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Ductwork requiring special attention is sometimes encountered by the designer. It is of utmost impor- tance that the duct designer be aware of the different requirements existing in regards to the geographical area of the installation. Before design of special systems, the designer must acquaint himself thoroughly with local practices and concerned governing authorities. Industrial process or material handling systems are appropriately covered in other SMACNA publications and will not be considered herein. This section con- tains a general description of some of the special duct systems frequently encountered in HVAC work.

KITCHEN AND MOISTURE LADEN SYSTEMS

1. Dishwasher Exhaust and Moisture Laden Ducts

Exhausting moist air should be accomplished through ducts fabricated from non-corrosive materials. These ducts should be sloped toward the source of moisture or provided with proper drains. All seams and joints must be sealed watertight. The temperature of the vapor may be excessively high and, therefore, may require the use of duct insulation or other treatment. All duct penetrations should be avoided.

2. Range and Grease Hood Exhaust Ducts

Vapors from cooking equipment must be exclusively handled through ducts designed specifically for that purpose. Care must be taken to assure that these ducts will contain fire and smoke. Materials used must be heavier than standard and are usually con- tinuously welded to provide a liquid-tight system. Cleanouts should be provided at each change of di- rection in the duct. The system should be constructed such that grease cannot be trapped and the duct should be sloped toward the hood or a grease res- ervoir. Ducts within the building should lead as directly as possible to the exterior. Where ducts pass through

CHAPTER 13

SPECIAL DUCT SYSTEMS

combustible walls, partitions, etc., adequate clear- ance or protection must be provided. In the event of a fire, temperatures in excess of 2000°F (1100oC) may be experienced. Fire extinguishing systems may be required by local codes. Long, straight runs of duct should have a means for expansion. Local codes governing range and grease hood duct systems vary widely; therefore, it is imperative that the designer be familiar with these codes and con- struction requirements of NFPA 96.

SYSTEMS HANDLING SPECIAL GASES

1. Corrosive Vapors and Noxious Gases

Ducts which convey these gases should be fabricated from materials impervious to all the gases that may be handled, and must be sealed air tight. They must terminate outside the building, maintaining adequate clearances from walls, roof, adjacent buildings, traffic areas or equipment. The discharge airflow should not contaminate outside air intakes and other building openings under any conditions.

2. Flammable Vapors

Ducts conveying these vapors must be sealed air tight and terminate outside the building, maintaining adequate clearances from building construction and other objects. Nonflammable materials must be used for the ducts and duct supports.

SOLAR

C SYSTEMS

1. Solar System Sizing

Successful application of solar heating systems re- quires careful selection and sizing of components. Collectors, heat storage units, fans and pumps, con-

13.1

trols, heat exchangers, and auxiliary heaters must be effectively integrated. Unlike the selection of a fur- nace or boiler, a solar space heating system may be sized to provide a selected portion of the annual heat- ing load. Generally 30 to 70 percent is reasonable. The size of the solar system basically depends on the collector area. The collector area then determines the quantity of solar heat delivery or the amount of fossil fuel savings.

Guidelines for sizing components of integrated air- based solar systems for space and potable water heating are listed in Table 13-1. A typical arrangement for which the guidelines apply is shown in Figure 13-

1.

2.

A layout of the duct distribution system should be prepared and sizing of all ductwork should be accom-

Duct System Layout

SPECIAL

DUCT

SYSTEMS

plished using the method that the designer is most comfortable with for the air volume required. How- ever, the designer shall be responsible for correctly sizing the duct system so that its total external static pressure (ESP) shall not exceed the manufacturer's ESP rating for the air handling equipment.

Ducts connecting solar air collector inlets and outlets shall be sized to meet the air quantities that are re- quired by the airflow characteristics of the collector. Review the collector manufacturer's literature to de- termine the correct flow rates. Connections to the collectors shall be in accordance with the manufac- turer's recommendations.

When auxiliary heating equipment is used, the airflow volume of the duct distribution system must provide an air temperature rise through the equipment that is below the maximum temperature rise noted on the equipment nameplate.

Table 13-1 GUIDELINES FOR SIZING COMPONENTS OF AIR-BASED SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR SPACE AND POTABLE WATER HEATING

*For potable water heating only the collector slope should be at latitude angle, and the recommended range is -

Lat

5° to Lat

+ 5°

**For potable water heating only systems, pebble bed storage is not required.

13.2

Figure 13-1 TYPICAL AIR-HEATING SYSTEM

3. Solar Collecting Systems

The duct system between the solar collectors and the thermal storage containers, and the ductwork con- necting to the space distribution system shall be known as the primary solar duct system (PSDA). The PSDA shall be designed using the criteria described above. Care shall be used to assure balanced airflow in the PSDS for the various operational modes of the system. All ducts and duct linings composing the PSDS shall be installed in strict conformance with the SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards and Fibrous Glass Duct Construction Standards. All materials used in the PSDS shall be able to withstand temper- atures up to 250°F (121°C) without degradation or release of odor-causing or noxious gasses. Air leakage from PSDS should not exceed 5 percent. It is not the intent of these Standards to test the PSDS for compliance with the 5 percent duct leakage re- quirement, but simply to assure construction stan-

CHAPTER 13

dards which will essentially provide the required de- gree of air tightness in the PSDS. Ducts may be sealed using mastic, or mastic plus tape or gasketing as appropriate. The selection of the most appropriate sealant depends on joint configu- ration, clearances, surface conditions, temperature, the direction of pressure and preassembly or post assembly placement. Tapes should not be applied to bare metal nor to dry sealant. Foil tapes are not suit- able. Liquids and mastics should be used in well- ventilated areas and the precautions of manufactur- ers followed. Oil base caulking and glazing com- pounds should not be used. Gasketing should be ma- terial with long life and suitable for the service.

4.

Solar System Dampers

a. CONTROL DAMPERS (Motorized)

Dampers that open or close to divert, direct, or shut- off airflow in the Primary Solar Duct System shall have "sealing" edges on the blades with a suitable material such as felt, rubber, etc., to insure tight cutoff of the air stream when closed.

b. SHUT-OFF DAMPERS (Not Motorized)

Shut-off dampers installed to prevent air flow, as in the summer by-pass duct in the Primary Solar Duct System, shall be sealed tightly to prevent air flow when pressurized from either side of the damper. Slide dampers shall have suitable seals on the guides to prevent leakage around the blade and through the guide.

Table 13-2 SOLAR AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

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c.

VOLUME DAMPERS

Volume control of balancing dampers shall be in- stalled in each branch or zone duct. Single leaf dam- pers which are a part of a manufactured air grille do not meet the requirements of the SMACNA solar in- stallation standards found in the SMACNA "Installa- tion Standards for Residential Heating and Air Con- ditioning Systems." Opposed blade dampers which are a part of a manufactured air grille meet the re- quirements of the Standards if sufficient space is pro- vided behind the grille face for proper operation of the damper.

Figure 13-2 MULTI-BLADE VOLUME DAMPERS

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SPECIAL

DUCT

SYSTEMS

Where space prohibits the use of an opposed blade damper behind the grille face, an opposed blade damper may be installed in the register stack at a location where it is accessible from the grille opening. Volume dampers installed in branch ducts where the total estimated system static pressure is less than 0.5 in. w.g. (125 Pa) should be of a single leaf type. Volume dampers installed in ductwork where the total estimated system static pressure exceeds 0.5 in. w.g. (125 Pa) shall be manufactured in accordance with Figure 13-2.

d.

BACK-DRAFT

DAMPERS

Back draft dampers shall be installed to close under the action of gravitational force when there is no air flow, and open when there is a drop in pressure across the damper in the direction of desired air flow. Multi-bladed back-draft dampers shall have suitable seals on the blade edges, and appropriate seals along the sides. Light-weight rubberized fabric dam- pers of the type shown in Figure 13-3 shall be tilted sufficiently to ensure closure when there is no airflow. Single blade dampers shall have seals along the seat and the pivot shall be off-center and horizontal to ensure closure when there is no airflow.

Figure 13-3 RUBBERIZED FABRIC BACK-DRAFT DAMPER

CHAPTER 14

Table 14-15 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, ENTRIES (Cont.)

Use the velocity pressure (Vp) of the downstream section. Fitting loss (TP) = C x Vp

E.

Conical, Converging

Bellmouth, Round and Rectangular, with End Wall (15)

F.

Intake Hood (15)

G.

Hood, Tapered, Flanged or Unflanged(2)

Note 9: With screen in opening at Ds, Cs = C (from table) + C (Screen coef. Table 14-17)

where: A= Area at D; As = Area at Ds

As)2

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DUCT

DESIGN

TABLES

AND

CHARTS

Table 14-15 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, ENTRIES (Cont.) Use the velocity pressure (Vp) of the downstream section. Fitting loss (TP) = C x Vp

H. Hood, Canopy Island or Range

I. Hood, Slot (Dishwasher)

Table 14-16 LOSS COEFFICIENTS, EXITS Use the velocity pressure (Vp) of the upstream section. Fitting loss (TP) = C x Vp

A. Exhaust Hood (15)

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