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Name : ///DEEP SINGH

Registration / Roll No. : 331630152

Course : Master of Business Administration


Subject : Project Management

Semester : Sem II

Subject Number : MB0049 ( SET-I )

_______________ _______________ ______________

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Q.1 Describe in detail the various phases of Project management life cycle.

Ans. Projects too have to chore through their life-cycles adhering to a system. Every project
irrespective of its size, scope has to adapt a system. A system in the project management refers to
the existence of interrelationship of activities in a project. The absence of a system makes a
project die.

No matter what project it is that you’re preparing for, the project management life cycle can assist
you in narrowing your focus, keeping your objectives in order and finishing said project on time,
on budget and with a minimum of headaches. Every project management life cycle contains five
steps: Initiation, Planning, Execution, Monitoring/Control and Closure. No one step is more
important than the other and each step plays a crucial role in getting your project off the ground,
through the race, down the stretch and across the finish line.

Phases of Project management life cycle

1) Initiation

In this first step you provide an over-view of the project in addition to the strategy you plan on
using in order to achieve the desired results. During the Initiation phase you’ll appoint a project
manager who in turn will -- based on their experience and skills -- select his team members. And
lest you think you need to be a Bill Gates or Donald Trump in order to see your project take on a
life of it’s own, fear not: there are some great technological tools available to get you through the
Initiation phase of the project management life cycle.

2) Planning

The all-important second step of any successful project management life cycle is planning and
should include a detailed breakdown and assignment of each task of your project from beginning
to end. The Planning Phase will also include a risk assessment in addition to defining the criteria
needed for the successful completion of each task. In short, the working process is defined, stake
holders are identified and reporting frequency and channels explained.

3 & 4) Execution and Control

Steps Three and Four take you into deeper water. When it comes to the project management
cycle, execution and control just may be the most important of the five steps in that it ensures
project activities are properly executed and controlled. During the Execution and Control phases,
the planned solution is implemented to solve the problem specified in the project's requirements.
In product and system development, a design resulting in a specific set of product requirements is
created. This convergence is measured by prototypes, testing, and reviews. As the Execution and
Control phases progress, groups across the organization become more deeply involved in
planning for the final testing, production, and support.
5) Closure

By the time you reach Step Five -- Closure -- the project manager should be tweaking the little
things to ensure that the project is brought to its proper conclusion. The Closure phase is typically
highlighted by a written formal project review report which contains the following elements: a
formal acceptance of the final product (by the client), Weighted Critical Measurements (a match
between the initial requirements laid out by the client against the final delivered product), lessons
learned, project resources, and a formal project closure notification to higher management.

The Project Management Cycle saves time and keeps everyone on the team focused. Fortunately,
modern technology provides a variety of templates that will take you from A-to-Z (or in this case
from Start-to-Finish) making the Project Management Cycle user friendly no matter what your
level of management experience!

Q.2 List and explain the various aspects of programme management.


Project Management

Project management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of company resources.

It is clear from this definition that project management is concerned with the dynamic allocation,
utilization, and direction of resources (both human and technical), with time -- in relation to both
individual efforts and product delivery schedule -- and with costs, relating to both the acquisition
and consumption of funding. As a corollary, it is safe to say that without the direction project
management provides, work would have to proceed via a series of negotiations, and/or it would
not align with the goals, value proposition, or needs of the enterprise.

Within a program, these same responsibilities (i.e., allocation, utilization, and direction) are
assigned to people at three levels in the management hierarchy; the higher the level, the more
general the responsibilities. For example, at the bottom of the management hierarchy, project
managers are assigned to the various projects within the overall program. Each manager carries
out the management responsibilities we described above.

At the middle of the hierarchy is the program manager/director, whose major responsibility is to
ensure that the work effort achieves the outcome specified in the business and IT strategies. This
involves setting and reviewing objectives, coordinating activities across projects, and overseeing
the integration and reuse of interim work products and results. This person spends more time and
effort on integration activities, negotiating changes in plans, and communicating than on the other
project management activities we described (e.g., allocating resources, ensuring adherence to
schedule, budget, etc.).

At the top of the program management hierarchy are the program sponsor(s) and the program
steering committee. Their major responsibility is to own and oversee the implementation of the
program's underlying business and IT strategies, and to define the program's connection to the
enterprise's overall business plan(s) and direction. Their management activities include providing
and interpreting policy, creating an environment that fosters sustainable momentum for the
program (i.e., removing barriers both inside and outside the enterprise), and periodically
reviewing program progress and interim results to ensure alignment with the overall strategic

These individuals receive periodic summary reports and briefings on funding consumption,
resources and their utilization, and delivery of interim work products and results. Typically, they
will focus on these reports only if there is significant deviation from the plan.

So, let's return to the questions we posed at the start of this section: What is program
management? Is it really management at all?

If you think of management activities strictly as those we defined for project management, then
the answer to the second question is "No," or maybe "Partly." At the project level, managers do
still perform these activities, but the program manager/director addresses a different set of
program goals or needs, which requires a different "bag of tricks" as well as a different view of
what is happening and what needs to get done. And at the top of the hierarchy, the executive
leaders who set goals and oversee the program certainly do not perform the same detailed
activities as project managers

Q.3 Write a short note on the following:

a. Project progress control tools and mechanisms

b. Process in bringing about a change in project management.

Ans. Project progress control tools and mechanism

Project monitoring and control also provides information to support status reporting, progress
measurement, forecasting and updating current cost and schedule information. During this
process, it is also important to ensure that implementation of approved changes are monitored
when and as they occur.
As for tools and techniques used in facilitating project monitoring and control, automated project
management information systems and Earned Value are among the most commonly used. Both
are also used to update information. Earned Value also provides a means for forecasting future
performance based upon past performance.

Status reports are used for communicating project progress and status. Variance Analysis reports
are typically used to identify variances and the information often used as a basis for determining
corrective actions.

The ideal suite of project management tools would provide fully integrated functionality such

• tools share the same communication medium to the team (eg Web, Intranet, Exchange
server, EMail, Client/Server)
• information can be automatically transferred to other tools, or, better still, be held only
once (eg team names, task lists, EMail addresses, distribution lists)
• efficiency and effectiveness is supported by automatic messaging and workflow control -
the applications will always prompt those responsible for action.

The tools that are used in project planning are

1. Project organization

Process Skills and activities

• Prepare an outline project justification, plan and project budget
• Selection and briefing of the project team, assigning roles and organization
• Feasibility study- risk and key success factors
• Project definition and project plan
• Communicate to the team
• Allocating and monitoring the work and cost
• Ensuring work and team cohesion
• Reporting progress
• Monitoring progress and managing changes
• Helping the team to solve project problems
• Satisfactory delivery
• Compiling lessons from project experience

2. Project structure
Development plan, project tracking and oversight.

3. Project Key personnel – Identify those business areas that are within the scope or directly
interface with the scope boundary and list them in the “Business area” column of the project
assignment worksheet

Identify the key personnel for each area and list them in the “Person” column of the project
assignment worksheet.

4. Project management team

It is a senior management team, which will be accountable for the project.

• Identify project sponsor, client representative and technical representative.

• Stage managers- who will plan and manage the project on a day-to-day basis for this stage
• Project coordinators- client coordinator and technical coordinator
• Clearly define these coordination, control activities and identify the brief suitable
personnel to carry them out

5. Key stakeholders

Identify management level personnel who are critical to the success of the project.

Document the responsibilities of stakeholders

6. Stage teams

Identify appropriate personnel required for the stage, define the team structure and appoint team

Document the time commitment and responsibilities to be performed by the team members.

7. Key resources

Individuals assigned to a key resource role may work towards gathering “Business key resources”
and “Technical key resources”. They are project coordinators and team invitees.

8. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

The entire process of a project may be considered to be made up on number of sub process placed
in different stage called the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).

A typical example of a work breakdown structure of a recruitment process is indicated below :

This is the technique to analyze the content of work and cost by breaking it down into its
component parts.

Project key stages form the highest level of the WBS, which is then used to show the details at
the lower levels of the project. Each key stage comprises many tasks identified at the start of
planning and later this list will have to be validated.

WBS is produced by Identifying the key elements, breaking each element down into component
parts and continuing to breakdown until manageable work packages have been identified. These
can then be allocated to the appropriate person.The WBS does not show dependencies other than
a grouping under the key stages. It is not time based- there is no timescale o the drawing.

9. Task duration

Identifying lead and lag times helps in working out task duration.

Lead time: An amount of time, which a successor task can overlap with its predecessor
task, i.e. the time before the completion of the predecessor at which the successor can start.

Lag time: An amount of time, between a predecessor and a successor task, i.e. the time
after the completion of the predecessor that the start of the successor is delayed

Q.4 Describe in brief the various phases of the quality control process.


The definition of the ISO 8204 for quality:

“Totality of characteristics of an entity that bears on its ability to satisfy stated and implied

This means that the Software product conforms to requirements defined.

Description of Phases:

Software Quality Management (SQM) describes the processes that ensure that the Software
Project would reach its goals i.e. meet the client’s expectations.

Any phase of SDLC has its own independent stages of planning, execution, monitoring, control
& reporting. Likewise Software Quality Management has the following three categories or key
1. Quality Planning

2. Quality Assurance

3. Quality Control

Quality Planning:

Quality Planning is one of the most important parts of Software Quality Management. It is the
start activity of SQM. Through proper planning we can ensure that the processes that make a
product are audited correctly to meet the overall project objective. The staring of Quality
Planning process is followed differently by different Organization. It has been described in
different Quality Policy and Documentation across various Organizations.

Other industry standards related to the Software Project can be referred to Planning phases when
needed. These act as Standard inputs for some specific projects. The Planning stage is having
following inputs:-

1. Quality Policy of a Company

2. Organization Standards

3. Referencing Industry Standards

4. Regulatory compliances

5. Statement Of Work

6. Project specific Requirements

Quality planning process can ensure that standards are as per client’s expectations. The outcomes
of Quality Planning process are as follows:-

1. Standards defined for the project

2. Quality Plan

Various tools and techniques are used to create the quality plan. Few of these tools and
techniques are briefly described in this article. Here are some over views:-
Benchmark: Deciding on the present product standards by comparing with the performances of
similar products which is already exist in the market.

Cost of Quality: The total cost of quality is a summation of prevention, appraisal and failure

Design of Experiments: Statistical data can be used to determine the factors influencing the
Quality of the product.

Other tools: There are various tools used in the Planning process such as Cost Benefit Analysis,
Cause and Effect Diagrams, System Flow Charectistics.

All of the above key points aids in the formation of a Quality Management Plan for a particular

Quality Assurance:

Quality Plan which is created during planning is the input to Quality Assurance Process. The
Assurance stage is having the following inputs:

1. Quality Audits

2. Various Techniques used to evaluate performance of project

Quality Assurance Process helps us to ensure that the Project is following the Quality
Management Plan. The tools and techniques which are used in Planning Process such as System
Flow Charectistics, Design of Experiments, Cause and Effect Diagrams can be implemented here
too, as per requirements.

Quality Control:

The next step to Quality Assurance Process is Quality Control. The Control stage is having
following inputs:

1. Quality Management Plan.

2. Quality Standards for the Project.
3. Actual Observations and Measurements of the work done or work in Progress.

The Quality Control Processes use various tools to Observe and Measure if the work done or not.
If the Work done and it is found that the deliverable is not satisfactory then it can be sent back to
the development team for fixes.

If the work done meets the requirements as defined then it is accepted and released to the clients.
Q.5 Write short note on the following Project Management tools:

a. Quality Certification

b. Strategic inflection point

c. Force field analysis

d. Information risk management


Quality Certification

Quality certification has become extremely important in competitive markets and especially in
gaining foothold in exports. To avail the certification of ISO-9000, a unit has to undertake
significant costs; the small scale industries have been found wanting mainly on account of
resource crunch to implement quality systems to obtain this certification. However, as a paradigm
shift, SSI must make 'Quality' a way of life.

It has been decided to push the quality upgradation programme in the SSI Sector in a big way.

A scheme has been launched to give financial incentive to those SSI units who acquire ISO-9000
certification, by reimbursing 75% of their costs of obtaining certification, subject to a maximum
of Rs. 0.75 lacs per unit.

In order to promote modernisation and technology upgradation in SSI, the units are assisted in
improving the quality of their products.

A new scheme has been launched to assist SSI units in obtaining ISO-9000 or an equivalent
international quality standard. Subject to an upper ceiling of Rs. 075 lacs, each unit is given
financial assistance equal to 75% of the costs incurred in acquiring the quality standard.

The SSI units are also encouraged to participate in quality awareness and learning programmes
organised specially for their benefit.

Strategic inflection point

Point at which a corporation facing a new situation must alter the path it is on and adapt, or fall
into decline. The term was coined by Hungarian-born US computer entrepreneur Andy Grove,
chairman of microprocessor company Intel. Grove believes strategic inflection points occur when
a company's competitive position goes through a transition. The idea concerns how companies
recognize and adapt to paradigm changes. At a strategic inflection point the way a business
operates, and the concept of it as a business, undergoes a change.
Force field analysis

Force field analysis is an influential development in the field of social science. It provides a
framework for looking at the factors (forces) that influence a situation, originally social
situations. It looks at forces that are either driving movement toward a goal (helping forces) or
blocking movement toward a goal (hindering forces). The principle, developed by Kurt Lewin, is
a significant contribution to the fields of social science, psychology, social psychology,
organizational development, process management, and change management.

Lewin, a social psychologist, believed the "field" to be a Gestalt psychological environment

existing in an individual's (or in the collective group) mind at a certain point in time that can be
mathematically described in a topological constellation of constructs. The "field" is very
dynamic, changing with time and experience. When fully constructed, an individual's "field"
(Lewin used the term "life space") describes that person's motives, values, needs, moods, goals,
anxieties, and ideals.

Lewin believed that changes of an individual's "life space" depend upon that individual's
internalization of external stimuli (from the physical and social world) into the "life space."
Although Lewin did not use the word "experiential," (see experiential learning) he nonetheless
believed that interaction (experience) of the "life space" with "external stimuli" (at what he calls
the "boundary zone") were important for development (or regression). For Lewin, development
(or regression) of an individual occurs when their "life space" has a "boundary zone" experience
with external stimuli. Note, it is not merely the experience that causes change in the "life space,"
but the acceptance (internalization) of external stimuli.

Lewin took these same principles and applied them to the analysis of group conflict, learning,
adolescence, hatred, morale, German society, etc. This approach allowed him to break down
common misconceptions of these social phenomena, and to determine their basic elemental
constructs. He used theory, mathematics, and common sense to define a force field, and hence to
determine the causes of human and group behavior.

Information risk management

Information Risk Management follows information as it is created, distributed, stored, copied,

transformed and interacted with throughout its lifecycle.

Three Pillars to an Information Risk Strategy

1) Information-centric approach: Begin by understanding what information is critical to key

business initiatives, such as growth through acquisitions or expanding partnerships. Then
diligently ‘follow the data’ to gain a more holistic view of all the places where it exists across the
organization, where the points of vulnerability are, and what events could put your business at
2) Risk/Reward analysis: Security investments should be prioritized, based on the amount of
risk a given activity entails relative to the potential business reward, and in keeping with the
organization’s appetite for risk.

3) Ensuring repeatability: Once enterprise information has been located and a risk assessment
performed, the next step is to implement controls — including policies, technologies, and tools
— to mitigate that risk. Here, organizations often turn to frameworks like ISO 27002 and the PCI
Data Security Standard.

Q.6 List and describe in brief the various types of review used for improving performance
of a project.

Ans. Performance Measurement

Most of us have heard some version of the standard performance measurement cliches: “what
gets measured gets done,” “ if you don’t measure results, you can’t tell success from failure and
thus you can’t claim or reward success or avoid unintentionally rewarding failure,” “ if you can’t
recognize success, you can’t learn from it; if you can’t recognize failure, you can’t correct it,” “if
you can’t measure it, you can neither manage it nor improve it," but what eludes many of us is
the easy path to identifying truly strategic measurements without falling back on things that are
easier to measure such as input, project or operational process measurements.

Performance Measurement is addressed in detail in Step Five of the Nine Steps to Success®
methodology. In this step, Performance Measures are developed for each of the Strategic
Objectives. Leading and lagging measures are identified, expected targets and thresholds are
established, and baseline and benchmarking data is developed. The focus on Strategic Objectives,
which should articulate exactly what the organization is trying to accomplish, is the key to
identifying truly strategic measurements.

Strategic performance measures monitor the implementation and effectiveness of an

organization's strategies, determine the gap between actual and targeted performance and
determine organization effectiveness and operational efficiency.

Good Performance Measurement

• Focus employees' attention on what matters most to success

• Allow measurement of accomplishments, not just of the work that is performed
• Provide a common language for communication
• Are explicitly defined in terms of owner, unit of measure, collection frequency, data
quality, expected value(targets), and thresholds
• Are valid, to ensure measurement of the right things
• Are verifiable, to ensure data collection accuracy

Problems in Performance Appraisals:

• discourages teamwork

• evaluators are inconsistent or use different criteria and standards

• only valuable for very good or poor employees

• encourages employees to achieve short term goals

• managers has complete power over the employees

• too subjective

• produces emotional anguish


• Make collaboration a criterion on which employees will be evaluated

• Provide training for managers; have the HR department look for patterns on appraisals
that suggest bias or over or under evaluation
• Rate selectively(introduce different or various criteria and disclose better performance
and coach for worst performer without disclosing the weakness of the candidate) or
increase in frequency of performance evaluation.
• Include long term and short term goals in appraisal process
• Introduce M.B.O.(Management By Objectives)
• Make criteria specific and test selectively{Evaluate specific behaviors or results}
• Focus on behaviors; do not criticize employees; conduct appraisal on time.
Name : ///DEEP SINGH

Registration / Roll No. : 331630152

Course : Master of Business Administration


Subject : Project Management

Semester : Sem II

Subject Number : MB0049 ( SET-II )

_______________ _______________ ______________

Sign of Center Head Sign of Evaluator Sign of Coordinator
Q.1 Explain the nine steps which take project management to a New Horizon


The following nine steps are suggestive measures to provide new dimensions to the management
of projects.

Step 1:

Believing in discontinuity and not continuity with incremental improvements

Continuity or the status quo is a function of quantum of changes. Incremental improvements are
valid only when the rate of change is not excessive. Both the continuity and incremental
improvements are linked with the rate of change and quantum. Beyond a threshold of rate of
change, one cannot go with the continuity and incremental improvements. The modern day
Internet and technological based world has witnessed the unprecedented rate of change and
explosion in the quantum of changes. It is this process which has resulted in making continuity
theory as baseless. Continuity in principle is to preserve the past where as discontinuity breaks
the linkage with the past to the extent it can have fewer constraints to move into the future. There
is no choice except to believe in discontinuity as only then mind and body is prepared to accept
the unknowns and be ready to face it and control thereafter.


Owning the problems and sharing the solutions

More one owns problem, more he becomes experienced. It is not the number of years of service
one has performed for a company but how much number of problems was faced and owned is
now becoming the benchmark to define an experienced person from inexperienced. The true
spirit of entrepreneurial outlook is to own the problems and solve the same and in this process
make Money. The fixed mould mentality is to empower the problems to be faced outside than
oneself and get the credit for solutions.

Step 3:

Breaking the status quo mentality

No change means perpetuation of the Present into the Future. This is in contradiction to the
nature as Future is not the extension of Present. Breaking the status quo mentality implies in
taming the future as it is the future which becomes Present at some point of time. Focusing into
Future and affecting the Present is antiestablishment and require concerted efforts to move out
from the comfortable zones. Project managers can hardly afford to have status quo mentality as
day in and day out they are involved in acting in present to affect Future. At times, when we do
not get away from the status quo mentality, contradictions fall apart everywhere in the project
between the two types of group- the champions of future and those who believe in extending

Step 4:

Stepping out of comfortable zone

As apart of the step 3 and in a way extension of it, the comfortable zone is to dear to break and
cross. Fear of uncertainties makes the comfortable zone more comfortable than if the fear did not
exist. The project managers of tomorrow are those who have so called comfortable zone carve
out from that area which conventionally is uncomfortable and that is the zone of uncertainties. If
we seek comforts in conquering the uncertainties with planning and indomitable spirit of
winning, then we are able to provide project leadership and inspire the team members to plunge
into risk taking.

Step 5:

Human Capital by passing Financial Capital

While the agriculture society witnessed the Nature as the foremost, the 20th century saw the men-
machine interaction as the key factor for the capital formation. 21st century in this Internet age is
beginning to see the human capital surpassing the financial capital. Venture capitalists were all
over the place to fund any idea, which they thought would create a brave new world. Its
consequent failure in the last couple of years could not be attributed to the over faith in Human
capital but absence of effective filtering mechanism from good to bad idea. While Return On
Investment (ROI) could be seen as financial driven phenomena, Return On Time Invested
(ROTI) is basically based human efforts and its deployment. ROTI will be more meaningful to
ROI in the context of new processes on their way to unfold in the beginning of 21st century.

Step 6:

Transform work culture from 5 to 7 dimensions

Conventionally we all live in the conventional 5 dimensions of space i.e. X, Y and Z, Time and
Mind. We need to supplement on these 5 dimensions the additional 2 dimensions of Passion and
Joy If we do what we want do then the gap between Wish and Reality is so little that one is in
position to provide its very best. It is his/her added 2 dimensions, which make the total
difference. The new miracles in project management will take place when we bring the work of
joy like in the art domain of music and paintings in our project work.

Step 7:

Real number of encounters replacing number of years of experience

The experience profile should be redefined by the number of encounters and problems faced
instead of number of years. The wisdom evolved based on encounters is far richer than
accumulated simply by repeating the same encounters n number of times in one’s employee ship.
The secret is to increase the encounters meaningful to ones own dream or passion profile.

Step 8:

Seeking meaning out of change

Change is first degree. It is a must. Change can be threat or an opportunity. It depends how one
looks at it. If change is resisted, it becomes all the more difficult to see the real outcome of the
change as it is partly distorted. Project implies change and that too a temporary one. It is essential
to make people to have a real communication about the change. One of the major strategies to
bring about a change is to communicate, communicate and communicate.

Step 9:

Detachment from the fruits of the results

To act is within one’s control. To get the reward as a reaction to the action is not within one’s
purview. Too much emphasis on that part, which is not within our control, is a wasteful exercise
instead concentrates on actions to the best of one’s ability. The results so arrived at must be
analyzed from the cause and effect relationship and constant learning must be made out of all
such actions or group of actions. Attachment with the results of the actions often dilute one’s own
energy and may shift one’s focus from the main road to its detour. Detachment from the results
does not imply one should not demand or expect materialistic benefits, no, it only means that in
case you do not get what you deserve, leave it and move forward rather than brooding over that
part which is not within one’s control. The journey comes to a standstill if we get attached to the
surroundings and to the results of the present beyond a small time frame. Project managers and
team members are never stationary. They must move on. In summary, the new discovery or
dimensions in project management heavily depends on the human factor of breaking ceilings,
getting motivated all the time, working with passion, detachment with the results rather than with
the actions, human capital surpassing that of financial capital, breaking the status quo mentality,
owning the problems and solutions and creating discontinuity. The journey has just begun and
it must continue as in the human race, there is no finishing line.

Q.2 Discuss the traits of a successful project manager.

Ans. Ten Traits of a Successful Project Manager

This short article highlights some of the best traits of a successful project manager. He or she has
many of these abilities:

1. In Touch – Regularly checks the “pulse” of the project. The balance is in checking often
enough for scope and length of the project, without over-checking.
2. Good Vibrations – Has inner and outer warmth. The manager understands people, and
can use humor as a relief.
3. Rock-solid – Has a solid character. Everyone respects and trusts the manager and his
4. Does the Job – Has a preference for action – doesn’t wait for issues to resolve
5. Good Reactions – Anticipates problems and plans as he can to handle or avoid them.
6. Not Scattered – Can handle mulitple tasks with proper focus. His management style is
balanced between multi-tasking and focusing on the important details and tasks. This trait
is connected to good time management.
7. Focused Picture – When buried in details, she can also look at the big picture, and
understands how the teams efforts are integrated in the whole of the project.
8. Quality Workmanship - Through leading by example, quality outcomes and products
are achieved.
9. Bends, but Unbreakable – Has flexibility, but can make firm decisions. It is a key trait to
be able to understand when decisions have to be made by the manager (as opposed to
letting others intercede or make decisions for the manager by default.)
10. Leverages Tools – Learns and uses tools to help manage projects. A good PM doesn’t get
buried learning complex project management tools – especially if she does not yet know
the theories or uses behind techniques (such as earned-value management or PERT

Q.3 Define the change management model.


1) Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the
perspective of an organization and on the individual level. A somewhat ambiguous term, change
management has at least three different aspects, including: adapting to change, controlling
change, and effecting change. A proactive approach to dealing with change is at the core of all
three aspects. For an organization, change management means defining and implementing
procedures and/or technologies to deal with changes in the business environment and to profit
from changing opportunities

Successful adaptation to change is as crucial within an organization as it is in the natural world.

Just like plants and animals, organizations and the individuals in them inevitably encounter
changing conditions that they are powerless to control. The more effectively you deal with
change, the more likely you are to thrive. Adaptation might involve establishing a structured
methodology for responding to changes in the business environment (such as a fluctuation in the
economy, or a threat from a competitor) or establishing coping mechanisms for responding to
changes in the workplace (such as new policies, or technologies).

Terry Paulson, the author of Paulson on Change, quotes an uncle’s advice: “It’s easiest to ride a
horse in the direction it is going.” In other words, don’t struggle against change; learn to use it to
your advantage.
2) In a computer system environment, change management refers to a systematic approach to
keeping track of the details of the system (for example, what operating system release is running
on each computer and which fixes have been applied).

The Change Management Model

The model follows a 3-phase, 8-step process which is represented graphically below. Click on
the graphic below to view the phase and step descriptions.

A change management model

Dealing With The Truths of Change

Leaders of change take note:

• Emotional reactions are at least as important as any other aspect of implementing change.

• The higher the involvement in change, the less negative the inevitable reactions.

• The intensity of emotional reaction is proportionate to the speed of change.

• The unresolved effects of change are cumulative.

• The longer a group / individual / situation has remained static, the greater the investment in the
status quo. Therefore, the greater the resistance and reaction.

• Rewards and incentives can cause people to change, but they will not neutralise their feelings of

Dealing With Change Misconceptions

• Change happens quickly

• Survivors are glad they have a job
• Time takes care of everything
• Everyone who is not on board has something wrong with them
• The weak people are the ones who leave
• During change, those who appear OK really are
• People “hear” what senior management communicates
• People take senior management communication at face value
• If the communication is done “right” the first time, it is enough
• By changing the formal relationship, how we “do business” will change
• The transition behaviour of the senior management is invisible to the rest of the organisation
• Pressures that caused the change will be seen in a rational manner

We suggest these misconceptions require a thoughful approach from those leading change.
What Happens when your Organisation Undergoes Change?

People frequently feel overwhelmed when there are major changes within their organisation.
They are often uncertain of their future, and the future of their colleagues in the organisation.
Consequently the following fear of change reactions may occur.

People generally feel smaller, ie.

Self-conscious - the only one feeling the effects

Missing - opportunities, job, status, security taken away

Alone - nobody understands, the unlucky one

Lethargic- commitment goes, energy levels drop

Limits - each person has limits to the amount of change they’re comfortable with

Enough - when those limits are reached they cry enough and resist further change

Revert - people easily revert back to known behaviours

Because we are all individuals we react differently. Some of the common reactions to change
result in the following behaviours at work:

Drop in morale
Drop in work outputs and
Drop in productivity
Drop in Manager’s credibility
Drop in Commitment to the organisation and work
Drop in levels of service

Staff resisting change or conflict and making life difficult. This especially happens when people
have been in the organisation for a long time.

Staff “bad mouthing” the organisation/management or behaving in negative ways because they
feel angry and/or threatened and want to hit back at the organisation.

Effective leaders of change are aware of these not uncommon individual reactions to change.
They plan how to deal with change by acccepting that employee anticipation and fear of change
is a significant organisational risk unless people can be encouraged to learn and engage with the
change and reflect upon the choices and options available to them.

“The dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy present.The occasion is piled high
with difficulty, and we must rise with the occasion. As our case is new, so we must think anew
and act anew” Abraham Lincoln
Q.4 Describe the three major classification and categories of Risk management.


Risk management is a structured approach to managing uncertainty related to a threat, a

sequence of human activities including: risk assessment, strategies development to manage it, and
mitigation of risk using managerial resources.

About Types of Risk Management

Commercial enterprises apply various forms of risk management procedures to handle different
risks because they face a variety of risks while carrying out their business operations. Effective
handling of risk ensures the successful growth of an organization.

Various types of risk management can be categorized into the following:

· Operational risk management:

Operational risk management deals with technical failures and human errors

· Financial risk management:

Financial risk management handles non-payment of clients and increased rate of interest

· Market risk management:

Deals with different types of market risk, such as interest rate risk, equity risk, commodity risk,
and currency risk

Types of Risk Management Techniques

Risk management is a business process in which a business analyzes risk in an effort to miminize
the effects of such risk. Organizations must identify risks and assess how dangerous each risk
could be to the organization. Taking steps to eliminate risks will reduce the possibility of a
financial loss. Risk management should be continuous and revisited at intervals the organization
deems appropriate.

Q.5 List and explain the 10 rules which serve as the guidelines for development of high


Guidelines for development of high technology

Some guidelines in the form of rules which help organization to be strong in this area.
Rule1. Identify the critical technology and make a deliberate choice for indigenous development.

Rule2. Always aim one step higher in performance.

Rule3. Focus on multi use technologies.

Rule4. Spot the competency of divisions and empower them for technology development.

Rule5. Ensure redundancy for critical systems and technologies.

Rule6. Focus efforts through Programme/Projects/Mission oriented approach.

Rule7. Build concurrency into every activity.

Rule8. Build long term partnership with all the stake holders.

Rule9. Focus on Problem Forecasting and Prevention.

Rule10. Ensure continuous and integrated Performance Measurement.