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"" Delton T.

Horn's
Ail-Time Favorite
Electronic Projects
DeltonT. Horn's
All-Time Favorite
Electronic Projects
DeltonT. Horn's
All-Time Favorite
Electronic Projects
DeltonT.Horn

TAB BOOKS
TAB Blue Ridge Summit, PA
FIRST EDITION
FOURTH PRINTING

©1989 by TAB Books.


TAB Books is a division of McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved. The


publisher takes no responsibility for the use of any of the materials
or methods described in this book, nor for the products thereof.

Library of Congress Cataloglng-in-Publication Data

Horn, Delton T.
[All-time favorite electronic projects]
Delton T. Horn's all-time favorite electronic projects / by Delton
T. Horn
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 0-8306-3105-4 (pbk.)
1. Electronics—Amateurs1 manuals. I. Title. II. Title: All
-time favorite electronic projects.
TK9965.H639 1988
621.381—dc19 88-19112
CIP

TAB Books offers software for sale. For information and a catalog,
please contact TAB Software Department, Blue Ridge Summit, PA
17294-0850.

Questions regarding the content of this book should be addressed


to:

Reader Inquiry Branch


TAB Books
Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17294-0850
Contents

Editor's Preface vii

PART I: For the Home ix

1 Intercom 1

2 Car Thief Alarm 3

3 Electric Motor Speed Controller 5

4 Digital Clock 9

5 AM/FM Radio 20

6 Audio Amplifiers 26

7 Power Amplifiers 32

8 Tape Player Amplifier 42

9 Hi-Fi Tone Controls 44


PART U: For the Shop 51

10 Constant Cunent or Constant Voltage Source 53

11 Digital-to-Analog Converter 55

12 Logic Probe 66

13 Digital Capacitance Meter 70

14 Digital Frequency Meter 77

15 Multiple-Output Power Supply 83

16 Dc Voltmeter 86

Index 95
Editor's Preface

and has worked in a variety of fields as an electronics technician.


He is now occupied as a full-time technical author. All 16 of these
projects were extracted from six of his best projects books currently
published by TAB. These books are: 117Practical IC Projects You
Can Build (TAB book #2645), Using Integrated Circuit Logic
Devices (TAB book #1645), Amplifiers Simplified (TAB book
#2885), Transistor Circuit Design with Experiments (TAB book
#1875), How to Design Op Amp Circuits with Projects &
Experiments (TAB book #1765), and Designing IC Circuits (TAB
book #1925). Numerous other tides covering all aspects of electronics
are available from TAB. Also available is a new line of electronics
engineering and design titles by Mr. Horn and by many other authors.
The variety of projects in this book will appeal to both the
beginner and the more experienced electronic hobbyist. However,
the emphasis is on practicality. This text is divided into two parts.
Part I is For the Home. Included are gadgets like setting up an
intercom or building your own digital clock. Also contained in this
section are projects you can construct to create or build upon audio
equipment, such as amplifiers and tone controls.
Part II discusses items For the Shop. Described are a variety

ply. When completed and added to your current equipment, these

vii
handy devices will make your shop an easier and more enjoyable
place to work.
It is sincerely hoped you will enjoy these projects while
simultaneously learning and producing a useftil, working item for your
home or shop.

viii
PART I:

For the Home


PROJECT 1:
Intercom

The TCA830S is a powerful, inexpensive op amp IC that makes it


a particularly attractive choice for intercoms because the circuit can
be built with a minimum number of components. Many other op amps
do not produce the power required for loudspeaker operation with
out the addition of a further stage of transistor amplification. The
basic circuit is contained at the main station while the distant station
merely comprises a loudspeaker and a calling switch. The two
stations are connected by a 3-wire flex.
The circuit is shown in Fig. 1-1. The TCA830S requires a
heatsink and is fitted with tabs. A printed circuit is recommended,
incorporating two 1-inch (25 mm) squares of copper to which the IC
tabs can be soldered for the heatsink. Component positioning is not
critical because the circuit handles only audio frequencies.
The transformer (T) has a 50:1 turns ratio and is used as a step-
down transformer between the IC and speaker(s); it also works as
a step-up transformer between the speakers and IC in the reverse
mode. In other words, the transformer coil with the larger number
of turns is connected to pin 8 on the IC. Instead of purchasing this
transformer ready-made, it can be wound on a stack of standard
transformer core laminates 0.35 mm thick, giving a core cross-
section of 22.5 mm2. Windings are 600 turns of 0.2 mm (36 s.w.g.)
and 300 turns of 0.06 mm (46 s.w.g.) enameled copper wire.
The purpose of the transformer is to enable standard 40 to 16Q
loudspeakers to be used both as microphones and speakers. These
Table 1-1. Parts List for Project 1: Intercom.

IC TCA8305 op amp
Rl 20KQ(remote station)
R2 29 Q
Cl lOOjtF, electrolytic, 3V
C2 0.1pF
C3 10<%F, electrolytic, 12V
T 50:1 turns ratio, 5W
SPKRS 4O(preferred)
SI press break/make switch
S2 press make/break switch

+9 to 12 V

3-wlre cable
/joining
1 / stations
rh I 1
> I
4 C3 Jr: i
IC
J .
S1 SPKR
I I

1\
i i
REMOTE
SPKR STATION
'R2

I JJl_ |
MAIN STATION

Fig. 1-1. Intercom circuit using the TCA830S integrated circuit. This IC is powerful
enough to operate fairly large loudspeakers. Component values are given in the text.

speakers can be of any size, bearing in mind that the maximum power
output of the circuit is of the order of 2 watts on a 12-volt supply.
The intercom circuit will work on any battery voltage down to 6 volts,
9 or 12 volts being recommended for general operation.
Project 2:
Car Thief Alarm

This circuit is by Siemens and is based around their TDB0556A dual


timer IC. See Fig. 2-1. The first timing circuit of this device is used
as a bistable multivibrator with the circuit activated by switch SI.
Output level remains at zero, set by the voltage applied to the thresh
old input pin 2 until one of the alarm contact switches is closed,
causing Cl to discharge.
"Press-for off' alarm switches can be fitted to the doors, bonnet
and boot lid, so arranged that opening a door or lid completes that
switch contact. This produces an output signal for about 8 seconds,
pulling in the relay after an initial delay of about 4 seconds. The horn
circuit is completed by the relay contacts, so the horn will sound
for 8 seconds. After this, the relay drops out (shutting off the horn)
until capacitor Cl charges up again. This takes about 3 seconds, when
the relay pulls in once more and the horn sounds again. This varying
signal of 8 seconds horn on, 3 seconds horn off, is repeated until
switch SI is turned off (or the battery is dead). This type of alarm
signal commands more attention than a continuous sounding alarm.
8.5 to 15V

Horn
25 40W
100 100k 56k 82k h
R1 L
Bonnet or 1 13
J
trunk lid
contacts 2 12
BAY 61 BAY 61 TOB
3 0556A 11
270 R7

100K
Lamp of
bonnet or
Interior
trunk lid Light
BAY 61 Push button for
the horn
BAY 61

Door contacts

Switching Relay, type K V 23033 C1001 A402

Fig. 2-2. Circuit design for a car theft alarm.


PROJECT 3:
Electric Motor Speed Controller

such as those used in portable cassette players, movie cameras,


models, and toys. The object is to govern the motor so that it runs
at a constant speed, independent of variations in battery supply volt
age and load on the motor. The TDA1151 is selected for the following
circuits, having a maximum rating of 20 volts (which covers most
model and other small dc motors), with an output current of up to
800 milliamps. It is a flat rectangular plastic package with three leads
emerging from one end, and it comprises 18 transistors, 4 diodes
and 7 resistors in a linear integrated circuit.
In its simplest application, it is used with a potentiometer (Rg)
acting as a speed regulation resistance (and by which the actual motor
speed is adjusted); and a torque control resistor (R,) which provides
automatic regulation against load on the motor. Both of these
resistors are bridged by capacitors, although C2 can be omitted (see
Fig. 3-1). Component values shown in Table 3-1 are suitable for a
6- to 12-volt supply.
A slightly different circuit is shown in Fig. 3-2, using a
TCA600/900 or TCA610/910 integrated circuit. These have
maximum voltage ratings of 14 and 20 volts respectively and
maximum current ratings of 400 milliamps for starting, but only 140
milliamps for continuous running.
Devices of this type work on the principle of providing a con
stant output voltage to the motor independent of variations in sup-
+v
o

C2

I
I

AA1, Electric
V y motor
V

TBA1151

Fig. 3-2. 77« TDA1151 linear integrated circuit used as a speed regulator far a small
dc electric motor.

ply voltage, the value of this voltage being set by adjustment of R,.
At the same time, the device can generate a negative output resis
tance to compensate speed fluctuations due to variations in torque.
This negative output resistance is equal to RT/K, where K is a con
stant, depending on the parameters of the device, as demonstrated
in Table 3-2.
The table also shows the reference voltage (V^ and quiescent
current drain (!„) of the three ICs mentioned.

Table 3-1.

1K0
Rt 280 0
Cl 10 pF to2/tF
C2(if used) 25 jtF
Eg. 3-2. ApplkatimdmHfbrtheTCAM/610orTCAm/910nwt<r
R8is the speed regulation resistor (variable). Rt is the torque control resistor. A suitable
valmforClis0.l¥.Adiodecmbeaddedinlim3toproiMete^
as well.

The following relationships then apply for calculating suitable


component values for these circuits:

where RM is the typical motor resistance.

Minimum value of Rs

where Eg = back emf of motor at required or rated speed, and Io


« quiescent current drain of the device. Actual voltage developed
across the motor given by:

Volts (at motor) = RM • IM +Eg

where ^ is the current drain by the motor at the required or rated


speed.
The physical appearance of these chips can be seen in Fig. 3-3,
while Fig. 3-4 shows the complex internal circuitry within one of
these chips.

Table 3-2.

IC K(typical) Vref I.
TOA1151 20 1.2 1.7 mA
TCA600/900 8.5 2.6 2.6 mA
TCA610/910 8.5 2.6 2.6 mA
6
s
6.4 ±0.2 12.7 min , ?
Q

Fig. 3-3. Physical appearance of the TCA600/610 in a TO-39 metal can and the
TCA900/910 in a flat plastic package.

Fig. 34. Although small devices, these integrated circuits for motor speed control are
based on the complicated circuitry shown here.

8
PROJECT 4:
Digital Clock

Counter circuits can be used to build digital clocks and timers (clock
in the usual sense—a device that tells you what time of day it is).
The first thing you need when designing an electronic timepiece is
an accurate timebase. This is basically the same as the clock
oscillators used to keep various digital circuits in synchronization.

minutes, and hours. Of course, it needs some way to know just how
long a second is so it can be counted. The timebase generates a
signal with a precise frequency so that the circuitry can count x
number of pulses per second.
This timebase frequency must be extremely accurate. It might
seem like there is little difference between .95 second and 1 sec
ond, but when you multiply that 5% error over a 24-hour day, you
end up with a 22-hour, 48-minute day. That's not very good
timekeeping. About the only thing that kind of clock would be useful
for is paperweight duty!
Most electronic clock circuits work with a timebase of 60 Hz
(60 pulses per second). This tradition stems from the ac electric
power lines that operate at a 60 Hz rate. An electrically powered
clock can use the ac power source itself as a timebase. Adapting
the ac power signal for use in a digital circuit is difficult, and with
modern technology, it's more trouble than it's worth.
Most digital clocks work with some sort of crystal oscillator.
Quartz crystals make very precisely held frequencies possible.
60 Hz * 60 - 60
time base

Minutes Hours
count & count &
display display

n n i n
S--J L--J L-J

Fig. 4-1. The complete dock project is shown here in block diagram form.

Incidentally, when digital watches first became popular, many were


proudly touted in the ads as being quartz-controlled. All digital
watches are quartz-controlled. A crystal oscillator is used for the
timebase, and crystals are slices of quartz. See Fig. 4-1 for a block
diagram of this circuit.
Most crystals operate at frequencies much higher than 60 Hz.
Generally, their resonant frequencies are above 1 MHz (1,000,000
Hz). Additional counter stages are needed to drop this frequency
down. The MM5369 (shown in Fig. 4-2) is a specially designed IC
for just this purpose. It generates an extremely precise and stable
60 Hz timebase signal from a 3.579545 (generally shortened to 3.58)
MHz (3,579,545 Hz) crystal. This particular input frequency was
selected because it is the frequency used in colorburst oscillators
in color TV sets, so they are readily available.

60 Hz out C 1 8 DVqd

Ground C 2 7 3 3.58 MHz out

No connection C 3 6 DXTAL

No connection C 4 5 DXTAL

Fig. 4-2. TheMM5369isan8-pm IC that can generate a precise and reliable 60 Hz

10
H1o—uzt
CM

LO

CO

CO

r
LO LO

<O Q

CO

1
CM
^
+ 00

CO

to

K
s

u
A single 8-pin chip provides all the necessary division. Actually,
except for the VDD and ground connections, only three pins are
used. Two connections go to the 3.58 MHz crystal, and one provides
the 60 Hz timebase output signal. In case it might be needed in some
circuits, pin 7 also provides a 3.58 MHz output signal. The remaining
two pins are not internally connected to the chip.
The 60 Hz timebase signal must be divided by 60 to get a once-
per-second signal that can be counted by the dock. Figure 4-3 shows
a practical circuit for a 1 Hz output signal. Notice the three resistors
and two capadtors in the circuit with the crystal itself. They are there
to improve stability. According to the manufacturer, Cl should have
a value of 6.36 pF, and C2 should be 30 pF. Unfortunately, these
values are not commonly available. Cl could be 10 pF and C2 could
be 47 pF without significantly hurting the predsion of the output
frequency. If you want perfection, trimmer (variable) capadtors may
be included in the circuit for fine tuning.
The 60 Hz timebase signal is fed to IC2, a CD4017IC connected
as a six-step counter. This drops the frequency to lOHz. IC3, an
other CD4017, divides the signal frequency by an additional factor
of 10, resulting in a predse 1 Hz output. The complete parts list
for this circuit is given in Table 4-1.
Adding a pair of additional timers and an AND gate, along with
a handful of other components, makes a 60-second timer. When SI
is moved to the RUN position, 60 seconds will be counted. Then the
LED will go on until SI is moved to the RESET position. The circuit
is shown in Fig. 4-4, and the parts list is given in Table 4-2.
By connecting different outputs from IC4 and IC5 to the inputs
of the AND gate, you can select a timing cycle of anywhere from
1 to 99 seconds (in 1-second intervals). A pair of 10-position

Table 4-1. Only a Few Parts are Needed to Generate a Reliable


and Accurate 1 Hz Signal, Using the Circuit Shown in Fig. 4-3.

IC1 MM5369 60 Hz timebase


IC2, IC3 CD4017 decade counter
(IC2 = + 6, IC3 = + 10)
R1, R2 10 megohm resistor
R3 1 k resistor
C1 *** see text
C2 *** see text
XTAL 3.58 MHz colorburst crystal

12
Table 4-2. Parts list for the 60-Second Timer Circuit of Fig. 4-4.

ICl - IC3 see Table 4-1


R1-R3 see Table 4-1
Cl, C2 see Table 4-1
XTAL see Table 4-1
IC4, IC5 CD4017 decade counter
IC6 CD4081 quad AND gate
Dl LED
R4 330 ohm resistor
SI SPDT switch

thumbwheel switches can turn this project into a fine programmable


timer.
Another useful modification to this project is shown in Fig. 4-5
(parts list in Table 4-3). By replacing the AND gate (IC6 in Fig. 4-4)
with this circuit (using a single quad NAND gate package and a handful
of discrete components), when the timing period is over, the LED
lights and a tone sounds until the circuit is reset. IC6A and IC6B
behave like the original AND gate, while IC6C and IC6D are
connected as a tone generator with an output of approximately 1
kHz (1000 Hz).
Back-tracking somewhat, connecting the 1 Hz source circuit of
Fig. 4-3 to the input of the circuit illustrated in Fig. 4-6, will provide
a clock with minute readouts from 00 to 59. Once the count reaches
60, the counters are reset to 00. The count is displayed on a pair

Table 4-3. These Components can be Added to


the 60-Second Timer Circuit of Fig. 4-4 to Add an
Audible Alarm. The Circuitry is Shown in Fig. 4-5.

Eliminate IC6, R4, and Dl in Fig. 4-3 and replace with:


IC6 CD4011 quad NAND gate
Dl LED
R4 330 ohm resistor
R5 1 megohm resistor
R6 100 k resistor
R7 100 ohm resistor
C3 0.01 /tF disc capacitor

13
2 4 7 10 1 5 6 9 11

M M II I II
123456789
,41

rn

Fig. AA. This timer circuit can measure a 60-second period.


TolC5 2

Fig, 4-5, Adding these components to the 60-second timer circuit of Fig, 4-4 mill cause
a tone to be sounded when the circuit times out.

Table 4-4. The Minutes Portion


of a Practical Digital Clock can be Constructed
Using These Components Wired as Shown in Fig. 4-6.

IC4,IC5 CD4017 decade counter


IC6 CD4518 dual BCD counter
IC7 CD4011 quad NAND gate
IC8,IC9 CD4511 BCD-to-7-segment decoder
DIS1, DIS2 Seven-segment LED display, common cathode
R4,R7 330 ohm resistor

Table 4-5. List of Parts for


the Hours Display Circuitry Illustrated in Fig. 4-6.

IC10,ICll CD4017 decade counter


IC12 CD4518 dual BCD counter
IC13 CD4511 BCD-to-7-segment decoder
IC14 CD4011 quad NAND gate
IC15 CD4049 hex inverter
DIS3, DIS4 Seven-segment LED display, common cathode
R18-R30 330 ohm resistor

15
R4-R10
DI81

IC81 2 10

I IC7A IC7B

A?'

Fig. 4-6. This circuit can display the minutes counter in a digital clock.

of seven-segment LED displays. The parts list for this subdrcuit


is given in Table 4-4.
Figure 4-7 shows the circuitry for adding the display for hours
(ranging from 01 to 12). IC10 and IC11 count each group of 60
minutes. Alternatively, the signal from the minutes counter reset
(from IC7C and D) could be used to trigger the hours counter.

16
60 seconds
— To1
minute
in

g f e d c b

DIS2

The ones digit is wired in the usual fashion, but the tens column
can use a few shortcuts. This digit will always be either 0 or 1.
Segments b and c will always be lit, so they are tied directly to the
positive power supply (through current dropping resistors). K the
count is less than 10, then segments a, d, e, and f are lit to produce
a 0. Segment g is never Ht. The parts list for the hours display circuit
is given in Table 4-5.

17
16
n
4 3

-a b c d e f g

DIS3

ig. 4-7. 77ie hours portion of a digital clock is controlled using this circuit.

18
19
Project 5:
AM/FM Radio

A design for a high performance AM/FM radio receiver is shown


in Figs. 5-1 and 5-2. These circuits are by Milliard and are based
on their TDA 1071 integrated circuit which incorporates an AM
oscillator, and AM mixer with age, a four-stage differential amplifier
and limiter and a four-quadrant multiplier. Both AM and FM functions
are combined in the multiplier, giving symmetrical demodulation on
AM and quadrative detection with squelch on FM.
Figure 5-1 shows the AM circuit, working from a ferrite rod
aerial. Figure 5-2 shows the circuit for the additional front-end
required for FM working, connected to an FM aerial. These circuits
will work on any battery voltage from 4.5 volts to 9 volts. For FM
operation, the AM-FM switch (SW4) moved to the FM position
switches off the AM mixer and oscillator and brings the FM front-
end circuit into operation. The squelch circuit is separately controlled
by SW1, the threshold of squelch operation being set by the
potentiometer Rll in Fig. 5-1. Component values are given on the
two circuit diagrams. A complete list is also given in Tables 5-1 and
5-2.
Figure 5-3 shows a printed circuit layout for the complete circuits
of Figs. 5-1 and 5-2, using the components specified. Components
with the subscript F are those in the front-end circuit (Fig. 5-2).
One additional component is also shown—a 300 pF capacitor adjacent
to the medium wave/long wave AM aerial switch, which does not
appear on the relevant circuit diagram (Fig. 5-1).

20
C13

Fig. 5-1. Circuit diagram of


AM/FM receiver using the
TDA1071 integrated circuit
(Mullard).

A.F.C.

M.W.-LW. Switching
not shown
A.M.—F.M. Switches
shown in F.M. position
Table 5-1. Parts for the AM/FM Receiver Circuit.
Resistors Winding data

All resistors CR25 10% unless stated Tl Primary: 12 turns, 0.071


mm enameled copper
Rl 500 KQ Secondary: 2 turns,
R2 220 KQ tapped at 1 turn, 0.071
R3 220 KQ mm enameled copper
R4 8.2 KQ Former: Toko 7P 0092
R5 220 KQ T2 Primary: 12 turns,
R6 15 KQ tapped at 1 turn, 0.071
R7 1 KO mm enameled copper
R8 15 Q Secondary: 3 turns,
R9 47 Q 0.071 mm enameled
RIO 100 KQ copper
Rll 22 KQ Miniature carbon preset T3 Primary: 3 turns, 0.071
potentiometer, Philips 2322 mm enameled copper
410 03309 Secondary: 120 turns,
R12 68 Q tapped at 5 turns,
R13 2.2 KQ wound over primary,
R14 33 KQ 0.071 mm enameled
copper
Capacitors
Former: Toko 7P0089
Cl 68 pF T4 Primary: 9 turns, tapped
C2 100 nF" at 5 turns, 0.071 mm
C3 27 pF enameled copper
C4 68 pF Secondary: 86 turns,
N5 68 nF wound over primary,
C6 100 nF 0.071 mm enameled
C7 68 nF copper
C8 270 pF Former: Toko 0089
C9 120 pF T5 M.W-
C10 100 nF Primary: 78 turns,
Cll 560 pF wound in a single layer,
C12 22 pF
3 x 3 x 3 x 0.063 mm
C13 270 pF* litz
C14 130 pF*
Secondary: 4 turns
C15 22 pF
Pifi 99 nl?
wound over the earthy
V/1D cl nr
end of the primary 3 x
C17 100 mF,4V
3 x 3 x 0.063 mm litz
C18 68 nF
L.W.-
C19 100 nF
Primary: 210 turns,
C20 68 nF
C21 10 nF, 25V wavewound, 9 x 0.063
C22 3.3 nF mm litz
C23 230 nF Secondary: 12 turns,
C24 22 nF wound under the pri
C25 150 pF mary, 9 x 0.063 mm
C26 18 pF litz
C27 3.3 pF For T5, the coils are
mounted on a ferrite
rod, 178 mm in length,
diameter 9.5 mm.
"These components form part of
LI 8 turns 0 071 mm
the ganged tuning capacitor
enameled copper.
Former: Toko 7P 0092
Switch
SW1 to SW4 4-pole 2-way switch
Integrated circuit
IC1 TDA1071

22
Table 5-2. Parts for the FM Front End Circuit.

Resistors Capacitors

All resistors CR25 10% Cl 18 pF


Rl 1.2 KG C2 3.3 nF
R2 12 KG C3 4.7 pF
R3 27 KG C4 3.3 nF
R4 27 KO C5 12 pF*
R5 12 KG C6 18 pF
R6 1KG C7 3.3 nF
R7 39 G C8 18 pF
R8 27 KG C9 12 pF*
R9 12 KG C10 3.3 nF
RIO 100 G Cll 2.7 pF
Rll 10 G C12 5.6 pF
R12 1KG C13 3.3 nF
R13 39 G C14 56 pF
C15 3.3 nF
C16 22 nF
Transistors Diode

TR1, TR2, TR3 BF195 Dl BB110

Winding data

Tl Primary: 2 turns, 0.031 mm enameled


copper

Secondary: 2 turns, 0.031 mm


enameled copper
Former: Neosid 5 mm with ferrite core
T2 Primary: 4 turns, spaced one diameter
0.71 mm enameled copper
Secondary: 1 turn, interwound with
the primary 0.71 mm enameled
copper

Former: Neosid 5 mm with ferrite core

LI 3 turns, spaced one diameter and


tapped at 1 1/2 turns, 0.71 mm
enameled copper
Former: Neosid 5 mm with ferrite core

♦These components form part of the ganged turning capacitor

Note also that this circuit is complete only up to the audio output
stage—i.e., it needs to be followed by an audio amplifier and
speaker(s)—see Projects 6 and 7 for possible circuits to use.

23
^ ToFM
C15
T1 TR3 1000
8F195
3.3nF

R8 R9 R12 J.C16
27kO I |i2kQ 1K0 22nF
0

C10
3.3nF

R7 R14

390 1000 (tor FM operation)


C11
2.7pF
1h
C3
.C12
'5.6pF
4.7pF
R2
8F195

D1
5-55*5 C13 fl R5 JLC14 f] R6 [| R13
B8110 MikO I I 390

C7
m
I
.AFC

Fig. 5-2, Front-end circuit for FM operation of the receiver given in Fig, 5-1 (Mullard).
Fig. 5-3. Printed circuit layout
and component positions for
constructing the circuits of Fig.
5-2 and 5-2.
PROJECT 6:
Audio Amplifiers

Quite a number of linear ICs are designed as audio amplifiers for


use in radio receivers, record players, etc. Again these are used
with external components, but physical layout and the length of leads
is relatively unimportant—unlike circuits carrying radio frequencies.
The ' 'packaging'' of such ICs can vary from cans to dual-in-line and
quad-in-line. They usually have 12 or 14 leads (sometimes less). Not
all these leads are necessarily used in a working circuit. They are
there to provide access to different parts of the integrated circuit
for different applications. Integrated circuits designed with higher
power ratings sometimes incorporate a tab (or tabs) or a copper slug
on top of the package to be connected to a heatsink.
A single chip can contain one, two, three or more amplifier stages
interconnected and following each other (technically referred to as
being in cascade). Pinout connections provide "tapping" points for
using one or more stages separately or in cascade as required.
The (RCA) CA3035 integrated circuit is just one example. It
consists of three separate amplifier stages connected in cascade with
a component count equivalent to 10 transistors, 1 diode, and 15
resistors. Each amplifier stage has different characteristics. The first
stage, which can be selected by connections to pins 1,2, 3, 9, and
10 (see Fig. 6-1), is a wide band amplifier characterized by high input
resistance (i.e., ideally suited to connecting to a preceding transistor

26
R1—100 KQ
R2—100 KG
C1—10 jiF
C2- 1 /iF
C3—10 jiF

Fig. 6-1. Utilization of the first amplifier in CA3035 integrated circuit by tapping pins
1,2,3, 9 and 10. This circuit gives a voltage gain of100-160 with an input resistance
of 50 KQandan output resistance of 270 0.

stage). The working circuit using this stage is in Fig. 6-1. It has a
gain of the order of 160 (44 dB).
The second amplifier in the CA3035 has a lower input resistance
(2 KQ) and a low output resistance of 17012. The gain is similar to

+9V
O

9 C2
Input C1 Output
CA 3035
—9
10

C1—10 jiF
C2—10 fiF
rh

Fig. 6-2. Utilization of the second amplifier in CA3035 integrated circuit by tapping
pins 2, 4, 5, 9 and 10. This circuit gives a voltage gain of 100-120 with an input
resistance of 2 0 and an output resistance of 170 O.

27
+9 volts
o

Output

I
I
I
A
R1— 5 KO
C1—10 jiF
C2—10 mF
rh
Fig. 6-3. UHlization of the third amplifier in CA3035 integrated circuit by tapping
pins 6, 7,8, 9 and 10. This circuit gives a voltage gain of 80-120 with an input resis
tance of 670 Q and an output resistance of 5 KQ.

the first stage (about 45 dB). A working circuit with tapping points
is shown in Fig. 6-2.
The third amplifier is a wide band amplifier with a low input re
sistance (670 Q) and a high output resistance (5 KG). It offers a volt
age gain of 100 (40 dB). A working circuit is shown in Fig. 6-3.
Amplifiers 1 and 2 can be cascaded; or amplifiers 2 and 3; or
amplifiers 1, 2, and 3. Figure 6-4 shows the external connections
and components required to cascade amplifiers 1 and 2.
Using all three amplifiers in cascade results in a gain of
approximately 110 dB. The circuit in this case is shown in Fig. 6-5,
with parts list in Table 6-1.

MODIFYING AMPLIFIER PERFORMANCE


The output impedance of an amplifier stage can be modified by
connecting Rl to provide a negative feedback from output to input.
This has the effect of reducing the working value of Rl and Rl/Av
where Av is the amplifier open loop voltage gain. This is accom
plished without affecting the actual voltage gain. In the case of
cascaded amplifiers, a capacitor C2 is needed in series with Rl to
block dc (Le., Rl onfy is needed for amplifier 1 because Cl is effective

28
R2

4
rb
3 4 7
9 C4
4 Output
< CA 3035 S
^> K
II
Input C1 1 10
1
If
11
i
' is 2
R1—220 KO
R2—1.2K0
C1—10 itF
C2—0.22 mF
C3-0.04MF
C4—10fiF
n7

Ffg. 64. Circuit for using first and second amplifiers contained in CA3035 in cascade. This circuit gives a voltage gain of about 7000 with an input of
so 50 to and an output resistance of 170 to.
30
Table 6-1. Parts list for Fig. 6-5.

Rl 220 KQ Cl 10 /tF
R2 1.2 KQ C2 0.04/tF
R3 6800 C3 0.22 pF
R4 1KQ C4 0.05 ?F
R5 4.7 KQ C5 0.05 mF
C6 50 pF
C7 10/iF

as a blocking capacitor in this case). Because amplifier 2 in this chip


is directly coupled to amplifier 1 and amplifier 2 is directly coupled
to amplifier 3, the use of an impedance-matching resistor applied
to amplifier 2 (or amplifier 3) requires the use of a blocking capaci
tor in series with the resistor.
The gain of the amplifier stage can be modified by the use of
a series resistor in the input (Rl). This acts as a potential divider
in conjunction with the effective input resistance of the stage so that
only a proportion of the input signal is applied to the stage. In this
case:

Rl
Actual Voltage Gain = —
Rj + Rl/A,

Input Resistance - Rj +

where R, is the input resistance of the IC.


Thus, by suitable choice of Rl and Rj, both voltage gain and
input resistance of an amplifier circuit can be modified to match
specific requirements. It follows that if a number of different resistors
are used for Rj, the circuit can be given different response
(sensitivity) for a given input applied to each value of Rj by switch
ing. This mode of working is useful for preamplifiers. Virtually the
same circuit is used for an audio mixer, separate input channels being
connected by separate series resistors (R) and commonly
connected to the input. In this case, each channel has the same input
resistance with an overall gain of unity.

31
PROJECT 7:
Power Amplifiers

Because amplifiers are used in one form or another in almost every


electronic system, it is not surprising that a great many amplifier
ICs have been developed for various applications. Some have
incredibly impressive specifications. It is often surprising to see how
much power can be packed into the tiny IC chip.
For the most efficient and reliable performance, IC amplifiers
should always be used with adequate heatsinking. In many cases,
the better the heatsinking, the greater the maximum output power
can be. When in doubt about how much heatsinking to use, try to
err on the side of too much rather than too little. The chief
disadvantage of using a heatsink that is too large is that the device
would take up a little more space. The disadvantages of using an
insufficient heatsink include inferior performance and possibly thermal
damage to expensive components.
It would be futile to attempt to compile a complete list of available
amplifier ICs. Hundreds of devices are already on the market, with
more appearing every month. A so-called' 'complete'' listing would
be out of date before it came off the presses.
This chapter looks at a few representative examples of amplifier
ICs of various types. The only kind of amplifier IC that will not be
discussed in this chapter is the op amp.
Emphasis in this chapter is on audio amplifier ICs, because these
are the most widely available and of the most interest to
experimenters.

32
THE LM380 AUDIO AMPLIFIER IC
The LM380 is an audio amplifier IC that has been around for
quite a few years now and still enjoys considerable popularity. Judging
from the industrial and hobbyist literature, this chip appears to be
the most popular amplifier device around.
The LM380 is widely available, and it comes in two packaging
styles, an 8-pin DIP and a 14-pin DIP. The pinout for the 8-pin
version is shown in Fig. 7-1, while the 14-pin version is illustrated
in Fig. 7-2. Notice that the 14-pin version does not have any additional
pin functions. On both packages, only six of the pins are actually
active. The remaining pins are shorted to ground and provide some
internal heatsinking. Since the 14-pin LM380 has more heatsink pins
than the 8-pin version, it can handle greater amounts of power with
out overheating. There are no other differences between the two
package types.
Without any external heatsinking, the basic LM380 can dissipate
up to about 1.25 watts at room temperature. This certainly isn't
bad for an amplifier less than the size of your thumbnail, but the
LM380 can put out even more power with external heatsinking. For
instance, if a 14-pin LM380 is mounted on a PC board with 2-ounce
foil, and the six heatsink pins are soldered to a 6-square-inch copper
foil pad, the IC can produce up to about 3.7 watts at room
temperature. This is an impressive, almost threefold increase in
power at very little additional cost.
This chip also features an internal automatic thermal shutdown
circuit that turns the amplifier off if excessive current flow causes

I-J

N.C.[T "fil Bypass

Non-inverting £2" T)v+


input ^™"
LM380
Inverting [T T]Output
input

Ground pT 5| Ground

Fig. 7-1. The LM380 amplifier IC, available in an 8-pin DIP housing.

33
Bypass jT

NorHnv&rtiftg j^™ 13]N.C.


Input ■—

E
Ground i Ground
(heatsinking) E LM380 (heatsinking)

Inverting input f^ T)n.c.

Ground FT" T] Output

Fig. 7-2. Even the 14-pin DIP version has only six active pins; the extra pins are
used for heatsinking.

the IC to start overheating. This feature significantly reduces the


worry of short-circuit problems.
As illustrated in Fig. 7-3, the LM380's internal circuitry is made
up of a dozen transistors and associated components. Gain is
internally fixed at 50 (34 dB). The output automatically centers itself
at one half the supply voltage, effectively eliminating problems of
offset drift. If a symmetrical (equal positive and negative voltages)
dual-polarity power supply is used with the LM380, the output is
centered around ground potential (0 volts), with no dc component
to worry about. In this case, no output capacitor is needed to protect
the speaker. The LM380 can be wired for the higher fidelity direct-
coupled output type of connection.
The input stage of the LM380 is rather unusual. The input signal
can either be referenced to ground or ac coupled, depending on the
particular requirements of the specific application. As you can see,
this device offers considerable flexibility to the circuit designer.
The inputs are internally biased with a 150 K on-chip resistance
to ground. Transducers or earlier stages that are referenced to

34
Fig. 7-3. A simplified diagram of the internal circuitry in the LM380 amplifier 1C.

ground (no dc component) can be directly coupled to either the


inverting or the non-inverting input. (These inputs are simflar to those
found on op amps. The inverting input phase shifts the signal 180
degrees, while the non-inverting input does not phase shift the

In most applications, only one of the LM380's inputs is used.


There are several possibilities for handling the unused input terminal:

• Leave it floating
• Short it directly to ground
• Reference it to ground through an external resistor or capacitor

In many applications in which the non-inverting input is used,


the inverting input is left floating (unconnected). This is fine, but
it makes board layout critical. The designer must be on guard for
any stray capacitances. While it is always true that stray capacitances
can lead to positive feedback, instability, and possible oscillations,
this configuration is particularly susceptible to such problems.

35
The LM380 audio amplifier IC is designed for use with a
minimum of external components. The most basic form of a
LM380-based amplifier circuit is shown in Fig. 7-4. Clearly, it would
be difficult for a circuit to be much simpler than this. The only
required external component is the output decoupling capacitor. As
mentioned earlier, if a dual-polarity power supply is used, even this
capacitor can be eliminated. The LM380 can certainly be considered
complete in itself.
In many practical applications, it might be desirable or even
necessary to add several external components. For example, if the
chip is located more than 2 or 3 inches from the power supply's fil
ter capacitor, a decoupling capacitor should be mounted between
the V + terminal of the LM380 and ground. Typically, the value
of this capacitor is in the neighborhood of 0.1 i*F. For best results,
this decoupling capacitor should be mounted as dose to the LM380's
body as possible.
The LM380 tends to become unstable and break into oscillations
if it is used in a high-frequency (several megahertz or more) rather
than audio application. Even though this IC is designated as an audio
amplifier, it can function as an rf amplifier too. Adding an extra
resistor and capacitor, as shown in Fig. 7-5, helps suppress parasitic
oscillations in high-frequency applications. Generally, the resistor's
value is very small. A typical value is 2.7 ohms. The capacitor is
usually about 0.1 jiF.

Fig. 7A. The most basic circuit built around the LM380 amplifier IC

36
Fig. 7-5. Adding a resistor and a capacitor to the circuit of Fig. 7-4 helps minimize
oscillation problems.

Because these parasitic oscillations only occur at 5 to 10 MHz,


they obviously won't be of much importance in most audio
applications. Even so, if the LM380 is being used in an rf-sensitive
environment, such oscillations could pose a problem unless they are
properly suppressed.
(Note that in Fig. 7-5 and all the future diagrams that the heat-
sinking pins are not shown. This is for clarity in the circuit diagrams.
The grounding of these pins is assumed in all cases.)
Figure 7-6 shows a practical audio amplifier circuit using the
LM380. A typical parts list for this project is given in Table 7-1.
The input to this circuit can be provided by an inexpensive low

recorders. If a low impedance source is used, an impedance matching


transformer is necessary. If this circuit is to be used with a high-
impedance source, this transformer can be eliminated.
The 1MQ potentiometer serves as a volume control. The fixed
gain of this circuit can be increased by adding a little positive
feedback.
An 8 Q speaker can be driven directly by the LM380 audio
amplifier IC. The output decoupling capacitor is needed if a single-
polarity power supply is used, as shown in the diagram.
The LM380 is often used in inexpensive tape recorders and

The input in this case is a ceramic cartridge. The parts list is given

37
Fig. 7-6. A practical audio amplifier circuit using the LM380.

Table 7-1. Parts list for Fig. 7-6.

Component
Number Description

IC1 LM380 audio amplifier IC


T1 Transformer—500 ohm:200 K
C1 500 pF 25 V electrolytic capacitor
R1 1 Meg potentiometer

J Ceramic

i jscartridge
T\ + 18V

R1
L ' llCZ (8 0
r—O speaker)

r
Pig. 7-7. The LM380 is ideal for use in inexpensive ceramic cartridge phonographs.

38
Table 7-2. Parts list for Fig. 7-7.

Component
Number Description

IC1 LM380 audio amplifier IC

C1 0.047 pF capacitor
C2 500 nF electrolytic capacitor

R1 25 K potentiometer
R2 75 K resistor
R3 10 K potentiometer

in Table 7-2. Potentiometer Rl is a simple voltage-divider volume


control. Potentiometer R3 is a basic tone control, making the high
frequency roll-off characteristics of the circuit manually adjustable.
Most serious phonograph applications require frequency shaping
to provide the standard RIAA equalization characteristic. All
commercially available records are equalized according to the RIAA
standards. Obviously, if the complementary frequency-response
shaping isn't included in the playback, the reproduced sound won't
be as good as it should be.
Figure 7-8 shows a LM380-based phonograph amplifier circuit
with full RIAA equalization. The parts list is given in Table 7-3.

Fig. 7-8. This phonograph amplifier includes RIAA equalization.

39
Table 7-3. Parts List for Fig. 7-8.

Component
Number Description

IC1 LM380 audio amplifier IC

C1 220 pF capacitor
C2 0.0022 i»F capacitor
C3 500 pF electrolytic capacitor

R1 1.5 Meg resistor


R2 2 Meg potentiometer

The mid-band gain can be defined with this formula:

G = (Rl + 150000) /150000

The constant 150000 represents the internal resistance presented


within the LM380 itself. Rl is the value of the external resistor.
The corner frequency is determined by resistor Rl and capaci
tor Cl, according to this formula:

In designing such a circuit, it is usually best to select Rl for


the desired gain first, then rearrange the corner frequency equation
to solve for Cl.
A pair of LM380 amplifiers can be put into a bridge configuration,
as illustrated in Fig. 7-9. This is done to achieve more output power
than could be obtained from a single amplifier. This circuit provides
twice the voltage gain across the load for a given supply voltage,
which increases the power handling capability by a factor of four over
a single LM380.
When using the bridge configuration, caution is called for. The

output power below the theoretical quadruple level. A typical parts


list for this bridged-amplifier circuit is given in Table 7-4.
This has barely scratched the surface of LM380-based amplifier
circuits. You can see now why this chip is such a best-seller.

40
Volume
control

Input R1

rh

Kg. 7-9. A pair oflM380s in a bridge configuration can produce greater output power.

Table 7-4. Parts List for Fig. 7-9.

Component
Number Description

IC1, IC2 LM380 audio amplifier IC

C1 50 pF capacitor
C2, C3, C4 0.1 pF capacitor

R1 2 Meg potentiometer
R2 2 ft resistor

41
PROJECT 8:
Tape Player Amplifier

The circuit shown in Fig. 8-1 is designed as a playback amplifier for


a tape deck. The standard NAB equalization curve is matched by
the feedback network. The parts list is shown in Table 84.
The tape head should be selected to generate about 800 ^vat
1 kHz.The output is approximately 5 volts nns. An external volume
control potentiometer can be added to the output line.

Table 8-1.

IC LM381
Rl 240 KQ
R2 1800
R3 2.2MegQ
R4 62 KQ
Cl 1*F
C2 20/iF
C3 1500 pF
,8-1. Playback amplifier for a tape deck.

43
PROJECT 9:
Hi-Fi Tone Controls

Tone controls fitted to domestic radios and equivalent circuits are


seldom of high quality. This does not usually matter for AM reception
(which can never be hi-fi); but can degrade the performance on FM
reception. Similar remarks apply to the tone controls fitted to lower
priced record players and tape recorders.
High quality tone controls generally demand quite complex
circuits. ICs enable the number of discrete components required to
be substantially reduced and at the same time offer other advantages
such as a high input impedance that matches a typical high impedance
source. Tone control can also be combined with audio amplification
in IC circuits.
Figure 9-1 shows a complete circuit based around a TCA8305
integrated circuit incorporating a feedback network which attenuates
the low frequencies and boosts the high frequencies. (Parts list shown
in Table 9-1.) At the same time, high frequencies can be attenuated
by the treble control potentiometer at the input. The volume control,
also on the input side, provides "loudness control" at both high and
low frequencies to compensate for the loss of sensitivity of the human
ear to such frequencies (i.e., both high and low frequencies tend
to sound "less loud" to the ear).
A simpler circuit, using the same IC, is shown in Fig. 9-2, with
parts list in Table 9-2. This has a single tone control potentiometer.
The circuit provides flat response at middle frequencies (i.e., around
1 kHz), with marked boost and cut of up to ± 10 decibels at 110

44
Fig. 94, Hi-fi tone control circuit suitable for receivers, record players and tape recorders
and characterized by a high input impedance. Potentiometer Rl is the treble control.
Potentiometer R9 is the bass control. Potentiometer R4 is the volume control.

Table 9-1. Parts list for Fig. 9-1.

Rl 47 KQ log pot Cl 47 nF
R2 10 KQ C2 820 pF
R3 1.8 KQ C3 100 pF
R4 100 KQ log pot C4 0.1 pF
R5 100 Q C5 100 a»F
R6 15 Q C6 250 pF
R7 470Q C7 100 jiF
R8 470 O C8 100 pF
R9 25 KQ log pot C9 0.33/iF
RIO 1Q C10 0.22 pF
IC TCA8305 Cll 0.1 nF
C12 1000 jtF

45
Fig. 9-2. Alternative hi-fi tone control circuit with separate high and low frequency
feedback. Potentiometer Rl is the volume control Potentiometer R7 is the treble control
and potentiometer RIO the bass control

Table 9-2. Parts List for Fig. 9-2.

Rl 100 KQ log pot Cl 0.1 /iF


R2 100 Q C2 100 jtF
R3 18Q C3 100 iiF
R4 180 a C4 500 jiF
R5 27 a C5 100 a»F
R6 la C6 82 pF
R7 10 KO log pot C7 1000/tF
R8 150 a C8 0.1 ^F
R9 330 a C9 0.15 pF
RIO 10 Ka log pot C10 2pF
Rll 15 a Cll lpF
IC TCA8305 C12 2.2 /tF

46
► Output

L—VW—\V\r—VW-J I
R4 R5 R6 I
|
Tone control network

Fig. 9-3. Simple hi-fi tone control circuit. Component values are determined for a sup
ply voltage of 32 volts. Potentiometer R2isthe bass control. Potentiometer RSisthe
treble control. Components within the dashed outline comprise the tone control network.

Hz and 10 kHz respectively in the extreme positions of the


potentiometer.
A (Baxandall) hi-fi tone control circuit associated with another
type of op amp is shown in Fig. 9-3. (Parts list is in Table 9-3.) The
IC in this case is the CA3140 BiMOS op amp. The tone control drcuit
is conventional and only a few additional discrete components are
required to complete the amplifier circuit around the IC. This circuit

Table 9-3. Parts list for Fig. 9-3.

Rl 240 KO IC CA3140
R2 5 MO log pot Cl 750 pF
R3 240 KQ C2 750 pF
R4 51 KQ C3 20 pF
R5 5 MQ linear pot C4 0.1 ftF
R6 51 KQ C5 0.1 itF
R7 2.2 MQ Coupling Capadtor
R8 2.2 MQ (C8) 0.047/tF
R9 2.2 MQ

47
C6 i =: C7
R5 f R7

=:c8 R6

Fig. 9-4. Another hi-fi tone control circuit Potentiometer R4 is the treble control
Potentiometer R6 is the bass control Supply voltage is 30 volts.

is capable of ± 15 decibels bass and treble boost and cut at 100 Hz


and 10 kHz respectively.
An alternative circuit using the same IC and giving a similar
performance is shown in Fig. 9-4, with the parts list shown in Table
9-4. Both of these circuits require a supply voltage of 30 to 32 volts.
Figure 9-5 shows the same circuit modified for dual supplies.

Table 9-4. Parts list for Fig. 9-4.

Cl 0.1 jtF Rl 5.1 mO


C2 0.01 jtF R2 2.2 MO
C3 100 pF R3 18 KQ
C4 100 pF R4 200 KQ linear pot
C5 0.001 /»F R5 10 KQ
C6 R6 1 MQ log pot
C7 0.002 ,tF R7 100 KQ
C8 0.005 fiF IC CA3140
IC CA3140

48
C1—0.047 /if
C2—0.1 pF
C3—0.1 mF , Supply
IC—CA3140 | |— , 0+V
Vin C1 Tone ll
control
network 2

Fig. 9-5. Tone control for dual supplies.

49
PART II

For the Shop


PROJECT 10;
Constant Current or
Constant Voltage Source

A useful circuit employing the CA3018 integrated circuit array is


shown in Fig. 10-1. This array comprises four transistors (two
interconnected as a super-alpha pair) and four diodes. Tapping the
super-alpha pair of transistors, a constant current source can be
produced, the magnitude of this current being set by adjustment of
the potentiometer Rl over a range of about 0.2 mA to 14 mA, de
pending on the actual supply voltage.
The same integrated circuit can also be used as a constant volt-
age source—Fig. 10-2. In this case, the constant voltage output is
the zener voltage of the transistor that is worked as a zener diode,
which is approximately 6 volts.

53
R1—10 Kft potentiometer
R2—470 ft
R3—3.3 Kft
R4 is the resistance of the
load through which the
constant current is to flow.

Fig. 20-2. Constant current circuit using components found in CA3018 array.

9 to
12
18 volts
Output
CA3018
?
i
10 Constant
6 volts
I
I
I
R1-3.3 KO
R2-4.7 KO i
-b-M

Fig. 10-2. Circuit giving a constant 6 volts output from a 9- to 18-volt supply voltage,
again using the CA3018 array.

54
PROJECT 11:
Digital-to-Analog Converter

The parts and equipment that you will need to perform this series
of experiments are listed in Table 11-1. The oscilloscope is optional.
The first thing you need to do is devise some source of a digital
signal to convert into an analog voltage. The simple circuit shown
in Fig. 11-1 will create a 4-bit work dependent on the position of
the switches. If a given bit's switch is in the upper position, it will
tap off approximately 5 volts from the voltage divider. This
represents a logic 1.
Moving the switch to the lower position grounds out that bit.
The output will be 0 volts, or logic 0. You can set the four switches
to create any 4-bit binary word from 0000 to 1111.
The LEDs and their associated resistors are optional. If a giv
en LED is lit, that bit is at logic 1. A dark LED implies a logic 0
output for that bit. The resistors are used to limit the current through
each LED.
Three basic resistor values are used in this circuit. The resistor
marked RA should have a value of 33 K. The resistor marked 1^
should have a value of 18 K. The resistors marked ^ may have
values ranging from 220 to 470 ohms. A smaller value will cause
the LED to glow more brightly. All ^ resistors should have the
same value for a uniform display.

55
Breadboard system
741 op amp IC
220 to 470 ohm resistor (see text) (need 4)
5.6 K resistor (need 4)
10 K resistor (need 2)
12 K resistor (need 6)
15 K resistor Table 11-1. Parts list
18 K resistor
for Project 11.
22 K resistor
33 K resistor
39 K resistor
82 K resistor
LED (need 4)
SPDT switch (need 4)
hook-up wire
voltmeter

Fig. 12-1. This simple circuit can simulate 4-bit digital words for use in Project 11.

Breadboard the digital output simulator of Fig. 11-1 and the D/A
converter circuit shown in Fig. 11-2. Use the following component
values:

Rl = 82 K resistor R4 = 10 K resistor
R2 - 39 K resistor R5 = 10 K resistor
R3 = 22 K resistor R6 = 15 K resistor

56
Fig. 11-2. This D/A converter circuit is explored in the first part of Project 11.

Bit A is the least significant bit (2°, or 1). Bit D is the most
significant bit (23, or 8). The 4-bit binary words will be written in
the following order:

DCBA
10 11 - (1 x 23) + (0 x 22) + (1 x 21) + (1 x 2°)
= (1 x 8) + (0 x 4) + (1 x 2) + (1 x 1)
=8+0+2+1
= 11

Any input bit at logic 0 will be feeding 0 volts into the input of
the op amp. That bit will have no effect on the output. Set the binary
switches for an input of 0000. The output should be zero volts (or
very close to it).
Now raise the switch for input bit A, leaving the other three
switches grounded. This makes the input word 0001. The D/A
converter functions as an inverting amplifier with its gain set by the
ratio of R5 and Rl.

R5 10,000
-0.12
Rl 82,000

The negative sign simply indicates that the output polarity is


inverted. Because you will be using only positive input voltages in
this application, the output always is negative.
The exact input voltage for a logic 1 input bit is set by the power
supply voltage and the values of RA and RB in Fig. 11-1. Assuming
the supply voltage is ±15 volts, and RA and RB have the values
specified earlier (33 K and 18 K respectively), this works out to

57
approximately +5.3 volts. Component tolerances and variations in
the supply voltage may cause slightly different values.
For an input of 0001, the output voltage should be equal to the
input voltage (5.3 volts) times the gain (-0.12).

Vo = 5.3 x -0.12 = -0.636

Measure the output. Do you get a value close to this? Return


bit A to logic 0, and change bit B to logic 1 (0010). The input resistor
for this bit is R2.

R5 10,000
Cj = — = — ■ =
R2 39,000

Ideally this should be twice the gain of bit A (2 x -0.12 =


-0.24), but because you are probably using standard resistor values,
you can be satisfied with coming close. Component tolerances cause
deviation from the nominal values in any event. Once again, a logic
1 input bit equals 5.3 volts, so the output voltage for an input of
0010 is equal to ViG.

Vo = 5.3 x -0.26 - -1.36 volts

Does the voltmeter read an output voltage close to this calculated


value?
Ground bit B and raise bit C to logic 1 (5.3 volts). You should
now have 0100 as your input binary work. The gain is set by R5
andR3.

G= -— = - 10'000 = .045
R3 22,000

Vo = 5.3 x -0.45 = -2.41 volts

Next, set the input word to 1000. All switches are grounded
(logic 0) except for D. What output voltage do you get now? It should
work out according to the following equations:

R5 10,000
G =
R4 10,000

v« = G x D = -1 x 5.3 - -5.3 volts

58
What happens if more than one input bit is at logic 1? In this
case, the circuit acts like a summing amplifier. The inputs are
weighted by the different value input resistors. The output of
this circuit is equal to the following relationship:

-R5\ /,. -R5\ / -R5\ /.. -R5\


l+lViuX 1+1 VirX l+IVjaX I
Rl/\ R2/\1C R3 / \ - R4 /
For the component values you have been working with, the
equation simplifies as shown here.

Vo = (^x -0.12) O^x -0.26)+ (Vfc x -0.45) + (Vw x-1)

Set the input binary word to 0011. That is, A and B are each
at logic 1 (+5.3 volts) and C and D are at logic 0 (0 volts). The
output in this case should be simply the sum of A and B calculated
separately. Plug the appropriate voltage values into the formula, and
find the nominal output voltage.

Vo = (5.3 x -0.12) + (5.3 x -0.26) + (0 x -0.45)


+ (0 x -1)
- -0.636 + -1.36 + 0 + 0
- -1.996

For a 4-bit binary word, there are 16 possible combinations. Try


the input to each combination and jot down your results in Table
11-2. Compare your results with the calculated values listed in Table
11-3.
For the next part of this experiment, you will use the R-2R ladder
D/A converter circuit illustrated in Fig. 11-3. Again the input is ob
tained from the digital simulator circuit of Fig. 11-1. Use the following
component values:
ies:

Rl 12 K R7 12K
R2 12K R8 5.6 K
R3 22 K R9 12 K
R4 5.6 K R10 12K
R5 12K Rll 5.6 K
R6 5.6 K

The most significant bit (D = 23 = 8) passes through Rl and


R2 before being fed into the inverting input of the op amp. The gain

59
Table 11-2. Worksheet for Project 11.

Input Output Input Output


Word Voltage Word Voltage

D C B A D C B A

0 o o o 1 0 0 n

0 o o 1 1 0 o 1
o o 1 n 1 0 1 o
o 0 1 1 1 0 1 1
o 1 0 n 1 1 0 n

o 1 o 1 1 1 0 1
o 1 1 n 1 1 1 n

0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

for this bit depends on the ratio of R3 and R2 and the input voltage
that passes through a voltage divider made up of Rl, R4, R6, R8,
and RIO. The input voltage is tapped off at point E. The input signal
passes through Rl and then is split off between R2 and ground
through R4, R6, R8, and RIO.
For a logic 0 input, the voltage at point E will simply be 0. For
a logic 1 input, a 5.3-volt signal is fed through the voltage divider.
The total resistance to ground is a sum of the resistances.

Rt = Rl + R4 + R6 + R8 + RIO

= 12,000 + 5600 + 5600 + 5600 + 12,000

= 40,800 ohms

According to Ohm's Law, the current flow should be equal to


0.13 mA.

Table 11-3. Calculated Values for Project 11.

Input Output Input Output


Word Voltage Word Voltage

D C B A D C B A

0 0 0 0 0.00 1 0 0 0 -5.29
0 0 0 1 -0.64 1 0 0 1 -5.94
0 0 1 0 -1.36 1 0 1 0 -6.65
0 0 1 1 -2.00 1 0 1 1 -7.30
0 1 0 0 -2.41 1 1 0 0 -7.70
0 1 0 1 -3.05 1 1 0 1 -8.35
0 1 1 0 -3.76 1 1 1 0 -9.06
0 1 1 1 -4.41 1 1 1 1 -9.70

60
Fig. 22-3. The second halfof Project 11 examines the operation ofa R-2R ladder type
D/A converter.

5.3
i = 0.0013 amp = 0.13 mA
R, 40,800

The voltage drop across Rl equals 1.56 volts.

Vx = I • Rl = 0.00013 x 12,000 - 1.56 volts

Subtract this value from the original input voltage (5.3 volts.)

Ve - V, - Vx x 5.3 - 1.56 = 3.74

This is fed into the inverting amplifier. The gain for the D input
is calculated as follows:

-R3 -22,000
= -1.8333 = -1.8
R2 12,000

The negative sign simply indicates that the output polarity is


reversed because the op amp's inverting input is being used.
The output voltage when input D is at logic 1 and the other three
inputs are at logic 0 (1000) should be close to -6.86 volts.

61
Vo » VB x GD - 3.74 x -1.8 - -6.86 volts

The situation is slightly more complex for the other input bits,
but you can simplify matters by looking at each one individually. Fig
ure 11-4 simplifies the schematic for input C. Inputs A,B, and D
and their related components are ignored.
The input signal is fed through a voltage divider made up of R5,
R6, R8, and RIO. The input voltage is tapped off at point F between
R5 and R6. The input resistance to the inverting amplifier is the se
ries combination of R4 and R2.
Solve for the input voltage by first finding the current with Ohm's
Law.

I
R, (R5 + R6 + R8 + RIO)

5.3

(12,000 + 5,600 + 5,600 + 12,000)

5.3
0.00015 amp = 0.15 mA
35,200

VF = V, - Vc = Vj -IRS - 5.3 -(0.00015 x 12,000)

« 5.3 -1.8 = 3.5 volts

Fig. 11-4. Input C sees this equivalent circuit.

62
Next, find the gain for input C.

r R3 22,000
(R2+R4) (12,000+5600)

22,000
-1.25
17,600

So, the output voltage for C = 1 with the other bits = 0 (0100)
works out to about -4.375 volts.

VQ = VpxGc = 3.5 x -1.25 - -4.375 volts

Figure 11-5 shows the equivalent circuit for input B. Running


through the equations for this input bit you find the following:

VV e q

R, (R7 + R8 + R10) (12,000 + 5,600 + 12,000)

5.3
000018 0.18 mA

= V, -V, - V, - IR7

- 5.3 -(0.00018 x 12,000)

= 5.3 -2.15
= 3.15

Fig. 11-5. This equivalent circuit is seen by input bit B.

63
R3 22,000

B (R2+R4+R6) (12,000 + 5,600 + 5,600)

22,000
-0.95
23,200

Vo - VG x GB = 3.15 x -09.5 = 2.99 volts

Finally, solve the equations for bit A. See Fig. 11-6.

V, V, 5.3

R, (R9+R10) (12,000 + 12,000)

5.3
0.00022 amp = 0.22 mA
24,000

Vh » V, - VA = V, - IR9 - 5.3 - (0.00022 x 12,000)

5.3 - 2.65 = 2.65 volts

R3

(R2+R4+R6+R8)

22,000

(12,000 + 5600 + 5600 + 5600)

R3
R9 G|!J R8 R6 R4 R2

|rio ovo

T
Fig. 11-6. Here is the equivalent circuit for input bit A.

64
0.W
28,800

vo " vh * ga = 2-65 x -°-76 = -2-02 volts


Measure the output voltage for several combinations of digital
inputs. There will be some imbalance of the steps because 12 K is
not exactly twice 5.6 K, as required by the R-2R resistor network.
For practical applications, low tolerance precision resistors should
be used.

65
PROJECT 12:
Logic Probe

This project is a piece of test equipment that can be used to study


and (if necessary) troubleshoot most of the projects presented in
this book, and other digital circuits too. The project is called a logic
probe. Logic probes are simple but powerful tools for analyzing what
goes on in a digital electronics circuit. Many commercially available

However, this inexpensive do it-yourself logic probe will come in


handy for any digital elector
in special features, it more than makes up for with low cost. The
project should not cost you more than two or three dollars.
A logic probe is simply a device that allows you to determine
the logic state (0 or 1) at any point in a digital circuit. A super-simple
two-component logic probe is shown in Fig. 12-1. The ground lead
can be fitted with an alligator clip so that it can be connected to the
same ground as that of the circuit being tested.
The probe is a short length of stiff solid wire, or use a common
test lead probe. If this probe is touched to a point in the circuit with
a logic 1 (high voltage) signal, the LED lights up. At all other times,
the LED remains dark.
The resistor is used for current limiting. If the LED is allowed
to draw too much current, it can be damaged. This resistor generally
has a value of less than (1000 ohms), with 330 ohms being a typical
value. This super-simple logic probe can be used without modification
for any of the major logic families (CMOS, TTL or any of its

66
Probe

Alligator clip

circuit-under-test
ground

Fig. 12-1. A super simple logic probe can be made from a resistor and an LED.

variations, DTL, etc.). Because the circuit contains no active logic


elements and takes its power from the circuit being tested, it is
universal.
This circuit can be whipped together for under a dollar. While
functional, this simple approach leaves a lot to be desired. For one
thing, it does not give a definite indication of a logic 0 state. If the
LED does not light, you could have a logic 0 signal, or the probe
might not be making good contact with the pin being tested. There
might even be a broken lead, or the LED itself could be damaged.
With the circuit of Fig. 12-1, there is no way of telling.
Another potential problem area with this circuit is the possibility
of excessively loading the IC output being tested. This can especially
occur when the gate in question is already driving dose to its
maximum fan-out potential. Both of these problems can be side
stepped by adding a pair of inverters and a second LED/resistor
combination, as illustrated in Fig. 12-2.
When a logic 0 is applied to the probe tip, the first inverter
changes it to a logic 1, lighting LED A. The second inverter changes
the signal back to a logic 0, so LED B remains dark. Conversely,
when a logic 1 is fed into the probe tip, the output of the first inverter
is a logic 0, so LED A stays dark, and LED B is lit up by the logic
1 signal appearing at the output of the second inverter.
This circuit can give a definite indication of either a logic 1 or
a logic 0 signal. If neither LED lights up, the probe is not making
proper contact. This circuit is much less ambiguous than the earlier
version.
But that's not all this improved logic probe can tell you. This
device can also indicate the presence of a pulsating signal (keeps
reversing states). If the LEDs alternately blink on and off, a low
frequency pulse is being fed to the probe. If both LEDs appear to
be continuously lit, a high frequency pulse signal is indicated.

67
Actually, in this case the LEDs are still alternately blinking on and
off, but it is happening far too fast for the eye to see, so the LEDs
look like they are both staying on at all times.
The circuit of Fig. 12-2 calls for just five components—two
LEDS, two resistors (330 to 1000 ohms—the value is not critical),
and a hex inverter IC. Two of the six inverter sections are used
in this circuit. The other four inputs should be grounded to ensure
circuit stability. This is particularly important if a CMOS chip is being
used.
Like the simpler version of the logic probe discussed earlier,
this circuit steals its power from the circuit being tested. Alligator
clips on the power supply leads can be attached to the power supply
output of the circuit being tested.
A CMOS CD4009A hex inverter IC is the best choice, because
it can be driven by either TTL or CMOS devices. By tapping into
the tested circuit's power supply, the voltage levels will be
automatically matched. In some cases, it might be desirable to add
a pull-up resistor at the probe's input, as shown in Fig. 12-3. The
value of this resistor is not critical, but it should probably be kept
in the neighborhood of 1 K (1000 ohms).
If you intend to work with just TTL ICs, you can substitute a
7404 hex inverter (or the equivalent in the appropriate subfamily,
like the low-power Schottky 74LS04). Use the pin numbers that are

supply

VSAr-

Probe

To ground
of power
supply

Fig. 22-2. An improved logic probe uses inverters to prevent circuit loading and to
display both logic 1 and bgic 0 signals.

68
Fig. 22-3. If a pull-up resistor is included in your logic probe, a CMOS probe can
be used on TTL circuits.

shown in parentheses in Fig. 12-2. This pin marked (*) has no


equivalent on the 7404 and should simply be ignored.
I strongly recommend that you build a permanent version of this
project. It will be useful throughout your project-building endeavors.

69
PROJECT 13:
Digital Capacitance Meter

digital ICs. The process is not all that different from the digital
voltmeters described in the previous chapter. A basic digital capaci
tance meter circuit is shown in block diagram form in Fig. 13-1. The
first stage is a monostable multivibrator. You should recall that a
monostable multivibrator has one stable state. Assume the stable
state is logic 0.
The output of the monostable multivibrator remains at logic 0
until the circuit is triggered. At that time, the output switches to
logic 1 for a specific period of time that is defined by a resistor/ca
pacitor combination. After this period of time, the output of the
multivibrator returns to its stable state (logic 0).
In this application, the timing resistor is a fixed value. (In some
cases, different resistors may be switch-selectable for different
ranges.) The timing capacitor is the unknown capacitance being
measured. Therefore, the output of the monostable multivibrator
goes to logic 1 when triggered for a period of time that is directly
proportional to the input capacitance.
The rest of the circuit is very similar to the digital voltmeters
described in the last chapter. The output of the monostable
multivibrator controls an AND gate that blocks or passes the
reference oscillator signal through to the counter stage. The count
is checked for over-range, decoded, and displayed.

70
Monostable
multivibrator Counter Decoder

Reset R
ti
Overflow
indicator Display

Fig. 13-1. A digital capacitance meter is quite similar to a digital voltmeter (Project 16).

Because the monostable multivibrator's on time is directly


proportional to the unknown input capacitance, the count displayed
will also be proportional to the value of Cx. A pushbutton to reset
the counter and manually trigger the monostable multivibrator is
usually mounted on the front panel of the instrument.
A practical capacitance meter circuit is illustrated in Fig. 13-4.
The parts list is given in Table 13-1. Because the voltage across
the test points (and therefore through) Cx is less than two volts,
the measurement process is safe for virtually any component.
This unit is capable of measuring capacitances from less than
100 pF to well over 1000 /*F. If electrolytic capacitors are to be
tested, be sure to hook up the meter with the correct polarity. Point
A should be attached to the capacitor's positive lead, and point B
is negative. Resistor Rl sets the full scale reading for the meter.
This component should be a trim pot that is set during calibration,
then left alone. Once the necessary resistance is found, the trim
pot could be replaced with an appropriate fixed resistor to eliminate
the need for periodic recalibration. Smaller resistance values should
be used to measure larger capacitances. A100 K pot could be used
for a IX scale, while a 10X scale would be better served with a 5
K potentiometer. Multiple resistances could be set up for switch-
selectable ranges.

USES FOR A CAPACITANCE METER


The obvious use for a digital capacitance meter is to determine
the value of unmarked capacitors or to check to make sure a capad-

71
+v

Fig. 13-2. The schematic for a complete digital capacitance meter.

72
9T--I ,14
56
7
IC4 10

11 8 9 12
14

IC6 6
5 7
10
r-3 6 2 17
118912 16

\ IC5
16 6 2 17
13121110 9 1514

8 IC7 R11-R17
rn 1312111091514
abode fg
R18-R24

a b c d efg
o
u
n DIS1

o
DIS2

73
Table 13-1. The Digital Capacitance
Meter Project Calls for These Components.

IC1 555 timer


IC2, IC8 CD4011 quad NAND gate
IC3, IC4, IC6 74C90 decade counter
IC5, IC7 CD4511 BCD to 7-segment decoder
Q1.Q2 NPN transistor
D1 1N4734 diode (or similar)
D2 LED (overflow indicator)
DIS1.DIS2 common cathode seven segment LED display
R1 calibration trimpot—see text
R2.R5 2.7 k Va watt resistor
R3, R4, R7 15 k 1/4 watt resistor
R6. R8 10 k1/4 watt resistor
R9, R10 1.8 k Va watt resistor
R11 -R24 330 ohm Va watt resistor
C1.C2 0.047 yJF capacitor
C3 0.1 /xF capacitor
C4.C5 0.01 fxF capacitor
C6 0.0022 /xF capacitor
S1 DPDT normally open pushbutton
—push to clear and test

tor is true to its marked value. The capacitor's tolerance can be


calculated with the following formula:

ABS(CM-CN)
T% . -—1 x 100

where T is the tolerance (or percent of error) in percentage, CN


is the nominal, or marked value for the capacitor, and CM is the ca
pacitance value measured.
As an example, let's assume we have a capacitor that is marked
5 pF. When we hook this component up to our digital capacitance
meter, we get a reading of 4.357 /«F. The tolerance is therefore equal
to
(ABX(CM-CN)/C,,) x 100

= (ABS(4.357 -5)15) x 100


- (ABS(-0.643/5) x 100
- (0.643/5) x 100
= 0.1286 x 100
= 12.86%

74
This is not bad for an electrolytic capacitor many of which often have
rather wide tolerances, but it obviously would be a poor choice for
any application requiring precision.
A digital capacitance meter can also be put to use in a number
of other interesting ways. For instance, this type of instrument can
come in handy for tracking down stray capacitances that can cause
problems in many circuits, especially those operating at high
frequencies. Printed circuit boards with closely placed traces are of
ten subject to stray capacitance problems.
Components other than capacitors often exhibit internal
capacitances that may need to be taken into account when designing
precision circuits. For example, in an rf amplifier circuit, the transistor
base-to-collector and emitter-to-collector capacitances can cause
instability and/or oscillation in some cases.
Cables that consist of more than a single conductor have a nat
ural capacitance per foot. These cables include coaxial cable, antenna
twinlead, and ribbon cables. Because a capacitor is basically two
conductors separated by an insulator, multi-line cables naturally
behave as long capacitors.
The capacitance per foot of a cable can be determined by
measuring a known length of the cable with a capacitance meter,
and using the following formula:

where Cf is the cable's capacitance per foot, C is the measured ca


pacitance, and F is the number of feet in the measured sample. Cf
and C will always be in the same units. If C is measured in picofarads,
Cf will also be in picofarads. Or, if C is in microfarads, Cf will be
in microfarads too.
Let's say we have a 2 Vi-foot sample of a cable. When you
measure the capacitance of this length, you get a reading of 55 pF.
Now, you can easily calculate the capacitance per foot. Cf = C/F
= 55/2.5 = 22 pF per foot.
By rearranging this formula, you can determine the total capac
itance of a length of cable if you know the capacitance per foot, and
the length:

CT = F x CF

75
where CT is the total capacitance, F is the length in feet, and CF
is the capacitance per foot. As an example, assume you have a
235-foot length of the cable with the same capacitance as in the last
example (22 pF per foot). The total capacitance works out to F x
CF - 235 x 22 - 5170 pF.
Another algebraic manipulation of this same formula allows us
to determine how long an unknown length of cable is. This could
be necessary if the cable is buried, embedded in a wall, or otherwise
inaccessible for direct measurement. To perform the calculation, you
need to know the capacitance per foot, and then take a reading of
the cable's total capacitance. The formula is:

Let's say you need to determine an unknown length of a piece


of the 22 pF per foot cable. Measure the total capacitance of the
cable to get a reading of 4756 pF. The length of the cable is therefore
equal to C^Cp = 4756/22-just over 216 feet, 2 inches.
Another novel application for a digital capacitance meter is as
a digital thermometer. For this application, a high quality capacitor
with a known temperature coefficient is needed. This specification
is usually expressed as x parts per million per degree centigrade.
For purposes of illustration, assume you have a capacitor with a wide
temperature coefficient of 100 parts per million per degree
centigrade. K this capacitor measures 0.1475 fiF at 10 degrees
centigrade, at 20 degrees centigrade it should produce a reading of
0.1465 fiF. As you can see, a digital capacitance meter can be an
extremely handy instrument to have on your workbench.

76
PROJECT 14:
Digital Frequency Meter

Most of the commercially available frequency counters around today


use the "window" counting method. A sample of the input signal
is allowed through a gate. This sample lasts a specific and fixed period
of time. By counting the pulses during this sample period, the input
frequency can be determined.
A block diagram for a "window" type digital frequency meter
is shown in Fig. 14-1. The input signal is first fed through an amplifier
stage to boost the signal to a usable level. An amplifier stage is not
always used, but its presence improves the sensitivity of the
instrument, allowing lower signal levels to be measured accurately.
The next stage of the circuit is a Schmitt trigger to convert any
input waveshape to a rectangle wave that can be reliably recognized
by the digital circuitry. If only square or rectangle waves are to be
measured, the Schmitt trigger stage may be omitted. This processed
input signal is fed to one input of an AND gate• The other input to
the gating circuit comes from a reference oscillator, or timebase (as
it is usually called in this application). The timebase feeds out three
signals (or a single signal tapped off with delay circuits, as shown
in the diagram). These three timebase signals are synchronized, and
their timing relationship are critical. The three signals are illustrated
in Fig. 14-2.
The first signal (labeled GATE) is fed to the input of the gating
circuit, effectively opening (when logic 1) and closing (when logic

77
Schmitt
trigger
Input
S .

L Gate \

Latch

Reset Counters

/Oscillato
(ftimo hsici ^— Delay
1

V—' Decoders

Delay
2

Displays

Fig. 24-2. The bask digital frequency meter is another variation on the basic digital
voltmeter.

0) the "window/' allowing the input pulses to be counted. The sec


ond signal, which is delayed until after the first is over, latches the
output of the counters so they can hold their final value long enough
to produce a readable display, while the third signal resets the
counters to zero for the next measurement cycle. If the output latch
ing was not done, the counter would count up to the appropriate
amount, then immediately jump back to 000 and start over, never
producing a stationary reading. With the latches, only the desired
final count from each measured cycle is displayed.
Incidentally, the accuracy of most digital frequency counters is
given as x% ± 1 digit. The least significant digit might bob up and
down on successive measurement cycles. This happens because a
partial input pulse can get through the "window," as illustrated in
Fig. 14-3.
The timebase oscillator must be very precise in its output
frequency with as little frequency drift as possible. Crystal oscillators
are often used. The input frequency being measured must be higher
than the reference frequency. If the input frequency is lower than
the reference frequency, only 1 or 0 pulses can get through each

78
Gate

Latch

Reset

Fig. 14-2. Staggered pulses are required from the timebase oscillator in a digital frequency
meter.

4 'window,'' which obviously would not result in a meaningful reading.


To measure lower frequencies, an additional frequency multiplier
input stage can be added between the Schmitt trigger and the gate.
Similarly, to measure very high frequencies that would over-range
the counter stages, a frequency divider stage could be added to drop
the input signal to a lower frequency.

Input 1 I I I
1 I i

JnUrif
U innnr
u u u u innnr
LIU LJ U
1 I I I
I I
1 Window 1 Window 2 i
1
Count = 5
I Count = 6
i

Fig. 14-3. Partial pulses appearing during the "window" counting time may cause
some bobbing of the least significant digit.

79
input

/77

Fig. 14-4. A complete digital frequency meter is shown in this schematic.

Most commercial frequency counters have three to six counter


stages for maximum counts of 999 to 999999. Switchable frequency
multipliers and/or dividers are also generally included to allow
manually selectable ranges. Decimal points may or may not be
included in the display readout.

A DIGITAL FREQUENCY METER CIRCUIT


A complete digital frequency meter project is illustrated in Fig.
14-4. Table 14-2 is the parts list for this circuit. Each digit of the

80
display is driven by a CD4026 decade counter (IC2 through IC5).
Four digits are indicated in the diagram, but it is a simple matter
to extend the display to contain additional digits. Simply connect pin
5 from the last stage to pin 1 of the following stage. The other pins
of each IC are connected in the same way as for ICs 2 through 5.
Ql and IC1 pre-condition the input signal so that it will have
an acceptable level and waveshape to be reliably counted by the digital
circuits. IC6 is wired as a reference oscillator, whose output
frequency can be adjusted with R33, a 1MO trim pot. Calibration
is done by applying a known frequency source to the input of the
circuit and adjusting R33 for the correct reading.

81
Table 14-1. Parts list lor Digital Frequency Meter.

IC1 4583 Schmitt trigger


IC2-IC5 CO4026 decade counter
IC6 556 dual timer
IC7 CD4011 quad NAND gate
Q1 NPN transistor (2N3302,2N5826, Motorola
HEP-728, Radio Shack RS-2013. or similar)
niQi. niQA

R1 22* resistor
R2 18 k resistor
R3, R39 100 k resistor
R4 10 megohm resistor
R5-F&2 220 ohm resistor
R33 1 megohm trimpot
R34 470 k resistor
R35-R38 10 k resistor
C1.C3 1 fif 35 volt electrolytic capacitor
C2 10 iiF 35 volt electrolytic capacitor
C4.C5.C6 0.001 mF disc capacitor

82
PROJECT 15:
Multiple-Output Power Supply

This project can be used to power many of the experiments


presented throughout this book. You can also use it to power other
projects of your own. The circuit is shown in Fig. 15-1 and a parts
fist is given in Table 15-1.
Really, there isn't much to say about this circuit. There are 6
voltage outputs (with respect to ground):

+12 volts regulated -5 volts


+9 volts -9 volts
+5 volts regulated -12 volts regulated

Notice that three of the outputs are directly regulated and should
be almost exactly at their nominal values. The other three outputs
are derived via resistive voltage dividers. Their values might be
slightly off. Measure each of the outputs with a voltmeter. You might
also want to check for output ripple with an oscilloscope.
Without heatsinking, each regulator should be able to supply
about 0.5 amp without shutting down. Bear in mind that several
outputs are taken off some of the regulators. The total current draw
should not exceed 0.5 amp for each regulator. That is:

Km + I+9V = 0.5 amp


I+5V = 0.5 amp
I-5V + I-9V + I-12V = 0.5 amp
83
Fig. 25-2. Multiple output power supply circuit.
Table 15-1. Parts List for Multiple-Output Power Supply.

Voltmeter
Oscilloscooe (ODtional)

1 ac line cord
1 36-volt, 3 amp transformer—center tapped
1 3-amp fuse & holder
1 7805 +5 volt regulator IC
1 7812 +12 volt regulator IC
1 7912 -12 volt regulator IC
D1-D4 1N4001 diode
C1,C8 500 mF 50 volt electrolytic capacitor
C2, C3, C4, C5, C9, C10 0.1 pF capacitor
C6.C7.C11 10 pF 25-volt electrolytic capacitor
R1.R3 2.2 K resistor (2200 ohms)
R2 6.8 K resistor (6800 ohms)
R4 2.7 K resistor (2700 ohms)
R5 3.9 K resistor (3900 ohms)

You can get greater output current by adding heatsinks to the


regulators (you will need a heavier duty transformer and larger fuse
too). Don't try to get more than one amp out of each regulator IC.

85
PROJECT 16:
Dc Voltmeter

In this experiment, you use an op amp to make a dc voltmeter. The


parts and equipment you need are listed in Table 16-1.
Start by breadboarding the circuit shown in Fig. 16-1. Resistors
Rl through R7 form a voltage divider network to provide a number
of voltages to measure during the experiment. Use the following
resistor values in the voltage divider:

Rl 33K R5 22 K
R2 2.2 K R6 10K
R3 10K R7 33K
R4 IK

The op amp is connected as a simple unity-gain non-inverting


voltage follower with a voltmeter connected to the output. Connect
the op amp's non-inverting input (V) to each of the points in the
voltage divider network (labeled A through F). Write each measured
voltage in the appropriate space in Table 16-2.
Compare your results to the calculated values listed in Table
16-2. Your measured voltages should be dose to the ones listed here.
There might be some deviation from the nominal values due to
component tolerances op amp offsets, and minor measurement
errors.
It's a simple matter to add gain to an op amp dc voltmeter sim
ply by adding an input and a feedback resistor, as illustrated in Fig.

86
Breadboard system
741 op amp IC
1 K resistor (need 2)
2.2 K resistor
3.3 K resistor
Table 16-1. Parts list for 4.7 K resistor
a Dc Voltmeter. 10 K resistor (need 4)
22 K resistor (need 2)
33 K resistor (need 2)
100 K resistor (need 3)
voltmeter (15 volt range)
hook-up wire

Fig. 16-1. This voltage divider network and unity gain dc voltmeter are used for the
first part of Project 16,

87
Input Measured
Point Output
Voltage
Table 16-2. Worksheet for the
A
First Part of Project 16.
B
C
D
E
F

Fig. 16-2. This project also demonstrates that a dc amplifier can have gain.
Input Calculated
Point Output
Voltage

Table 16-3. Calculated Values A +6.10 volts


for the First Part of Project 16. B +5.50 volts
C +2.81 volts
D +2.54 volts
E -3.40 volts
F -6.10 volts

16-2. Remember to turn off the power supply while making changes
to the circuit.
Use a 10 K resistor for R8 and a 4.7 K resistor for R9. Since
this is a non-inverting amplifier circuit, the gain is as follows:

Rf
G= 1 +

1 + 0.47 1.47

Repeat the first part of the experiment, recording your values


in the appropriate column in Table 16-4. Now change R9 to a 10
K resistor. Leave R8 alone. This makes the gain equal to Z.

10,000
=1+1=2
10,000

Table 16-4. Calculated Values for the Second Part of Project 16.

Input Output Voltages


Point

(R9 = 4.7 K) (R9 = 10 K) (R9 = 22 K)

A
B
c
D
E
F

89
Repeat the first part of the experiment, recording your values
in the appropriate column in Table 16-4. Now change R9 to a 10
K resistor. Leave R8 alone. This makes the gain equal to Z.

2.2 = 3.2
10,000

Repeat the measurements and record your results in the table.


You might have found some of the measurements forced the op amp
into saturation. This is to be expected. You must be careful not to
exceed the op amp's maximum output voltage in using a practical
dc voltmeter. Compare your results with the calculated values listed
in Table 16-5.
A dc amplifier with gain is obviously most useful when the volt
age to be measured is quite small. Small voltages may be difficult
to measure directly.
Return to the circuit shown in Fig. 16-1. This time, use the
following resistor values in the voltage divider:

Rl 100K R5 IK
R2 IK R6 4.7K
R3 2.2 K R7 100 K
R4 3.3 K R7 100 K

Try measuring the tap-off points on the voltage divider using


the unity gain dc voltmeter of Fig. 16-1. The analog voltmeter at
the output should have a measurement range of about 15 volts.

Table 16-5. Worksheet for the Third Part of Project 16.

Input Output Voltages


Point

(R9 = 4.7 K) (R9 = 10K) (R9 = 22 K)

A +8.97 volts +12.20 volts (*) +19.52 (*)


B +8.09 volts +11.00 volts +17.60 (•)
C +4.13 volts +5.62 volts +8.99 volts
D +3.73 volts +5.08 volts +8.13 volts
E -5.00 volts -6.80 volts -10.88 volts
F -8.97 volts -12.20 volts* -19.52*

* The op amp may be driven into saturation, causing


clipping of the output voltage.

90
Table 16-6. Measured Values for the Third Part of Project 16.

Measured Output Voltages

Input Unity Gain = 11


Point Gain

A
B
C
0
E
F

Table 16-7. Calculated Values for the Third Part of Project 16.

Measured Output Voltages

Input Unity Gain = 11


Point Gain

A +0.86 volt +9.46 volts


B +0.72 volt +7.92 volts
C +0.41 volts +4.51 volts
D -0.06 volt -0.62 volt
E -0.20 volt -2.18 volts
F -0.86 volt -9.46 volts

Record your results in Table 16-6. You will probably have some
difficulty reading the meter. The differences will be slight, and the
meter's pointer won't move very far.
Now use the dc voltmeter with gain shown in Fig. 16-2. Use
a 10 K resistor for R8 and a 100 K resistor for R9. This gives the
following gain:

100,000
G = 1 + -1 + 10-11
10,000

Measure the voltage at each of the tap-off points on the voltage


divider and compare your results in Table 16-6. These voltages are
easier to read, aren't they? Compare your measured voltages with
the calculated values shown in Table 16-7.
In a practical dc voltmeter, you would draw a new scale to place
on the meter face so that you could read the input voltage directly,
even though it is being multiplied by the gain of the op amp.

91
Index
Index

A constant current, 53
alarm, car thief, 3 constant voltage source, 53
AM/FM radio, 20-25 converters, digftal-to-analog, 55-65
amplifiers corner frequency, 40
audio, 26-31
power, 32-41
dc voltmeter, 86-91
audio amplifier, 26-31 digital capacitance meter, 70-76
LM380 IC circuit in, 33, 38 uses for, 71
modifications to, 28 digital clocks, 9-19
digital frequency meter, 77-82
B digital voltmeter, 71
Baxandall hi-fi tone control circuit, digital-to-analog converter, 55-65
47
bridge configurations, 40 E
LM380 in, 41 electric motor speed controller, 5

cables, determining capacitance of, frequency meter, digital, 77-82


75
capacitance meter, digital, 70 H
car thief alarm, 3 hi-fi tone controls, 44-49
cascading, 26 home projects, 1-49
dock, 9-19 AM/FM radio, 20-25

95
audio amplifiers, 26-31 intercom, 1
car thief alarm, 3 logic probe, 66
clock, 9-19 multiple-output power supply, 83
electric motor speed controller, power amplifiers, 32-41
5 tape player amplifier, 42
hi-fi tone controls, 44-49
Q
intercom, 1
quartz crystal oscillator, 9
power amplifiers, 32-41
tape player amplifier, 42 R
radio, AM/FM, 20-25
RIAA equalization, 39
intercom, 1
S
Schmitt trigger, 77
logic probe, 66 shop projects, 51-91
loudness control, 44 constant current or constant
voltage source, 53
dc voltmeter, 86-91
multiple-output power supply, 83 digital capacitance meter, 70-76
digital frequency meter, 77-82
O digital-to-analog converter,
Ohm's law, 60, 62 55-65
logic probe, 66

speed controller, electric motor, 5


power amplifiers, 32-41
power supply, multiple-output, 83 T
projects tape player amplifier, 42
AM/FM radio, 20-25 timebase frequency, 9
audio amplifiers, 26-31
timebase signals, 78
car thief alarm, 3
timers, 9
clock, 9-19
tone controls, 44-49
constant current or constant
voltage source, 53 V
dc voltmeter, 86-91 voltage gain, 31
digital capacitance meter, 70-76 voltmeter
digital frequency meter, 77-82 dc, 86-91
digital-to-analog converter, digital, 71
55-65 volume control, 44
electric motor speed controller,
5 W
hi-fi tone controls, 44-49 window counting method, 77, 79

96
Selected Index

14583 Schmitt trigger, 82 CD4026 decade counter, 81, 82


1N4734 diode, 74 CD4049 hex inverter, 15
2N3302, 82 CD4081 quad AND gate, 13
2N5826, 82 CD4511 BCD to 7-segment decoder,
555 timer, 74 15,74
556 dual timer, 82 CD4518 dual BCD counter, 15
74C90 decade counter, 74 LM380 audio amplifier IC, 33
74LS04 low-power Schottky, 68 MM5369 timer IC, 10
CA3018IC, 53 TCA600/900, 5
CA3035 IC, 26 TCA610/910, 5
CA3140 BiMOS op amp, 47 TCA8305 IC, 44
CD4009A hex inverter, 68 TCA830S op amp, 1
CD4011 quad NAND gate, 13,15,74, TDA1071, 20
82 TDA1151 IC, 5
CD4017 decade counter, 12,13,15 TDB0556A dual timer, 3

97
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DeltonT.Horrfs
All-Time Favorite
Electronic Projects
Provides many hours of fun, challenging, hands-on
electronics experience!

This is a collection of some of Horn's most fascinating electronic


projects. Avoiding overly theoretical explanations, he provides step-
by-step instructions, easy-to-follow drawings, diagrams, and sche
matics for each project. The list of projects includes:

• Intercom • Digital Frequency Meter

• Electric Motor Speed Controller • Car Thief Alarm

• AM/FM Radio • Digital Clock

• Power Amplifiers • Audio Amplifiers

• Hi-Fi Tone Controls • Tape Player Amplifier

• Logic Probe

Delton T. Horn is an experienced electronics hobbyist and tech


nician. He is the author of numerous popular electronics and com
puter titles including Designing IC Circuits . . . With Experiments,
Amplifiers Simplified, and 101 Solderless Breadboarding Projects.

0888 $7 . TS

ISBN Q-fl3Db-3:Ln5-L+

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