connected in the zone beyond the time “window”.

The time strobing principle of the exploratory LSAW signal is


described by the schematic (Fig. 9) and time diagrams (Fig. 4.10).
Pulse generator is started by the synchronized pulse Ug of defectoscope
and forms two electric pulses, where the second is delayed by time Ti.
Those two impulses start and stop multivibrator forming the rectangular
pulse Um where the second front starts multivibrator generating the
pulse of τi time ruling the electronic key. The term τi is set longer than
the time desirable to distinguish SAW signal Us. So, the signal analyzer
measures only proper SAW impulse parameters (time, amplitude, and
spectrum).

The possibilities of LSAW signal analyzer are determined by such


parameters of digital analyzer PCS64i as: digitizing frequency 64 MHz,
minimal time interval ∆ tmin = 0.01 µs/division, input sensibility Umin =
10 mV/division, frequency range 0-16 MHz, maximum readout error
2.5 % (Appendix 2).
77
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

DEFECTO − PULSE TIME DELAY


SKOPE GENERATOR

Electromagnetic ELECTRONIC
induction KEY

SIGNAL
Emitter AMPLIFIER ANALYSER
PCS64i

LSAW Receiver

Fig. 4.9. Simplified structural schematic for digital ultrasound


LSAW signals analyzer

Ug

LSAW TSAW t
Ui
Induction

t
Um

Ti t
Ul

τi t
Us

Fig. 4.10. Time diagrams of LSAW pulse signal strobing

78
4.2 Pulse-time method

SAW pulse signal form, measured time “window” parameter τi (µs) and
the chosen actual level (amplitude, mV) is seen on the screen of
personal computer, recorded in its memory and can be printed, when
the signal analyzer works in the schedule of signal form analyzing. The
form of signal spectrum is recorded, the essential (resonant) frequency
(MHz) is measured, and the level of spectrum component (dB) is
marked in the schedule of spectrum analyzing. The scale of frequencies
can be set as linear or logarithmic.

Digital ultrasonic signal analyzer is universal and can be used as


ultrasonic defectoscope for the NDT and measurements of any
ultrasonic waves, for the measurement of their velocity, attenuation,
thickness of the product, for the observations of echo signals, analyzing
and recording in the memory of PC.

4.2.1.1 Influence of ultrasonic attenuation in prism

Theoretically, usually the precondition is made that exciting SAW by


the angular method the ultrasonic oscillation amplitude scattering on
the solid surface plane is equal. In such a case, the work efficiency of
SAW angular transducers depends only on the geometric parameters of
piezo-crystal and prism, and the peculiarities of their construction
conditioning the reverberations of the transducer (Fig. 4.11).

Fig. 4.11 LSAW signal received by the angular transducer of


variable angle; f = 3.0 MHz
79
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

Ultrasound diffraction in prism is very weak when the transversal


dimension d > 10λ and when there is equal oscillation amplitude
distribution in the structure of piezo-crystal aperture, the BLW of rather
plane front is obtained. But oscillation amplitude distribution on the
solid surface because of the BLW attenuation in prism becomes uneven
in the band of higher (megahertz) frequencies. Amplitude A of acoustic
field vibrant pressure on the solid surface plane becomes equal to
Ae −α ln , where α is the coefficient of liquid damping, ln is the distance
to the solid surface (Fig. 4.12) and because of that, the efficiency of
SAW transducer worsens.

Piezo-crystal
l1

ln
- α l1 - α ln
Ae Ae

Fig. 4.12. Influence of ultrasonic attenuation in prism to the


piezo-crystal’s acoustic field on the solid surface

The transducer with the controlled aperture amplitude distribution is


used for the return of the even character for the acoustic field on the
plane of solid surface. Piezo-crystals grating made of n parallel band
piezo-crystals or obtained respectively sectioning the piezo-crystal
electrodes of rectangular profile can be the example of such a
transducer. The voltage of grating transducer (Fig. 4.14 a) piezo-
crystals exciting is set inversely proportional to the wave attenuation in
the path length ln. This is obtained while introducing the correction of
exciting pulse amplitude

Sn=B em⋅ln; (4.2)

80
4.2 Pulse-time method

where B = const and m = const are coefficients; ln is the propagation


way of BLW in prism.

The distribution of excited ultrasonic signal pressure amplitude in the


plane M of piezoelectric grating and in the plane N of solid surface in
this case is shown in Fig. 4.13 b.

M
S1 = Be ml1
1
PULSE
GENERATOR
n ln
S n = Be mln ϑ

l1 SAW
N
x
a)

SM(x) n=1

PN(x) x

x1 xn x
b)

Fig. 4.13. Schematic of grating SAW angular emitter (a) and the
exciting level law in aperture M and pressure distribution
in plane N (b)

81
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

The amplification of separate piezo-crystal signals is changed for the


equalization of SAW grating received signals of amplitude distribution
as shown in Fig. 4.14.

U S1
M
K1=D⋅e
g⋅l1
1
Us(t)
Σ AMPLIFIER
U Sn
ϑ n g⋅ln
l1 Kn=D⋅e

SAW ln
x
a)

n
PM(x)
n =1

x
Us(x)

x1 xn x
b)

Fig. 4.14. Schematic of grating SAW angular receiver (a) and


aperture distributions of pressure in section M and signal
amplitude Us(x)

The amplification of every element signal is defined

Kn = D eg⋅ln, (4.3)

where D = const and g = const are coefficients.


82
4.2 Pulse-time method

Signal amplitude correction Sn(x) (exciting SAW) and amplification


Kn(x) (receiving SAW) functions depend on angle ϑ using the described
method for SAW transducer of variable angle. This variation is
evaluated automatically using PC connected to the automatic variation
system of angle ϑ. Having changed the angle ϑ the appropriate
coefficient values Bn(ϑ) and Dn(ϑ) are defined programmely or can be
changed by the key board, visually observing the obtained result (the
variation of output signal Us(t) form (amplitude) during the
experiment).

It should be noted that such control system of aperture distribution


could be effective only when the crystal transversal dimension of piezo-
grating is quite big in comparison to the wave length (dn /λ >1), so it
means in frequency band (megahertz).

4.2.1.2 Research of angular transducer acoustic contact

Analyzing by SAW excited in angular method, the exploratory surface


is moistened by the liquid (usually by the motor oil); so for the
formation of acoustic contact the liquid layer of particular thickness d is
formed between the angular transducer and the surface of sample.

It is known that [2] when kd << 1 and λ >> d, sin kd ≈ 0 and acoustic
wave transmitting coefficient Kp in the direction perpendicular to the
surface (ϑ = 0°) does not depend to the impedance Z0 and is maximal:

2 Z1Z 3
K p max ≈ , (4.4)
Z1 + Z 3

where k = 2π/λ is the wave number, Z1 and Z3 are acoustic impedancies


of piezo-crystals and solid body.

If sin kd ≠ 0, acoustic waves are transmitted the best, when

Z 2 = Z1 Z 3 . (4.5)

83
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

It is more complicated to calculate coefficient of acoustic wave


transmitting when the layer of contact liquid is of thickness d in the
case of angular measurements (ϑ > 0), because coefficients of acoustic
wave reflection and transmitting coefficients are the functions of
incidence angle ϑ. Besides, in practice the acoustic impedance Z0 of
contact liquid is frequently not known. So, the influence of liquid layer
thickness was researched experimentally [104]. Measured ultrasonic
dependence of surface wave attenuation S ~ 1/Kp on liquid layer
between the angular transducer and sample surface thickness d is
shown in Fig. 4.15. The measurements were conducted using the motor
oil for acoustic contact (sound velocity c = 1140 m/s) [76] in the
frequencies of 1.8 MHz and 2.5 MHz (λ1.8 = 0.78 mm; λ2.5 = 0.56 mm).

Fig. 15. Damping dependence of surface waves on the thickness of


the motor oil layer between the angular transducer and
the sample

84
4.2 Pulse-time method

It is evident that those dependencies are of interference character and


signal amplitude is maximal when the liquid layer thickness is of the
particular thickness dmin. This effect allows obtaining acoustic
“brightening” that is analogous to broadly used for optical device
brightening in optics covering the surface of the lens by the
interferential film. The dependencies shown in Fig. 4.16 allow
constructing the maximal sensitive angular transducer of SAW exciting
through the contact liquid layer dopt = dmin (Fig. 4.16). The acoustic
contact of SAW transducer is made of the viscous liquid, e.g., silicone
oil that with the help of gravity flows from the cell inside the body (the
electric contacts and liquid flow speed regulator are not shown in the
figure).
Viscous liquid

Piezo-crystal

Contact layer
dopt

Fig. 4.16. The construction of angular transducer with the acoustic


contact layer of optimal thickness

Such transducers are useful researching solid bodies by SAW,


especially by LSAW that have great “natural” attenuation.

4.2.1.3 Research of transducers with variable angle

As it was shown experimentally, the best results are obtained using


transducer with variable angles. Three identical kits of symmetric
emitters and receivers working in different frequency bands (1.8; 3.0,
and 4.0 MHz) were produced (Fig. 4.17). The LSAW pulses and their
spectra were obtained (Fig. 4.19 b) when the incidence angle ϑ = ϑcrI =
25° and the transducers are functioning as the pair emitter – receiver
(Fig. 4.18).
85
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

Fig. 4.17. Variable angle symmetric transducers pair (f0 = 3.0 MHz)

TIME SIGNAL
PULSE
DELAY ANALYZER
GENERATOR
BLOCK PCS64i

Emitter ϑcrI ϑcrII Receiver


LSAW

Sample

Fig. 4.18. LSAW signal registration by the pair of angular


transducers

Though SAW almost does not diffract, a small amount of energy can be
radiated backwards by the angular transducers. The backward
propagation signal is interfering and can raise the outside signals; when
they are summarized with the direct signals, big measurement mistakes
can occur. The body of the transducer greatly damps TSAW because
TSAW propagates on the very surface of the solid surface. While
LSAW, propagating not deeply under the surface and so are damped
weaker by the body of the transducer, and the backward propagation
becomes even more actual.

86
4.2 Pulse-time method

a)

b)

Fig. 4.19. LSAW signals of variable angular transducers in the


samples of duralumin and their spectra when the central
frequency of the transducer is: a) 1.8 MHz; b) 3.0 MHz

Emitter was turned round while researching the backward propagation


(Fig. 4.20). It was measured that TSAW signal amplitude decreased by
16 dB (1.8 MHz) and by 19 dB (3.0 Hz); LSAW signal amplitude has
decreased by 24 dB (1.8 MHz) and by 21 dB (3.0 MHz). The level of
reverberation noise of transducer with 3.0 MHz and 4.0 MHz is almost
equal, but when the amplitude ratio A3.0/A4.0 ≈ 8 dB, the reverberation
ratio level of 3.0 MHz transducer is the smallest and equal to (Ar
/A3.0)LSAW ≈ −15 dB (Fig. 4.19 b).

87
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

Receiver Emitter

ϑcrI ϑcrI

LSAW b LSAW d

Fig. 4.20. Schematic of backward propagation measurement

Evaluating those results it must be taken into account that SAW


exciting sphere is closer to the front prism edge. So SAW, propagating
backward are damping by prism surface for the longer distance; so they
are damped more than SAW propagating in the direct direction. This
factor can be especially meaningful for the level of TSAW.

TSAW signal and spectrum obtained after determination of incidence


angle ϑ = ϑcrII = 59° are given for the comparison (Fig. 4.21). TSAW
signal (Fig. 4.21 b) in comparison to LSAW signal (4.19 b) is delayed
because cLSAW > cTSAW.

Fig. 4.21. TSAW signal and its spectrum (f = 3.0 MHz)

88
4.2 Pulse-time method

4.2.1.4 Constructions of double angular transducers

The natural need to excite and record signals of both types at one time
arise while researching two types of SAW, especially performing
comparative analysis of LSAW and TSAW.

The double transducer of constant angle composed of biprism with two


identical piezo-crystals (Fig. 4.22) and two angles equal to ϑ1 = ϑcrI
and ϑ2 = ϑcrII must be used for the NDT of known acoustic property
products. Using transducer of that construction, the maximal sensibility
of LSAW and TSAW is obtained because the created ultrasonic field
edges of both piezo-crystals (LSAW and TSAW) are superposed with
the front edge of biprism. The configuration of biprism front part has
the form of ultrasonic “catcher” and for the sake of reverberation
reduction it is made as diffusive and is coated by the absorbtive
compound (grained rubber, epoxy resin, and mixture of wolfram
powder).

Compound

LSAW piezo-crystal
ϑcrI
ϑ crII TSAW piezo-crystal

Biprism
LSAW TSAW

M N

Fig. 4.22. Double LSAW and TSAW angular transducer

Transducer of such construction must be used for the precise


measurements where the LSAW and TSAW piezo-crystal signal
introduction points M and N must be superposed. The LSAW signal
level will reduce fractionally because of such LSAW piezo-crystal

89
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

change of the position to TSAW piezo-crystal as LSAW are not


sensitive to the mechanical state of sample surface and to the damping
by the front part of the transducer prism.

Double transducer LSAW and TSAW of variable angle (Fig. 4.23) is


multipurpose and can be used to sent and receive LSAW and TSAW
signals and for the complex exciting of one type of wave (LSAW or
TSAW) pulses, and for the receiving of pulses (TSAW or LSAW)
transformed to the other type of waves. LSAW or TSAW interaction
with the various profile objects can be researched with such transducer.

LSAW piezo-crystal
ϑcrI
Diffuser
ϑcrII

TSAW piezo-crystal
Plexiglass prism
LSAW TSAW

M N

Fig. 4.23. The double transducer of LSAW and TSAW variable angle

By the way, this double different transducer of SAW type can be used
as tandem, i.e., as double transducer of some one type of surface wave
(LSAW or TSAW), where the appropriate waves are excited by one
piezo-crystal and received by the other.

4.2.1.5 Influence of diffraction to the efficiency of LSAW exciting

Till now LSAW were mostly used for the NDT. As practical results
show [45–47], not LSAW, but the whole of two waves: LSAW
propagating on the surface and BLW propagating in a small angle to

90
4.2 Pulse-time method

the surface are outlined by German term Kriechwelle (Eng. Creeping


wave) (Fig. 4.24). Together with LSAW side BTW with a velocity of
cT also propagate as inevitable satellites.

Piezo-crystal Prism
I
ϑkr

LSAW

Solid body
β BLW

BTW
γ

Fig. 4.24. Acoustic field of angular LSAW transducer

The origin of BLW propagating together with LSAW is diffraction as


inevitable phenomenon existing when the ratio of transversal dimension
of piezo-crystal with the length of acoustic wave d/λL < ∝. It was also
set that when the ratio d/λL is increased, BLW propagating angle in the
solid body (900−β) can be reduced. But, as it is shown in [47], even
when d/λL = 40, the angle 90°−β ≈ 6° remains.

Otherwise, the BLW propagating angle β < 90° can mean that BLW
propagating in prism has the set incidence angle ϑ ≠ ϑcrI ; so LSAW
wave exciting is not optimal. In general, three cases are possible:

1 – when ϑ < ϑcrI ;


2 – when ϑ = ϑcrI ;
3 – when ϑ > ϑcrI .

91
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

In the first case (Fig. 4.25 a) LSAW exciting is not optimal because of
BLW diffraction and BLW propagation in solid body besides LSAW in
the angle β.

In the second case (Fig. 4.25 b) LSAW maximal amplitudes are excited
and besides them as inevitable lateral phenomenon propagate residual
BLW.

In the third case (Fig. 4.25 c) LSAW is excited not in maximal


amplitude, when BLW interacts with the solid surface and because of
diffraction weaker than in the second case residual BLW propagate.

It is evident that not deeply from the surface the defect can be found by
the angular transducer where LSAW and BLW are excited at the same
time in the solid body (Fig 4.25) because cLSAW ≠ cL. The exact fixing of
the defected place is associated with the indetermination of reflected
from the defected place acoustic waves. It is necessary to separate
LSAW from BLW while researching LSAW physical characteristics
and applying them in metrology (e.g. for measurement of physical and
mechanical constants of solid bodies). But it must be taken into account
that Poisson’s ration µ depending on material can be cL ≤ cLSAW or cL ≥
cLSAW. So, if the signals LSAW and BLW are not separated, phase wave
velocity concept cannot be used for the complex characterization of two
different types of wave beam.

TSAW transformation into LSAW can be used as one of the methods


how to get “clear” LSAW (Fig. 4.26) [105, 106]. TSAW effectively
transforms into LSAW on the corner of solid body (projection into the
plane of the figure is point A), because its transversal component of the
amplitude ξTSAW
z on the perpendicular surface beyond the corner A
becomes LSAW longitudinal component ξ LSAW x , and LSAW
longitudinal component ξTSAW
x becomes ξ LSAW
z .

92
4.2 Pulse-time method

Piezo-crystal Prism
ϑ
LSAW

Solid body BLW


βmax

a)

Piezo-crystal Prism
I
ϑcr
LSAW

Solid body BLW


b)

Piezo-crystal Prism
ϑ

LSAW
Solid body BLW

c)

Fig. 4.25. Influence of BLW diffraction to LSAW exciting


efficiency (BTW on the solid body are not shown):
a) ϑ < ϑ crI ; b) ϑ = ϑcrI ; c) ϑ > ϑ crI .

93
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

ϑcrII
TSAW
A

LSAW
BTW

Fig. 4.26. LSAW exciting when TSAW crosses the corner of 90°

The other possibility to excite “clean” LSAW is to use refracted BTW


on the solid body exciting the secondary LSAW on the other plane of
parallel solid surface (Fig. 4.27).

Piezo-crystal Prism
ϑcrI

Primary LSAW

Solid body
γ

BTW Secondary LSAW

Fig. 4.27. Schematic of secondary LSAW exciting


(side BTW is not shown)

This method is used for the ultrasonic NDT for tanks (boilers, bodies of
nuclear reactors) [107].

94
4.3 Experimental SAW research

4.3.1 LSAW and TSAW comparative research

LSAW is the antipode of TSAW according to its physical origin, so


their similarities and differences can be shown the best during the
comparative researches. They can be excited and received by the
angular method by the same transducers of variable angle (Chapter
4.2.1). The most useful application spheres of those waves can be
evaluated by the comparative methods.
The useful comparative characteristics are:
• phase velocity;
• attenuation;
• form of pulse signal;
• spectra of pulse signal.
The following technique used for LSAW or TSAW phase velocity
measurements is described below. The particular body K of calibrated
thickness d is set-in between the SAW impulse generating emitter E
and receiver R (Fig. 4.2.1) and time interval between analyzer’s sweep
starting pulse and received LSAW pulse is measured.

PULSE DELAY SIGNAL


ANALYZER
GENERATOR SCHEME
PCS64i

Emitter Calibre d Receiver

ϑ ϑ

SAW
Solid body

Fig. 4.28. SAW velocity measurement schematic

95
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

After that, the calibre is taken away and the emitter is compacted with
receiver; so SAW path between the emitter and receiver is shortened by
the dimension d and the deflection of SAW signal in time scale ∆ t is
measured and the velocity is calculated according

∆t
cPAB = . (4.67)
d

SAW propagating in solid bodies attenuate because of different


reasons, such as energy dissipation, scattering surface roughness,
transducers’ acoustic field diffraction; LSAW damps additionally
because of transformation to the side BTW. Attenuation is expressed by
logarithmic attenuation coefficient

Ad A0
α SAW = ln , (4.7)
d

where A0 is the amplitude of a signal when the distance between the


angular transducers d = 0; Ad is the signal amplitude when d > 0.

The form of impulse signal is indicated in the screen of digital analyzer


and register in PC memory. The analyzing informative signal must be
emitted while analyzing LSAW or TSAW spectra of impulse signals
from total signal that has not only necessary informative signal but also
lateral signals (inner reflections in prism, in exploratory object, signals
of electric interference) (Fig. 4.8). Exploratory signal is distinguished,
i.e. time selection is provided by electronic key (Chapter 4.2.1). But
because of “window” time selection component with the period
depending on “window” duration and equal to ∆ f = l/τi can occur as
lateral phenomenon in signal spectrum. This lateral component can be
filtered programmable using e.g. digital finite pulse responce filters
(FPRF) [51, 103]. They are steady because pulse characteristic of FPRF
is of finite length. Their phase frequency characteristics can be linear
and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) is used for their realization and
it is applied to calculate exactly the succession of finite length.

96
4.3 Experimental SAW research

Amplitude-frequency characteristic of FPRF:

1 π
H ( e jω ) = ∫−π H i (e

) W (e j (ω −Θ ) )dψ [108]; (4.8)

where W(ejω) is FFT of “window” function w(n); n is the number of n-


th element of numerical sequence.

“Window” function:

1, when 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1
w(n ) =  (4.9)
0, when n < 0, N − 1 < n.

Standard Bartlett, Hamming, Kaizer “windows” with the functions


shown in Table 4.1 [108] were used while experimental influence of
time “windows” to the spectrum of filtered pulse signal.

Table 4.1. “Windows” and their functions w(n)

Window Function w(n)

 2n N −1
 , 0≤n≤ ,
w(n) =  N − 1 2 (4.10)
Bartlett 2n N −1
2 − , ≤ n ≤ N −1
 N −1 2

 2 2
 N −1   N −1  
I 0 ω a   −n −  
  2   2  
Kaizer w(n) =   , 0 ≤ n ≤ N − 1 (4.11)
  N −1  
I 0  ω a <   
  2 

2 nπ (4.12)
Hamming w(n) = 0.54 − 0.46 cos , 0 ≤ n ≤ N −1
N −1

97
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

Pulse signal and its spectra processed by different FPRF are shown in
Fig. 4.29.

a)

b) c)

d) e)

Fig. 4.29. Digital signal (a), its spectrum (b) and spectra of this signal
obtained by Bartlett (c), Kaizer (d), and Hamming (e) filters

98
4.3 Experimental SAW research

The best of used filters in this case is Kaizer’s filter that almost
eliminates periodical disturbances of signal spectrum induced by time
“window”.

Signal spectral analysis can be very informative and useful to the


research of ultrasonic surface waves interaction with coarse surface.
Resonance scattering is obtained during such interaction with the
efficiency depending on the average surface roughness ratio with the
SAW length.

4.3.1.1 LSAW and TSAW propagation on the rough surface

The propagating not on the surface of solid body but in the deeper layer
is important and exceptional LSAW propagation feature. It is evident
that for this reason LSAW interaction with the surface must be different
than TSAW. The character of this interaction is set the best while
measuring the attenuation of the appropriate SAW and it is evaluated
by the ratio of amplitude decline to the unit of length. Analysis was
accomplished by digital SAW defectoscope. Its structural scheme is
shown in Fig. 4.30.

SPECTRUM
ANALYZER PC
PCS64i

DELAY PULSE
ELECTRONIC
CIRCUIT GENERATOR
KEY τi
Ti

ULTRASONIC
AMPLIFIER DEFECTO-
SCOPE

Receiver Emitter
ϑ ϑ

Sample SAW
Surface structure

Fig. 4.30. Schematic of defectoscope for the SAW pulse signals

99
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

The relief profiles of known depth h of triangular and rectangular were


made on the surface of duralumin sample for the quantitative research
of the surface roughness and the SAW interaction (Fig. 4.31 a, b) [109,
110]. Rectangular electric pulse of τi duration (time “window”) exciting
with the regard to electric pulse delayed by time Ti was made by pulse
generator on purpose to avoid multifold ultrasound reflections from the
edge of the sample and exciting pulse lateral induction influence to the
spectrum of signal. Electronic key becomes conductive only to the time
interval when exploratory SAW signal passes through it. This is
achieved by the exact regulation of the pulse duration τi and delay time
Ti. This signal comes into the digital oscilloscope.

l1=30 mm
h1=1.0 mm
a)

SAW

l2=25 mm
b) h2=1.2 mm

SAW

Fig. 4.31. Rough surfaces of rectangular (a) and triangular


(b) profiles

Fig. 4.32. Duralumin sample with a structure of rectangular profile

100
4.3 Experimental SAW research

The measurement methodic of SAW signal attenuation on the surface


structure is described below. SAW signal amplitude Ani is calculated
and then the sensors in the same position are transferred on the smooth
surface and the signal amplitude A0i is calculated having estimated the
distance between the angular transducers equal to the length l of the
surface structure. Then the transducers are anticipated (l = 0), their
amplitude A0 is measured and SAW attenuation coefficient on the
smooth surface is calculated according to formulae

ln ( A0l / A0 )
α0 =− ; (4.13)
PAB
l

on the surface structure calculated by

ln ( Anl / A0 )
αn =− . (4.14)
PAB
l

Measuring in the rectangular profile structure is n = 1, and in triangular


profile structure is n = 2.

From the formulae could be seen that SAW signal having propagated
the distance l on the surface weakens by

A0 α l
= e 0 PAB (4.15)
Al

times, therefore, according formulae (4.13) and (4.14) calculated


logarithmic attenuation coefficient αSAW shows that waves damps
e times propagating the distance equal to l/αSAW.

SAW pulse and their spectrum were registered researching the


influence of duralumin sample surface unevenness to SAW
characteristics. The attenuation of two types of surface waves (LSAW
and TSAW) was measured by three pairs of angular transducers with
different frequencies (1.8 MHz; 2.5 MHz, and 4.0 MHz). Typical
TSAW pulses propagated through the sample surface with the

101
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

rectangular profile (Fig. 4.31 a) structure are shown in Fig. 4.33. It


must be mentioned that quicker LSAW pulse propagating in the
velocity cLSAW >cTSAW occurred against TSAW pulse. This shows that
during TSAW interaction with the surface structure, a part of its energy
transformed into propagating more quickly LSAW.

Fig. 4.33. Regarding TSAW interaction with the surface structure the
occurred LSAW pulse is received earlier than having
“created” it TSAW signal

The results of TSAW and LSAW velocities and attenuation


measurements in duralumin samples obtained by the converters of 1.8
MHz and 4.0 MHz are given in Table 4.1 and Table 4.2.

Relational measurement errors originated from time interval


measurement of 0.03 µs discretion and signal amplitude measurements
of 10 mV discretion are shown in the tables. It can be seen from Table
4.1 and Table 4.2 that because of LSAW natural attenuation in smooth
free surface α0LSAW >> α0TSAW . While because surface structure more
damps TSAW than LSAW by measuring with 4.0 MHz transducers
αnTSAW > αnLSAW. So, the surface roughness interacts more with TSAW
than LSAW. This can be explained by LSAW wave feature to
propagate not on the very surface but a bit deeper. This LSAW feature
can be especially useful for NDT of the corroded, coarse, or threaded
surfaces.
102
4.3 Experimental SAW research

Table 4.1. Measured TSAW velocity and attenuation coefficient values


in duralumin

f = 1.8 MHz f = 4.0 MHz

Surface cTSAW, αTSAW, cTSAW, αTSAW,


structure m/s 1/m m/s 1/m

Smooth surface 2880±10 1.9±0.6 2854±6 2.9±0.6


Rectangular profile
2790±10 27.0±6.0 2820±10 71±3.0
structure
Triangular profile
2970±7 134±2.0 2858±6 135±2.0
structure

Table 4.2. Measured LSAW velocity and attenuation coefficient


values in duralumin

f = 1.8 MHz f = 4.0 MHz

Surface cLSAW, αLSAW, cLSAW, αLSAW,


structure m/s 1/m m/s 1/m
Smooth surface 6840±36 19±2 6800±35 32±2
Rectangular profile
6350±50 21±2 6350±50 37±2
structure
Triangular profile
6760±35 65±5 6730±35 126±2
structure

103
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

TSAW damps because of big scattering of those waves on the coarse


surface interacting with the surface roughness (Fig. 4.34). Scattering of
TSAW is extremely intensive because of maximal TSAW energy
concentration on the very surface (Chapter 2.1, Table 2.1).

Surface

TSAW
Diffusive energy

Fig. 4.34. Illustration of TSAW scattering on the rough solid


body surface

As it is seen from given TSAW signal characteristics (Fig. 4.35 a, b)


(pulse form and its spectrum), not only the signal amplitude, but also its
form changes.

LSAW almost does “not react” also to the other surface state changes,
such as the change of liquid layer thickness because of weak interaction
with solid body surface. But TSAW pulse signal amplitude greatly
depends on liquid layer thickness (Fig. 4.36).

104
4.3 Experimental SAW research

a)

b)

Fig. 4.35. 1.8 MHz TSAW pulse signal and its spectrum propagating on:
a) smooth aluminium surface (δ << λ); b) transversal
rectangular profile surface structure (h3 = 1,0 mm)

105
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

Fig. 4.36. Normalized amplitude experimental dependence on liquid


layer relational thickness of 1,8 MHz TSAW signal in
aluminium: 1 is the smooth surface; 2 is transversal
rectangular profile surface structure (h3 = 1,0 mm)

It must be noted that the influence of liquid thin layer to TSAW


attenuation is interferential.

4.3.1.2 SAW interaction with the corner

The interaction of surface waves with the corner of rectangular form


sample has the great influence to the NDT practice. The scheme shown
in Fig. 4.37 is used for the research of this interaction [105]. SAW
excited there by the angular transducer (emitter) is received by the other
angular transducer (receiver). Measurements by two transducers allow
to avoid generator’s electric induction exciting in the signal circuit and
research the waves that have propagated a small distance; also to avoid
the influence of multiple reflections when the samples are small.
Modified scheme where one angular transducer excites and receives
ultrasound pulses were used for the research of SAW reflection from
the exterior corner. It must be noted that research schematic can be
106
4.3 Experimental SAW research

re-co-ordinated so that one type of surface waves are excited (TSAW,


by the angle ϑTSAW = ϑcrII ) and received SAW signals of other type
(LSAW, by the angle ϑLSAW = ϑcrI ). Two transducers arranged one after
the second so that the further transducer excites LSAW and the nearer
receives TSAW in the research of LSAW transformation to TSAW
reflecting from the angle.

DELAY SYNCHRO −
ELECTRONIC
NIZING
KEY SCHEME
GENERATOR

AMPLIFIER PULSE
GENERATOR

SIGNAL
ANALYZER
ϑcrI Receiver
PCS64i

LSAW B
PC

l1 Emitter
β

l2
Sample
ϑcrI

Fig. 4.37. Research schematic of surface wave interaction with the


corner: l1, l2 are the distances between the front edge of
transducers and the sample corner B

But the inverse scheme where the further from the angular transducer
excites TSAW and the nearer receives LSAW for the exact research
does not fit because LSAW receiver mechanically damps TSAW
propagating under it.
107
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

The sample of special form of 55 mm thickness and 65 × 75 mm of


duralumin size was researched for the determination of SAW reflection
(conversion) dependence from the corner.

95° 100°

85° 80°

Fig. 4.38. Duralumin sample with different β angles

The bigger duralumin sample of 300 × 740 × 20 mm was used for the
research of LSAW because cLSAW > cTSAW.

TSAW signals of 1.8 MHz reflected from β = 85° (the first pulse) and β
= 95° (the second pulse) angles are shown in Fig. 4.39.

Fig. 4.39. TSAW pulses reflected from the sample corner with
different angles

The normalized amplitude measurement results of SAW signals


are given in Table 4.2 and Table 4.3.
108
4.3 Experimental SAW research

Table 4.2. Normalized amplitudes of LSAW signals reflected from the


corner and crossed it

Angle β° 85 90 95

(Upl/Upl max )refl 1.00 0.34 0.18

(Upl/Upl max )cr 0.74 0.83 1.00

Table 4.3. Normalized amplitudes of TSAW signals reflected from the


corner and crossed it

Angle β° 80 85 90 95 100

(Ups/Ups max)refl 0.53 0.76 0.84 0.93 1.00

(Ups/Ups max)cr 1.00 0.94 0.88 0.78 0.65

As it is seen from Table 4.2 and Table 4.3 the corner with right angle
has a big influence to the reflection and crossing of LSAW and TSAW
and those waves differently (contrarily) reflect and crosses interacting
with the corner. It must be noted that calculation of reflection and
crossing ratios according to those results would be incorrect as a part of
the energy because of interaction with corner becomes the surface wave
of the other type; so without the ratios of reflection and crossing the
transformation ratio must be calculated also. LSAW better reflect from
the corner with more acute angle because the energy of LSAW
concentrated on the layer of two wave length thickness under the
surface is reflected according to the law of geometric acoustics. While
because of TSAW with the energy maximum on the surface interaction
with the corner, the edge line B is excited. The excited line B radiates
waves of both types in both perpendicular surfaces.

109
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

So, surface waves of one type (TSAW) because of the interaction with
the corner transforms into surface waves of the other type (LSAW).

Exciting and receiving transducers are matched in different angles (for


the first and the second critical angles) during the research of SAW
wave transformation into the SAW of the other type. For this case the
obtained SAW signals are shown in Fig. 4.40.

Fig. 4.40 Signals received by TSAW transducer over the corner with
angle of 90° and excited before the corner by LSAW
transducer. f = 1.8 MHz; l1 = l2 = 40 mm (Fig. 4.34)

There the first pulse is the direct LSAW signal received by TSAW
transducer because of piezo-crystal diffraction and matched for the
second critical angle. Delayed pulse is LSAW signal transformed into
TSAW pulse because of interaction with the corner.

Normal component becomes tangential and tangential becomes normal


because TSAW normal vibration component is bigger than tangential
after vibrating the edge B in the perpendicular surface (to the direction
of z axis) (Fig. 4.41). So TSAW transforms into LSAW propagating on
the other surface making angle β. It is obvious that TSAW transforms
into LSAW more effectively because LSAW propagates in a deeper
layer and excites edge B weakly.
110
4.3 Experimental SAW research

ξn ξn
Transformation on
o
90 angle corner

ξτ ξτ

TSAW LSAW

Fig. 4.41. TSAW and LSAW motion trajectories of surface particles:


ξn, ξ0 are normal and tangential oscillation component
amplitudes

The researched surface wave transformational mechanism allows


stating that LSAW can be excited transforming TSAW because of the
interaction with corner. In materials with big Poisson’s ratio (µ > 0.4)
this LSAW excitation method may be more effective than excitation
with angular transducer.

4.3.2 Research of SAW propagation on the cylindrical


surface

4.3.2.1 SAW propagation on the convex surface

It is theoretically shown [111] that TSAW propagating on the


homogeneous free curved (cylindrical) surface of isotropic solid
body becomes disperse waves. Scalar and vectorial potentials ϕ
and ψ in the system of cylindrical co-ordinates r, Θ, z (Fig. 4.42)
are described in wave equations

1 ∂  ∂ ϕ  1 ∂ 2ϕ
 r + + k L2 ϕ = 0
r ∂ r  ∂ r  r 2 ∂θ 2
 (4.16)
1 ∂  ∂ψ  1 ∂ 2ψ
r r  + + kT2 ψ = 0.
 ∂ r  ∂ r 2
 r ∂θ
2

111
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

Cylindrical body

z
r

Fig. 4.42. Co-ordinate system of cylindrical body

Shift components Ur, UΘ and tensions Trr, Tθ r are described by


formulae [111]:

∂ ϕ 1 ∂ψ (4.17)
Ur = + ,
∂ r r ∂θ

1 ∂ϕ ∂ ψ
Uθ = − , (4.18)
r ∂θ ∂ r

( ∂r
)
 ∂ 2ϕ 1 ∂ψ 1 ∂ 2ψ
Trr = λ' + 2G  2 − 2 +
r ∂θ r ∂ r ∂θ

+

 

 1 ∂ 2ϕ 1 ∂ 2ψ 1 ∂ ϕ 1 ∂ ψ 
+ λ'  2 − + + , (4.19)
 r ∂θ 2 r ∂ r ∂θ r ∂ r r 2 ∂θ 
 

 2 ∂ 2ϕ 1 ∂ 2ψ 2 ∂ ϕ 1 ∂ ψ 
Tθ r = G  + − + , (4.20)
 r ∂ r ∂θ r 2 ∂ r 2 r 2 ∂θ r ∂ r 
 
112
4.3 Experimental SAW research

where λ’ is Leme constant and G is shear module in equations


(4.20) and (4.21).

The solution of equation system (4.17) to the cylindrical body in the


most common case is similar to [111] the described:

ϕ = A e[i ( pθ −ω t )]J p (k L r ),
 (4.21)

 [i ( pθ −ω t )]J (k r );
ψ = B e p T

where A = const, B = const; Jp(kLr) and Jp(kTr) are the Bessel’s


functions of p range, p = kpR = 2πR/λp is the angle number of waves, R
is the cylinder radius, λp is surface wavelength on the surface of
cylinder.

It must be noted that the range of Bessel’s function in this case may be
whatever, not only the whole number. The equation system (4.21) has
many solutions; two of them match two types of different SAW: LSAW
(λp = λLSAW) and TSAW (λp = λTSAW). Strictly estimating, LSAW and
TSAW propagating on the free surface of the cylindrical surface are
different than LSAW and TSAW. LSAW and TSAW are only limitary
cases of appropriate cylindrical SAW, when R → ∝. So the parameters
of SAW propagating on cylindrical surface will be marked with the
superscript index C. Besides, the number of cylindrical LSAW
and phase velocity are complex and this means that the loss of acoustic
energy occurs because of BTW eradiation.

The SAW propagation characteristics on the cylindrical surface are:


phase velocities c-cLSAW and ccTSAW (wave length λcLSAW and λcTSAW),
attenuation coefficients αcLSAW and αcTSAW, oscillation amplitudes to the
direction r and Θ (ξcrLSAW, ξcΘ LSAW and ξcrTSAW, ξcΘ TSAW) also are the
functions of angular wave number p = kpR and ratio R/λ. This shows
that cylindrical surface waves are dispersal, so their phase velocities
are:

113
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

c ω
cLSAW = ≠ const , (4.22)
k LSAW c

c ω
cTSAW = ≠ const , (4.23)
kTSAW c

c
c LSAW = c LSAW − δ LSAW , (4.24)

c
cTSAW = cTSAW − δ TSAW ; (4.25)

where δLSAW and δTSAW are appropriate LSAW and TSAW phase
velocity corrections depending on Poisson’s ratio µ and curvature
radius R of cylinder material.

The pulse signal propagation velocity of disperse acoustic waves are


more exactly outlined by the group numbers

c
c c dcLSAW (4.26)
cgrLSAW = cLSAW − λcLSAW ,
dλcLSAW

c
c c c dcTSAW
c grTSAW = cTSAW − λTSAW c
. (4.27)
dλTSAW

The experimental research was made with the glass cylindrical samples
PI-120, PI-100, PI-80 (cL = 5795 ± 5 m/s) and with the special samples
from 6063-T6 mark of duralumin (µ = 0.345; cL = 6370 ±5 m/s) was
measured (Fig. 4.43). Measured SAW velocity values are given in
Table 4.4 and Table 4.5.

114
4.3 Experimental SAW research

a) b)
Fig. 4.43. Glass (a) and duralumin (b) cylindrical samples for the
SAW research

Table 4.5. SAW velocities, calculated in the glass cylindrical samples


(Fig. 4.43 a)

R, mm R/λLSAW c cLSAW, R/λTSAW c cTSAW,


m/s m/s
40 27.6 9670 48.7 3830
50 34.5 8380 60.9 3330
60 41.4 7980 73.0 3280
∞ ∞ 6290 ∞ 3160

Table 4.5. SAW velocities, calculated in the duralumin cylindrical


sample (Fig. 4.43 b)

R, mm R/λLSAW c cLSAW, R/λTSAW c cTSAW,


m/s m/s
15 10.4 7650 19.4 3470
25 17.3 6920 32.3 3350
30 20.7 6740 38.7 3130
∞ ∞ 6160 ∞ 3105

LSAW signals of 3.0 MHz frequency, registered in the duralumin


sample are shown in the Fig. 4.44.

115
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

a)

b)

c)
Fig. 4.44. LSAW pulses, when: (a) angular transducers are
compacted; (b) crossed the cylindrical surface;
(c) propagated the same distance by the smooth surface

116
4.3 Experimental SAW research

cLSAW measurement method is the following. At first the signal


propagation in cylindrical surface is measured (Fig. 4.44 b). Then, the
path distance in cylindrical and smooth surfaces is measured. Having
measured cLSAW on the smooth surface of the sample (Fig. 4.44 c), the
velocity cLSAWc can be calculated.

Specific LSAW characteristics can explain LSAW phase velocity


changes depending on the curvature of cylindrical surface (Table 4.4
and Table 4.5). According to theoretical calculations [111], SAW
propagating on the curved convex surface penetrates less comparing
with the smooth surface; it sorts out to the surface. So, phase velocity
grows when the curvature radius is reduced. Besides, the less influence
to the LSAW propagation on cylindrical surface has the BLW
diffraction of angular transducer (Fig. 4.45).

ϑ
1
2
BTW

R 3
O

BLW

Fig. 4.45. LSAW propagation on the cylindrical surface

Comparing LSAW and TSAW velocities measured changing the


curvature radius R the similarity (phase velocity of two waves quickly
grows while the curvature radius R is reducing) is seen.

117
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

4.3.2.2 SAW propagation on the concave surface

It is obvious from the theory that TSAW propagating on the conclave


cylindrical surface obtains LSAW characteristics to loose acoustic
energy radiating side bulk waves. So, the extra wave attenuation
proportional to the ratio R/λ-cTSAW occurs (superscript index −C will mark
the conclave cylindrical surface). The angle wave number of such wave
is complex

−c
pTSAW = p1TSAW (1 + δ ) + ip2TSAW , (4.29)

where p1TSAW and p2TSAW are the real and imaginary components of angle
wave number.

In this case phase velocity is

−c
cTSAW = cTSAW (1 − δ ). (4.30)

So, wave velocity in concave cylindrical surface is less than in smooth


free surface. Velocity change δ is of the same size as in the convex
surface (with the opposite sign) and also depends on ratio R/λcp.

An LSAW specific with the concave cylindrical surface is such that its
longitudinal composite propagating receive from the concave surface.
Therefore the acoustic energetic losses grow and LSAW attenuates
more. It is obvious that this phenomenon could be seen better when the
ratio R/λcLSAW is less. Because of this effect during experimental
measurement of waves propagating in the concave cylindrical
duralumin sample of 3.0 MHz LSAW inclination for 90° with the
curvature radius R = 20 mm was not registered.

The conclusion that LSAW, propagating in concave cylindrical and


even more in spherical surfaces, in practice has no important meaning
because easily can become BLW.

118
4.3 Experimental SAW research

4.3.3 Investigations of LSAW excitation by piezoelectric


grating

SAW are usually excited in isotropic solids using angular transducers,


when the incident angle of BLW is equal to the first critical
angle. The critical angle depends on a sound velocity both in the prism
and in the solid. That is the reason why the prism angle transducer with
constant incidence angle can not be universal, and it can be used to
excite LSAW only in solids, where sound velocities are known and
matches to the sound velocity in a prism. In order to make LSAW
angular transducers more universal, angular transducers with a variable
angle are used. Incidence angle of longitudinal waves in the mentioned
transducers can be selected from the interval (0°-90°) to obtain the
maximum angle of LSAW excitation, i. e. the first critical angle in a
solid.

The mentioned drawbacks of angular transducers must be solved in the


other way. Using NDT efficiency of LSAW excitation becomes very
important. LSAW are weaker in comparison to the TSAW. The
attention on theoretically described process of excitation of TSAW was
paid using periodical vibratory linear structure. Estimating similarity of
LSAW and TSAW propagation features it could be expected to use
piezoelectric gratings for LSAW excitation. This conclusion comes
from the latest experiments, when LSAW are excited thermo-
acoustically, using pulse laser to create mechanical strains on the solid
surface. Experimental results show that LSAW and TSAW are excited
at the same time efficiently.

Strip-shaped piezo-crystal (Fig.4.46) with l >> h, l >> d is mechanically


attached to the solid surface.
Metallization
l
d P
h

Fig. 4.46. Elementary strip-shaped piezo-crystal

119
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

The piezo-crystal excited by a thickness mode of oscillation emits


semispherical BLW a(r, t) (Fig. 4.47), described by equation

2π  r 
a(r , t ) = A sin t −  ,
 c  (4.31)
T  L

where A is the wave amplitude, T is the period; t is the time; r is the


radius; cL is the velocity of BLW.

x0
Q

x
Fig. 4.47. Spot source of acoustic waves on the surface of
isotropic solid plane

If there are m spot sources on the surface (piezoelectric grating, which


consisting of m elementary strip-shaped piezo-crystals, arranged at
distance ∆ x), and these spot sources are excited in-phase (Fig. 4.48),
then the wave generated at the surface spot Q, is given by

m
2π  x0 + (n − 1) ∆x  ,
a( x0 , t ) = A∑ sin  t −  (4.32)
n =1 T  cL 

where x0 is the distance between the last piezo-crystal and the surface
spot Q.

The piezo-crystals (Fig. 4.48) are excited in-phase, when


∆x = cLSAW /ω = λLSAW, where ω is the angular frequency, cLSAW ≈ cL and
λLSAW ≈ λL are the phase velocity and the length of LSAW; cL and λL are
the phase velocity and the length of BLW.

120
4.3 Experimental SAW research

GENERATOR

1 2 m a(x,t) Q

∆x x0

Fig. 4.48. In-phase excited grating consisting of m piezo-crystals

The length of grating can be reduced and quantity of piezo-crystals is


the same when LSAW transducers are operating in a low frequency.
Then piezo-crystals must be arranged at the distance λLSAW/2 between
them and excited in phase opposition, or excited in phase, but
polarization direction is changed contrarily.

The shape of oscillations, generated by piezoelectric grating, was


mathematical simulated. There are m = 4 piezo-crystals in the grating. It
is assumed that piezo-crystals are made of piezoceramics CTS-19, h =
0.5 mm, l = 15 mm >> h. The thickness resonant frequency f0 = 3.3
MHz, because the velocity of BLW in the piezoceramics CTS-19 is
cL=3300 m/s. The LSAW are excited in duralumin, where cL=6320 m/s
and λL ≈ λLSAW = 1.92 mm.

Each piezo-crystal is excited using burst with the duration of 10T,


where T is the period of an excitation voltage. The normalized
amplitude of the pulse is 1 (Fig. 4.49 a). The acoustic wave, generated
at the surface spot Q (Fig. 4.49 b) was calculated accepting that
damping of wave is deniably small. The distance m between the spot Q
and the piezo-crystal is x0 = 5λLSAW.

121
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS
1

a(x0,t)
0

1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t,t, µ
mks
s
a)
5
a(x0,t)

5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6

t,t, µmks
s
b)
Fig. 4.49. Finite duration excitation pulse (a) and acoustic wave on
surface spot Q (b)

If can be seen that the acoustic wave is amplified, delayed and has
ramp-up and ramp-down fronts. The shape of acoustic wave may be
restored (Fig. 4.50 b) if the shift circuits (Fig. 4.50 a) with a delay
equal to the period T = 0.33 µs are used.

GENERATOR ∆T ∆T ∆T
Q

x
a)
5
a(x0,t)

5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t, mks
t, µs
b)
Fig. 4.50. Excitation of piezoelectric grating using shifted elements
(a) and the waveform (b)

122
4.3 Experimental SAW research

The acoustic wave fronts are sharp. The fronts of the excited signal are
nearly linear (Fig 4.51 b), when exciting pulses are not delayed and the
piezoelectric grating is excited using the pulse with the exponent ramp-
up and ramp-down fronts (Fig 4.51 a). The excited signal has almost
the same waveform, when the exciting pulses are delayed (Fig 4.51 c)
using the shift circuit (Fig. 4.50 a).
1
a(x0,t)

1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t, mks
t, µs
a)
5
a(x0,t)

5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t, mks
t, µs
b)
5
a(x0,t)

5
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t, mks
t, µs
c)
Fig 4.51. Finite duration excitation pulse (a) and the waveforms of
signal at the surface spot Q, when the exciting signals are
not delayed (b) and are delayed (c)

123
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

Comparing Fig. 4.51 b and Fig 4.51 c, we see that the waveform and
amplitude are similar, but the delay time differs notably.

Piezoelectric gratings (m = 1, 2, 3, 4) were made in order to perform the


research. Strip-shaped piezo-crystals (made of the piezoceramics CTS-
19, l = 15 mm, h = 1.0 mm, d = 1.5 mm) were glued to the duralumin
sample using an epoxy resin. The piezo-crystals were excited at the
resonant frequency of the thickness mode. The emitted LSAW pulse
signal was received using the angular transducer with a variable angle,
when the angle matched the maximal received signal amplitude (the
first critical angle). The piezo-crystal, used in the angular transducer,
was made of the piezoceramics CTS-19 (l = 11 mm, h = 1,0 mm, d = 8
mm), the prism – of Plexiglas. Signals were registered using the digital
signal analyzer. Experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 4.52 a.

PULSE SIGNAL
DELAY
ANALYZER
GENERATOR CIRCUIT
PCS64i

Piezoelectric Angular transducer


grating

ϑ
LSAW

Sample
a)

b)
Fig. 4.52. Piezoelectric grating investigation schemating (a) and
photograph of piezoelectric grating together with the
angular transducer (b)

124
4.3 Experimental SAW research

The piezoelectric grating consisting of four piezo-crystals (m = 4) was


excited using a shock voltage. Acoustic signal was received at the
distance x0 = 20 mm. The received pulse signal and its spectrum are
shown in Fig. 4.53.
The acoustic signal generated by the piezoelectric grating (Fig.
4.53 a) consists of LSAW corresponding to the thickness mode of
vibration (1). There are two different frequency pulses of TSAW that
match thickness (2) and transverse modes of vibration (3).

a) b)

Fig. 4.53. Typical acoustic signal (m=4) (a) and its spectrum (b)

The thickness mode resonant frequency in the signal spectrum is 2.05


MHz and the transverse mode resonant frequency is 1.24 MHz.

Other generated LSAW signals are shown in Fig. 4.54. The LSAW,
generated by an elementary piezo-crystal (m = 1) is shown in Fig. 4.54
a (x0 =20 mm). The LSAW, generated by the piezoelectric grating of
four elements (m = 4), is shown in Fig 4.54 b (x0 = 20 mm). The
obtained results can be compared with the generated signal using the
angular transducer (Fig. 4.54 c). The signal amplitude dependence upon
quantity of piezo-crystals is shown in Fig. 4.55. The dependence shows
that sensitivity of the angular transducer is less than sensitivity of the
two piezo-crystals (m = 2) grating.

125
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

a)

b)

c)
Fig. 4.54. LSAW signals, generated using one piezo-crystal (a),
grating when m=4 (b), and the angular transducer (c)

126
4.3 Experimental SAW research

250
200

,A, mV
150
100
50
0
0 1 2 3 4
m
Fig. 4.55. Dependence of signal amplitude on quantity of
piezo-crystals in the grating. Dotted line shows the pulse
amplitude, generated using the angular transducer

Experimental investigations show that a piezoelectric grating is more


sensitive than the angular transducer, when grating consists of m ≥ 2
piezo-crystals.

Piezoelectric gratings generate the LSAW together with the TSAW or


the TSAW. That does not interfere to carry out measurements and NDT
using the LSAW, because the velocity of the LSAW is the fastest.

4.3.4 Investigations of LSAW and TSAW excitation by


pulse laser

LSAW excitation by pulse laser can be useful for the practical


purposes especially for measurements, because short ultrasonic pulses
can be excited in this way and the SAW exciting point on the surface is
fixed precisely.

LSAW excitation possibilities were researched by the


experimental equipment; its schematic is shown in Fig. 4.56 [112, 113].

Pulse ruby laser generating light pulse (Λ = 0.694 µm) was used
for exciting SAW on solid surface (Fig 4.56). The run of
equipment is synchronized by light pulse (Fig. 4.57 a) registered
by photodiode.

127
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

SIGNAL
DELAY
ANALYZER
BLOCK
PCS64i

PULSE
LASER SYNCHRONIZER

Photosensor
ϑ

SAW receiver
TSAW

LSAW

Solid body

Fig. 4.56. Experimental schematig for the measurements of SAW


excited by pulse laser

The pulse duration τi ≈ 3.44 µs and front length τf ≈ 0.5 µs are enlarged
because of narrow band width of photosensor sensitivity frequency
characteristics and are observed in oscillogram at the level of −6 dB.
According to technical certificate the ruby laser generated pulse
duration τi ≈ 1 µs. LSAW and TSAW are excited on the solid surface
because of thermo-acoustic effect and are received by the 1.8 MHz
angular transducer of variable angle when the angle ϑcrI < ϑ < ϑcrII .
So, at the same time both types of SAW can be registered on the screen
of spectrum analyzer (Fig. 4.57 b). LSAW pulse propagating in
maximal speed is the first and then goes TSAW pulse and reverberation
signals in prism of the angular transducer.

For the increase of signal exciting sensitivity, laser beam was focused
on the sample surface to the line segment by cylindrical lens and gap
diaphragm (Fig. 4.58). The width of focused beam is d ≈ 0.2 mm, and
the line segment length is ≈ 15 mm.

128
4.3 Experimental SAW research

a) b)

Fig. 4.57 Form of laser pulse received by photosensor (a)


and SAW pulses excited in duralumin sample (b)

Collimator Cilindrical lens Gap diaphragm Sample

d
Laser beam
z

a)

Fig. 4.58. Laser beam cylindrical focusing


(a) and the fragment of
investigation device (b)

b)

129
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

Pyroceram sample CO-115M of 120 × 60 × 30 mm was used for


measurements where cL = 6508 m/s, cLSAW = 7030 m/s; 1.8 MHz,
LSAW length λLSAW = 3.9 mm, ϑcrI = 23°. Surface of the sample
lightened by laser beam was blackened for the larger laser beam energy
absorption and LSAW exciting efficiency also.

LSAW receiver ϑ crI

Laser beam h
LSAW

Solid body

Fig. 4.59. Schematic for measurement LSAW penetration depth

For the research of LSAW penetration depth the distance h was


changed by a step ∆ h = 1 mm (Fig. 59) and LSAW signal amplitude
was registered. The measured dependence is shown in Fig. 4.60. It can
be seen that maximal amplitude signal is obtained when h ≈ 5 mm =
1.28λLSAW, differently as in the case of TSAW when maximal amplitude
signal is obtained when h = 0.

Fig. 4.60. Dependence of LSAW signal ratio amplitude on the


distance h. Pyroceram CO-115M, f = 1.8 MHz

130
4.3 Experimental SAW research

It is also seen that signal amplitude change has the oscillation character.
It corresponds the theoretical conclusions obtained in work [35] where
measured LSAW penetration depth is between λLSAW and 2λLSAW.

4.3.5 Lamb waves exciting by LSAW and TSAW


transducers

LW are SAW in thin plates. The plate has two surfaces, so their
vibrations because of a small thickness interact resonantly and LW are
disperse. Besides, many different modes can be excited and also several
types of LW (Table 1.1) and their phase velocity is not equal to the
group velocity of energy transfer.

LW can be also excited and received by angular transducer, as it is


shown in Fig. 4.61.

Angular transducer Plate

BLW LW
d
BTW

Fig. 4.61. LW exciting on the solid body plate. Full lines show BLW
and dot lines show BTW

So, LW is the result of BLW and BTW interaction with plate surface;
its mode, phase and group velocities depend on slice thickness d,
velocities cL and cT in the material of the surface and frequency ω. As it
is seen from Fig. 4.61, LW structure receding from exciting source in
the most general case are obtained as the combination of different
origin of acoustic pulses becomes more complicated (Fig. 4.62 a). This
reflects in its spectrum (Fig. 4.62 b), so it is relevant to determine the
regularities and conditions when LW propagate as the resonant process
of maximal amplitude.
131
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

a) b)

Fig. 4.62. LW excited by the angular transducer in the duralumin


plate of 3 mm thickness (a) and its spectrum (b)

For practical purposes it is very important to know the exciting


sensitivity, how it depends on angular transducers of exciting angle, to
investigate LSAW and TSAW transducer characteristics by exciting
LW in plates.

Experimentally analyzing LW in special samples made of 6063-T6


duralumin alloy (Fig. 4.63) it was determined that LSAW and TSAW
transducers established LW pulse signals and their spectra are different
even exciting ultrasonic pulses of the same form and duration (Fig.
4.64, Fig. 4.65). This obvious result is commented by different LSAW
and TSAW interaction with the slice surface and different structure of
transducers acoustic field. TSAW transducer (ϑ = ϑcrII ) excites in the
plate creeping on the surface transversal wave causing harmonic
vibrations and LSAW transducer (ϑ = ϑcrI ) creates on the plate not only
the wave component but also side BTW and because of it multiple
reflection from the surface, BLW occur also (Fig. 4.64). So, pulse
signal form of LW excited by LSAW transducer is more complicated
(pulse is of interferential character, longer).

132
4.3 Experimental SAW research

a)

b)

c)
Fig. 4.63 LW pulses and their spectra excited by 3.0 MHz LSAW
transducer in duralumin plates. Thickness of the plate:
a) 20 mm; b) 2 mm; c) 1 mm

133
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

a)

b)

c)
Fig. 4.64. LW pulses and their spectra excited by 3.0 MHz TSAW
transducer in duralumin plates. Thickness of the plate:
a) 20 mm; b) 2 mm; c) 1 mm
134
4.3 Experimental SAW research

The attention to the different signal velocities (time delay, having


spread the equal distance between radiation and receiving transducers
equal to 75 mm) must be pointed out. TSAW does not interact with the
other sample surface when sample thickness d ratio with the
wavelength is d/λTSAW > 1 (Fig. 4.64 a) and such a wave can not be
called LW yet. It must be mentioned also that LW excited by TSAW
signals are of bigger amplitude than excited by LSAW.

LW are broadly applied to the NDT of shells (plates, pipes, thin wall
profiles), constructing transducer of echolocation systems operating in
acoustically soft environment (air). LW attenuate considerably less and
their vibration amplitudes are much bigger than TSAW or LSAW. They
are easily excited and propagate not only in plates, but in the shells
also.

It should be noticed that LW and acoustic resonance systems oscillating


in those waves are broadly applied in sound frequency band. Namely
LW propagating in sounding board of stringed instruments (guitar,
grand piano) provide pleasant specific sound and allows to increase the
sound power.

4.3.6 Investigation of mechanical tension in sheet products


by symmetrical Lamb waves

LSAW excited on the surface of isotropic solid surfaces by the first


critical angle are characterized by the bigger longitudinal component of
surface material point of vibrant amplitude than transversal component.
This determines their property to propagate in phase velocity close to
the BLW phase velocity depending also on the Poisson’s ratio of the
solid. The prediction that LSAW phase velocity must depend on solid
surface layer mechanical state can be made. It was theoretically proved
that in sheet products with the thickness of h << λLW (λLW is the length
of the LW) the dispersal symmetric (s0) and antisymmetrical (a0) LW
waves of zero order can be excited. Experimentally it was set that in
sheet products by the angle transducer matched for the first critical
angle, the excited wave on the sheet is symmetric LW of a zero mode.

135
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

The purpose of this work was to investigate experimentally the


properties and the dependence on the mechanical stress of the sheet of
symmetric s0 LW excited by LSAW transducer.

The material point moves in the trajectory of the ellipse with the
longitudinal component ξ x > ξ z (where ξz is normale component; λL is
BLW length) in the BLW excited by the ϑcrI .

Tangential ξ x and normal ξ z vibration components in symmetric wave


are described by the equation [73]:

 
 sh q z
ξ Sz = − AS qS  S − 2 k ( )
s 2
LW ⋅
sh s S  ei (k LW x −ω t ),
z  s
(4.33)
 sh q h k s


S
2
( )2 2
LW + s S sh s S 
h
2

 
S  e i (k LW x −ω t −π / 2 ),
 ch q z 2 q s ch s z  s
s  S − S S
ξ Sx = AS k LW ⋅
 sh q


S
h
2
( )
s
k LW
2 h
+ sS2 sh 2sS 
2
(4.34)

where: AS = const; qS = (kLW


2 2
) − kL2 ; sS = (k LW
s
)2 − kT2 ;
s s
k LW = ω h / 2cLW is the number of symmetric LW, kL and kT are the
numbers of BLW and BTW; h is the thickness of the plate; ω =2πf, f is
s
the frequency; cLW is the phase velocity of symmetric LW.

Symmetric LW are dispersal and cLWs depends not only on the thickness
of the sheet h, but also on the sound velocity in sheet material and
changes from the meaning (
E / ρ 1− µ2 ) to the cTSAW (Fig. 4.65);
where E is Young module; ρ is the density; µ is Poisson’s ratio; cTSAW is
the phase velocity of TSAW [73].

136
4.3 Experimental SAW research

s
cLW /cT

2.0

1.5

1.0
0 1.0 2.0 3.0 ωh/cT

Fig. 4.65. Theoretical dependence of symmetrical LW (s0) phase


velocity on TSAW velocity [73]

It excites symmetric LW s0, with dominating longitudinal component in


acoustically thin sheets (h << λL) because of LSAW interaction with
both free sheet surfaces. Physical origin of such wave determines that
the features of s0 wave more depend not on the transversal but on
longitudinal component propagation determining factors. One of such
factors is the mechanical tension of the material changing the material
density and Poisson’s ratio µ.

Special form strip-shaped samples with the broadened ends for better
fixing in stretch mechanism (Fig 4.66) were made from bronze sheet
for the research of excited LSAW s0 mode symmetric LW. The
thickness of the sheet was h = 0.09 mm.

d0 d

Fig. 4.66. Form of the sample

The sample is fixed in the stretch mechanism and the signal of


symmetric LW is excited in its narrowed part by LSAW angle
transmitter received by the analogues LSAW receiver situated in the
distance l0 from the transmitter.

137
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

DELAY
BLOCK
∆T

PULSE SIGNAL
GENERATOR ANALYZER
Emitter Receiver

LW
TENSION
MEASURER

Fig. 4.67. Research schematic

The received s0 mode LW ultrasound signal is indicated by digital


signal analyzer and synchronized by the delayed pulses of electric pulse
generator (Fig. 4.67). Its amplitude and the position in time axis are
measured at the same time. As it is seen from the theoretical disperse
dependence (Fig. 4.65), phase velocity of symmetric s0 mode LW
quickly changes in the limits cTSAW < cLW s < 2cTSAW, when ωh/2cT
changes from 2.5 to 1. Strip-shaped sample is in the range of strong
symmetric LW dispersion, when the ultrasound signal frequency f = 2
MHz, bronze sheet thickness h = 0.09 mm, and parameter ωh/2cT ≈
1.88 (cT ≈ 3000 m/s). s0 mode dispersal LW phase velocity is calculated
having changed the distance between transducer by the dimension ∆ l0 =
32 mm and having measured the shift of the received signal in time
axis ∆τ = 7.69 µs, when mechanical tension W = 0 ( cLW s = ∆l0/∆τ =
4160 m/s).

The dependencies ∆AS(W) and ∆τ(W) were measured during the


research changing the mechanical tension W = F/dh (in our case
F is the sample dragging power in the direction x (Fig. 4.66) and
recording the change of received ultrasound amplitude ∆AS and
time shift ∆τs.

Ultrasound signals, spread by the bronze strip-shaped sample,


registered in the screen of spectrum analyzer PCS64i discreetly
changing mechanical tension W, are shown in Fig. 4.68 [115].
138
4.3 Experimental SAW research

a)

b)

Fig. 4.68. Ultrasound pulse s0 mode LW signals excited and received


by the angular LSAW transducer, when a ) W = 0;
b) W = 92.6 N/mm2

It was noticed that when the mechanical tension increases, s0 mode LW


s
signal amplitude AS and phase propagation velocity cLW decrease.

LW attenuation calculated according measurement results dependencies


s
AS/(AS)max(W) and cLW (W) of s0 mode are shown in Fig. 4.69 and
Fig. 4.70.

139
4 LSAW RESEARCH METHODS

Stretching strip-shaped sample changes as the amplitude of the signal


(attenuation) as the phase velocity, but the dependence cLW s is
comparatively weak, so it is recommended to control mechanical
tension and the state of strip-shaped construction measuring s0 mode
LW attenuation.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
AS /(AS)max , dB

-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
-14

W ,N/mm2

Fig. 4.69. s0 mode LW signal amplitude dependence on


mechanical tension

50
45
40
35
csLW, m/s

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

W, N/mm2
Fig. 4.70. s0 mode LW phase velocity dependence on mechanical
tension

140
4.3 Experimental SAW research

The angle transducers in this case do not fit the best because the
measurements of signal amplitude (attenuation) are sensitive to
the stability of transducer acoustic contact. Strip-shaped piezo-
crystals or their gratings would be more promising for the
exciting and receiving s0 mode LW [114].

It was theoretically and experimentally shown than symmetric LW can


be excited effectively in acoustically thin sheet by the angular
ultrasound angle matched for the first critical angle. The attenuation of
those waves strongly depends on the mechanical stress of the sheet and
the measurements of the attenuation of symmetric waves can be
effectively used for the mechanical state research of sheet materials by
NDT method.
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3. Auld B. A. Surface Wave Theory // IEEE Transaction on Sonics &
Ultrasonics. SU-18. N 1 (January 1971).
4. Kino G. S. Acoustic Waves: Devices, Imaging and Analog Signal
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6. Brekhovskikh L. M. Waves in Layered Media. New York: Academic
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7. Physical Acoustics. Ed. W. P. Mason. Moscow, Mir, Vol. 5 (1973)
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Technik. Zürich, 1954.
10. Viktorov I. A. Physical Basis of Application Ultrasonic Rayleigh and
Lamb Waves in Technics. Moscow. Science (1966): 167 p.(In Russian).
11. Viktorov I. A. Rayleigh and Lamb Waves: Physical Theory and
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APPENDIXES
Appendix 1

Technical data of digital signal analyzer PCS64i


General
• Two separate channels
• Input impedance: 1 MOhm/30 pF
• Input bandwidth: 13 MHz
• Maximum input voltage: 100V
• Maximum readout error: 2.5 %
• Vertical resolution: 8 bit
• Real time sampling frequency: 32 MHz (max)
• Oversampling: 64 MHz

Minimum system requirements


• IBM compatible PC
• Windows 98
• 480 Kb free conventional memory
• Arithmetic coprocessor needed for RMS readout and spectrum analyzer

Oscilloscope
• Timebase: 100 ns to 100 ms per division
• Trigger source: CH1, CH2 or free run
• Trigger edge: rising or falling
• Trigger level: adjustable in steps of ½ division
• Step interpolation linear or smoothed
• Markers for voltage and frequency
• Input sensitivity: 10 mV to 5 V/division
• True RMS readout

Spectrum analyzer
• Frequency range: 0 - 800 Hz to 16 MHz
• Linear or logarithmic timescale
• Operating principle: FFT (fast Fourier Transform)
• FFT resolution: 2048 lines
• FFT input channel: CH1 or CH2
• Zoom function
• Markers for amplitude and frequency

153
Appendix 2

a)

b)
Signal form (a) and its spectrum (b) in the screen of digital analyzer PCS64i

154
Appendix 3

Physical and electrical constants of materials


The tables of main parameters, illustrating the properties of some
usually in ultrasound technique used materials (isotropic solid bodies,
monocrystals, liquids, and plastic) are given in this appendix. The
exceptional attention is given to piezoelectric materials (Table 1)
whereof the ultrasound converters for the exciting of SAW are
produced.

The data in literature [4, 27, 65, 105] and also A. Selfridge, R. and G.
Diedrich data published in Internet [71, 116] are used for the formation
of the tables. The author has measured a part of TSAW and LSAW
velocity values.

The attention that the values of different alloys, glasses, polymeric


compounds or piezoceramic acoustic parameters in literature varies and
can differ by types or names in different countries must be taken into
account. It is noticed that the values of piezoceramic (CTS) parameters
made in Russia in handbooks are shown with the dispersion of ±10%.

155
APPENDIXES

Table 1. Physical ratio of piezoelectrics

Ratio of
Dielectric
cL (cT), Density Electrome-
Piezoelectric Permitti-
m/s ρ, g/cm3 chanical
vity ε
Coupling, kT

Barium Titanate, BaTiO3 5640 5.55 1200 0.46


Zinc Oxide, ZnO 6100 5.64 11,0 0.41
Quartz, X-cut 5750 2.65 4.5 0.095
Lithium Iodide, LiJ 4100 4.54 8.2 0.5-0.6
Lithium Niobate, LiNbO3:
Z-cut 7730 4.64 - 0.49
Y-cut (3800) 4.64 - 0.55
Lithium Sulphate, Li2SO4
Y-cut 5460 2.06 10.3 0.38
Lithium Tantalate, LiTaO3 7300 6.16 45-63 0.31
Seignette Salt, KNaC4H4O6 3080 1.77 70 0.56
Lead Zirconate Titanate:
PZT-2 4410 7.6 450 0.38
PZT-4 4600 7.5 1300 0.51
PZT-5A 4350 7.75 1700 0.45
PZT-5H 4560 7.5 3400 0.39
PZT-8 3400 7.6 1000 0,29
* *
CTS-19 3300 7.45 1880 0.4
* *
CTS-21 3650 7.0 625 0.2
* *
CTS-22 3800 7.0 900 0.2
* *
CTS-23 3200 7.4 1075 0.43
*
CTS-24 3200 7.4 1075 0.45

* Parameter mean value.

156
APPENDIXES

Table 1. (continued) Physical ratio of piezoelectrics

Ratio of
Dielectric
cL (cT), Density Electrome-
Piezoelectric Permitti-
m/s ρ, g/cm3 chanical
vity ε
Coupling, kT

K180 4000 7.7 425 -


K270 4060 7.5 1300 -
K350 3960 7.7 1700 -
K500 3960 7.6 2700 -
K550 4080 7.8 3000 -
Lead Metaniobate, PbNb2O6:
K-81 3050 6.2 300 0.30
K-83 5480 4.5 175 -
K-85 3350 5.7 80 -
Lead Titanate, PbTiO3:
KNTA 4170 7.5 170 -
KN3B 4270 7.65 215 0.51
Tellurium, Te: -
X-cut 2410 6.24 346 -
Y-cut (1470) 6.24 53 -
Tourmaline, Z-cut 7150 3.1 7.5 0.098
PVDF 2200 1.78 12 0.2-0.3

157
APPENDIXES

Table 2. Acoustic parameters of metals and alloys

Poisson’s
cTSAW, cLSAW, Density
Metals and Alloys cL, m/s cT, m/s Ratio
m/s m/s ρ, g/cm3
µ

Aluminum, Al 6320 3130 2900 6020 2.70 0.345


Tin, Sn 3320 1670 1560 3250 7.29 0.31
Gold, Au 3240 1200 1120 2140 19.32 0.44
Beryllium, Be 12900 8880 7870 - 1.82 0.046
Bismuth, Bi 2180 1100 1030 2100 9.80 0.33
Brass 4280 2300 2200 4170 8.56 0.378
Bronze (phosph.) 3530 2230 2010 - 8.86 0.38
Chromium, Cr 6650 4030 - - 7.0 0.21
Zinc, Zn 4170 2410 2220 - 7.1 0.25
Zirconium, Zr 4650 2250 2660 - 6.47 0.35
Duralumin 6400 3120 3100 6160 2.8 0.335
Gallium, Ga 2740 - - - 5.95 -
Iron, Fe 5900 3230 2790 6160 7.69 0.29
Germanium, Ge 5410 - - - 5.47 0.31
Inconel 5820 3020 - - 8.28 0,31
Cadmium, Cd 2780 1500 1400 2870 8.64 0.30
Constantan 5240 1040 - - 8.88 0.327
Manganese, Mn 4660 2350 - - 7.39 -
Cupronickel 4760 2160 - - 8.4 0.37
Molybdenum, Mo 6250 3350 3110 - 10.2 0.29
Monel 5400 2700 1960 - 8.82 0.33
Nickel, Ni 5630 2960 2640 5720 8.88 0.30
Platinum, Pt 3960 1670 1570 3350 21.4 0.377

158
APPENDIXES

Table 2 (continued). Acoustic parameters of metals and alloys

Poisson’s
cTSAW, cLSAW, Density
Metals and Alloys cL, m/s cT, m/s Ratio.
m/s m/s ρ, g/cm3
σ

Steel 5900 3200 - - 7.9 0.298


Steel (austenit.) 5660 3120 - - 8.03 -
Radium, Ra 8220 4110 4030 - 5.0 -
Silver, Ag 3600 1590 1480 3170 10.3 0.367
Lead, Pb 2160 700 630 1440 11.4 0.44
Tantalum, Ta 4100 1140 - - 16.6 -
Titanium, Ti 6070 3310 3200 - 4.50 0.32
Uranium, U 3370 1980 - - 18.7 0.24
Vanadium V 6000 2780 - - 6.03 0.36
Copper, Cu 4660 2260 1930 4430 8.93 0.34
Tungsten, W 5180 2870 2650 - 19.25 0.27

159
APPENDIXES

Table 3. Acoustic parameters of solids

Poisson’s
cL, cT, Density ρ,
Solid Ratio
m/s m/s g/cm3
µ

Boric Carbide, B6C 11000 - 2.40 -


Diamond 17500 - 3.52 -
Faience (pottery) 5600 3600 2.4 0.23
Granite 6500 2700 4.1 -
Silica (fused), SiO2 5960 3760 2.20 0.17
Corundum, SiC 13060 7270 3.22 -
Ice, H2O 3990 1980 0.92 0.34
Marble 6150 3810 2,7 -
Porcelain 5900 - 2.3 -
Sapphire, Al2O3 11100 6040 3.99 -
Glass: -
- flint 4260 2690 3.60 0.24*
- crown (reg.) 5660 3520 2.60 0.28
- crown (heaviest) 5260 3260 - -
- quartz 5700 3520 2.60 -
- window 6790 3400 2.6 -
- Pyrex 5640 3280 2.24 0.24
Titanium Carbide, TiC 8270 5160 5.15 -

160
APPENDIXES

Table 3 (continued). Acoustic parameters of solids

Poisson’s
cL, cT, Density ρ,
Plastics, rubbers Ratio
m/s m/s g/cm3
µ

Cellulose Acetate,
HO⋅C6H7O(CH3⋅COO)2 2450 - 1.30 -
* *
Epoxy resin 2650 1100 1.17 0.37
Resin
Acrylic 2730 1430 1.18 -
Silicone 1027 - 1.05 -
Rubber 1600 - - -
Kapron 2640 - - 2.9
Nylon 6,6 2600 1100 1.12 0.39
Plexiglas 2730 1430 1.18 0.40
* *
Polyamide 2400 1150 1.1-1.2 -
Polyethylene (low density) 1950 540 0.92 0.46
Polyethylene (high density) 2430 - 0.96 -
Polyisobutylene 1490 - - -
Polymethylacrylate 1260 - - -
Polypropylene, Profax 2740 1050 0.88 -
Polystyrene 2340 1150 1.06 0.35
Polyvinyl Butyrall 2350 - 1.11 -
Polyvinylchloryde, PVC 2395 1060 1.34 -
Teflon 1350 550 2.2 -

161
APPENDIXES

Table 4. Acoustic parameters of liquids

Acoustic
Density ρ, Impedance
Liquid cL, m/s
g/cm3 Z0, g/cm2⋅s

Acetone, (CH3)2CO 1170 0.790 0.924


Oil:
Olive 1430 0.948 1.36
Fluorosilicone 760 - -
Motor 1740 0.870 1.51
Paraffin 1420 0.835 1.19
Castor, C11H10O10 1480 0.969 1.43
Silicone 1350 1.11 1.50
Linseed 1770 0.992 1.76
Transformer 1390 0.92 1.28
Carbon Tetrachloride, CCl4 930 1.595 1.48
Benzol, C6H6 1330 0.878 1.17
Gasoline 1250 0.803 1.00
Diesel Oil 1250 0.8 1.00
Ethylene Glycol, CH2OH⋅CH2OH 1660 1.11 1.84
Mercury, Hg 1450 13.53 19.6
Glycerine, CH2OH⋅CHOH⋅CH2OH 1920 1.26 2.42
Honey 2030 1.42 2.88
Petroleum 1290 0.825 1.06
Alcohol:
Butyl, C4H9 OH 1240 0.810 1.00
Ethyl, C2H5 OH 1180 0.789 0.93
Methyl, CH3 OH 1120 0.792 0.887
Prophyl (i), C3H7 OH 1170 0.786 0.920

162
APPENDIXES

Table 4 (continued). Acoustic parameters of liquids

Acoustic
Density Impedance
Liquid cL, m/s
ρ, g/cm3 Z0, g/cm2⋅s

Turpentine 1280 0.893 1.14


Water:
H2O (20° C) 1480 1.00 1.48
D2O 1400 1.104 1.55
Sea 1530 1.025 1.57
Kerosene 1320 0.81 1.07

163
Appendix 4

Angle beam probes of Panametrics Company (USA)

Table 1

Diameter of
Frequency,
Probe Prism Piezo-crystal,
MHz
mm

A539S-SM, V539-SM ABWML-5T * 13 1.0


AS40S-SM, V540-SM − − 2.25
A545S-SM, V545-SM − − 3.5
A541S-SM, V541-SM − − 5.0
A547S-SM, V547-SM ABWM-5ST * − 10.0

A548S-SM ABWM-7T * 10 1.5


A549S-SM, V549-SM − − 2.25
A550S-SM, V550-SM − − 3.5
A551S-SM, V551-SM − − 5.0
A552S-SM, V552-SM ABWM-7ST * − 10.0

A542S-SM, V542-SM ABWM-4T * 6 2.25


A546S-SM, V546-SM − − 3.5
A543S-SM, V543-SM − − 5.0
A544S-SM, V544-SM ABWM-4ST * − 10.0

A534S-RM, V534-RM ABWML-5 * 13 2.25


A536S-RM, V536-RM − − 5.0
A538S-RM, V538-RM ABWML-5S * − 10.0

A533S-RM, V533-RM ABWML-4 * 6 2.25


A535S-RM, V535-RM − − 5.0
A537S-RM, V537-RM ABWM-4S * − 10.0

*
Prisms are produced of 30°, 35°, 45°, 60° and 70°

164
APPENDIXES

Table 2

Diameter
Frequency,
Probe Prism of piezo-
MHz
crystal, mm

A420S-SB ABWS-6 * 15×15 2.25


A421S-SB − 15×18,5 −
A422S-SB − 18×18,5 −

*
Prisms are produced of 45°, 60° and 70°

Table 3

Diameter
Frequency,
Probe Prism of piezo-
MHz
crystal, mm

A414S-SB, V414R-SB ABWSL-3 * 25 0.5


A407S-SB, V407R-SB − − 1.0
A408S-SB, V408R-SB − − 2.25
A411S-SB − − 3.5
A409S-SB, V409R-SB − − 5.0

A402S-SB, V402-SB ABWSL-1* 13 1.0


A404S-SB, V404-SB − 2.25
A415S-SB − 3,5
A406S-SB. V406-SB 5.0

A413S-SB, V413-SB ABWSL-2 * 0.5
13×25
A401S-SB, V401-SB − 1.0
A403S-SB, V403-SB − 2.25
A412S-SB − 3.5
A405S-SB, V405-SB − 5.0

*
Prisms are produced of 30°, 35°, 45°, 60°, and 70°

165
APPENDIXES

Table 4

Diameter
Probe Frequency,
Prism of piezo-
MHz
crystal, mm

A5033 OP-4 * 6 2.25


A5037 − − 3.5
A5038 − − 5.0

*
Prisms are produced of 45°, 60°, and 70°

Table 5

Diameter
Frequency,
Probe Prism of piezo-
MHz
crystal, mm

A430S-SB ABWS-8 * 15×15 2.25


A431S-SB − 15×18,5 −
A432S-SB − 18×18,5 −

*
Prisms are produced of 45°, 60° and 70°

166
Appendix 5

Angle beam probe of Krautkramer-NDT Company


(Germany)
Table 1

Diameter of
Frequency, Radiation
Probe Piezo-crystal,
MHz Angle
mm

K0,5S+KSY45S 34 0.5 45°


K1S+KSY45 34 1.0 45°
K1SM+KSMY45 28 1.0 45°

K1SC+KSMY45 24 1.0 45°


K2SC+KSMY45 24 2.0 45°

WRY45 24 1.5 45°


WRY60 24 1.5 60°
WRY70 24 1.5 70°

WSY45-2 10 2.0 45°


WSY60-2 10 2.0 60°
WSY70-2 10 2.0 70°
WSY45-4 10 4.0 45°
WSY60-4 10 4.0 60°
WSY70-4 10 4.0 70°

Table 2

Dimensions of
Frequency,
Probe Piezo-crystal, Radiation Angle
MHz
mm

SMWK45-5 3×4 5.0 45°


SMWKB60-5 3×4 5.0 60°
SMWK70-5 3×4 5.0 70°

167
APPENDIXES
Table 3

Dimensions of
Frequency,
Probe Piezo-crystal, Radiation angle
MHz
mm

SWB45-2 14×14 2.0 45°


SWB60-2 14×14 2.0 60°
SWB70-2 14×14 2,0 70°
SWB45-5 14×14 5.0 45°
SWB60-5 14×14 5.0 60°
SWB70-5 14×14 5.0 70°
WK45-1 20×22 1.0 45°
WK60-1 20×22 1.0 60°
WK70-1 20×22 1.0 70°
WK45-1 20×22 2,0 45°
WK60-1 20×22 2.0 60°
WK70-1 20×22 2.0 70°
SWK45-2 14×14 2.0 45°
SWK60-2 14×14 2.0 60°
SWK70-2 14×14 2.0 70°
MWB35-2 8×9 2.0 35°
MWB45-2 8×9 2.0 45°
MWB60-2 8×9 2.0 60°
MWB70-2 8×9 2.0 70°
MWB80-2 8×9 2.0 80°
MWB35-4 8×9 4.0 35°
MWB45-4 8×9 4.0 45°
MWB60-4 8×9 4.0 60°
MWB70-4 8×9 4.0 70°
MWB80-4 8×9 4.0 80°
MWK45-2 8×9 2.0 45°
MWK60-2 8×9 2.0 60°
MWK70-2 8×9 2.0 70°
MWK45-4 8×9 4.0 45°
MWK60-4 8×9 4.0 60°
MWK70-4 8×9 4.0 700

168
APPENDIXES

Table 4

Dimensions of
Frequency,
Probe Piezo-crystal, Radiation Angle
MHz
mm

WB45-1 20×22 1.0 45°


WB60-1 20×22 1.0 60°
WB70-1 20×22 1.0 70°

WB35-2 20×22 2.0 35°


WB60-2 20×22 2.0 60°
WB70-2 20×22 2.0 70°
WB80-2 20×22 2.0 80°
WB45-2 20×22 2.0 45°

WB35-4 20×22 4.0 35°


WB45-4 20×22 4.0 45°
WB60-4 20×22 4.0 60°
WB70-4 20×22 4.0 70°

Table 5

Dimensions of
Frequency,
Probe Piezo-crystal, Radiation Angle
MHz
mm

MUWB 2N 8×9 2.0 0…90°


MUWB 4N 8×9 4.0 0…90°

169
Appendix 6

Angle beam probe of company “Volna” (Moldova)

The Width of
Frequency, Radiation
Probe the Frequency
MHz Angle
Band, MHz

П121-1,25-300-002 1.25 0.25 30°±2


П121-1,25-400-002 1.25 0.25 40°±2
П121-1,25-500-002 1.25 0.25 50°±2
П121-1,25-700-002 1.25 0.25 70°±2

П121-1,8-300-002 1.8 0.35 30°±2


П121-1,8-400-002 1.8 0.36 40°±2
П121-1,8-500-002 1.8 0.36 50°±2
П121-1,8-700-002 1.8 0.36 70°±3

П121-2,5-300-002 2.5 0.5 30°±2


П121-2,5-400-002 2.5 0.5 40°±2
П121-2,5-500-002 2.5 0.5 50°±2
П121-2,5-700-002 2.5 0.5 70°±3
П121-4,0-300-002 5.0 1.0 30°±2
П121-4,0-400-002 5.0 1.0 40°±2
П121-4,0-500-002 5.0 1.0 50°±2
П121-4,0-700-002 5.0 1.0 70°±3

170
LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTICAL
WAVES (CREEPING WAVES)
By Prof. Habil. Dr. Stanislovas SAJAUSKAS

SUMMARY

This book is intended to contribute to ongoing work on Longitudinal


Surface Acoustic Waves (LSAW) in isotropic solids. Discovered in
1972 by L. Sereikaite-Juozonienė at the Kaunas University of
Technology (Lithuania), they are the antipodes of Rayleigh waves. The
author recapitulates the discovery, provides a literature survey, and
notes the ensuing problem with the acceptance of the discovery by the
scientific community. A synopsis of research results obtained in
Lithuania, Germany, Russia, and the USA as well as potential
applications are included. The author performed some of the reported
research himself.

LSAW are analyzed by comparing them to Rayleigh waves.


Considering the physical nature of Rayleigh waves the author calls
them the Transversal Surface Acoustic Waves (TSAW). The
comparison disclosed the differences between and identified the
similarities of LSAW and TSAW, thus articulating their unique
characteristics. It was shown theoretically and substantiated
experimentally that LSAW differ from TSAW in a number of features.
The phase velocity of LSAW is approximately two times higher than
that of TSAW. LSAW attenuation is more pronounced, being
conditioned by emissions of sidelong bulk acoustic waves. Also,
LSAW are manifested by deeper penetration into solids. Finally,
different excitation environments for the two types of waves are
evident. It was demonstrated that LSAW can be excited using the
angular method by directing bulk longitudinal waves to the surface at
the first critical angle while TSAW are typically excited at the second
171
SUMMARY (In English)

critical angle. Also, previously reported statements about the non-


existence of LSAW were shown experimentally to be incorrect;
previous claim that the path of LSAW does not exceed more that one
wavelength, and that they can only be excited in solids with Poisson’s
ratio of µ < 0.26, proved to be in error.

Numerous experiments with duralumin (µ = 0.345) aliquots were


conducted by the author. Various possibilities exist for use of LSAW in
non-destructive testing of rough, mechanically unfinished surfaces
while searching for inner surface defects of boilers or nuclear reactors.
A design of computerized digital spectrometer, enabling one to study
LSAW and TSAW effects is described. They include reflection and
transformation of waves emanating across cylindrical surfaces in
ultrasonic 1.8–4.0 MHz range. Concluding observations include the
efficiency of the angular excitation in ultrasonic non-destructive testing
and the availability of the laser excitation for studies in precision.

The monograph extends current research work in acoustics.


Suggestions for NDT, measurement of physical parameters of solids,
and modeling of seismic phenomenon appear to offer interesting
possibilities here.
PAVIRŠINĖS IŠILGINĖS AKUSTINĖS BANGOS
(ŠLIAUŽIANČIOSIOS BANGOS)
Prof., Habil. Dr. Stanislovas SAJAUSKAS

SANTRUMPA

Knyga skirta naujo tipo paviršinių akustinių bangų, sklindančių


izotropiniuose kietuosiuose kūnuose, teoriniams ir eksperimentiniams
tyrimams. L. Sereikaitės-Juozonienės 1972 m. Kauno technologijos
universitete atrastos bangos, pavadintos paviršinėmis išilginėmis
kustinėmis bangomis (PIAB), yra Reilėjaus bangų antipodas.
Neardančiųjų bandymų srityje šios bangos neretai vadinamos ir
šliaužiančiomis bangomis (angl., creeping waves). Knygoje aprašyta
šių bangų atradimo istorija ir pasaulinio pripažinimo sunkumai, atlikta
literatūrinė analizė, pateikti jų tyrimų Lietuvoje, Rusijoje, Vokietijoje ir
JAV rezultatai, atskleistos jų panaudojimo sritys ir galimybes.

Tiriant paviršines išilgines akustines bangas jos sugretintos su Reilėjaus


bangomis. Panaudojus lyginamąjį metodą ir atsižvelgus į Reilėjaus
bangų fizikinę prigimtį autorius jas įvardijo paviršinėmis skersinėmis
akustinėmis bangomis (PSAB). Tai įgalino įtikinamai atskleisti šių
dviejų tipų paviršinių bangų – PIAB ir PSAB – panašumus ir
skirtingumus, lemiančius jų panaudojimo galimybes. Teoriškai ir
eksperimentiškai parodyta, kad PIAB esminiai skiriasi nuo PSAB
daugeliu savybių: apie dukart didesniu faziniu sklidimo greičiu,
didesniu slopimu, sąlygojamu šoninių tūrinių skersinių bangų
išspinduliavimu, gilesniu įsiskverbimu į kietojo kūno paviršių,
skirtingomis sužadinimo sąlygomis. Teoriškai ir eksperimentiškai
parodyta, kad PIAB gali būti sužadinamos kampiniu metodu, tūrines
išilgines bangas nukreipiant į kietojo kūno paviršių pirmuoju kritiniu
kampu. Tuo tarpu PSAB efektingai sužadinamos antruoju kritiniu
kampu. Išskirtine PIAB savybe yra galimybė tūrinėmis skersinėmis

173
SUMMARY (In Lithuanian)

bangomis sužadinti antrines PIAB neprieinamame, pavyzdžiui,


vidiniame kevalo (rezervuaro sienelės) paviršiuje.

Knygoje pateikta daugelio eksperimentinių tyrimų duraliuminio


(µ = 0,345) bandiniuose rezultatai, parodytos galimybės PIAB panaudoti
ultragarsiniams neardantiems gaminių bandymams, jų tarpe
šiurkštiems, mechaniškai neapdorotiems paviršiams, rezervuarų (garo
katilų, branduolinių reaktorių elementų) vidinių paviršių defektams tirti,
lakštų mechaniniam įtempiui matuoti. Čia aprašyta sukurtoji tiksli
skaitmeninė spektrometrinė aparatūra, leidusi atlikti PIAB ir PSAB
sklidimo efektų – atspindžio, transformavimosi į kito tipo paviršines
bangas, sklidimo cilindriniais paviršiais − lyginamuosius tyrimus
ultragarsiniame 1,8…4,0 MHz dažnių diapazone, pateikti jų rezultatai.
Atlikus PIAB sužadinimo metodų analizę, padaryta išvada apie
kampinio sužadinimo metodo efektyvumą ultragarsiniams neardantiems
bandymams, parodyti sužadinimo pjezoelektrinėmis gardelėmis ir
impulsiniu lazeriu naudingumas tiksliems tyrimams.

Išsamiu naujo tipo paviršinių akustinių bangų − PIAB − pristatymu


monografija praturtina akustikos mokslą, atskleidžia jų praktinio
taikymo perspektyvas ultragarsiniams neardantiems bandymams,
kietųjų kūnų fizikiniams parametrams matuoti, seisminiams reiškiniams
modeliuoti.
Briefly about the author
Stanislovas SAJAUSKAS
was born in Marijampolė district (LITHUANIA)
on February 25, 1946

Education
Marijampolė high school, 1963
Kaunas Polytechnical Institute (KPI),
Electronics Department, 1968

Professional experience
Scientific researcher at Kaunas Politechnical Institute
Prof. K.Baršauskas laboratory for ultrasound problems, 1968-1972
PhD studies at KPI, 1972-1975
Doctor of electronics, 1975
Visiting professor at Halė M. Liuther University, Germany, 1979-1980
Associate Professor, 1994
Habilitated Doctor, 1994
General scientific researcher at Kaunas University of Technology, 1995 −
Present
Professor at Kaunas University of Technology, Electronics Engineering
Department, 1997 − Present

Scientific Work
Professor S. Sajauskas works in ultrasonic measurement, SAW, NDT, acousto-
optics and holography. He is the author of 3 monographs, 70 inventions, the
manager and leader of 45 scientific research works; he has authored or co-
authored over 120 refereed papers and over 55 reports in scientific
symposiums and conferences, invited lectures at Halė M. Liuther University in
Germany in 1998, Merzeburg higher technical school in Germany in 2000.

Awards
Graduated high school with a silver medal, 1963
KPI diploma with honour, 1968
Bronze medal in the exhibition of Folk Economy Achievement, Moscow, 1984
The diploma of Lithuanian Scientific Technical Society Presidium, 1986
Award of Kazimieras Baršauskas established by Lithuanian Science
Academy, 1998

Address
Varpo g. 10-9, LT-50238, Kaunas, Lithuania
e-mail: Stanislovas.Sajauskas@tef.ktu.lt
175
Leidyklos „Technologija“ knygas galima
užsisakyti internetu www.knygininkas.lt

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KAUNO TECHNOLOGIJOS UNIVERSITETAS

Stanislovas Sajauskas

LONGITUDINAL SURFACE ACOUSTIC WAVES


(CREEPING WAVES)

Monografija

SL 344. 2004-12-15. 11 leidyb. apsk. l. Tiražas 100 egz.


Užsakymas 465. Kaina sutartinė.
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