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Primates 20 million years ago from squirrel like animals on the lower canopy

Primates by design are to have 1 offspring at a time


Provides for a long childhood
Organization Behavior #5
Wednesday, January 12, 2011
6:05 PM
After Primates and mammals evolved hands and everything else, cognitive thinking formed on top
of the emotional brain

On the test: Comprehensive Motivation model


What are salient variables:
Effective leaders
We selected are veryinformation
in relevant high in emotional intelligence
and organize it
EL is twice as important as IQ in leadership
EI explained 90% of the difference between star performers and average performers
IQ is hardwired (guess?)
Emotional Intelligence is learned
What influences behavior:
○ Arousal
 Alerts you to needs and what drives a person
Emotional Labor (high EI) ranking
○ Channeling
 Acting upon the arousal
Registered Nurse 1 Social worker

Social Worker 2
Often Registered
think of cognitive brains as Nurse
driving actions
Dental Hygienist 3 Tv Announcer
Bartender 5 □ Expectancy theory Bartender
Lawyer 4 Lawyer

Tv Announcer 6
Goal theory
Insurance Adjuster

Postal Clerk 7Results in behavior or performance
Dental Hygienist
Librarian 8 Cashier
Cashier 9 □ What happens after you behave is relevant because it determines if you sustain effort
Librarian
Insurance Adjuster 10 Postal Clerk
□ This results in consequences (or an outcome)
 Consequences lead to satisfaction of needs (extrinsic satisfaction)
 Intrinsic satisfaction that one feels themselves
◊ Moderated by Core Job Dimensions
□ When attempting to create a motivational environment, pay attention to sense of
Equity
 Equity is a sense of what is fair

Four domains of emotional intelligence
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equity_theory
• Self awareness
○ Sustaining
Self management ◊
Primarily through comparison of situations and people
• Social awareness
A higher sense of equity means people are bothered when they're given without
• Relationship management
performing. Lower sense of equity means those who receive more than others
• are fine with that (entitlests).
These 4 domains include 20 competancies
Total Controlawareness,
Actions, allows for absolute leadership, but if everyone had total power there would be chaos
self others
Total control does no typically exist in the real world
Control is shared between all members of the organization and the environment
Self Others
CoreAwareness
Job Dimensions help to create
Self Awareness certain
Social psychological states would lead to certain work outcomes
Awareness
That’s only true for those are high in growth need strengths
TheActions
ERG model Self Management
is similar Social
to lazlows modelSkills (positive impact
of Existence on others)
Relatedness Growth

Self awareness - seeing yourself as others see you


LowWith
GNSself
are awareness, a person
used to doing hasaren't
jobs that a 38% chance of
enriching having
and social
are more awareness
prone to ERG type jobs

Without self-awareness,
6 dimensions a person
of leadership from has afor
the study 83% chance
week 5 of failing to demonstrate self -management

Without self-awareness, a person has no chance of self management

Self Management
• Managing internal states, impulses, resources
The ability
Emotional to control disruptive impulses or moods
Intelligence
• The
Thepropensity to suspend
reptilian brain seeks tojudgment - to think
eat, reproduce before acting
unlimited, survive
• Like an inner conversation - frees us from being prisoners of our emotions
Emotionless
○ Marshmellow experiment

TheAwareness
Social Emotional or mammalian brain is an adaptation that is consistent with a solution to the very
different
• Reading problem
people of life. accurately
and groups
Lower offspring but all energy to their survival
• The ability to understand
Limbic system helpstheusemotional make
understand up of other
emotional people
systems of ourselves and others
Baby crying, etc
• Skill in treating people
Empathy according to the emotional reactions
Open Loop
Relationship Management
• Inducing desirable responses in others
• Proficiency in managing relationhips and building networks
Primates 20 million years ago from squirrel like animals on the lower canopy
• An ability
Primates
to find by design ground
common are to have 1 offspring
and build rapportat a time

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• An ability to find common ground and build rapport

Competencies
• A behavior
• A measureable charcteristic of a person that differentiates level of performance in a given job, role,
organization, or culture.
Mastering Competencies
• Comptetencies consist of behaviors that range from high to low
• For each competency, there is a level of behavior that when met or exceeded positively impacts
performance
• You do not need to master every competency to be successful
EI and Superior Performance
• Mastery of a critial mass of competencies is necessary for superior performance
• Each competence can be viewed along a continuum of master; at a certain point along each continuum
thre is a major leap in performance impact, this is called the tipping point
• Stars are above the tipping point on at least six ei competencies and demonstrate strengths in at least
one competency from each of the four domains.

20 competencies on on the slides, go read them you idiot

Emotionally intelligent leadership


• Climate reflects people's sense of their ability to do their jobs well
Leadership style affects climate
• The leader's mood and behaviors drive the mood and behaviors of everyone else
• In essence, the lead's mood spreads through the organizatoin; it is contagious
The relationship between EI strengths in a leader and performance of the unit led appears to be
• mediated by the cliemate the leader creates


See leadership style slide for its affect on EI, climate, objective, etc

Learning EI
• Emotional intelligence has a genetic component, but it is also learned
• However it is not learned cognitively; it must be learned through motivation, extended practice, and
feedback
• An individualized approach is best to help people break old behavioral habits and learn new ones

Self directed learning


• Most, if not all sustainable behavioral chance is intentional
• Self-directed change is an intentional change in an aspect of who you are (the real) or who you want to
be (the ideal) or both

Steps to self directed learning


• Establish who you want to be
○ What is your idela self
○The ideal self gives you access to your inner drives and emotions
• Discover who you are now
○ See your leadership style as others do
○ Sources of useful information include 360 degree feedback, video tape
○ Are you a boiling frog? (frog jumping out of hot water, cold water then raise temp)
○ A little bit of ego defense is good but not too much
○ Beware enabling relationships
○ Know what you value and what you want to keep
• Devise an action plan
○ Establish behavioral goals
○ Look for cues that help you practice
○ Look for opportunities to practice outside the workplace
• Make the chance last
○ Experiment and practice
○ Do this in situations where you feel safe
○ Envision desired behaviors
• Create a community of supporters
○ Our relationships are sources of feedback and support

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Week 6
Wednesday, January 12, 2011
6:18 PM

Motivation Wrap up

All the theories and previous only apply to "motivated behavior"

Moving from Need to Need Satisfaction

What happens is there is a barrier that prevents satisfying need


Spend some time attempting to break barrier
When a need is unsatisfiable, we leave motivated behavior and enter "Frustration Instigated
behavior"

Motivated Behavior
Directed toward a goal
Spawns resourceful and creative behavior
Punishment will deter motivated behavior

Frustration Instigated Behavior (FIB)


Standard motivational behaviors and theories don’t work in this case
Case: Stressors and work overload

Not directed toward a goal


Spawns spontaneous, irrational behavior, rigid, compulsive
Punishment will probably increase FIB
Highly affected by stimuli
Loss of perspective

Group Behavior
Personality aka individual
Per sonare = latin = "to speak through"

What are the elements of group dynamics


Structure
(Organization)
Assign people to tasks
Job Description - Formalized piece of paper that describes the job
Establishment of policies and procedures of how to behave
Hierarchy Offtopic: Banana Time
Leaders and managers power over others
(Group)
Roles
Individuals are assigned roles
Establishment for social/group norms
Guidelines on how to behave Drying cleaning
Status Young women
Case of influence and informal power over others All paid according to piece rate (dollar a
shirt, etc)

Bucking the system


Initiates good natured kidding
Sarcasm
Insults
Threats
Destruction of personal property
Violence
"the silent treatment"

Prisoner isolation led to increased defection


during the korean war due to lack of group
validation of their existence

"The stockholm syndrome"

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Week 7
Wednesday, January 26, 2011
6:10 PM

Effective leaders relate well to individuals, teams, and to the organization and culture
Question on the exam will cover the comprehensive model of motivation

A leader must lead a team and relate to it


Starfish, neural ring which connects the legs
The leader is the neural ring (or trying to keep it in tact) so the organization can operate as
a
team (or as a team with individuals)

Group
Structure
Roles
Norms
Status

Maturity Level Group Goals


Individuals/groups go through predictable stages Task Accomplishment
Wrestle with issues Member satisfaction
"5 levels/stages"
Immature group- don't deal effectively with group goals (esp task accomplishment)
Structurally mature after they discover how to organize to address tasks
Interpersonally Mature

Dynamic of Cohesiveness Abilene Paradox


The amount of interaction, communication, and influence among the members Group Think

Group think
Illusion of unanimity (everyone for it)
Self censorship
Stereotyping
Illusion of morality
Gate keeping
Prevents "wrong" information from group

Groups and teams destroy heirarchies by reducing the pyramid down


O
O =team
OO
OOOO

Ash experiement

A B C

Length of the lines, guessing the length closely to a b c


Group, 1 actual experimental subject

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Power is the ability to lead or influence

If you lack power, its very difficult to share power

Traditional Org:

Position power
The most powerful is the one who has the highest
Modern Org:
Personal Power
Reciprocal relationships
Networks
Builds social capital

Counter vailing power


Power is one directional (position power)
Personal power is bi-directional because of countervailing power

Tosca
Worst fucking metaphor ever

TLDR; personal power > positional power due to networking and all that common sense
bullshit

Political Landscape in Organizations

Something about relationships

Agreement x Trust

Low Trust - Low Agreement


Adversaries
Hi Trust - Low Agreement
Opponents
Low Trust - High Agreement
Bed fellows
High Trust - High Agreement
Allies

Low Trust - Medium Agreement


Fence Sitters

Allies
Highly reciprocal
Help diagnose political landscape
Help manage agenda

Opponents
Support personally
Trust and can be honest
Strategy
State your position
Seek their support
State their position
Acknowledge the disagreement
Put into a position of not strongly opposing

Bedfellow
Agree but no investment in my success
Strategy
Communicate objectives
Re-affirm mutual goals

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Re-affirm mutual goals
Focus on the project and not personalities
Not the time to move them to allies
Honestly state expectations and be clear
Agree without threats
Secure confirmation

Fence sitters
Strategy
State position
Then listen
Get them to talk
Learn why they are on the fence
Have uncertainties
Once you have identified uncertainties
Apply gentle pressure
Express frustration at indecision without badgering
Ask them to continue to think about it
What would it take to get support

Adversaries
Strategy
Don’t expand limited resources
Minimize losses
Personal relationship is not going to work due to lack of trust

Communication position honestly


State their position (if possible)
Try to difuse hostility
The goal is understanding not conversation
Acknowledge that alternative views exist
Preserve integrity
Don’t make deals with the devil
Expect nothing but an exchange of information

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Week 9
Wednesday, February 09, 2011
7:26 PM

The entrepreneurial revolution (Slides)

Understanding the difference between an entrepreneurial business and a traditional


organization
Large organization has the advantage of capital, brand name, identity, large resource
pool
Stick to their core competencies and often not deviate from the past
The current stage of economic activity is an entrepreneurial revolution as a result of the
capitalistic
boom
30 years ago is there ever going to be small businesses left?
Fear that the family business would fade like the family farm

The initial study of entrepreneurs was the misfit unable to follow corporate and organizational
norms.
Seen as a last resort of a person
Rise of the two income family was a major factor
Technology increases which enabled productivity gains
Manufacturing economy to a service economy

Job Creation
1980, us created 34 million jobs, fortune 500 lost 5 million

Small business forms 75% of all jobs

Gazelle (20% growth per 4 years) accounts for 3% of all firms but created 5 million new jobs
between
1994 and 98
19080 microsoft had 38 employees, 2001: 31,000

Takes 4 years to replace 35% of a fortune 500 company, In the 60's it took 20
years
Few entre's start with original idea or plan

Medium startup capital for an incoming 500 enterprise is $10,000

Rare to have proprietary tech

Follow me too strategies and rely on superior execution

Biggest challenge is not raising money but having wits to do without it

Rolling with the punch is more important than planning


Entre's thrive in uncertain environments

Leadership is the key to any entre'


Successful entrepreneurs spend little time planning, those who do plan scrap initial plan
often

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Over thinking often leads to failure of startups

Entre's are pretty good at disgarding bad ideas or low potential ones, focus on high
ones
Requires judgement, not data
Most startups are designed to solve problems identified by the starter

Opportunities that are not capital intensive


Profit margins that can sustain rapid growth with internal finanicing

High margin of error


Simple operations
Low fixed costs
Quick payback
Failure recognized quickly

Coin flips, keep fliping until heads, don’t try to solve why it went tails

Do analysis in stages - know just enough to take the next step


Plug holes quickly - look for solutions as soon as problems show up
Investigate like an evangelist - don’t just seek opinions, seek commitment

Good at attracting people to share risk

Smart arrogance - brash self confidence, but always learning

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Week 10
Wednesday, February 16, 2011
6:12 PM

Part 1
3 questions
1 based on entrepreneurial leadership
2 based on tonight's dicussion

Part 2
3 questions, answer 2 out of 3
1 is about the comprehensive model of motivation
Demonstrate effective leadership by being able to apply the comprehensive model of
motivation
□ Arousal (need theories)

□ Channeling (cognitive theories)



Grading scale (behavioral theories)
Motivation
0 is what I know coming into the class

Knowledge of course content


Integrated answer
How do we motivate individuals
Ability to ground these ideas with cases, examples, metaphors

500 - 1000 words

Team Leadership
Goals of the group
Task and relationship behaviors
Style develops a team

Structure (getting the job done) <--------> Interpersonal effectiveness (member


satisfaction)
Effective leaders motivate, ineffective leaders frustrate during reasonablly predictable
stages
from about
immature to mature organizational growth
Is organization change?
Importance of leadesship to an organization and how a leader helps an organization
change
Desire to stabilize and create predictable processes
Establish goal and vision

Fishtank
Shrimp
Timid, spends most time hiding in rocks, waits for fish to swim by and tries to put claws out
Goes out when lights go out, looks for food
One day, lights are on, shrimp is out on the sand, exposed vulnerable
reached in touched shrimp, was just the exoskeleton, was actually hiding in rocks
Now hiding while its shell is soft
Shell protects the shrimp but only allows growth as big as the shell
Shrimp is an analogy for corporate change
If a company stays within its shell or current area….the company will stagnant and eventually
die
Organization are not shrimp, they have "brains" which will work to resolve tension via
leadership
Shell is a culture of organization, the function of culture is to protect the organization.
If culture becomes too stale or strong, it stagments the organization

799 = 1
Examines the last 50,000 years of human endeavor
800 lifetimes in 50,000 years
Same amount of change in the last lifetime as there has been in all 799 lifetimes
before it
Rate of change has increased exponentially
Examples
The speed of communication
Running to phone to radio to internet
90% of all scientists who ever lived are alive
World of future shock
Used to have time to adapt to changes, however future arrives faster and faster
Entrepreneurialism is a response to the fast based nature of today's world
Disruptive events create new markets and ideas
Like a tree falling in the rainforest
Canopy taking up all the sunlight
Tree falls and sunlight floods in

Why don't organizations change?


Active Inertia
An object at rest stays at rest (inertia)
An object in motion stays in motion until acted upon by another force

Organizations don’t suffer from a lack of activity


When confronted with problems, organizations respond
But the response follows predictable patterns that often result in solutions more appropriate
to
problems of the past
Symptoms of Active Inertia
Vision turns into blinders
Initially want people to get behind a vision, but if too focused it blocks out other
options

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Initially want people to get behind a vision, but if too focused it blocks out other options
Processes become routines
Values harden into dogmas
Dogmas are things done without question
Relationships become shackles
Relationships with customers, vendors, investors, employees

What is it that creates active inertia and guides it along the path that becomes hard to get off
of?
Organizational culture

( Assumptions ) Walmart assumption is that somewhere a


Any large system needs a culture to buffer from the outside retailer offers a lowest price and they
Culture is like a personality (individual) for a group assume they are it
It begins with the assumptions that are made
Answers the question Alt assumption: variety in their local area
Why are we here
What is our reason for being

Assumptions give rise to a set of values Apple Assumption


Somewhere is going to be a company
Artifacts are tangible visible reminders of what is important or what we value that delivers high tech products to tech
savy computers that are clever fun,
cool, stylish
Values
Conscious, stable beliefs that guide our preferences
What is most important to you?
How do you evaluate good and bad? Right and wrong?
HP
Artifacts David packard notices a big lock that
Legends locks equipment out so people can
See HP check it out at a plant. He goes and
Rituals cuts the lock. He tells the manager to
Postcard in mailboxes with name and id number never lock the door again and give
Turkey from the president engineers free access to all equipment.
Jargon
Acronym hell
Symbols
Sharing of values
Heroes
Steve jobs, icons of people

Culture is a good thing and needed, gives us a comfort zone within which we can effectively
operate
just like a personality or a set of group dynamic where we control what is going on
Control Culture
Rests on the assumptions and values that everyone should be aligned and prepared to do what they need
to
do. (military)
Performance based culture
Emphasis on results and effectiveness
Typical mba has a 2.9
GE has a performance culture

Relationship culture
Nurturing and a sense of teamwork and fairness
School systems, summer camps, NFP's

Responsive or adaptive culture


Entrepreneurial

Leadership is about making sure the org doesn't sit still

Continuous improvement increases performance over time

2 kinds of change that leaders must address


Evolutionary change that is a result of continuous improvement
Breakthrough change
Result of transformational leadership

Hero leader vs Transformational leader

Hero is meant to embody the values


Hero must also be a transformational leader by changing the culture to allow for
growth
Done by questioning values and assumptions
Lewin Change Theory
forces for change Forces resisting change
Change is going to resisted by countervailing power and inertia of a culture
These forces are balanced typically by the ones resisting the
3 steps to changing a culture change

1) Unfreeze it
a) Get it ready for change
i) They aren't adaptive like an individual personality
ii) Force examination of the culture
2) Change
a) Vision
i) Assumptions
ii) Values
iii) Alignment
One. Have to put this vision in front of people and then wait for them to align behind it.
3) Refreeze

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3) Refreeze
a) Develop processes
b) Relationships
c) Values
d) Etc
e) Leads to continuous improvement

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