Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 66

Юлия  

Зиятдинова
English for designers. Английский
язык для дизайнеров

«БИБКОМ»
2012
УДК 811.111:687
ББК 81.2Англ

Зиятдинова Ю. Н.
English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров  / 
Ю. Н. Зиятдинова —  «БИБКОМ»,  2012

ISBN 978-5-7882-1268-5

Учебное пособие способствует формированию коммуникативных


способностей в профессиональной сфере дизайнеров и мотивированности
обучающихся при изучении английского языка. Рассматривается история
развития европейского костюма на протяжении XVIII-XXI веков, а также
ассортимент одежды и ее стилевые особенности. Пособие содержит задания
творческого и дискуссионного характера и задания, направленные на анализ
конкретных ситуаций, с которыми может столкнуться будущий дизайнер.

УДК 811.111:687
ББК 81.2Англ

ISBN 978-5-7882-1268-5 © Зиятдинова Ю. Н., 2012


© БИБКОМ, 2012
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Содержание
Введение 5
Unit 1 7
Unit 2 11
Unit 3 15
Unit 4 20
Unit 5 24
Unit 6 28
Unit 7 31
Unit 8 35
Unit 9 39
Unit 10 42
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОМАШНЕГО ЧТЕНИЯ 46
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПИСЬМЕННОГО ПЕРЕВОДА 60
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 64
Библиографический список 65

4
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Э.А. Хамматова, Ю.Н. Зиятдинова


English for designers. Английский язык
для дизайнеров. Учебное пособие
 
Введение
 
Вхождение нашего государства в мировое сообщество, развитие и укрепление межгосу-
дарственных политических, экономических и культурных связей, интернационализация всех
сфер жизни в стране способствует тому, что иностранные языки становятся реально востре-
бованными в современном обществе. Современный специалист в области дизайна не мыслим
без знания иностранных языков. Большая роль в успешном решении этой задачи заключается
в умении соотносить языковые средства с конкретными ситуациями, условиями и задачами
общения.
Цели учебного пособия:
• подготовка бакалавров в области специализированного перевода с целью повышения
профессиональной квалификации;
• выработка практических навыков профессионального (устного и письменного) пере-
вода в сочетании с изучением теории языка и теории перевода;
• углубление знаний по истории развития европейского костюма;
• развитие межкультурной компетенции с целью повышения эффективности межкуль-
турной коммуникации в сфере профессиональной деятельности.
Как известно, изучение иностранного языка включает два важнейших аспекта – когни-
тивный (способность к умственному восприятию и переработке внешней информации) и ком-
муникативный (возможность вступать в коммуникации). Без когнитивного элемента, то есть
без знания слов, устойчивых фраз и выражений, невозможно перейти к последующим комму-
никациям или разговорам на иностранном языке. Именно из слов строятся фразы и предложе-
ния, и, поэтому чем больше словарный запас на иностранном языке, тем легче студенту пони-
мать написанный текст и высказывать свои мысли.
Настоящее пособие является основной частью учебно-методического комплекса, пред-
назначенного для обучения английскому языку бакалавров дизайна и искусства костюма и тек-
стиля.
Специфика обучения бакалавров дизайна и искусства костюма и текстиля английскому
языку предполагает чтение оригинальной литературы по специальности и ведение беседы на
темы профессиональной направленности, предусмотренные программой.
Пособие включает в себя 10 тем и практических занятий, объединенных единой темати-
кой, а также текстов для домашнего чтения и письменного перевода. В начале каждого заня-
тия представляется лексика по заданной теме, которая способствует формированию знаний
лексического минимума общего и терминологического характера. Далее следует информатив-
ный текст на английском языке, который сопровождается заданиями для контроля понимания,
умения отвечать на вопросы и выражать мысль на английском языке, для совершенствования
навыков поискового чтения. В последующих заданиях содержатся тексты и предложения как
на английском, так и на русском языке, предназначенные для устного и письменного перевода.
Для закрепления полученных знаний в конце каждого урока содержатся задания на формиро-
вание речевых навыков как дискуссионного (диалог), так и излагательного характера (пересказ,
составление рассказов). Тексты, предложенные для домашнего чтения и письменного пере-
вода, предполагаются для самостоятельной работы студентов.
5
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Данное учебное пособие рассчитано на аудиторную, самостоятельную и индивидуальную


работу студентов, обучающихся по программам подготовки 072500.62 «Дизайн» и 072700.62
«Искусство костюма и текстиля».

6
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Unit 1
FASHION DESIGN
 

1. Прочитайте следующие слова и словосочетания вслух и определите их


значение:
aesthetics, accessories, latitudes, clothing, garment, market, consumer, range, combinations,
patterns, conventional, occasions, specifically, haute couture, bespoke tailoring, mass market, casual,
every-day wear, freelance designer, directly, manufacturers, selfemployed, apparel, muslin, via,
precise, painstaking, accuracy, operational outfit, concept, technicality, according, predominantly,
ready-to-wear, quantities, customers, kitsch, high-waisted trousers, bridal.
2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие глаголы:
to anticipate, to require, to influence, to attempt, to satisfy, to desire, to consider, to design, to
bear, to establish, to sketch, to drape, to satisfy, to depend, to figure out, to split up, to guarantee.
3. Подберите эквивалентный перевод словосочетаний из колонки A в
колонке В.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


 
FASHION DESIGN
 
Fashion design is the art of the application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing
and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and social latitudes, and has varied over
time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories.
Some work alone or as part of a team. They attempt to satisfy consumer desire for aesthetically
designed clothing; and, because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, must at
times anticipate changing consumer tastes.
Fashion designers attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically
pleasing. They must consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be
worn. They have a wide range and combinations of materials to work with and a wide range of
colors, patterns and styles to choose from. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within
a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are usually sought for special occasions, such
as evening wear or party dresses.
7
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Some clothes are made specifically for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke
tailoring. Today, most clothing is designed for the mass market, especially casual and every-day wear.
Fashion designers can work in a number of many ways. Fashion designers may work full-time for one
fashion as 'in-house designers' which owns the designs. They may work alone or as part of a team.
Freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or
to clothing manufacturers. The garments bear the buyer's label. Some fashion designers set up their
own labels, under which their designs are marketed. Some fashion designers are self-employed and
design for individual clients. Other high-fashion designers cater to specialty stores or high-fashion
department stores. These designers create original garments, as well as those that follow established
fashion trends. Most fashion designers, however, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs
of men’s, women’s, and children’s fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have
a 'name' as their brand such as Abercrombie & Fitch, Justice, or Juicy are likely to be designed by a
team of individual designers under the direction of a designer director.
Designing a garment. Fashion designers work in different ways. Some sketch their ideas on
paper, while others drape fabric on a dress form. When a designer is completely satisfied with the
fit of the toile (or muslin), he or she will consult a professional pattern maker who then makes
the finished, working version of the pattern out of card or via a computerized system. The pattern
maker's job is very precise and painstaking. The fit of the finished garment depends on their accuracy.
Finally, a sample garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit.
Myriam Chalek, owner and founder of Creative Business House explains that most of the time fashion
designers only have a fashion concept; the technicality and construction is not thought through during
the visual conception and sketching process. Hence, the fashion designer needs to meet with a pattern
maker and sample maker to figure out if the sketch on paper can be brought to life according its vision.
Types of fashion. The garments produced by clothing manufacturers fall into three main
categories, although these may be split up into additional, more specific categories:
1. Haute couture. Until the 1950s, fashion clothing was predominately designed and
manufactured on a made-to-measure or haute couture basis (French for high-sewing), with each
garment being created for a specific client. A couture garment is made to order for an individual
customer, and is usually made from highquality, expensive fabric, sewn with extreme attention to
detail and finish, often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Look and fit take priority
over the cost of materials and the time it takes to make.
2. Ready-to-wear (pret-a-porter). Ready-to-wear clothes are a cross between haute couture and
mass market. They are not made for individual customers, but great care is taken in the choice and
cut of the fabric. Clothes are made in small quantities to guarantee exclusivity, so they are rather
expensive. Ready-to-wear collections are usually presented by fashion houses each season during a
period known as Fashion Week. This takes place on a city-wide basis and occurs twice a year. The
main seasons of Fashion Week include, spring/summer, fall/winter, resort, swim and bridal.
3. Mass market. Currently the fashion industry relies more on mass market sales. The mass
market caters for a wide range of customers, producing ready set by the famous names in fashion.
They often wait around a season to make sure a style is going to catch on before producing their own
versions of the original look. In order to save money and time, they use cheaper fabrics and simpler
production techniques which can easily be done by machine. The end product can therefore be sold
much more cheaply.
There is a type of design called "kutch" design originated from the German word "kitschig"
meaning "ugly" or "not aesthetically pleasing." Kitsch can also refer to "wearing or displaying
something that is therefore no longer in fashion." Often, high-waisted trousers, associated with the
1980s, are considered a "kitsch" fashion statement.
(From http://en.wikipedia.org)

8
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

5. Закончите предложения, используя следующие слова: fashion, haute


couture, mass market, season, garment.
→ Сasual and every-day wear is designed for …
→ A … garment is made specifically for the wearer’s measurements and body stance.
→ They must consider who is likely to wear a … and the situations in which it will be worn.
→ Some … designers are self-employed and design for individual clients.
→ Ready-to-wear collections are usually presented by fashion houses each … during a period
known as Fashion Week.
6. Сопоставьте следующие понятия:

7. Прочитайте, переведите и озаглавьте текст.


London has long been the capital of the UK fashion industry and has a wide range of
foreign designs which have integrated with modern British styles. Typical British design is smart
but innovative yet recently has become more and more unconventional, fusing traditional styles with
modern techniques. Vintage styles play an important role in the British fashion and styling industry.
Stylists regularly 'mix and match' the old with the new, which gives British style that unique, bohemian
aesthetic that many of the other fashion capitals try to imitate. Irish fashion (both design and styling)
is also heavily influenced by fashion trends from Britain. Famous British brands and designers include
Burberry, Alexander McQueen, Mulberry, Stella McCartney and Vivienne Westwood.
(From http://en.wikipedia.org)
8. Переведите следующие предложения письменно.
1. Первым в истории кутюрье традиционно считается модельер, создатель Синдиката
Высокой моды Чарльз Фредерик Уорт.
2. С точки зрения искусства мода близка к концептуальному искусству, поскольку она
заключается в сочетании различных элементов (прическа, материал одежды, фасон, колор,
аксессуары), создающих образ.
3. Мода – это форма безобразия, настолько невыносимого, что мы вынуждены изменять
ее каждые полгода. (О. Уайльд).
4. Одежда производится в небольших количествах, чтобы гарантировать эксклюзив-
ность, так что они довольно дорогие.
9
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

5. На сегодняшний день наибольшая часть одежды рассчитана на массовый рынок, в осо-


бенности для удобной и повседневной носки.
9. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту упражнения 4.
→ What is the function of fashion designers?
→ What kind of garments can you name ‘haute couture’?
→ What type of collections are presented each season during a period known as Fashion Week?
→ How does Myriam Chalek explain the designing process?
10. Перескажите текст упражнения 4, используя фразы в приложении.

10
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Unit 2
FASHION HISTORY
 

1. Прочитайте следующие слова вслух и переведите их письменно:


cyclas, sleeves, transition, kittle, floor-length, ankle-length, abundant, doublets, hose, collars,
opulence, farthingale, ornamentation, shoulders, waistlines, reveals, petticoats, foreparts, somber,
stomachers, breeches, ensembles.
2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие глаголы:
to divert, to inaugurate, to enable, to include, to reflect.
3. Подберите эквивалентный перевод словосочетаний из колонки A в
колонке В.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


 
EUROPEAN STYLE
 
Clothing throughout the thirteenth century was very simple and varied very little between men
and women. A loose-fitting fulllength gown with fitted sleeves worn with a narrow belt and a sleeveless
coat called the cyclas was the norm. Until this point, very little diverted from Roman influence.
The fourteenth century inaugurated the Renaissance and brought the first major from simple
draped shapes to fitted garments. Contoured seams and the start transition of tailoring techniques
now enabled clothing to become more of a sheath around the body. Buttons and lacing allowed for
an even closer fit. Women of the time wore an ankle- or floor-length chemise called a cotte, or kittle.
The fitted version of the gown worn on top, called a cotehardie, often featured long hanging sleeves.
In Europe throughout this period, fashion began to change at an unprecedented pace.
During the fifteenth century Europe experienced an abundant prosperity, the growth of
the middle classes, and the development of a skilled workforce. This created an appetite for
extravagances. Voluminous gowns called houppelandes featured floor-length sleeves and were worn
with doublets, high collars, and hose. Headwear became more important and was trimmed with all
manner of feathers and jewels. Everything became more complex and varied by region.
The sixteenth century was characterized by an increased opulence in fashion, most especially
in England under Elizabeth I. Some of the atypical fashion details included the lace Tudor ruff, a
11
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

hoop skirt called a farthingale, and rich surface ornamentation. In sharp contrast to the sloping narrow
shoulders of the early 1500s, the Elizabethan court adopted shoulders that were high and wide with
narrow sleeves reflecting French and Spanish styles. The shoulders were further enhanced by padded
and jeweled shoulder rolls and accentuated by deep V-shaped waistlines. The V shape was mirrored
by skirts that opened at the front to display petticoats or heavily decorated foreparts.
Fashion of the seventeenth-century baroque reveals a strong Puritan influence, evidenced in
the natural, dark, somber colors and modest designs. Excessive ornamentation was discarded in favor
of simpler broad lace and linen collars. Full slashed sleeves became very fashionable. Waistlines rose
to create shorter bodices that were worn with contrasting stomachers. The period also witnessed the
change from hose to breeches for men. A desire for uniformity became evident with the popularity
of matching ensembles that speak to the contemporary suit. Under Louis XIV, the French began to
focus on becoming leaders in the production of luxury products and fashionable clothing began to
reflect the demands of the season and comfort.
(From the book “Form, Fit, and Fashion” by Jay Calderin)
5. Ответьте на вопросы:
→ What does the word “cyclas” mean?
→ Can you describe the garments of Renaissance period?
→ What can you say about fashion of the 15th century?
→ What do you know about fashion in England under Elizabeth I?
→ Which styles in fashion prevail in the 17th century?
6. Закончите предложения, используя следующие слова: hose, headwear,
kittle, shoulder, waistlines, lace.
→ Women of the time wore an ankle- or floor-length chemise called a cotte, or …
→ … became more important and was trimmed with all manner of feathers and jewels.
→ The shoulders were further enhanced by padded and jeweled … rolls.
→ … rose to create shorter bodices that were worn with contrasting stomachers.
→ The period also witnessed the change from … to breeches for men.
→ Excessive ornamentation was discarded in favor of simpler broad … and linen collars.
7. Прочитайте и переведите текст письменно.
 
FASHION HOUSES AND THEIR ADS
 
Fashion houses are the companies behind the bigger name designers. They’re considered houses
because the company bears the designer’s name, even after the designer has retired and someone
else has taken over designing the label. The fashion houses influence trends and, consequently, sales
through the use of advertising. If you look through a fashion magazine, you see that most of the pages
are ads. These ads, which are just as visually interesting and informative as the editorial pages, can
have quite an impact. For example, department stores didn’t want to stock designer jeans back in
the 1980s, but the ads placed by the jeans companies created the public demand, and it wasn’t long
before those jeans were in every store.
8. Переведите следующий текст.

12
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Анализ целостности ансамбля
 
Анализ целостности ансамбля проводится на примере костюма (представленного на рис.
слева).

В этой модели нельзя убрать отделку в плечевой части из цветного крепдешина бежевого
цвета, так как сразу нарушится целостность композиции.
Если убрать один из главных элементов в костюме, а именно цветную драпировку, то
исчезнет один из сильных контрастов, который проявляется в сочетаниях основного и отде-
лочного материалов, их цветовой гамме и фактуре поверхностей. При всем этом, костюм ста-
новится неполным и скучным.
Однако, умелое использование материалов, декоративных элементов в головном уборе
позволяет добиваться выразительности представленного костюма и его эстетической ценности.
При изъятии из ансамбля шляпы и легко драпирующегося отделочного материала изменится
форма модели (расширенная в плечевой части и зауженная в линии талии).
Нарушается связь форм, если убрать из костюма головной убор и дамскую сумочку.

13
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

На основе анализа внешней формы костюма можно заключить, что представленная ком-
позиция является законченной и достаточно целостной, так как соблюдаются меры контраста.
9. Прочитайте и переведите цитату. Выучите высказывание наизусть.
"Fashion is not something that exists in dresses only. Fashion is in the sky, in the
street, fashion has to do with ideas, the way we live, what is happening."
Coco Chanel
(French fashion designer, 1883-1971)
10. Перескажите текст упражнения 4, используя фразы в приложении.

14
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Unit 3
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
 

1. Прочитайте следующие слова вслух и переведите их письменно:


robe, pleats, lavish, conical, panniers, sleeves, petticoat, bodice, redingote, silhouette,
neoclassical, acumen, austerity, self-promotion, transnational, dressmaking, democracy,
dissemination, bell-shaped, trumpet-shaped, hoops, empire, bust, regency, equal, inspiration,
ensemble.
2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие глаголы:
to popularize, to politicize, to encase, to invert, to exaggerate, to dethrone, to unconfined, to
categorize.
3. Подберите эквивалентный перевод словосочетаний из колонки A в
колонке В.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY
 
The eighteenth century saw fashion celebrated as culture. One popular garment was contouche,
a loose robe with large back pleats so often painted by Antoine Watteau that they came to be called
Watteau pleats. Fashion icon of the day Madame de Pompadour popularized the lavish rococo style.
At this point, by mid-century, the women’s torso was encased in an inverted conical corset with sleeves
becoming bell- or trumpet-shaped, and the full-skirted silhouette widened further. Hoop skirts worn
in the 1730s and 1740s give way to panniers, or side hoops. By 1790, although skirts remained fill,
the exaggerated form had disappeared, and a fashion developed for the pouter-pigeon front, with
many layers of fabric pinned to a bodice.
Riding habits and men’s tailoring found their way into women’s fashion in the second half of the
century by way of the popular German traveling suit called a Brunswick gown, a two-piece ensemble
that featured a hooded jacket with split sleeves and a matching petticoat; the caraco, a jacket-like
bodice worn over a petticoat an based on the dress of servants and country women; and the joseph,
15
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

a coat dress styled after the riding coat (adopted by the French as a redingote). After the French and
American Revolutions fashion became politicized and austerity came to equal democracy. The end
of the century gave regency way to an unconfined long silhouette categorized as directoire, empire
or regency, with a high waistline located under the bust. Deriving its inspiration from the Greeks and
Romans, this neoclassical style took Europe into the early 1800s.
One figure of special note in the eighteenth century was the dressmaker and stylist Rose Bertin.
Bertin, who would later became known as the Ministre de la Mode, was instrumental in generating a
passion for the latest fashions thanks to her work for the French queen Marie Antoinette, whom she
dressed from 1770 until she was dethroned in 1792. Through her clever, self-promotion, business
acumen, and transnational reach, Bertin helped to turn dressmaking toward a modern model of the
fashion business. Contributing, too, to the wide dissemination of fashion trends by the end of the
century was the rise in popularity of fashion plates and journals.
5. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту упражнения 4.
→ Who popularized rococo style?
→ What can you say about the silhouette in the end of the 18th century?
→ What happened after the French and American Revolutions?
6. Прочитайте и переведите следующую цитату:
"It pains me physically to see a woman victimized, rendered pathetic, by
fashion."
Yves Saint Laurent
(French fashion designer, b. 1936)
7. Прочитайте, переведите текст письменно и озаглавьте его.

16
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Figure. Robe à la française, France, block-printed cotton, c. 1770. Los Angeles County
Museum of Art

The sack-back gown or robe à la française was a women's fashion of the 18th century. At
the beginning of the century, the sack-back gown was a very informal style of dress. At its most
informal, it was unfitted both front and back and called a sacque or contouche. By the 1770s the
sack-back gown was second only to court dress in its formality. This style of gown had fabric at the
back arranged in box pleats which fell loose from the shoulder to the floor with a slight train. In front,
the gown was open, showing off a decorative stomacher and petticoat. It would have been worn with
a wide square hoop or panniers under the petticoat. Scalloped ruffles often trimmed elbow-length
sleeves, which were worn with separate frills called engage antes.
The loose box pleats which are a feature of this style are sometimes called Watteau pleats
from their appearance in the paintings of Antoine Watteau. The various Watteau terms, such as
Watteau pleat, Watteau back, Watteau gown etc., date from the mid19th century rather than reflecting
authentic 18th century terminology, and normally describe 19th and 20th century revivals of the
sack-back.
(From http://en.wikipedia.org)
8. Прочитайте и переведите следующие цитаты:
→ «Мода – это то, что выходит из моды». (Коко Шанель).
→ «Мода проходит, стиль остается». (Коко Шанель).
→ «Самая важная деталь в платье – женщина, которая его носит». (Ив Сен Лоран).
→ «Хорошо одетый человек тот, кто считается с собой и с другими». (Пьер Карден).
→ «Я люблю, когда мода выходит на улицу, но не допускаю, чтобы она приходила оттуда».
(Коко Шанель).
9. Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его.
This period saw the final abandonment of lace, embroidery, and other embellishment from
serious men's clothing outside of formalized court dress – it would not reappear except as an
affectation of Aesthetic dress in the 1880s and its successor, the "Young Edwardian" look of the
1960s. Instead, cut and tailoring became much more important as an indicator of quality.
This was also the period of the rise of hair wax for styling men's hair, as well as mutton chops
as a style of facial hair.
Breeches became longer – tightly fitted leather riding breeches reached almost to the boot tops
– and were replaced by pantaloons or trousers for fashionable street wear. Coats were cutaway in
front with long skirts or tails behind, and had tall standing collars. The lapels featured an M-shaped
notch unique to the period.

17
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Figure. Pierre Seriziat in riding dress, 1795. His snug leather breeches have a tie and buttons
at the knee and a fall front. The white waiscoat is double-breasted, a popular style at this time. His
tall hat is slightly conical.

Shirts were made of linen, had attached collars, and were worn with stocks or wrapped in a
cravat tied in various fashions. Pleated frills at the cuffs and front opening went out of fashion by
the end of the period.
Waistcoats were relatively high-waisted, and squared off at the bottom, but came in a broad
variety of styles. They were often double-breasted, with wide lapels and stand collars. High-collared
white waistcoats were fashionable until 1815, then collars were gradually lowered as the shawl collar
came into use toward the end of this period.
Overcoats or greatcoats were fashionable, often with contrasting collars of fur or velvet. The
garrick, sometimes called a coachman's coat, was a particularly popular style, and had between three
and five short caplets attached to the collar.
Boots, typically Hessian boots with heart-shaped tops and tassels were mainstay in men's
footwear. After the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815, Wellington boots,
as they were known, became the rage; tops were knee-high in front and cut lower in back. The jockey
boot, with a turned-down cuff of lighter colored leather, was correct for riding.
(From http://www.nationmaster.com)
10. Составьте диалог «An interview with fashion designer», используя
следующие выражения:
→ What is your impression of arts and fashion?
18
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

→ Where did you get the inspiration for your designs?


→ How do you keep up-to-date with your career?
→ What fashion trends interest you most?
→ What is “in” fashion for girls/boys this season?
→ Do you have a mentor?
→ And how about …?
→ What motivates you?
→ What can you say about …?
→ What are your weaknesses and strengths?
→ How do you manage working …?
→ What are your plans for the future?

19
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Unit 4
NINETEENTH CENTURY
 

1. Прочитайте следующие слова вслух и переведите их письменно:


modernity, exponentially, buttons, empire, significance, bustle, purity, inventions, silhouette,
curiosity, bust, waist, buttocks, posterior, suppression, rear, pleats, flounces, bows, lieu, apron,
polonaise, hips, upholstered, fascination, crinolines, pad, distinctly, medieval, medieval, sleeves,
prominence, cravats, lace, inserts, trim, embroidery, tucks, pleats, tulip, collars, bell, suits,
fashionable, practical, variation, ties.
2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие глаголы:
to patent, to return, to influence, to define, to amplify, to exploit, to exaggerate, to reduce, to
gain, to embrace.
3. Подберите эквивалентный перевод словосочетаний из колонки A в
колонке В.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

20
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
NINETEENTH CENTURY
 
The 1800s were a time of modernity. The needle trade grew exponentially due to technological
advances. Mass production was possible because of inventions like Elias Howe’s sewing machine
in 1846. Machines that specialized in sewing buttons making button holes, and knitting made large
production runs a reality. Isaac Singer patented the first home-scaled sewing machine and distributed
it widely. At the same time, standard paper pattern became available through mail order. Of great
significance, the first modern department store, the Magasin au Bon Marché, opened in Paris as early
as 1852; across the Atlantic, Wanamaker’s opened in Philadelphia in 1861.
By the 1820s women’s fashion had moved away from the classically influenced empire style
and returned to the corseting and full skirts of the previous era. In the last quarter of the nineteenth
century, however, it was the bustle that defined fashion. The conservative Victorian era is known for a
prudish societal focus on moral values, especially female purity. Ironically, the fashionable silhouette
of the day, although covering most of woman’s body, amplified the hourglass proportions of the bust,
waist, and buttocks, eroticizing and idealizing an extreme version of the feminine form. Some liken
the allure of this extreme silhouette to the interest in a woman known as Saartjie “Sarah” Baartman,
who was exploited as a sideshow attraction called the Hottentot Venus. Baartman was considered an
exotic curiosity because of the exaggerated scale of her posterior in relationship to the rest of the
frame, a genetic characteristic of the Khoisan people of South Africa, in particular the women. Thus,
a fascination with novelty and the uneasy suppression of sexuality could be seen to come together
in the Victorian bustle.
The early bustle of 1870s can be described in terms of the lightness of material and lack of
decoration. It was often created through the manipulation of the fabric that was draped in the rear,
using pleats, flounces, and bows. The front of the silhouette had the appearance of an apron. For a
short time, from 1878 to 1883, the bustle disappeared in lieu of a more natural, flat-backed dress.
The cuirass bodice, a long waisted bodice that extended below the hips, and the polonaise, a princess
sheath dress, achieved this slim shape. The period from 1883 to 1893 constituted the revival of
the bustle. This new bustle had the look of an upholstered shelf, due to its large, almost horizontal
protrusion. It was further accentuated with heavier fabrics and more ornate decoration. By the end
of the 1800s, though, the bustle had been reduced to a small pad that carried into the Edwardian era.
Parallel to mainstream fashion, a movement emerged in the 1860s and 1870s known as artistic
and, later, aesthetic dress. In protest against crinolines and restrictive corsets, as well as the idea of
mass-produced clothing, a group of artists, writers, and actors, most famously associated with Dante
Gabriel Rossetti and William Morris, promoted this looser, distinctly bohemian style that embraced
many medieval and Renaissance sensibilities.
With the decline of the bustle, sleeves gained more prominence, culminating in the mid-1890s
with gigantic leg-o’muttons offset by a tiny waist. The American artist Charles Dana Gibson captured
the ideal in his satirical illustrations of the modern woman. Although she became an icon of the era,
the “Gibson Girl” was meant to caricature the sense of competition, independence, and athleticism
that defined this new woman – not necessarily traits that were encouraged for genteel ladies. The
embellished blouse became a signature of the Gibson Girl, featuring details like lace inserts and trim,
embroidery, appliqués1, faggoting2, tucks, and pleats. She also sported shirt collars with ties, bows
or cravats. She wore these tops over skirts shaped like a bell or an inverted tulip. Tailored travelling
suits were a fashionable and practical variation of the new look.

1
 appliqué (фр.) – аппликация
2
 faggoting – вышивание мережкой (узор образуется за счет собирания отдельных нитей в пучки)
21
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

(From the book “Form, Fit, and Fashion” by Jay Calderin)


5. Ответьте на вопросы:
→ What do you know about Saartjie Baartman?
→ What do you know about Victorian era?
→ Can you describe fashion of the 19th century?
→ Who became an icon of the era in the end of the 19th century?
6. Переведите следующие предложения письменно.
1. В 1860-е годы в моду вошли кринолины из овальных обручей, которые создавали опре-
деленный силуэт юбки.
2. Он изменил пропорции платья с кринолином, предложив завышенную линии талии и
отказался от пышных складок на талии.
3. Женский костюм имел профильный силуэт и множество драпировок.
4. Костюм стиля модерн постепенно изменялся, и становились модными съемные рукава
до локтя из гипюра.
5. Характерной чертой силуэта женского платья является значительно расширенная, гро-
тескная линия плеч вследствие очень пышных рукавов «фонарик».
7.  Переведите следующие слова, используя пример: buttons, pleats,
flounces, crinolines, embroidery, faggoting, tucks, collars, bows, cravats, ties,
tulip, trim, blouse, sleeves, suits.

8. Прочитайте и переведите текст письменно.


 
OUTERWEAR
 
Riding habits consisted of a high-necked, tight-waisted jacket with the fashionable dropped
shoulder and huge gigot sleeves, worn over a tall-collared shirt or chemisette, with a long matching
petticoat or skirt. Tall top hats with veils were worn.
Shawls were worn with short-sleeved evening gowns early in the decade, but they were not
suited to the wide gigot sleeves of the mid 1830s.
Full-length mantles were worn to about 1836, when mantles became shorter. A mantlet3 or
shawl-mantlet was a shaped garment like a cross between a shawl and a mantle, with points hanging
down in front. The burnous4 was a three-quarter length mantle with a hood, named after the similar
garment of Arabia. The paletot5 was kneelength, with three cape-collars and slits for the arms, and
the pardessus6 was half or three-quarter length coat with a defined waist and sleeves.

3
 mantlet – мантилья (короткая накидка, короткий плащ)
4
 burnous – бурнус (арабский плащ; просторное женское пальто)
5
 paletot (фр.) ['pæltəu] – свободная, широкая верхняя одежда (пальто, накидка)
6
 pardessus (фр.) [pardəsy] – пальто
22
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

For evening, voluminous mantles of velvet or satin, with fur trim or fur linings in cold climates
were worn with the evening gown.
(From the Survey of Historic Costume by Tortora, Phyllis and Keith Eubank)
9. Составьте рассказ о моде 19 века, включающий в себя следующее:
→ Идеал красоты
→ Виды и формы одежды
→ Мужская одежда
→ Женская одежда
→ Обувь
→ Головные уборы, прически, украшения, косметика

23
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Unit 5
EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY
 

1. Прочитайте следующие слова и словосочетания вслух и переведите их


письменно:
extent, editors, trim details, assumptions, seamstresses, customers, competitors, hourglass-
shaped style, assistance, conspicuous, consumption, incredibly, shorter-skirted, upholstered,
painstakingly, unthinkable, hips, bosom, indispensable, ribbons, feathers, lace, pantaloons, turbans,
evident, felt hats, soberly, superimposing, shimmers, flimsy, fluid lines, diaphanous, imperatives,
headgear, immense, gossamery, clinging, sheath, shades, cochineal, devotees, engagements,
circumstances, clouds of tulle, undulate, mid-calf, maid.
2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие глаголы:
to purchase, to define, to broaden, to devise, to emerge, to distinguish, to perched on.
3. Подберите эквивалентный перевод словосочетаний из колонки A в
колонке В.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


 
EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY
 
Throughout the early 20th century, practically all high fashion originated in Paris and to a
lesser extent London. Fashion magazines from other countries sent editors to the Paris fashion shows.
Department stores sent buyers to the Paris shows, where they purchased garments to copy (and
openly stole the style lines and trim details of others). Both made-to-measure salons and readyto-wear
departments featured the latest Paris trends, adapted to the stores’ assumptions about the lifestyles
and pocket books of their targeted customers.
At this time in fashion history the division between haute couture and ready-to-wear was not
sharply defined. The two separate modes of production were still far from being competitors and
they often co-existed in houses where the seamstresses moved freely between made-to-measure and
ready-made.
Around the start of the 20th century fashion style magazines began to include photographs
and became even more influential than in the future. In cities throughout the world these magazines
24
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

were greatly sought-after and had a profound effect on public taste. Talented illustrators – among
them Paul Iribe, Georges Lepape, Erté, and George Barbier – drew exquisite fashion plates for these
publications, which covered the most recent developments in fashion and beauty. Perhaps the most
famous of these magazines was La Gazette du bon ton which was founded in 1912 by Lucien Vogel
and regularly published until 1925.
 
1900s
 
The outfits worn by the fashionable women of the ‘Belle Époque’ (as this era was called by the
French) were strikingly similar to those worn in the heyday of the fashion pioneer Charles Worth.
By the end of the 19th-century, the horizons of the fashion industry had generally broadened, partly
due to the more stable and independent lifestyle many well-off women were beginning to adopt and
the practical clothes they demanded. However, the fashions of the La Belle Époque still retained
the elaborate, upholstered, hourglass-shaped style of the 19th century. As of yet, no fashionable lady
could (or would) dress or undress herself without the assistance of a third party. The constant need
for radical change, which is now essential for the survival of fashion within the present system, was
still literally unthinkable. The use of different trimmings were all that distinguished one season from
the other.
Conspicuous waste and conspicuous consumption defined the fashions of the decade and the
outfits of the couturiers of the time were incredibly extravagant, elaborate, ornate, and painstakingly
made. The curvaceous S-Bend silhouette dominated fashion up until around 1908. The S~Bend corset
was very tightly laced at the waist which forced the hips back and the drooping mono bosom was
thrust forward in a pouter pigeon effect creating an S shape. Toward the end of the decade the
fashionable silhouette gradually became somewhat more straight and slim, partly due to Paul Poiret’s
high-waisted, shorter-skirted Directoire line of clothes.
The MaisonRedfern was the first fashion house to offer women a tailored suit based directly
on its male counterpart and the extremely practical and soberly elegant garment soon became an
indispensable part of the wardrobe of any well-dressed woman. Another indispensable part of the
outfit of the well-dressed woman was the designer hat. Fashionable hats at the time were either tiny
little confections that perched on top of the head, or large and wide brimmed, trimmed with ribbons,
flowers, and even feathers. Caroline Reboux, Legroux, and E. Lewis were the most soughtafter names
of the time. Parasols were still used as decorative accessories and in the summer they dripped with
lace and added to the overall elaborate prettiness.
(From the article “Style for all: why fashion, invented by kings, now belongs to all of
us” by McDermott, Kathleen)
5. Прочитайте и перескажите текст на русском языке.

25
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
1910s
 

Figure. Dress designed by Paul Poiret

During the early years of the 1910s the fashionable silhouette became much more lithe, fluid
and soft than in the 19th century. When the Ballets Russes performed Scheherazade in Paris in 1910,
a craze for Orientalism ensued. The couturier Paul Poiret was one of the first designers to translate
this vogue into the fashion world. Poiret's clients were at once transformed into harem girls in flowing
pantaloons, turbans, and vivid colors and geishas in exotic kimono. Paul Poiret also devised the first
outfit which women could put on without the help of a maid. The Art Deco movement began to
emerge at this time and its influence was evident in the designs of many couturiers of the time. Simple
felt hats, turbans, and clouds of tulle replaced the styles of headgear popular in the 20th century. It
is also notable that the first real fashion shows were organized during this period in time, by Jeanne
Paquin, one of the first female couturiers, who was also the first Parisian couturier to open foreign
branches in London, Buenos Aires, and Madrid.
Two of the most influential fashion designers of the time were Jacques Doucet and
Mariano Fortuny. The French designer Jacques Doucet excelled in superimposing pastel colors
26
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

and his elaborate gossamery dresses suggested the Impressionist shimmers of reflected light. His
distinguished customers never lost a taste for his fluid lines and flimsy, diaphanous materials. While
obeying imperatives that left little to the imagination of the couturier, Doucet was nonetheless a
designer of immense taste and discrimination, a role many have tried since, but rarely with Doucet's
level of success.
The Venice-based designer Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo was a curious figure, with very few
parallels in any age. For his dress designs he conceived a special pleating process and new dyeing
techniques. He gave the name Delphos to his long clinging sheath dresses that undulated with color.
Each garment was made of a single piece of the finest silk, its unique color acquired by repeated
immersions in dyes whose shades were suggestive of moonlight or of the watery reflections of the
Venetian lagoon. Breton straw, Mexican cochineal, and indigo from the Far East were among the
ingredients that Fortuny used. Among his many devotees were Eleanora Duse, Isadora Duncan, Cleo
de Merode, the MarchesaCasati, Emilienned'Alençon, and Liane de Pougy.
Changes in dress during World War I were dictated more by necessity than fashion. As more
and more women were forced to work, they demanded clothes that were better suited to their new
activities. Social events had to be postponed in favor of more pressing engagements and the need to
mourn the increasing numbers of dead, visits to the wounded, and the general gravity of the time
meant that darker colors became the norm. A new monochrome look emerged that was unfamiliar
to young women in comfortable circumstances. By 1915 fashionable skirts had risen above the ankle
and then later to mid-calf.
(From the book “Paris fashion: a cultural history” by Steele, Valerie)
6. Ответьте на вопросы:
→ Who developed a dress that could be put on without any help of a maid?
→ What silhouette dominated in the beginning of 20 century?
→ How did Jacques Doucet achieve success in fashion?
→ Who made dresses from a single piece of the finest silk?
→ How did the World War I influence the development of fashion?
→ How does the length of skirts change?
7. Переведите следующие предложения письменно на английский язык.
→ В годы первой мировой войны произошла реформа костюма.
→ Реформа костюма предполагала создание практичной, не стесняющей движений
одежды, упразднение корсетов, укорочение длинных юбок.
→ С началом войны Дома мод были закрыты, и эта реформа происходила стихийно.
→ Уже в первый год войны длина женских платьев доходила до щиколотки, затем до
середины икры.
→ Для одежды того времени характерны мягкие линии силуэта, умеренные объемы.
→ Главной чертой моды этих лет была свобода формы.
→ Для этого периода был характерен овальный силуэт в одежде.
8.  Составьте рассказ о модных тенденциях в период первой мировой
войны.

27
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Unit 6
GOLDEN AGE OF FRENCH FASHION
 

1. Прочитайте следующие слова вслух и определите их значение:


radical, pinafores, reluctant, androgynous, embroidery, lingerie, advocate, relaxation, knickers,
inches, magnetic, trademarks, influential, notably, flapper, simplicity.
2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие глаголы:
to adopt, to foreshadow, to approach, to diversify, to characterize, to satisfy, to abandon.
3. Подберите эквивалентный перевод словосочетаний из колонки A в
колонке В.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


 
1920s
 
Soon after the First World War, a radical change came about in fashion. Bouffant coiffures
gave way to short bobs, dresses with long trains gave way to above-the-knee pinafores. Corsets were
abandoned and women borrowed their clothes from the male wardrobe and chose to dress like boys.
Although, at first, many couturiers were reluctant to adopt the new androgynous style, they embraced
them wholeheartedly from around 1925. A bust less, waist less silhouette emerged and aggressive
dressing-down was mitigated by feather boas, embroidery, and showy accessories. The flapper style
(known to the French as the 'garçonne' look) became very popular among young women. The cloche
hat was widely-worn and sportswear became popular with both men and women during the decade,
with designers like Jean Patou and Coco Chanel popularizing the sporty and athletic look.
The great couturier Coco Chanel was a major figure in fashion at the time, as much for her
magnetic personality as for her chic and progressive designs. Chanel helped popularize the bob
hairstyle, the little black dress, and the use of jersey knit for women's clothing and also elevated the
status of both costume jewelry and knitwear.
Two other prominent French designers of the 1920s were Jeanne Lanvin and Jean Patou. Jeanne
Lanvin, who began her career in fashion as a milliner, made such beautiful outfits for her young
daughter Marguerite that people started to ask for copies, and Lanvin was soon making dresses for
their mothers. Lanvin's name appears in the fashion yearbook from about 1901 onwards. However, it
was in the 1920s that she reached the peak of her popularity and success. The Lanvin style embraced
the look of the time, with its skillful use of complex trimmings, dazzling embroideries, and beaded
decorations in light, clear, floral colors that eventually became a Lanvin trademark. By 1925 Lanvin
28
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

produced many different products, including sportswear, furs, lingerie, men's fashion, and interior
designs. Her global approach to fashion foreshadowed the schemes that all the large contemporary
fashion houses would later adopt in their efforts to diversify.
The style of Jean Patou was never mainstream, but full of originality and characterized by a
studied simplicity which was to win him fame, particularly in the American markets. Many of his
garments, with their clean lines, geometric and Cubist motifs, and mixture of luxury and practicality,
were designed to satisfy the new vogue for the outdoor life, and bore a remarkable similarity to
modern sportswear. The most famous advocate of his style was Suzanne Lenglen, the legendary tennis
champion.

Figure. Fashionable Hollywood actress Louise

In menswear there was a growing mood of informality, among the Americans especially, which
was mirrored in fashions that emphasized youthfulness and relaxation. In the past, there was a special
outfit for every event in the well-dressed gentleman's day, but young men in the 1920s, no longer
afraid to show their youthfulness, began to wear the same soft wool suit all day long. Short suit jackets
replaced the old long jackets of the past which were now only worn for formal occasions. Men had
a variety of sport clothes available to them, including sweaters and short pants, commonly known as
29
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

knickers. For evening wear a short tuxedo was more fashionable than the tail-coat, which was now
seen as somewhat old-fashioned. The London cut, with its slim lines, loose-fitting sleeves, and padded
shoulders, perfected by the English tailor Scholte, was very popular. Fair Isle patterns became very
popular for both sexes. Heels, at the time, were often over two inches high and helped popularize the
two-tone shoe its one of her trademarks. Salvatore Ferragamo and André Perugia were two of the most
influential and respected designers in footwear. Many stars of the silent films had a significant impact
on fashion during the 1920s, perhaps most notably Louise Brooks, Gloria Swanson, and Colleen
Moore. The lighthearted, forward-looking fashions of the 1920s gradually came to halt after the Wall
Street Crash of 1929, and succumbed to a more conservative style. While the flapper look persisted
into 1930, it quickly disappeared afterwards, although bell-shaped hats lasted through 1933.
(From the book “Paris fashion: a cultural history” by Steele, Valerie)
5. Ответьте на вопросы:
→ Can you describe changes in fashion after the World War I?
→ What style become very popular?
→ What new tends did Chanel bring in fashion?
→ Who worked in geometric and Cubist motifs?
→ What kind of clothes did men wear?
→ What type of clothes were seen old-fashioned for evening wear?
→ Who popularized the two-tone shoe?
6. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.
→ В послевоенный период главным направлением в искусстве был конструктивизм.
→ Костюм 30-х годов олицетворял новый идеал красоты своим кубическим силуэтом,
полученным от архитектурных форм и предметов быта.
→ Цветовая гамма выдержана в одном тоне – сером, бежевом, медном, белом и черном.
→ Идеальный внешний облик 30-х годов – стройная фигура с узкой талией и бедрами,
плоской грудью, пушистой перманентной завивкой.
7. Прочитайте, переведите текст письменно и озаглавьте его.
Ready-to-wear or prêt-à-porter often abbreviated RTW; "offthe-rack" or "off-the-peg" in
casual use) is the term for factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition, in standardized sizes, as
distinct from made to measure or bespoke clothing tailored to a particular person's frame. Off-the-
peg is sometimes used for items which are not clothing, such as handbags.
Ready-to-wear has rather different connotations in the spheres of fashion and classic clothing.
In the fashion industry, designers produce ready-to-wear clothing intended to be worn without
significant alteration, because clothing made to standard sizes fits most people. They use standard
patterns, factory equipment, and faster construction techniques to keep costs low, compared to a
custom-sewn version of the same item. Some fashion houses and fashion designers produce mass-
produced and industrially manufactured ready-to-wear lines, while others offer garments that, while
not unique, are produced in limited numbers.
8. Перескажите текст упражнения 4, используя фразы в приложении.

30
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Unit 7
FASHION MID-TWENTIETH CENTURY
 

1. Прочитайте следующие слова вслух и определите их значение:


sociological, erudite, predictions, revolutionary, circumspect, opulent, prominent,
inventiveness, combinations, chains, military, girdles, corselet, manufacturers, photogenic,
memorable, sequins, chiffon, fur, necklaces, veils, myriad, bangle.
2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие глаголы:
to vote, to submit, to design, to transform, to adopt, to contain, to redesign, to consist, to intend,
to revive.
3. Подберите эквивалентный перевод словосочетаний из колонки A в
колонке В.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


 
NEW LOOK IN FASHION
 
Flying in the face of continuity, logic, and erudite sociological predictions, fashion in the 1950s,
far from being revolutionary and progressive, used more from the previous decade. A whole society
which, in the 1920s and 1930s, had greatly believed in progress was now much more circumspect.
Despite the fact that women had the right to vote, to work, and to drive their own cars, they chose
to wear dresses made of opulent materials, with corseted waists and swirling skirts to mid-calf. As
fashion looked to the past, haute couture experienced something of a revival and spawned a myriad
of star designers who profited hugely from the rapid growth of the media.
Throughout the 1950s, although it would be for the last time, women around the world
continued to submit to the trends of Parisian haute couture. Three of the most prominent of the
Parisian couturiers of the time were Cristobal Balenciaga, Hubert de Givenchy, and Pierre Balmain.
31
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

The frugal prince of luxury, Cristobal Balenciaga Esagri made his fashion debut in the late 1930s.
However, it was not until the post-war years that the full scale of the inventiveness of this highly
original designer became evident. In 1951, he totally transformed the silhouette, broadening the
shoulders and removing the waist. In 1955, he designed the tunic dress, which later developed into
the chemise dress of 1957. And eventually, in 1959, his work culminated in the Empire line, with
high-waisted dresses and coats cut like kimonos. His mastery of fabric design and creation defied
belief. Balenciaga is also notable as one of the few couturiers in fashion history who could use their
own hands to design, cut, and sew the models which symbolized the height of his artistry.
Hubert de Givenchy opened his first couture house in 1952 and created a sensation with his
separates, which could be mixed and matched at will. Most renowned was his Bettina blouse made
from shirting, which was named after his top model. Soon, boutiques were opened in Rome, Zurich,
and Buenos Aires. A man of immense taste and discrimination, he was, perhaps more than any other
designer of the period, an integral part of the world whose understated elegance he helped to define.
Pierre Balmain opened his own salon in 1945. It was in a series of collections named 'Jolie
Madame' that he experienced his greatest success, from 1952 onwards. Balmain's vision of the
elegantlydressed woman was particularly Parisian and was typified by the tailored glamour of the
"New Look", with its ample bust, narrow waist, and full skirts, by mastery of cut and imaginative
assemblies of fabrics in subtle color combinations. His sophisticated clientele was equally at home
with luxurious elegance, simple tailoring, and a more natural look. Along with his haute couture
work, the talented businessman pioneered a ready-to-wear range called Florilege and also launched
a number of highly successful perfumes.
Also notable is the return of Coco Chanel (who detested the "New Look") to the fashion world.
Following the closure of her salons in the war years, in 1954, aged over seventy, she staged a comeback
and on February 5 she presented a collection which contained a whole range of ideas that would be
adopted and copied by women all over the world: her famous little braided suit with gold chains, shiny
costume jewelry, silk blouses in colors that matched the suit linings, sleek tweeds, monogrammed
buttons, flat black silk bows, boaters, quilted bags on chains, and evening dresses and furs that were
marvels of simplicity.
Despite being a high fashion designer, American born Mainbocher also designed military and
civilian service uniforms. In 1952, he redesigned the Women Marines service uniform combining
femininity with functionality. Previous redesigns include uniforms for the WAVES (Women
Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service) in 1942, and uniform designs for the Girl Scouts of
America and the American Red Cross in 1948.
Dior's "New Look" (that premiered in 1947) revived the popularity of girdles and the all-in-one
corselet’s. In the early 1950s, many couture houses used the interest in "foundation wear" to launch
their own lines, soon after many lingerie manufacturers began to build their own brands. In 1957, Jane
Russell wore the "Cantilever" bra that was scientifically designed by Howard Hughes to maximize
a voluptuous look. The invention of Lycra (originally called "Fibre K") in 1959 revolutionized the
underwear industry and was quickly incorporated into every aspect of lingerie.
After the war, the American look (which consisted of broad shoulders, floral ties, straight-
legged pants, and shirts with long pointed collars, often worn hanging out rather than tucked in)
became very popular among men in Europe. Certain London manufacturers ushered in a revival of
Edwardian elegance in men's fashion, adopting a tight-fitting retro style that was intended to appeal
to traditionalists. This look, originally aimed at the respectable young man about town, was translated
into popular fashion as the Teddy boy style. The Italian look, popularized by Caraceni, Brioni, and
Cifonelli, was taken up by an entire generation of elegant young lovers, on both sides of the Atlantic.
Plaid was very common in 1950s men's fashion, both for shirts and suits, along with the "ducktail"
haircut, which was often viewed as a symbol of rebellion and banned in schools.

32
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

The designers of Hollywood created a particular type of glamour for the stars of American
film, and outfits worn by the likes of Marilyn Monroe, Lauren Bacall, or Grace Kelly were widely
copied. Quantitatively speaking, a costume worn by an actress in a Hollywood movie would have a
much bigger audience than the photograph of a dress designed by a couturier illustrated in a magazine
read by no more than a few thousand people. Without even trying to keep track of all the Paris styles,
its costume designers focused on their own version of classicism, which was meant to be timeless,
flattering, and photogenic. Using apparently luxurious materials, such as sequins, chiffon, and fur,
the clothes were very simply cut, often including some memorable detail, such as a low-cut back to a
dress which was only revealed when the actress turned her back from the camera or some particularly
stunning accessory. The most influential and respected designers of Hollywood from the 1930s to
the 1950s were Edith Head, Orry-Kelly, William Travilla, Jean Louis, Travis Banton, and Gilbert
Adrian. Everyday women's clothing during the decade consisted of long coats, hats with small veils,
and leather gloves. Knee-length dresses combined with pearl necklaces, which were made instantly
popular by First Lady Mamie Eisenhower. Short, permed hair was the standard women's hairstyle
of the period.
By the end of the decade mass-manufactured, off-the-peg clothing had become much more
popular than in the past, granting the general public unprecedented access to fashionable styles.
(From http://en.wikipedia.org)
5.  Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения верными в
соответствии с текстом упражнения 4:
→ Three of the most prominent of the Parisian couturiers of the 1900s were Cristobal
Balenciaga, Hubert de Givenchy, and Pierre Balmain.
→ Hubert de Givenchy made his fashion debut in the late 1930s.
→ American born Mainbocher designed only military and civilian service uniforms.
→ Evening dress during the decade consisted of long coats, hats with small veils, and leather
gloves.
→ Knee-length dresses combined with a bangle, were made instantly popular by First Lady
Mamie Eisenhower.
6. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту упражнения 4.
→ Who change the silhouette by broadening the shoulders and removing the waist?
→ What happened with Hubert de Givenchy in 1952?
→ Can you describe the silhouette line of Pierre Balmain’s collection?
→ What can you say about the men's fashion in the mid-twentieth century?
→ What kinds of fabrics we used in fashion of the 1950s?
→ Can you describe the style of a woman of the 1950s?
7. Переведите названия следующих видов материала:
→ chiffon
→ fur
→ silk
→ velvet
→ cotton velvet
→ cotton
→ satin
→ lycra
→ taffeta
8. Переведите текст письменно.
33
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Style of 50s by Cristobal Balenciaga
 
Over the course of the decade, the couturier Cristobal Balenciaga offered women a radically
different silhouette. Already renowned for his vast knowledge of construction and technique,
Balenciaga discarded the hourglass to create simple, sleek, fluid designs that formed a new
relationship to the body: Innovations that he introduced into fashion included the tunic dress, the
chemise dress, the balloon jacket, the baby doll dress, the cocoon coat, and the sack dress.
9. Переведите предложения.
→ В 50-х годах зародился новый стиль, под названием «нью лук».
→ В это время преобладали женственные платья с прилегающим лифом, покатыми пле-
чами и широкой юбкой.
→ Туфли на высоком и тонком каблуке воплотили в себе идеал женственности.
→ В это е время модельеры предложили еще два модных силуэта: прямой и овальный.
10.  Составьте диалог «In the couture house», используя следующие
выражения:
→ I would like to sew…
→ Can I have a look at …?
→ What is “in” fashion for girls/boys this season?
→ Can you help me to …?
→ When can I …?
→ And how much…? / What does it cost?

34
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Unit 8
LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY
 

1. Прочитайте следующие слова вслух и определите их значение:


lycra, spandex, viscose, inspiration, consumerist, self-conscious, industry, spectaculars,
frequently, social, generation, submission, futurism, retro, galactic, remarkable, awe-inspiring,
simplicity, regard, handkerchief, underwear, impeccably, attractive, instant, leotards, headbands,
incredible, advantageous, seductive, knitwear.
2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие глаголы:
to adopt, to impact, to criticize, to transfigure, to signify, to define, to impose, to sew, to
complicate, to promote, to offer, to include, to fame.
3. Подберите эквивалентный перевод словосочетаний из колонки A в
колонке В.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.

35
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY
 
During the late 20th century, fashions began to criss-cross international boundaries with
rapidity. Popular Western styles were adopted all over the world, and many designers from outside of
the West had a profound impact on fashion. Synthetic materials such as Lycra/spandex, and viscose
became widely-used, and fashion, after two decades of looking to the future, once again turned to
the past for inspiration.
The society of the 1980s no longer criticized itself as consumerist, but was, instead, interested
in 'the spectacle'. The selfconscious image of the decade was very good for the fashion industry,
which had never been quite so à la mode7. Fashion shows were transfigured into media-saturated
spectaculars and frequently televised, taking high priority in the social calendar. Appearance was
related to performance, which was of supreme importance to a whole generation of young urban
professionals, whose desire to look the part related to a craving for power. The way in which men
and women associated with the latest styles was no more a matter of passive submission but Disco
music rapidly fell out of favor as the decade began, along with its associated clothing styles. By 1982,
the last traces of 1970s fashion were gone.
The two French fashion designers who best defined the look of the period were Thierry Mugler
and Azzedine Alaia. Strongly influenced by his early career in the theater, Thierry Mugler produced
fashion designs that combined Hollywood retro and futurism, with rounded hips, sharply accentuated
shoulders, and a slight hint of the galactic heroine. Mugler's glamorous dresses were a remarkable
success, and signified the complete end of the hippy era and its unstructured silhouette. Known for
his awe-inspiring combinations, Azzedine Alaia greatly influenced the silhouette of the woman of the
1980s. The master of all kinds of techniques that had previously been known only to haute couture,
he experimented with many new and underused materials, such as spandex and viscose. The finish,
simplicity, and sheer sexiness of Alaia's look made women of every generation identify with his
seductive style, and during the 1980s he achieved a certain glory and was held in high regard by
members of his own profession.
Also creating designs very typical of the era were Claude Montana, whose imposing, broad-
shouldered designs, often made of leather, would not have looked out of place in the futuristic universe
of Thierry Mugler, and Christian Lacroix, who sent shock waves through the world of haute couture,
with his flounced skirts, embroidered corselets, bustles, and polka-dotted crinolines which evoked
the rhythms of flamenco.
A number of promising newcomers entered the fashion scene in the 1980s. Angelo Tarlazzi, an
extraordinary technician who once worked for Patou, bewitched both the press and his customers with
his 'handkerchief' dresses. Made of squares of fabric, they transpired, when you came to put them on,
to be far more complicated than at first appeared. Many a Parisian soirée of the 1980s was enlivened
by his dresses, all in a fluid and original style, in which cutting and sewing were kept to a minimum.
Chantal Thomas, the queen of sexy stockings and lace, won a devoted following for her seductive
underwear and for evening gowns that looked like nightdresses and vice versa. Guy Paulin was one
of the first designers to promote a severe, plain, and uncluttered look. His garments were classical in
their proportions and made for comfort and simplicity, with their harmonious lines reinforced by a
subtle palette of colors and fine materials. Under his own name, Joseph designed luxurious knitwear
along classic lines, creating loose, sexy garments in neutral colors. Carolina Herrera, long regarded
as one of the most elegant members of the jet set, in 1981 launched a series of collections aimed at
women like herself, featuring impeccably cut clothes of high quality and attractive evening dresses.

7
 quite so à la mode – столь модным
36
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Japanese designers such as Rei Kawakubo and Yohji Yamamoto offered a look which marked
a total break with the prevailing fashion image of the time. Flat shoes, no make-up, reserve, modesty,
and secrecy were the hallmarks of this modern look. Eventually, it began to include details from the
fashions of the past, as Europe's ancient sites were revisited by these anarchists of fashion, whose
influence on shape of clothes, at the end of the 20thcentury, became legendary.
In American fashion the seductive, clinging style of Donna Karan and the casual sophistication
of Ralph Lauren were very influential. A star of the New York social scene, Donna Karan brought
a very personal and feminine approach to the severe, sobercolored, casual look that dominated
American ready-to-wear. Setting up her own label in 1984, her designs won instant popularity among
active urban women who greatly appreciated the understated luxury of her clothes. In 1971 Ralph
Lauren opened a boutique for both men and women in Beverly Hills. His aristocratic style at prices
the average American could afford created a sensation. For an elite faced with all kinds of avant-garde
fashions, it represented a rallying point, endorsing a classic look that had been adopted for an active
life. The number one of American ready-to-wear, Lauren was equally successful with his sportswear
and jeans, which allowed him to reach the widest possible range of social classes and age groups.
Central to the success of a new wave of American sportswear was the Perry Ellis label,
established in 1978, which used color and natural fibers to great advantage in its elegant variations
on the basics. Norma Kamali, with her short skirts made of sweat shirting, leotards, headbands, and
leg warmers, made jogging look fashionable. Kamali also created the popular 'rah-rah skirt'. Also
notable is the extreme popularity of the Adidas sports label, which achieved an incredible level of
street cred in the 1980s, inciting the hip hop group Run DMC to release the single 'My Adidas' in
1986. The legendary shoe designer Manolo Blahnik also rose to fame during the 1980s.
The multiplicity of trends that bloomed during the 80s was curtailed by the economic recession
that set in at the beginning of the 1990s, largely destroying the optimistic mood that is so advantageous
to the fashion industry.
(From http://en.wikipedia.org)
5.  Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения верными в
соответствии с текстом упражнения 4:
→ Can you name two fashion designers of the 1980s?
→ Can you describe the creativity work of Azzedine Alaia?
→ Who is Guy Paulin?
→ How did the sportswear develop in this period?
→ What can you say about the fashion trends of Norma Kamali?
6. Прочитайте и переведите следующие цитаты Коко Шанель:
→ “Fashion changes, but style endures.”
→ “A woman who doesn’t wear perfume has no future.”
→ “I don’t do fashion, I AM fashion.”
→ “Fashion is made to become unfashionable.”
→ “Simplicity is the keynote of all true elegance.”
7. Переведите текст письменно.
 
ИДЕАЛ КРАСОТЫ В ПЕРИОД РОМАНТИЗМА
 
В период романтизма в костюме от стиля ампир пока еще осталась завышенная линия
талии. Линия плеч расширилась вследствие больших объемных рукавов, глубокое декольте
стало сердцевидным. Тонкая талия за счет корсета, большого количества рюшей, воланов
37
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

создали своеобразный силуэт женского платья. Оголенные плечи позволили выделить при-
ческу.
Идеал женской красоты – нежность, хрупкость, мечтательность, романтичность. Обна-
женные плечи, шея и слегка открытая грудь придавали дамам особое очарование.
8. Перескажите текст упражнения 4, используя в приложении.

38
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Unit 9
TWENTY FIRST CENTURY
 

1. Прочитайте следующие слова вслух и определите их значение:


notorious, regardless, unsurprisingly, evidence, arguably, bygone, feminine, excessive,
mainstream, counterparts, desperate, attempts, undercurrent, palpable, worshiping, maestros,
amazingly.
2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие глаголы:
to infiltrate, to establish, to acclaim, to clash, to emulate, to overshadow, to suggest, to burden,
to restrict
3. Подберите эквивалентный перевод словосочетаний из колонки A в
колонке В.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


 
2000s
 
In the 2000s, regardless of the notorious Parisian industry which infiltrated the 1900's, the
quality and mystique of Italian fashion is unsurprisingly dominant in the twentieth century and Milan
well established as the "center" of fashion and design. This is evidenced through the famous "Vogue
Italia", being the most internationally acclaimed and most respected magazine in the fashion world.
Thus Milan replacing Paris as the most prestigious center.
As the future began to seem increasingly bleak, fashion, and indeed the Arts in general, looked
to the past for inspiration, arguably more so than in previous decades. Vintage clothing, especially
from the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s (the 1980s idea of clashing, electric colours becoming especially
popular in mid-late 2007) became extremely popular and fashion designers often sought to emulate
bygone styles in their collections. The early 2000s saw a continuation of the minimalist look of the
1990s in high fashion, adopted and incorporated into Giorgio Armani's designs.

39
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Later on, designers began to adopt a more colorful, feminine, excessive, and 'anti-modern' look,
which is seen in the Dolce & Gabbana brand, in grounding some of their inspiration from Italy's
past. Name brands have became of particular importance among young people and many celebrities
launched their own lines of clothing. Tighter fit clothing and longer hair became mainstream for
many men and women, this sense of modernism and futurism as well as the growing interest of young
people was heavily influenced, for instance, by the Calvin Klein and Armani brand names, with
their "Jeans" lines targeting young professionals. Therefore, Italian fashion has obviously replaced
the French "Couture" influence of old times, however to the envy of some Parisian counterparts in
their desperate attempts of claiming international media attention and outlets such as advertising in
major magazines, have attempted to overshadow the reality of Italy's success and dominance over
French designs and the undercurrent consumer preference to Italian name brands, although in some
media outlets it suggests otherwise, as seen through the lack of advertising "balance" between French
and Italian brands – the growth of French designers claiming more advertising space, and financial
priority in advertising initiatives.
Therefore, there is very strong evidence that the fundamental authority in the fashion industry
still rests strongly with Europe, particularly Milan and Italian designers – evidenced through the
palpable international praise and worshiping of the quality and superiority of Italian tailoring and
"Alta Costura" or "high-end" Italian designer products. Regardless of the modern phenomena of
the growth of luxury resorts and products being manufactured outside Europe, such as in Asia and
the Middle-East, amazingly, Milan is still the dominant center of luxury and prestige in the world,
supported by its history and superior quality surpassing the other socalled "centers" labelled by the
media which are based mainly on industry and advertising, rather than quality and elegance. These
trends suggest that Milanese dominance will continue, as designers from foreign nations look up to
and completely depend on Italian and French maestros and masters of the art to teach them. There is
an increasing need for excellence and "hyper-luxury", stated in Vogue Australia March 2012, as seen
through Italian and French designer prices climbing even higher in spite of the recent economic crisis.
For many of the own-label designers who emerged in the early years of the 21st century,
financial factors became increasingly critical. Many new young talents found they now depended
on investors (to whom, in extreme cases, they would even surrender their names) and were always
burdened by the risk that their partners, motivated by market realism and the desire for quick returns,
would severely restrict their autonomy.
Designers like Berny Martin struck out on their own to places like the US Midwest. Their hopes
were to bring fashion design back to its artisan roots.
5.  Определите, являются ли следующие утверждения верными в
соответствии с текстом упражнения 4:
→ The famous "Vogue Italia" is the most internationally acclaimed and most respected store
in the fashion world.
→ The art looked to the past for inspiration in the 2000s.
→ Tighter fit clothing and longer hair became mainstream for many men and women.
→ Milan has always been the dominant center of luxury and prestige in the world.
→ Many new young talents depended on investors who could severely restrict their autonomy.
6. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту упражнения 4.
→ Why did Milan replace Paris?
→ How did the fashion of the 1990s influence the beginning of the 21st century?
→ Can you describe the fashion of the 2000s?
→ Can you name designers of this period?
→ Where is the dominant center of luxury and prestige in the world?

40
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

7. Переведите предложения.
→ Материал, техника и эксклюзивный дизайн – вот решающие факторы успеха стиля
Армани.
→ Особенность стиля Валентино можно охарактеризовать лишь одним словом «рос-
кошь».
→ Самый успешный дизайнер Италии специализируется на утонченных, великолепно
скроенных по фигуре и доставляющих максимум удовольствия своим владельцам изделиях
как мужского, так и для женского гардероба.
→ Модели Дольче и Габбана легко узнать по гибким линиям, корсетам и бюстье, черному
цвету в леопардовых пятнах, зебровых полосках.
→ Смешение материалов, техник, стилей, эпох – основные черты нарядов от D&G.
8. Переведите текст письменно.
 
Fashion today
 
Today fashion cycles run their course at breakneck speeds. Whereas in recent decades one could
describe any composition of various styles as a collage, the current assemblage is better compared to a
film montage, because it is in perpetual in motion. From year to year, season to season, and even week
to week, the fashion industry borrows and blends from all manner of garments and every conceivable
historical reference. For some customers, this constant flux of fashion constitutes a never-ending race
to keep up with trends. For other it means adopting a deliberately slower pace that allows them to
focus on any number of niche markets that appeal. They pick and choose among designers, all the
while building their distinct style. For designers, a keen historical awareness provides an advantage
as the twenty-first century tests their facility at producing fashions that serve as a conduit for self-
expression in a culture where anything goes.
9. Составьте рассказ о модных тенденциях XXI века.

41
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Unit 10
2010s IN FASHION
 

1. Прочитайте следующие слова вслух и определите их значение:


teal, epaulette, madras, conventional, stonewash, lapels, sweatpants, uggs, deliberately, scraps.
2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие глаголы:
to define, to remain, to into reconstruct, to response, to rise, to sew.
3. Подберите эквивалентный перевод словосочетаний из колонки A в
колонке В.

4. Прочитайте и переведите текст.


 
FASHION TRENDS IN 2010s
 
The early 2010s (2010-present) have thus far been defined by a mix of military influenced
fashions, early 1990s neon colors, and a large-scale revival of 1930s, 1950s and 1980s fashions. In the
early 2010s, many mid and late 2000s fashions remain popular, including the 1960s Mod-inspired
indie pop look combined with alternative fashion styles.
General trends:
1. Colors such as teal, cobalt blue, pink and neon yellow have been popular for t-shirts and
jackets, along with skinny jeans. Western fashion trends have been inspired by World War II and
Cold War military uniforms, with trenchcoats, dress uniforms, combat boots and epaulettes on casual
button-down shirts and jackets.
2. Madras shirts with tartan prints and bright colored casual clothing are popular for both men
and women in the West. While Western shirts remain fashionable, especially in the UK and southern
US, they are generally made in more subdued colors than those of the mid-2000s: browns, greys,
blues, and distressed stonewash denim with conventional buttons rather than the popular press studs
as designers moved towards a more authentic Old West or American pioneer look.
3. Vintage clothing remained popular, although it was becoming increasingly common to cut
unused stock of older fabric to modern patterns or remake older garments into reconstructed clothing,
for example, by sewing white cotton tape around the lapels of a navy blue 1990s blazer, or go to
extremes and make a shirt from deliberately mismatched scraps of fabric.
4. The minimalist casual fashion of the 1990s remains popular in the US, especially sweatpants,
uggs, Nike sneakers, baseball caps, and dark wash straight leg jeans. Some believe that this is a

42
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

response to the 1960s inspired hipster subculture, popularized by British indie pop bands between
2003-2012, which ended with the rise of underground electronic music and hardcore punk inspired
aesthetics.
5. Ответьте на вопросы к тексту упражнения 4.
→ What is popular for both men and women in the West?
→ Can you describe the minimalist casual fashion?
→ What colours are popular in the 2010s?
→ What includes the minimalist casual fashion of the 1990s?
6. Переведите следующие предложения.
→ Черное коктейльное платье приобретет новую элегантность, если будет дополнено
узким синим поясом или ярким клатчем-конвертом.
→ Выбирая синее платье для вечернего выхода, подбирайте к нему украшения или бижу-
терию более сдержанных, холодных тонов.
→ Один из самых популярных фасонов этого сезона – пастельные скинни-джинсы.
→ Самым недооцененным трендом Недель моды стал оригинальный тандем «юбка и
брюки до щиколотки», представленный Карлом Лагерфельдом.
→ Благородные миди-платья с кружевами и длинными рукавами, окрашенные в синие
оттенки эффектно представят вас в высшем свете.
7. Переведите текст письменно.
 
Women's clothing in the early 2010s
 
The early 2010s, so far, have seen many recycled fashions from the 1950s, 1970s and 1980s as
designers from stores like Topshop replicated original vintage clothing. In America it is very popular
to wear designer brands like Gucci, Abercrombie & Fitch, Baby Phat, Sperry Top-Sider, or Eastland
boat shoes, Dooney & Bourke, neon colors such as pink, green, teal, black, purple, and yellow.
Popular tops for American, British and Australian women include tunics, 1980s style baseball
jackets, oversized cardigans, 1940s New Look dresses and trenchcoats, Tube tops, western shirts,
Perfecto motorcycle jackets customized with studs, floral camisoles worn with matching hot pants,
sundresses, and short dresses worn over leggings or jeans.
European women wear sparkly dresses, baggy one-size-fits-all Empire line skirts, blouses and
dresses, and lace, figure-hugging white organza maxi dresses inspired by Pippa Middleton.
From 2010-2012 many late 2000s fashions remained popular, including acid wash skinny jeans
worn with black leather jackets for a “rock chick” look, bell-bottoms, microskirts, romper suits, job
skirts, pencil skirts, jean skirts, skirts with opaque tights and preppy colored jeans.
Other notable European, Australasian and American trends include alpaca wool Peruvian hats,
geek chic inspired nerd glasses, clutches, high top sneakers, In Britain and Australia, Uggs, flip-
flops, Ballerina flats, cavalier boots, Doc Martens, and gladiator sandals are very popular footwear
for women.
Women aged 20-50 often wear Ray-Ban Wayfarer or aviator sunglasses, leg warmers, knee
socks peeking out over flat knee high boots, rain boots, stilettos, Keds, TOMS Shoes, and Chucks.
Smaller handbags replaced Birkin bags and the large designer It bags of the early-2000s.
Originally restricted to the gym, Tracksuits, sweatpants, yoga pants, denim print jeggings,
and dark spandex leggings are often worn as street fashion by younger women like Paula Patton or
TOWIE’s Lauren Goodger, usually without underwear to avoid panty lines and covered by a long
blouse to prevent exposure.

43
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Also, an increasingly popular type of nightwear is the sleeved blanket: a sleeping bag combined
with a dressing gown known as a “Snuggie” in America. In winter, retro union suits and long
underwear were worn as pajamas by both sexes in the UK.
8. Прочитайте текст и озаглавьте его.
Bright colors and retro styles
Neon colors and elaborate T-shirts were popular for much of the early 2010s, especially graphic
print hoodies, novelty socks, red or blue skinny jeans, studded belts with large buckles, and Ed Hardy
T shirts embellished with rhinestones.
Many styles from the late 2000s remain fashionable in Europe, Australasia, and America,
including Polo Ralph Lauren, J Crew, shawl collar cardigans, V-neck t-shirts, acid wash denim work
shirts, cable knit pullovers, Tartan flannel Western shirts with snap fastenings, grunge style padded
tartan overshirts in red, navy blue or dark green, throwback basketball or baseball uniforms, turtle
neck sweaters, denim jackets, Aloha shirts, car coats, 1930s style linen sportcoats, and black leather
jackets like the Schott Perfecto.
Indie look
Indie fashions, which had gone mainstream by 2006, remain popular, especially in the UK and
Europe, where young men wear vintage clothing shemaghs, nerd glasses, and aviator sunglasses, often
purchased from thrift stores to save money due to the continued effects of the 2009 recession.
British men favor 1980s style sheepskin coats, throwback anoraks based on those worn by
Edmund Hilary’s Mount Everest Expedition, knitted Scandinavian-style “ugly sweaters”, 1930s style
shirts with rounded collars, Navy blue peacoats, tweed topcoats, double-breasted raincoats, and
Belstaff safari jackets.
Denim stretch-fit skinny jeans were fashionable until 2011, but have largely been replaced by
bootcut jeans and straight leg jeans. However, tight-fitting chinos are popular summer wear for many
young men in Britain, Italy and the US who wear bright pastel colors for a preppy look, or dark brown,
khaki and grey for those seeking to identify with Bohemian or indie culture.
Footwear popular in Europe and the US includes Uggs, espadrilles, straw hats, skechers, Oxford
shoes, dress boots, boat shoes especially Sperry Top-Siders, retro sneakers like converse allstars, Nike
Air Jordans, or Vans, combat boots (often with zips on the side), Winklepickers, and Timberland
work boots.
Ivy League look
Partly in response to the bright colors and elaborate styles, many young men began dressing in
a more conservative style with short hair and clean-shaven faces. This 1950s preppy look spread from
the US to the UK and Europe, where it was loane rated into the existing 1960s and 1980s-influenced
indie look by many of the younger hipsters. Common apparel included slim-fitting navy blue blazers,
ascots, argyle golfing sweaters, oxford shirts, long sleeved polo shirts, khaki mackintoshes, and
cream-colored aran sweaters.
From 2010-2012, popular pants for British and American men include Cargo pants, Bermuda
shorts, khaki chinos, baggy jeans, and preppy Nantucket Reds. Colors like navy blue, grey, red, dark
green, khaki, and white were popular.
Common accessories include Ray-Ban wayfarer sunglasses, paisley scarfs, trucker hats, tortoise
shell glasses, snake skin or plaited leather belts, flat caps, newsboy caps, trilbys, Fedoras, and pork
pie hats.
Formal wear
In the early 2010s, European and American formal designers imitate the fashions of the 1930s
and 1950s, including singlebreasted suits with peaked lapels inspired by the TV show Boardwalk
Empire, and slim fit grey mohair and houndstooth office suits with narrow lapels and two-button
fastening inspired by the American TV show Mad Men and the 1960s revival of the mid-2000s.

44
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

In Britain and the Netherlands, there has been a resurgence of Edwardian fashions including
suits with contrasting piping, boots based on US Civil War era Jeff Davis boots, Barbour jackets,
bowler hats, Homburg hats, seersucker or tweed sportcoats, waistcoats, thin ties, Ascots, dress boots,
cricket-style sleeveless sweaters (also very popular in India), velvet jackets, cricket blazers with
contrasting piping, and striped boating blazers, albeit in less loud colors than the type worn by the mod
subculture in the 1960s. This retro style semiformal wear, popular among indie kids, lone rangers,
and college students, is often paired with modern casual clothing and accessories like Topman or
Superdry T shirts, Jack Wills sweatpants, sneakers, scarfs, record bags, Doc Martens, and jeans.
9.  Выполните письменный перевод следующих элементов одежды в
соответствии с текстом упражнения 8:
→ Graphic print hoodie
→ Novelty socks
→ Skinny jeans
→ Studded belt
→ Buckles
→ Shawl collar cardigan
→ V-neck t-shirt
→ Cable knit pullover
→ Tartan flannel shirt
→ Tartan overshirt
→ Turtle neck sweater
→ Denim jacket
→ Aloha shirt
→ Car coat
→ Sportcoat
→ Leather jackets
→ Shemaghs
→ Peacoat
→ Double-breasted raincoats
→ Bootcut jeans
→ Straight leg jeans
→ Straw hat
→ Ascot
→ Baggy jeans
→ Bermuda shorts
→ Paisley scarf
→ Dress boots
→ Combat boots
→ Long sleeved polo shirt
→ Trucker hat
→ Plaited leather belt
→ Pork pie hat
→ Sneakers
10. Составьте рассказ о мужской моде начала 21 века.

45
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОМАШНЕГО ЧТЕНИЯ
 
 
Text 1
 
 
DESIGN
 
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object or a system
(as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawing, business process, circuit diagrams and sewing
patterns). No generally-accepted definition of “design” exists, and the term has different connotations
in different fields (see design disciplines below). In some cases the direct construction of an object (as
in pottery, engineering, management, cowboy coding and graphic design) is also considered as design.
More formally design has been defined as follows.
a)  a specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a
particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject
to constraints;
b) to create a design, in an environment (where the designer operates).
Another definition for design is a roadmap or a strategic approach for someone to achieve a
unique expectation. It defines the specifications, plans, parameters, costs, activities, processes and
how and what to do within legal, political, social, environmental, safety and economic constraints in
achieving that objective.
Here, a “specification” can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product, and “primitives”
are the elements from which the design object is composed.
With such a broad denotation, there is no universal language or unifying institution for designers
of all disciplines. This allows for many differing philosophies and approaches toward the subject.
The person designing is called a designer, which is also a term used for people who work
professionally in one of the various design areas, usually also specifying which area is being dealt with
(such as a fashion designer, concept designer or web designer). A designer’s sequence of activities is
called a design process. The scientific study of design is called design science.
Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic and sociopolitical
dimensions of both the design object and design process. It may involve considerable research,
thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design. Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may
be designed, including clothing, graphical user interfaces, skyscrapers, corporate identities, business
processes and even methods of designing.
 
Methods of designing
 
Design Methods is a broad area that focuses on:
1. Exploring possibilities and constraints by focusing critical thinking skills to research and
define problem spaces for existing products or services – or the creation of new categories;
2. Redefining the specifications of design solutions which can lead to better guidelines for
traditional design activities (graphic, industrial, architectural, etc.);
3. Managing the process of exploring, defining, creating artifacts continually over time;
4. Prototyping possible scenarios, or solutions that incrementally or significantly improve the
inherited situation;
5. Trendspotting; understanding the trend process.
46
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

The word “design” is often considered ambiguous, as it is applied differently in a varying


contexts.
Design and art. Today the term design is widely associated with the Applied arts as initiated by
Raymond Loewy and teachings at the Bauhaus and Ulm School of Design (HfG Ulm) in Germany
during the 20th Century.
The boundaries between art and design are blurred, largely due to a range of applications both
for the term ‘art’ and the term ‘design’. Applied arts has been used as an umbrella term to define fields
of industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, etc. The term ‘decorative arts’ is a traditional term
used in historical discourses to describe craft objects, and also sits within the umbrella of Applied
arts. In graphic arts (2D image making that ranges from photography to illustration) the distinction
is often made between fine art and commercial art, based on the context within which the work is
produced and how it is traded.
To a degree, some methods for creating work, such as employing intuition, are shared across
the disciplines within the Applied arts and Fine art. Mark Getlein suggests the principles of design
are “almost instinctive”, “built-in”, “natural”, and part of “our sense of ‘rightness’.” However, the
intended application and context of the resulting works will vary greatly.
Design and engineering.In engineering, design is a component of the engineering process.
Many overlapping methods and processes can be seen when comparing Product design, Industrial
design and Engineering. The American Heritage Dictionary defines design as: “To conceive or
fashion in the mind; invent,” and “To formulate a plan”, and defines engineering as: “The application
of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and
operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems.” Both are forms
of problemsolving with a defined distinction being the application of “scientific and mathematical
principles”. The increasingly scientific focus of engineering in practice, however, has raised the
importance of new more “human-centered” fields of design. How much science is applied in a design
is a question of what is considered “science”. Along with the question of what is considered science,
there is social science versus natural science. Scientists at Xerox PARC made the distinction of design
versus engineering at “moving minds” versus “moving atoms”.
Design and production. The relationship between design and production is one of planning
and executing. In theory, the plan should anticipate and compensate for potential problems in the
execution process. Design involves problem-solving and creativity. In contrast, production involves a
routine or pre-planned process. A design may also be a mere plan that does not include a production
or engineering process, although a working knowledge of such processes is usually expected of
designers. In some cases, it may be unnecessary and/or impractical to expect a designer with a broad
multidisciplinary knowledge required for such designs to also have a detailed specialized knowledge
of how to produce the product.
Design and production are intertwined in many creative professional careers, meaning problem-
solving is part of execution and the reverse. As the cost of rearrangement increases, the need for
separating design from production increases as well. For example, a high-budget project, such as a
skyscraper, requires separating (design) architecture from (production) construction. A Low-budget
project, such as a locally printed office party invitation flyer, can be rearranged and printed dozens
of times at the low cost of a few sheets of paper, a few drops of ink, and less than one hour’s pay
of a desktop publisher.
This is not to say that production never involves problemsolving or creativity, nor that design
always involves creativity. Designs are rarely perfect and are sometimes repetitive. The imperfection
of a design may task a production position (e.g. production artist, construction worker) with utilizing
creativity or problem-solving skills to compensate for what was overlooked in the design process.
Likewise, a design may be a simple repetition (copy) of a known preexisting solution, requiring
minimal, if any, creativity or problem-solving skills from the designer.
47
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

“Process design” (in contrast to “design process” mentioned above) refers to the planning of
routine steps of a process aside from the expected result. Processes (in general) are treated as a product
of design, not the method of design. The term originated with the industrial designing of chemical
processes. With the increasing complexities of the information age, consultants and executives have
found the term useful to describe the design of business processes as well as manufacturing processes.
(From http://en.wikipedia.org)
Ответьте на вопросы:
→ What is design?
→ What different types of design industry can you name?
→ What different methods of designing can you name?
→ Do you want to be a designer?
→ Why did you decide to study at faculty of design and software engineering?
→ What is your future profession?
→ What are the main skills of the designer?

48
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Text 2
 
 
HISTORY OF WESTERN FASHION
 

Figure. Marie Antoinette was a fashion icon

The beginnings of the habit in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing
styles can be fairly reliably dated to the middle of the 14th century, to which historians including
James Laver and Fernand Braudel date the start of Western fashion in clothing. The 14th century
was a period in which the distinction between the sexes was starting to come into effect. Some of
the clothing has changed from garments held by string, to the upgrade of buttons. At this period one
can see how the traditional style is slowing turning more modern. Many people during this time wore
the big garments, and pointed shoes, but realized that they wanted more selfrefined flattering tighter
clothing. The most dramatic manifestation was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the
male over-garment, from calf-length to barely covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with
stuffing on the chest to look bigger. This created the distinctive Western male outline of a tailored
top worn over leggings or trousers.

49
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

The pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and men's
fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex and changing.
Art historians are therefore able to use fashion in dating images with increasing confidence and
precision, often within five years in the case of 15th century images. Initially changes in fashion led
to a fragmentation of what had previously been very similar styles of dressing across the upper classes
of Europe, and the development of distinctive national styles. These remained very different until a
counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, mostly originating
from Ancien Régime France. Though the rich usually led fashion, the increasing affluence of early
modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasants following trends at a distance sometimes
uncomfortably close for the elites – a factor Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing
fashion.

Figure. Albrecht Dürer's drawing contrasts a well turned out bourgeoise from Nuremberg (left)
with her counterpart from Venice. The Venetian lady's high chopines make her taller

Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats,
and at this period national differences were at their most pronounced, as Albrecht Dürer recorded
in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th
century (illustration, right). The "Spanish style" of the end of the century began the move back to
50
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, and after a struggle in the mid 17th century, French
styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century.
Though colors and patterns of textiles changed from year to year, the cut of a gentleman's coat
and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut changed more slowly.
Men's fashions largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette are
galvanized in theatres of European war, where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes
of foreign styles: an example is the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie.
The pace of change picked up in the 1780s with the increased publication of French engravings
that showed the latest Paris styles; though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France
as patterns since the 16th century, and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion from the
1620s. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike (or thought they were): local variation
became first a sign of provincial culture, and then a badge of the conservative peasant.
Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations before, and
the textile industry certainly led many trends, the history of fashion design is normally taken to date
from 1858, when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture
house in Paris. The Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses
that met the standards of industry. They had certain standards such as: hiring a certain number of
employees, show clothing at fashion shows, and present a certain amount of patterns to costumers.
This particular house was a great deal to accomplish and most tailors and sewers aspired to open one.
Since then the professional designer has become a progressively more dominant figure, despite the
origins of many fashions in street fashion. For women the flapper styles of the 1920s marked the
most major alteration in styles for several centuries, with a drastic shortening of skirt lengths, and
much looser-fitting clothes; with occasional revivals of long skirts forms of the shorter length have
remained dominant ever since. Flappers also wore cloches, which were sung fitting and covered the
forehead. Her shoes had a heel and some sort of buckle. The most important part was the jewelry,
such as: earrings and necklaces that had diamonds or gems. The flapper gave a particular image as
being seductive due to her short length dress, which was form fitting, and the large amounts of rich
jewellery around her neck.
The four major current fashion capitals are acknowledged to be Milan, New York City, Paris,
and London. Fashion weeks are held in these cities, where designers exhibit their new clothing
collections to audiences, and which are all headquarters to the greatest fashion companies and are
renowned for their major influence on global fashion.
Modern Westerners have a wide choice available in the selection of their clothes. What a person
chooses to wear can reflect that person's personality or likes. When people who have cultural status
start to wear new or different clothes a fashion trend may start. People who like or respect them may
start to wear clothes of a similar style. This style is created by many fashion designers around the
world.
Fashions may vary considerably within a society according to age, social class, generation,
occupation, and geography as well as over time. If, for example, an older person dresses according to
the fashion of young people, he or she may look ridiculous in the eyes of both young and older people.
The terms fashionista and fashion victim refer to someone who slavishly follows current fashions.
One can regard the system of sporting various fashions as a fashion language incorporating
various fashion statements using a grammar of fashion.
It is also very important to acknowledge Eastern fashion. In recent years, a strong influence
of Eastern fashion has entered the fashion world and pop culture. Countries such as China, India,
and Pakistan have an enormous textiles industry; as well as; evolving fashion that is closely related
to their culture. This fashion has always been an inspiration for fashion designers all over the world.
Each year, collections are released with Orient and Indian influences. Celebrities have been seen
supporting "bindis" and "saris" at red carpet events.
51
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

(From Journal of Social History “East & West: Texties And Fashion In Early Modern
Europe” by Lemire, B., & Riello, G.)
Ответьте на вопросы:
→ What happened in the 14th century?
→ How can you characterize the fashion of the 14th century?
→ When did the French style decisively take over leadership?
→ Can you name four major current fashion capitals?
 
Text 3 FASHION REVIEW OF THE MID-TWENTIETH CENTURY
 
The Second World War created many radical changes in the fashion industry. After the
War, Paris's reputation as the global center of fashion began to crumble, and off-the-peg and
massmanufactured fashions became increasingly popular. A new youth style emerged in the 1950s,
changing the focus of fashion forever. As the installation of central heating became more widespread,
the age of minimum-care garments began, and lighter textiles and, eventually, synthetics, were
introduced.
In the West, the traditional divide that had always existed between high society and the working
class became considered unjustifiable. In particular, a new young generation wanted to reap the
benefits of a booming consumer society. Privilege became less blatantly advertised than in the past
and differences were more glossed over. As the ancient European hierarchies were overturned, the
external marks of distinction faded. By the time the first rockets were launched into space, Europe was
more than ready to adopt a quality ready-to-wear garment along American lines-something to occupy
the middle ground between off-the-peg and couture. This need was all the more pressing because
increases in overheads and raw material costs were beginning to relegate handmade fashion to the
sidelines. Meanwhile, rapidly developing new technologies made it increasingly easy to manufacture
an ever-improving, high-quality product.
Faced with the threat of a factory-made, fashion-based product, Parisian haute couture mounted
its defenses, but to little effect. While the old world was taking its final bow, the changes in fashion
were one of the most visible manifestations of the general shake-up in society. Before long, classes
of women hitherto restricted to inferior substitutes to haute couture would enjoy a greatly enlarged
freedom of choice. Dealing in far larger quantities, production cycles were longer than those of
couture workshops, which meant that stylists planning their lines for the twice-yearly collections had
to try to guess more than a year in advance what their customers would want. A new authority had
taken over-that of the street, constituting a further threat to the dictatorship of couture.
Many fashion houses closed during the occupation of Paris during World War II, including
the Maison Vionnet and the Maison Chanel. Several designers, including Mainbocher, permanently
relocated to New York. In the enormous moral and intellectual reeducation program undertaken by
the French state, couture was not spared. In contrast to the stylish, liberated Parisienne, the Vichy
regime promoted the model of the wife and mother-a robust, athletic young woman-a figure much
more consistent with the new regime's political agenda. Meanwhile, Germany was taking possession
of over half of what France produced, including high fashion, and was considering relocating French
haute couture to Berlin and Vienna, neither of which had any significant fashion tradition. The
archives of the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture were seized, including, most consequentially, the
client list. The point of all this was to break up a monopoly that supposedly threatened the dominance
of the Third Reich.
Due to difficult times, hemlines crept upward in both evening wear and day wear, the latter of
which was made using substitute materials whenever possible. From 1940 onward, no more than four
52
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

meters (thirteen feet) of cloth was permitted to be used for a coat and a little over one meter (three
feet) for a blouse. No belt could be over 3 centimetres (one and a half inches) wide. Despite this,
haute couture did its best to keep its flag flying. Humor and frivolity became a way of defying the
occupying powers and couture survived. Although some have argued that the reason it endured was
due to the patronage of the wives of wealthy Nazis, in actuality, records reveal that, aside from the
usual wealthy Parisiennes, it was an eclectic mix of the wives of foreign ambassadors, clients from the
black market, and miscellaneous other patrons of the salons (among whom German women were but
a minority) that kept the doors open at fashion houses such as Jacques Fath, Maggy Rouff, Marcel
Rochas, Jeanne Lafaurie, Nina Ricci, and Madeleine Vramant.
During the Occupation, the only true way for a woman to flaunt her extravagance or add color
to a drab outfit was to wear a hat. In this period, hats were often made of scraps of material that
would otherwise have been thrown away, including bits of paper and wood shavings. Among the most
innovative milliners of the time were Pauline Adam, Simone Naudet, Rose Valois, and Le Monnier.
Paris's isolated situation in the 1940s enabled Americans to fully utilize the ingenuity and
creativity of their own designers. During the Second World War, Vera Maxwell presented outfits
constituted of plain, simply cut co-ordinates, and introduced innovations to men's work clothes.
Bonnie Cashin transformed boots into a major fashion accessory, and, in 1944, began the production
of original and imaginative sportswear. Claire McCardell, Anne Klein, and Cashin formed a
remarkable trio of women who laid the foundations of American sportswear, ensuring that ready-to-
wear was not considered a mere second best, but an elegant and comfortable way for modern women
to dress.
In the War Years, the zoot suit (and in France the zazou suit) became popular among young
men.
Many actresses of the time, including Rita Hayworth, Katharine Hepburn, and Marlene
Dietrich, had a significant impact on popular fashion.
The couturier Christian Dior created a tidal wave with his first collection in February 1947.
The collection contained dresses with accentuated busts, tiny (or "wasp") waists, and extravagantly
full skirts, emphasizing the feminine hourglass figure in a manner very similar to the style of the
Belle Époque. The lavish use of fabric and the feminine elegance of the designs appealed to post-war
clientele, and ensured Dior's meteoric rise to fame. The sheer sophistication of the style incited the
all-powerful editor of the American Harper's Bazaar, Carmel Snow, to exclaim: 'This is a new look!'
(From http://en.wikipedia.org)
Ответьте на вопросы:
→ What happened with fashion industry after the World War II?
→ When did Christian Dior create his first collection?
→ What materials were used for the hats?
 
Text 4
 
 
HISTORY OF FASHION 60s
 
Early 1960s. Fashions in the early years of the decade reflected the elegance of the First Lady,
Jacqueline Kennedy. In addition to the pillbox hat which is discussed in detail below, women wore
suits with short boxy jackets, and over-sized buttons. Simple, geometric dresses, known as shifts,
were also in style. For evening wear, full-skirted gowns were worn; these often had a low décolletage
and had close-fitting waists. For casual wear, capri trousers were the fashion for women and girls.
53
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Figure. American First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy in the iconic pink Chanel suit and matching
pillbox hat on 22 November 1963

Stiletto-heeled shoes were widely popular. As the suits drifted away from pale, toned shades,
menswear was now bright and colorful. It included frills and cravats, wide ties and trouser straps,
leather boots and even collarless jackets. Ties were worn even five inches wide, with crazy prints,
stripes and patterns. Casual dress consisted of plaid button down shirts with comfortable slacks or
skirts.
Mid-1960s. After designer Mary Quant introduced the miniskirt in 1964, fashions of the 1960s
were changed forever. The mini skirt was eventually to be worn by nearly every stylish young female
in the western world and push out the longer skirt lengths that were worn before.
The mini dress was usually A-line in shape or a sleeveless shift. In 1964, French designer
Andre Courreges introduced the "space look", with trouser suits, white boots, goggles, and boxshaped
dresses whose skirts soared three inches above the knee. These were mainly designed in fluorescent
colours and shiny fabrics such as PVC and sequins.

54
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

The leaders of mid-1960s style were the British. The Mods (short for Modernists) were
characterized by their choice of style different from the 1950s and adopted new fads that would
be imitated by many young people. As the Mods strongly influenced the fashion in London, 1960s
fashion in general set the mode for the rest of the century as it became marketed mainly to young
people. Mods formed their own way of life creating television shows and magazines that focused
directly on the lifestyles of Mods. British rock bands such as The Who, The Small Faces, and The
Kinks emerged from the Mod subculture. The Mods were known for the Modern Jazz they listened
to as they showed their new styles off at local cafes. They worked at the lower end of the work
force, usually nine to five jobs leaving time for clothes, music, and clubbing. It was not until 1964
when the Modernists were truly recognized by the public that women really were accepted in the
group. Girls had short, clean haircuts and often dressed in similar styles to the male Mods. The Mods'
lifestyle and musical tastes were the exact opposite of their rival group known as the Rockers. The
rockers liked 1950s rock-and roll, wore black leather jackets, greased, pompadour hairstyles, and
rode motorbikes. The look of the Mods was classy; they mimicked the clothing and hairstyles of
high fashion designers in France and Italy; opting for tailored suits, which were topped by anoraks
that became their trademark. They rode on scooters, usually Vespas or Lambrettas. The Mods dress
style was often called the City Gent look. Shirts were slim, with a necessary button down collar
accompanied by slim fitted pants. Levi's were the only type of jeans worn by Modernists. Flared
trousers and bellbottoms led the way to the hippie stage introduced in the 1960s. Variations of
polyester were worn along with acrylics.
Carnaby Street and Chelsea's Kings Road were virtual fashion parades. In 1966, the space age
was gradually replaced by the Edwardian, with the men wearing double-breasted suits of crushed
velvet or striped patterns, brocade waistcoats, shirts with frilled collars, and their hair worn below
the collar bone. Rolling Stones guitarist Brian Jones epitomised this "dandified" look. Women were
inspired by the top models of the day which included Twiggy, Jean Shrimpton, Colleen Corby,
Penelope Tree, and Veruschka. Velvet mini dresses with lace-collars and matching cuffs, wide tent
dresses and culottes had pushed aside the geometric shift. False eyelashes were in vogue, as was
pale lipstick. Hemlines kept rising, and by 1968 they had reached well above mid-thigh. These were
known as "micro-minis". This was when the "angel dress" made its appearance on the fashion scene.
A micro-mini dress with a flared skirt and long, wide trumpet sleeves, it was usually worn with
patterned tights, and was often made of crocheted lace, velvet, chiffon or sometimes cotton with a
psychedelic print such as those designed by Emilio Pucci. The cowled-neck "monk dress" was another
religion-inspired alternative; the cowl could be pulled up to be worn over the head. For evening wear,
skimpy chiffon baby-doll dresses with spaghettistraps were the mode as well as the "cocktail dress",
which was a close-fitting sheath, usually covered in lace with matching long sleeves. Feather boas
were occasionally worn.
In 1964, Bell-bottomed trousers were a new alternative to the capris of the early 1960s. They
were usually worn with chiffon blouses, polo-necked ribbed sweaters or tops that bared the midriff.
The look of corsets, seamed tights, and skirts covering the knees had been abolished. The idea
of buying urbanized clothing, which could be worn with separate pieces, was intriguing to women of
this era in comparison to previously only buying specific outfits for certain occasions.
For daytime outerwear, short plastic raincoats, colourful swing coats and dyed fake-furs were
popular for young women. In 1966, the Nehru jacket arrived on the fashion scene, and was worn by
both sexes. Suits were very diverse in color but were for the first time ever fitted and very slimming.
Waistlines for women were left unmarked and hemlines were getting shorter and shorter.
French actress Brigitte Bardot wearing a transparent top and a feather boa, 1968.
Footwear for women included low-heeled sandals and kittenheeled pumps, as well as the trendy
white go-go boots. Shoes, boots, and handbags were often made of patent leather or vinyl. The Beatles

55
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

wore elastic-sided boots similar to Winkle-pickers with pointed toes and Cuban heels. These were
known as "Beatle boots" and were widely copied by young men in Britain.
Late 1960s. Bell-bottoms, colourful headbands, and bare feet were part of the unisex hippie
look that was popular in the late 1960s.
By 1968, the androgynous hippie look was in style. Both men and women wore frayed bell-
bottomed jeans, tie-dyed shirts, workshirts, and headbands. Wearing sandals was also part of the
hippie look for both men and women. Women would often go barefoot, and some went braless.
Fringed buck-skin vests, flowing caftans, the "lounging" or "hostess" pajamas. These consisted
of a tunic top over floor-length culottes, and were usually made of polyester or chiffon.
Another popular look for women and girls which lasted well into the early 1970s was the suede
mini-skirt worn with a French polo-neck top, square-toed boots, and Newsboy cap or beret. Long
maxi coats, often belted and lined in sheepskin, appeared at the close of the decade. Animal prints
were also popular for women in the autumn and winter of 1969. Women's shirts often had transparent
sleeves. Psychedelic prints, hemp and the look of "Woodstock" came about in this generation.
Additional fads and trends. The 1960s also gave birth to the drainpipe jeans, worn by Audrey
Hepburn, which again became popular with young men and women in the 2000s (decade).
The late 1960s produced a style categorized of people who promoted sexual liberation and
favored a type of politics reflecting "peace, love and freedom". Ponchos, mocassins, love beads, peace
signs, medallion necklaces, chain belts, polka dot-printed fabrics, and long, puffed "bubble" sleeves
were additional trends in the late 1960s.
New materials other than cloth (such as polyester and PVC) started to become more popular
as well.
Starting in 1967, the Mod culture began to embrace reggae music and its working class roots.
The new urban fashion known as Skinhead was born.
(From the book “Fashion from ancient Egypt to the present day” by Mila Contini)
Ответьте на вопросы:
→ What can you say about menswear in the early 1960s?
→ What did designer Mary Quant introduce in fashion?
→ What did new designer Andre Courreges make in fashion?
→ Can you describe women fashion in the mid-1960s?
→ What style prevailed in 1968?
→ What do you know about the fashion of 1970s?
 
Text 5
 
 
FASHION IN THE 1970s
 
Nicknamed the 'me' decade; 'please yourself' was the catchphrase of the 1970s. Some saw it as
the end of good taste. The decade began with a continuation of the hippie look of the late 1960s, with
kaftans, Indian scarves, and floral-print tunics. Jeans remained frayed and bell-bottomed, tie dye was
still popular, and the fashion for unisex mushroomed. An immense movement claiming civil rights
for blacks combined with the influence of soul music from the USA created a nostalgia for Africa
and African culture. A radical chic emerged, influenced by the likes of James Brown, Diana Ross,
Angela Davis, and the Black Panthers, in everything from afro hairstyles to platform soles. During the
1970s brands greatly increased their share of the international market. Hems began dropping in 1974
to below the knee, until finally reaching the lower mid calf in 1977 and shoulder lines were dropped.
56
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Perhaps the two most innovative fashion designers in 1970s France were Kenzo Takada and
Sonia Rykiel. The undisputed star of Parisian fashion in the 1970s, Kenzo drew his inspiration from
all over the world, mixing Western and Oriental folk influences with a fantastic joie de vivre 8 and an
instinctive understanding of what his young customers wanted. With his fluid lines, unusual prints,
clever accessories, and finery that were hitherto unprecedented in ready-towear, he very much turned
the fashion world upside down. The queen of figure-hugging knits, in 1974, Sonia Rykiel designed
her first pullovers with reversed seams. However, more than that, she created a whole range of clothes
that were extremely individual and yet could be worn almost anywhere. The Rykiel style, dominated
by fluid knitted garments, dark blacks, rhinestones, long boa-like scarves, and little crocheted hats,
conquered the American market, and even to this day Rykiel is considered by many Americans as
the true successor of Chanel.
Because of punk, London retained a considerable degree of influence over fashion, most
significantly in the boutiques of the King's Road, where Vivienne Westwood's boutique, SEX, which
opened in 1971, blew with the prevailing wind. This temple of British iconoclasm centered on
fetishistic accessories and ranges of clothing in which black rubber and steel studs were the external
signs of underlying sadism. Postmodernist and iconoclastic in essence the punk movement was a
direct reaction to the economic situation during the economic depression of the period, the vehicle
for a hatred that was more visceral than political. Punk had at its heart a manifesto of creation
through disorder. With their ripped T-shirts, Red Indian hairstyles, Doc Martens, bondage trousers,
and chains, the punks exported an overall feeling of disgust around the globe.
Another popular British style was the resolutely unmodern, feminine, countrified style of
clothing popularized by Laura Ashley, which consisted of long flounced skirts and high-necked
blouses in traditional floral prints, worn with crocheted shawls. Laura Ashley started out running a
small business in Wales in the mid-1960s and the company continued to expand until the accidental
death of its owner in 1985. Laura Ashley was not the only designer to look nostalgically to the past.
Fashions based on the 1920s, 30s, 40s, and 50s were popular throughout much of the decade, with
Hollywood films like The Godfather and The Great Gatsby, and numerous exhibitions on costume
history at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York increasing their popularity. In Japan, the
boutiques of Tokyo's fashionable Harajuku district sold many reworked versions of traditional British
and American looks.
In the United States, the general trend in fashion was towards simplification and longer skirts,
although many women reacted negatively to the midi-length, which they felt to be aging. Pants, on
the other hand, earned unanimous approval. Jeans profited most from becoming an accepted part of
the American fashion scene in the 1970s, their new-found respectability deriving from their inclusion
in collections under the heading of sportswear. The new stars of American ready-to-wear adapted the
best of what they learned from Europe to the massive American clothing industry. Calvin Klein and
Ralph Lauren rose from anonymity more or less simultaneously to tackle the question of designing
clothes for the men and women of a new world. Two opposing movements dominated fashion in
the U.S.A. during the 1970s. On one hand, there was the tailored, unisex look; on the other hand,
a fluid, unstructured style with a strong feeling of 1930s glamour. The most influential American
designer of the time, Roy Halston Frowick (known simply as Halston), belonged to the latter category.
Acquiring celebrity status on the New York scene, his particular talent was in reconciling the made-
to-measure garment for the special occasion with concepts of comfort, naturalness, and relaxation.
With his kaftans, shirtwaisters, djellabas9, ultra-lightweight shift dresses, and tunics worn over shorts
and wide-legged pants, he was an icon of the era, and a regular visitor at the VIP room of the Studio
54 after its opening in 1977.

8
 joie de vivre = joy of living
9
 djellaba – джеллабе (традиционно длинное платье или пальто свободного покроя в стиле унисекс, похожая на мантию)
57
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Geoffrey Beene, praised for his elegant and sophisticated cuts and his use of black and white,
was at his most successful in the radically simplified designs at which he excelled. His smart little
dresses and well-cut suits in jersey, flannel, and wool were instrumental in discouraging American
women from overaccessorizing. Bill Blass, who launched his own range in 1962, developed the habit
of traveling all over the United States in order to hear for himself what his customers desired. One of
the most popular designers of the time, he was almost too successful in fulfilling his customers wishes.
His disciplined style and workmanship was particularly favored by businesswomen and the wives of
senior executives. Betsey Johnson started out designing for the boutique Paraphernalia. Using vinyl
and metallic fabrics and putting emphasis on wit, imagination, and independence, she brought an
unprecedented spirit of irreverence to New York in the 1970s.
In popular fashion the glam rock style of clothing, worn by such rock performers as David
Bowie and Marc Bolan, was very influential, particularly in the United Kingdom. The designer Elio
Fiorucci had a very similar look. His boutique in Milan sold such things as brightly colored rubber
boots, plastic daisy sandals, fake fur, and Pop Art-inspired jackets.
During the 1970s a new generation of menswear boutiques sprang up, aiming to change the
decor, rituals, and customer base of a traditionally 'difficult' trade. To sell fashionable clothes to
a young man at the end of the 1960s was still, in many circles, tantamount to questioning his
masculinity. Men's appearance changed more in the 1970s than it had done in a whole century. Many
of the fashion designers who revolutionized the male look owed a lot of their innovations to Pierre
Cardin: narrow shoulders, tight-fitting lines, no tie, no interfacing, zip-up boiler suits, waisted jackets
or tunics, sometimes no shirt. Work clothes supplied inspiration for a less formal style, encouraging
designers to look beyond the traditional suit and, for example, adopt a unisex look or investigate the
massive supply of second-hand clothes. Sometimes this kind of male dressing-down, often denounced
as 'hippie', gained formal recognition as a deliberate look. At certain other times, as part of a retro
movement, designers introduced a revival of 1930s elegance. The unearthing of old military clothing,
preferably khaki and from the United States; English-style shoes; Oxford shirts; immaculate Tshirts;
tweed jackets with padded shoulders; brightly-colored V-neck sweaters; cashmere-printed scarves
draped around the neck all imposed a certain uniformity on the casual beatnik look of the male
wardrobe at the end of the 1970s.
Also significant are the developments in Italian fashion that happened during the period. In the
course of the 1970s, as a result of its ready-to-wear industry, Milan confirmed its status as second
only to Paris as a center of international fashion. The 'alta moda' 10 preferred Rome, the base of the
couturiers Valentino, Capucci, and Schön. Capitalizing on the dominant trend of anti-fashion Italy
offered a glamor that had nothing to do with the dictates of Parisian haute couture. While profiting
from a clearly defined style, Italian fashion was luxurious and easy to wear. The two most influential
Italian fashion designers of the time were probably Giorgio Armani and Nino Cerruti. Giorgio Armani
produced his first collection for women in 1975. From the outset, the line was dynamic, urban, and
understated, androgynous in inspiration. Armani offered a restrained style that greatly appealed to the
increasing population of women who now had access to the world of work and occupied progressively
more senior positions within it. This was only the beginning of a tremendous career, which came to
fruition in 1981 when Emporio Armani was launched. In 1957 Nino Cerruti opened the menswear
boutique Hitman in Milan. A man of taste and discernment, in 1976 he presented his first collection
for women. Two years later, he launched his first perfume. In linking the career of a successful
industrialist with that of a high-quality designer, Cerruti occupied a unique position in Italian ready-
to-wear.

10
 'alta moda' – «Высокая мода»
58
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

(From the “History of costume from the ancient Egyptians to the twentieth century”
by Payne, Blanche)
Ответьте на вопросы:
→ Can you name two most innovative fashion designers in the 1970s?
→ Can you describe the fashion trends of Kenzo?
→ Who can be called “true successors” of Chanel?
→ What do you know about clothing popularized by Laura Ashley?
→ Can you describe the silhouette line of Pierre Cardin?
→ Who occupied a unique position in Italian ready-to-wear?

59
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ПИСЬМЕННОГО ПЕРЕВОДА
 
 
Ретро стиль
 
Стиль ретро не перестает нас вдохновлять на эксперименты с одеждой. Он актуален все-
гда, а в сегодняшних тенденциях моды – особенно. Для стиля ретро характерны фасоны про-
шлого века с 20-х по 70-е годы. Тогда дамская мода стремительно развивалась под знаком
эмансипации. Главными тенденциями начала прошлого века стали слегка мужеподобный образ
и агрессивный шик. Особую популярность завоевали платья с заниженной линией талии до
середины бедра и рукав «летучая мышь». Были также актуальны прямые платья-рубашки с
боковыми швами и V-образным вырезом. Обнаженные плечи и руки прикрывали меховыми
горжетками либо боа.
В послевоенные 40-е и 50-е годы на смену намеренной вычурности и вульгарности при-
шли скромная элегантность и сдержанность. Революцию в моде совершил Кристиан Диор,
создав стиль new look, стилизуя его под «кринолиновый» XIX век. В моду вошли рукава, кото-
рые сужались к запястью, платья с тонкой талией, прилегающим лифом и декольте, пышные
юбки ниже колена. Всё это должно было подчеркнуть женственность фигуры. Наиболее акту-
альными тканями в одежде стали атлас, шелк, крепдешин и бархат самых разных расцветок. Из
аксессуаров – миниатюрные сумочки, чаще всего конвертом, облегающие перчатки до локтя,
широкие лакированные ремни и длиннополые шляпы.В цветовой палитре доминируют крас-
ный, синий и розовый, а в качестве узора ткани – горошек, цветы и клетка. Самые актуаль-
ные ткани для изготовления одежды – кримплен, нейлон и капрон. Модельеры одели модниц
в брюки капри, бермуды, клиновидные юбки-годе и платья с высоким воротником-стойкой и
рукавами три четверти. Благодаря Мэрилин Монро обязательной частью женского гардероба
стали головные платки, большие тёмные очки и налобные повязки.
(Из Интернет-ресурса http://www.modmap.ru)
 
Костюм в стиль ампир
 
Начало XIX в. характеризуется появлением в искусстве стиля ампир (от французского
«империя»). Он выражал эстетические вкусы крупной буржуазии и прославлял военные
победы Наполеона. Так же как классицизм XVIII в., стиль ампир вдохновлялся античными
образами. Характерными элементами орнамента были античные лавровые венки, луки, стрелы,
пальмовые ветви, львы. Плотными симметричными рядами располагались орнаментальные
рельефы, росписи на неподвижной глади дворцовых стен или лакированной мебели, создавая
величественную монументальность интерьера.
Стиль ампир отличался от классицизма большей статичностью, пышностью, блеском и
помпезностью. Силуэт костюма ампир стремится к цилиндрическим очертаниям высокой и
стройной колонны. Плотные блестящие ткани украшают однотонной рельефной вышивкой или
симметричной декоративной отделкой. Композиция костюма статична, декоративное решение
преобладает над конструктивным.
Мужской повседневной одеждой становится темный (коричневый, черный, синий) шер-
стяной фрак с высоким воротником-стойкой. Чаще всего его носили со светлыми панталонами
и светлым жилетом. Верхней одеждой был двубортный редингот, или сюртук, который посте-

60
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

пенно стал основным в деловой мужской одежде. Зимой и осенью мужчины носили редингот
с несколькими воротниками или пелериной.
В 1809 г. в костюме вновь появляется корсет. Применение дорогих плотных тканей резко
меняет пластику костюма. В нем появляется все больше декоративных элементов: рюшей, кру-
жев, вышивки, оборок. Платье делают из плотного шелка или тонких прозрачных тканей, но
на плотной шелковой подкладке, и вышивают однотонной белой гладью с золотой и серебря-
ной нитью, блестящими пайетками. Оно часто имеет шлейф, низкое декольте, короткий рукав-
фонарик на широком манжете.
Далее женский костюм становится более тяжелым, увеличивается количество попереч-
ной отделки по низу. Юбку украшают оборками, кружевами, фестонами. Расширяется линия
плеча. Линия груди остается завышенной, линия талии опускается ближе к естественной.
Линия низа расширенной юбки укорачивается (до щиколоток). Характерное для стиля ампир
увлечение вертикальными композиционными линиями уступает место членениям по горизон-
тали. Фигура делается менее высокой и стройной.
(Из книги «История домов моды»)
 
Костюм в стиле романтизм
 
В 1830 г. в Германии, Франции и других европейских странах господствующим направ-
лением в искусстве становится романтизм. Его эстетический идеал – сильная личность, жаж-
дущая свободы, борьбы, действия. Характерным для романтизма была идеализация прошлого,
главным образом средневековья.
Во внешнем облике и костюме человека влияние романтизма создало образы возвышен-
ные, страстные, мечтательные, одухотворенные.
В женском костюме господствует платье с очень узкой стянутой жестким корсетом
талией, непомерно широкими вверху и на линии локтя рукавами, низко спущенным плечом и
расширенной юбкой длиной до щиколоток. Такие платья из светлого атласа, бархата обильно
украшались лентами, кружевами, оборками. Дополняли их пышные головные уборы со страу-
совыми перьями, цветами, вуалью, ювелирными украшениями.
Мужской и женский силуэты в романтическом костюме сходны: покатая линия плеч,
сильное расширение рукава, плотное облегание груди и талии, расширение линии бедер.
В 40 – 50-е гг. в  мужском костюме побеждает функциональность, целесообразность
форм, утверждается мешковатый силуэт. Фрак становится парадной одеждой. В каждоднев-
ной одежде его заменяет сюртук, более удобная закрытая одежда с застежкой на пуговицы.
В 60-х гг. сюртук заменяют пиджаком (в прошлом часть охотничьего костюма), который вме-
сте с брюками и жилетом начинают делать из одной ткани. Еще раньше в верхней мужской
одежде появляется пальто, короткое, прямого силуэта. Цветовая гамма ограничивается тем-
ными (синим, коричневым, зеленым, черным цветами. Рисунок ткани – клетка, узкая полоска.
В летнем ассортименте допускались серый, белый и кремовый цвета.
С этого времени вплоть до 60-х гг. XX в. изменения в мужской моде касаются в основном
формы деталей (воротников, лацканов), длины и ширины низа брюк, застежки (двубортной
или однобортной), степени прилегания по основным линиям силуэта. Ассортимент, форма и
цвет одежды окончательно стабилизируются.
(Из книги «История костюма»)

61
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Классика всегда в моде
 
Мир моды всегда отличался многообразием стилей и течений, порой кажется, что разо-
браться в них невозможно. Однако существует один стиль, проверенный временем и актуаль-
ный всегда – это классика.
Классический стиль отличается сдержанностью, строгостью, стабильностью. Главный
принцип стиля – «Дорогая простота». Здесь не должно быть никаких остромодных элементов
и нефункциональных деталей – лишь элегантность и пропорциональность.
Классика предполагает во всем чувство меры: в объеме, форме, цветовой гамме. Цель при
создании образа – придать стабильность, а также гармонию и красоту. В оформлении одежды
практически всегда отсутствуют декоративные элементы, она элегантно сочетает в себе эсте-
тический и функциональный аспекты. Такие вещи привлекают внимание своей надежностью
и качеством, но не бросаются в глаза.
Мужчины, придерживающиеся классического стиля предпочитают дву- или одноборт-
ные классические костюмы, правильно подобранные по фигуре и по цвету. Рубашки, как пра-
вило, однотонные или в полоску, галстук спокойных тонов с геометрическим рисунком. Образ
дополняет прямое темно-серое или черное пальто, шляпа, туфли и перчатки в тон, дорогая
ручка и классическая марка швейцарских часов.
Для отдыха можно подобрать серые брюки или слаксы, рубашку спокойных тонов или
рубашку поло, блейзер или однотонный джемпер с V-образным вырезом. Предпочтительные
цвета: бордо, серый, синий, зеленый, голубой.
Женщины, предпочитающие классический стиль в одежде, в гардеробе могут иметь всего
несколько нарядов, но каждый предмет одежды сочетается с другими и отличается строгостью
покроя, высоким качеством ткани. Главное в образе – чувство меры и вкус, элегантность и
простота.
В гардеробе женщины обязательно должен быть брючный или юбочный костюм, прита-
ленный, с подчеркнутой линией плеча. Длина юбки – не слишком макси или мини, чаще всего
до колен. Брюки – немного суженные книзу, со стрелками. Блузы рубашечного типа, с англий-
ским или отложным воротником, либо с круглым вырезом.
Для классического стиля характерны гладкие ткани (тонкий габардин, шерстяной креп,
хлопок, лен, фланель), неброские расцветки в полоску или клетку.
(Из Интернет-ресурса http://www.justlady.ru)
 
Спортивный стиль
 
Спортивный стиль – один из самых древних. Он появился как следствие интереса чело-
века к спорту. Разновидности спорта породили разные виды спортивной одежды. Например,
верховая езда и конный спорт привели к созданию пиджака особой формы, укороченного спе-
реди, брюк-галифе и удобных рейтузов.
Новый покрой брюк подарила миру английская игра в гольф; теннис – короткие юбки,
шорты, «тенниски» и юбки в складку; американский бейсбол – бейсболки; футбол – футболки.
Коньки и лыжный спорт ввели в моду гладкие рисунчатые норвежские шапочки и свитеры. К
созданию обтягивающих шорт из лайкры и велосипедок, привёл велосипедный спорт. А совре-
менные женские лосины и колготы из лайкры напоминают спортивную одежду конькобежцев.
Ещё одним источником спортивного стиля стала военная одежда. Так, свободные брюки и
кожаная куртка лётчика давно уже имеют прямое отношение к спортивному стилю.

62
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

Для оформления курток спортивного стиля используются накладные карманы, металли-


ческая фурнитура и краевая отстрочка, характерные для отделки костюмов воздухоплавате-
лей. Интересен также факт – одному раненому французскому генералу было неудобно носить
одежду с обычным втачным рукавом. Тогда портной решил соединить рукав с его одеждой
иначе. Так появился рукав-реглан.
Спортивная одежда давно уже не является одеждой только для занятий спортом. Спор-
тивным считается скорее сам характер гардероба, подходящий для ярких, энергичных и
динамичных женщин. Особенно хорошо подходит обладательницам «мальчишеских» фигур
с неявно выраженной талией и узкими бедрами. Характерны для спортивного стиля скорее
брюки, чем юбки, причём последние почти не бывают длины макси за исключением пря-
мых джинсовых юбок. Отделка костюма преимущественно состоит в декоративной отстрочке.
Активно используются такие элементы как хлястики, погоны, застежки-молнии и накладные
карманы. Жакеты и пиджаки практически никогда не бывают приталенными. Ткани часто
используются плотные, хорошо держащие форму, отлично сочетающиеся с эластичным три-
котажем. Цвета возможны самые разнообразные, но преимущество отдаётся ярким, насыщен-
ным краскам.
(Из Интернет-ресурса http://fashionhouse.ru)

63
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ
 
→ The article (topic) I'm going to retell is devoted to…
→ The paper (article) puts forward the idea (attempts to determine)…
→ The first paragraph deals with …
→ Then follows a discussion on …
→ After discussing… the author turns to…
→ Finally (In the end) the author admits that…
→ In my opinion (To my mind, I think)…

64
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

 
Библиографический список
 
1. Ермилова Д.Ю. История домов моды: Учеб. пособие для высш. учеб. заведений – 2-е
изд., стер. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2004. – 288с.
2. Ralph, P. and Wand, Y. (2009). A proposal for a formal definition of the design concept.In
Lyytinen, K., Loucopoulos, P., Mylopoulos, J., and Robinson, W., editors, Design Requirements
Workshop (LNBIP 14), pp. 103–136.Springer-Verlag.
3. Плаксина Э.Б. История костюма. Стили и направления: Учеб. Пособие для студ.
учрежд. сред. проф. образования –  2-е изд., стер.  – М.: Издательский центр «Академия»,
2004. – 224с.
4. Calderin, J. 34. Laver, James: The Concise History of Costume and Fashion, Abrams, 1979,
p. 62.
5. Laver, James: The Concise History of Costume and Fashion, Abrams, 1979, p. 62.
6. Lemire, B., & Riello, G (2008). East & West: Textiles And Fashion In Early Modern Europe.
Journal of Social History, 41(4), 887-916.
7. Breward, Christopher, The culture of fashion: a new history of fashionable dress, Manchester:
Manchester University Press, 2003.
8. Brinkkemper, S. (1996). "Method engineering: engineering of information systems
development methods and tools". Information and Software Technology 38 (4): 275–280.
9. Kimberley Chrisman-Campbell (2011). Linda Welters; Abby Lillethun. ed. From Baroque
Elegance to the French Revolution 1700-1790: The Fashion Reader (2nd ed.). p 674.
10. Payne, Blanche: History of Costume from the Ancient Egyptians to the Twentieth Century,
Harper & Row, 1965. pp. 452– 455.
11. Valerie Steele; C.W. Cunnington, Phillis Cunnington (2010). The Dictionary of Fashion
History. Berg. pp. 222.
12. Simon, H.A. The sciences of the artificial, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1996.
13. Alexander, C. Notes on the Synthesis of Form, Harvard University Press. 1964.
14. Eekels, J. (2000). "On the Fundamentals of Engineering Design Science: The Geography
of Engineering Design Science, Part 1". Journal of Engineering Design 11 (4): 377–397.
15. IngeMetteKirkeby (2011). "Transferable Knowledge". Architectural Research Quarterly
15 (1): 9–14.
16. Mark Getlein, Living With Art, 8th ed. (New York: 2008) 121.
17. Catherine Valenti (1). "Designers Flock to Mass-Market Retailers" (in English)
(Article).ABC News.ABC News.Retrieved 13 May 2012.
18. Marshall, Peter. "Peacock Revolution: Informal Counterculture." Black Tie Guide. 2009.
27 Feb. 2009 <www.blacktie-guide.com>.
19. Fashion From Ancient Egypt To The Present Day, by Mila Contini, p. 317.
20. Al-Hassani, Woodcok and Saoud (2004), 'Muslim Heritage in Our World', FSTC
publisinhg, pp. 38–9.
21. Terrasse, H. (1958) 'Islam d'Espagne' une rencontre de l'Orient et de l'Occident", Librairie
Plon, Paris, pp. 52–53.
22. Josef W. Meri & Jere L. Bacharach (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: A–K. Taylor
& Francis. p. 162.
23. Steele, Valerie, Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion, Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2005.
24. Cumming, Valerie: Understanding Fashion History, Costume & Fashion Press, 2004.
25. Sewell, Dennita. Extending the Runway: Tatiana Sorokko Style. Moscow: Russian Fashion
Museum, 2010.

65
Ю.  Н.  Зиятдинова, Э.  А.  Хамматова.  «English for designers. Английский язык для дизайнеров»

26. Leslie, Catherine Amoroso (2007). Needlework Through History: An Encyclopedia.


Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 101.
27. Tortora, Phyllis and Keith Eubank: Survey of Historic Costume, second edition, Fairchild
1994.
28. Steele, Valerie, Paris fashion: a  cultural history (second edition, revised and updated),
Oxford: Berg, 1998.
29. http://www.modmap.ru/
30. http://fashionhouse.ru/
31. http://www.justlady.ru/
32. http://www.nationmaster.com/
33. http://en.wikipedia.org/

66

Вам также может понравиться