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Radiographic Interpretation

PART 2
Duties of a Radiographic Interpreter

ƒ Mask of any unwanted light from viewer


ƒ Ensure the background light is subdued
ƒ Check the radiograph for correct identification
ƒ Assess the radiographs density
ƒ Calculate the radiographs sensitivity
ƒ Check the radiograph for any artifacts
ƒ Assess the radiograph for any defects present
ƒ State the action to be taken, acceptable,
rejectable or repair
Radiographic Films
Radiographic Film

Base
cellulose triacetate / polyester

Base must be :-
• Transparent - To allow white light to go through
• Chemically inert
• Must not be susceptible to expansion and contraction
• High tensile strength
• Flexibility
Radiographic Film

Subbing
Base

Subbing

Subbing layer - the adhesive between the emulsion


and base
- The material for this is gelatine +
a base solvent
Radiographic Film

Supercoat

Subbing

Base
Subbing

Supercoat
The Emulsion

• Consist of millions of silver halide crystal (silver bromide)


• The size usually 0.1 & 1.0 µm suspended in gelatin binding
medium
• Is produced by mixing solution of silver nitrate & salt, such
as potassium bromide
• The rate & temperature of mixing governs its grain size
• Size & distribution of the crystal effect the quality /
appearance of final radiograph (large grain more sensitive
to radiation)
Pre-exposure After Exposure

Un-sensitised : Stable Sensitised : Unstable

During exposure a “latent image” is formed by


“sensitised” Silver Halide crystals
LATENT IMAGE
• Silver Bromide crystals are not perfect, they contain
“interstitial” silver ions

• When an interstitial silver ion accepts a free electron,


it becomes a silver atom

• The silver atom is larger than the ion and exerts a


stress on the crystal lattice

• In the presence of developer this stress causes


instability and the crystal breaks down
• The interstitial silver atoms nucleate silver crystals

• A single interstitial silver atom is sufficient to cause


an entire silver bromide crystal to convert to metallic
silver

• The typical size of a silver bromide crystal in a typical


photographic film emulsion is about 1μm

• Sensitisation of a silver bromide crystal can be


caused by just a single photon of x-ray energy
Radiographic Film

What are the advantages of


Double Coated Film?

• Improve contrast
• Reduce the exposure time
Image formation
When radiation passes through an object it is differentially
absorbed depending upon the materials thickness and any
differing densities
The portions of radiographic film that receive sufficient
amounts of radiation undergo minute changes to produce the
latent image (hidden image)

1. The silver halide crystals are partially converted into


metallic silver to produce the latent image
2. The affected crystals are the amplified by the developer,
the developer completely converts the affected crystals
into black metallic silver
3. The radiograph attains its final appearance by fixation
Film Types
Grain Size Speed Quality Film factor
Coarse Fast Poor 10
Medium Medium Medium 35
Fine Slow Good 90
Ultra Fine V.Slow V.Good 200
Film emulsion produced by mixing solutions of nitrate and salt such as
potassium bromide.
• The rate and temperature determine the grain structures
1. Rapid mixing at low temperature - Finest grain structure
2. Slow mixing at high temperature - Large grain structure
Film Factor

• Is a number relates to the speed of particular film


• Is obtained from a films characteristic curve
• SCRATA scale often used for film factors :

Smaller film factor - faster the film speed

Example
• Film factor of 10 will be twice as fast compared to a film factor of
20.
• A film factor of 20 took 4min. to expose, 2min will require for a
film factor of 10 to gives the same density
100kV 200kV Iridium 192 Cobalt
Film Type No Pb PB R Pb R
Screens Screens Screens Factor Screens Factor
KODAK R (single) 20 20 20
FUJI IX25 35 30
KODAK R (double) 35 35 35 25
AGFA D2 30 40
FUJI IX29 35 45
FUJI IX50 60 55 50 5.0 50 14.0
AGFA D3 55 45 40 30
FUJI IX59 60 75
FUJI IX80 100 100 100 2.5 100 5.0
KODAK M 90 75 60 5.0 45
KODAK B 105 95 100 75
AGFA D4 70 70 65 55
KODAK T 140 115 100 75
AGFA D5 120 115 105 95
FUJI IX100 200 190 210 1.0 210 2.0
KODAK AA 200 200 150 1.1 150
AGFA D7 220 180 170 155
FUJI IX150 370 340 400 0.6 410 0.9
KODAK CX 300 250 200 255
AGFA D8 315 260 265 260
Characteristics
Extremely fine-grained film with low speed and high contrast. Ideal for exposures where
D2
the finest possible detail is required.
Single-emulsion film with very high image quality, maximum perceptibility, high contrast
D3
S. and pleasant image tint. The ideal film for sharp enlargements. The colorless back
C.
coating prevents curling to guarantee a film that remains flat under all conditions.
An ultra fine-grained film with low speed and high contrast that obtains a high detail
D3
perceptibility. D3 meets the requirements of the nuclear industry.
The ideal standard film for high quality applications. An extra fine grain film with average
D4
speed and high contrast.
The fastest film for fine detailed applications. A fine grain, moderate speed film with high
D5 contrast. High image quality, excellent consistency and homogeneity, pleasant image tint
and a shiny surface.
The ideal standard film for those applications where the emphasis is on short exposure
time. A fine grained film with excellent image quality and high contrast. D7 is a high
D7
speed film used for high energy applications, with particularly good consistency,
homogeneity, a pleasant image tint and shiny surface.
Ultra-high speed fine grain film, with moderate contrast designed for exposures with or
D8 without metal screens. If a higher speed is required. D8 also can be used with
fluorometallic (RCF) or fluorescent screens (bivalent type).
D6R, an extra-fine grain film, can be processed both in a standard 8 min. cycle and in a
D6R short 2 min./90 sec. cycle. Designed for exposures with or without metal screens,
flourometalic (RCF), and fluorescent screens (bivalent type).
Film Features
Fuji's finest grain, high contrast ASTM Class 1 film having maximum sharpness and discrimination
characteristics. It is suitable for new materials, such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics, ceramic products,
lx 25
and micro electric parts. lx25 is generally used in direct exposure techniques or with lead screens. lx25 is
recommended for automated processing only.
An ultra-fine grain, high contrast ASTM E94 Class 1 film having excellent sharpness and high discrimination
characteristics. It is suitable for use with any low atomic number material where fine image detail is
imperative. Its ultra-fine grain makes it useful in high energy, low subject contrast applications where high
lx 50
curie isotopes or high output X-ray machines permit its use. Wide exposure latitude has been demonstrated
in high subject contrast applications. IX 50 is generally used in direct exposure techniques or with lead
screens.
An extremely fine grain, high contrast ASTM Class 1 film suitable for detection of minute defects. It is
applicable to the inspection of low atomic number material with low kilovoltage X-ray sources as well as
lx 80 inspection of higher atomic number materials with high kilovoltage X-ray or gamma ray sources. Wide
exposure latitude has been demonstrated in high subject contrast applications. IX 80 is generally used in
direct exposure techniques or with lead screens.
A very fine grain, high contrast ASTM Class 2 film suitable for the inspection of light metals with low activity
radiation sources and for inspection of thick, higher density specimens with high kilovoltage X-ray or
lx 100 gamma ray sources. Wide exposure latitude has been demonstrated in high contrast subject applications.
Although IX 100 is generally used in direct exposure techniques or with lead screens, it is suitable for use
with fluorescent or fluorometallic screens.
A high speed, fine grain, high contrast ASTM Class 2 film suitable for inspection of a large variety of
specimens with low-to-high kilovoltage X-ray and gamma ray sources. It is particularly useful when gamma
lx 150
ray sources of high activity are unavailable or when very thick specimens are to be inspected. It is also
useful in X-ray diffraction work. IX 150 is used in direct exposure techniques or with lead screens.
Processing Film
Processing Systems
Developer

Running water

Fixer
Stop
bath

Manual System
Processing Systems
Development
•Metallic Silver converted into Black metallic silver 3-5 min at 20OC
•The developer supplies a source of electrons (-ve ions) which cause the
chemical changes in the emulsion.
Main Constituents
Developing agent metol-hydroquinone
Accelerator keeps solution alkaline
Restrainer ensures only exposed silver halides converted
Preservative prevents oxidation by air

Replenishment
Purpose – to ensure that the activity of the developer and the
developing time required remains constant

Guideline – 1. After 1m2 of film has been developed,


about 400 ml of replenisher needs to be added
Developer
Constituents Action Chemicals in common use

Developing Preferentially reduces the exposed Metol.


agent(s) silver halide crystals (+ve ions) to Hydroquinone. Phenidone
black metallic silver.
Accelerator A chemical which gives an alkaline Borax.
reaction which speeds up Sodium carbonate.
development. Sodium hydroxide.
Preservative Prevents oxidation of the developer. Sodium sulphate.
Restrainer Controls the level of development Potassium bromide.
fogging.
Sequestering Prevents the formation of scale. Sodium. Hesametaphosphate.
agent

• The film are agitated for approximately 20 seconds and then for approximately 10
seconds every minute.

• Agitation allows for fresh developer to flow over the film and prevents the
possibility of bromide streaking;
Processing Systems

Stop Bath

3% Acetic acid - neutralises the developer


Processing Systems
Fixer
• Sodium thiosulphate or ammonium thiosulphate
Functions:- 1. Removes all unexposed silver grains
2. Hardens the emulsion gelatin
3. Convert the unwanted unexposed
halides into water soluble compounds; then
readily dissolved or removed at the final
wash stage.

• Clearing time - The time taken for the radiography to loose


its milky appearance.
Fixing time - Twice the clearing time
Processing Systems
Washing
• Films should be washed in a tank with
constant running water for at least 20 minutes.
• Insufficient washing the film can caused the yellow fog
appears.
• Usually followed by dipping in a clean water bath
containing a wetting agent which helps to promote even
drying.
• Overwashing will cause swelling and excessive
softening of the film emulsion, a major cause of “drying
marks”.
SENSITOMETRY
Characteristic Curves
• Increasing exposures applied to successive
areas of a film
• After development the densities are measured
• The density is then plotted against the log of the
exposure

Characteristic curve
Sensitometric curve
Hunter & Driffield curve
Characteristic Curves
4.0

3.5
Shoulder

3.0
Density

2.5

Average gradient
2.0 - Straight line

1.5

1.0

Toe portion
0.5
Base fog
0.3 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
Characteristic Curves

The relationship
between exposure time
and resultant film
density is non-linear

The gradient of the


film characteristic
curve is a measure of
film contrast
Characteristic Curves

Information which can be obtained from a films


characteristic curve

• The position of the curve axis gives information about the films
speed
• The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast
• The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the
density axis will show the density range within which the film
contrast will be at its highest.
• New exposure time can be determined for a change of film type
Characteristic Curves

Density obtained in a
photographic emulsion
does not vary linearly
Density with applied exposure
(Log)
The steeper the slope the
greater the contrast

Log Relative Exposure


Characteristic Curves
Information which can be obtained from a films
characteristic curve

•The position of the curve axis gives information about the films speed

A B C D E

Film A is faster than Film B


Density
Film B faster then C

Log Relative Exposure


• Film A is coarse grain &
is faster than Film B & C
• Film B is fine grain and
it’s speed is intermediate
between Film A & C
• Film C is ultra-fine grain
and is the slowest of the
three
• A “fast” film requires a
shorter exposure time
than a “slow” film
Characteristic Curves

Information which can be obtained from a films


characteristic curve

• The position of the curve axis gives information about the films
speed
• The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast
• The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the
density axis will show the density range within which the film
contrast will be at its highest.
• New exposure time can be determined for a change of film type
Changing Density
Density achieved 1.5
Density
Density required 2.5
2.5
Determine interval between logs
1.8 - 1.3 = 0.5
1.5
Antilog of 0.5 = 3.16

Therefore multiply exposure by 3.16


1.3 1.8
(measured density is lower than the required density)

Original exposure 10 mA mins Log Relative


Exposure
New exposure 31.6mA mins
1.63 - 1.31 = 0.32 Antilog 0.32 = 2.1
Original Exposure = 10 mAmin
Using D7 Film a
New Exposure = 2.1 X 10 = 21 mAmin density of 1.5 was
achieved using an
exposure of
10 mAmin
What exposure is
required to achieve a
density of 2.5?
Characteristic Curves

Information which can be obtained from a films


characteristic curve

• The position of the curve axis gives information about the films
speed
• The gradient of the curve gives information on the films contrast
• The position of the straight line portion of the curve against the
density axis will show the density range within which the film
contrast will be at its highest.
• New exposure time can be determined for a change of film type
Changing Film
Density
Obtain Logs for Films A and B at A B
required density
2.5
Interval between logs 1.85 – 1.7= 0.1

Antilog of 0.15 = 1.42


Multiply exposure by 1.42

Original exposure = 10 mA mins


1.7 1.85
New exposure = 10mAmins. X 1.42
= 14.2 mA mins Log Relative Exposure
2.07 - 1.63 = 0.44 Antilog 0.44 = 2.75
Original Exposure = 10 mAmin
New Exposure = 2.75 X 10 = 27.5 mAmin

Using D7 Film a
density of 2.5 was
achieved using an
exposure of
10 mAmin
What exposure is
required to achieve a
density of 2.5 using
MX film?
Characteristic Curves
BASE FOG LEVEL (AFFECTS FILM CONTRAST)

National standards generally limit the base fog


level of unexposed radiographic film to 0.3.

If the base fog level exceeds this value film


contrast can be quite severely affected.

Fog level can be checked by processing a sample


of the unexposed film.
Characteristic Curves
BASE FOG LEVEL (AFFECTS FILM CONTRAST)

Effect of film fogging on the film


characteristic curve

(The dotted lines show the average


gradient between a film density of 1.5
and a film density of 2.5 for film
having a base fog level of 0.1 and 0.5
respectively.

The average gradient with a base fog


level of 0.1 is about 3.6 while that for
a base fog level of 0.5 is about 2.7.

This decrease in average gradient is


indicative of a reduction in film
contrast.)
RADIOGRAPHIC DEFINITION
DEFINITION
• Is the sharpness of the dividing line between areas of
different density
• Usually is not measured exclusively, normally assessed
subjectively
• Measured by the use of Duplex type III IQI (Bs EN
462:P5)
Radiographic Definition
Definition measured by the use of a type III I.Q.I.

Alternative terms given

EN 462-5
•Duplex type

•Cerl type B

•EN 462 part 5

Consists of pairs of parallel platinum or tungsten wires of decreasing


thicknesess
The gap same as the thickness wire
Radiographic Definition
Geometry Unsharpness ( Ug)
• Also known as Penumbra is the unsharpness on the radiograph
caused by the geometry of the radiation in relation to the
object/subject
• Always exists & borders all density fields
Inherent unsharpness (Ui)
• Unsharpness of the radiographs caused by stray electrons
transmitted from exposed crystal which have affected adjacent
crystal
• Always exists; depending on grain size, distribution & energy
used
• Increases with a reduction in wavelenght
Inherent Unsharpness
Stray electrons from
exposed crystals
- -

- -
- -
- -

- -

Exposed radiograph Adjacent crystals


with crack like indication affected by stray electrons
Calculation of geometric unsharpness (Ug

2mm dia. Focal / Source


SIZE

2mm
length

FOD / SOD
FFD / SFD
S = 2² + 2²
= 2.82mm

OFD
Typical maximum penumbra
of 0.25 mm is often used. Film
ug ug
Two circular objects can be rendered as two separate circles A or as two
overlapping circles B depending on the direction of the radiation
Long OFD Short OFD

Lack of parallelism

Short FFD Long FFD


DEFINITION
Radiographic Definition

Geometric unsharpness Inherent unsharpness

• FFD/SFD too short • Coarse grain film


• OFD too large/screen film contact • Salt screens
• Source size too large • Radiation quality
• Vibration/movement • Development
• Abrupt thick. Changes in specimen
Geometry of Image
Formation
Penumbra Ug)

Focal spot
size, F
Ug= F x ofd
fod
fod
ffd (Ug = 0.25mm)

ofd
Penumbra (Ug)

To minimise penumbra
„ Source size as small as possible

„ Source to object distance as long as possible

„ Object to film distance as small as possible


Penumbra Calculations

Penumbra = S x OFD
FFD - OFD
S = 4mm
OFD = 25mm
FFD = 275mm
Penumbra Calculations

Min FFD = S x OFD + OFD


Penumbra
S = 4mm
OFD = 25mm
FFD = 275
Penumbra = 0.25
Inherent Unsharpness

„ Large film grain size increased inherent Unsharpness

„ Short wavelength increased inherent Unsharpness

„ Loose film crystal distribution increased inherent


Unsharpness
Geometric Unsharpness
Geometric Unsharpness
Long Film to Focal Distance
Geometric Unsharpness

Short Focal to Object Distance


Geometric Unsharpness
Small Focus
Geometric Unsharpness
Large Focus
Geometric Unsharpness
Short Object to Film Distance
Geometric Unsharpness
Long Object to Film Distance
Intensifying Screens

Radiographic film is usually sandwiched between two


intensifying screens

There are three main types of intensifying screens

• Lead screens

• Fluorescent screens

• Fluorometallic screens
Lead Intensifying Screens
„ Film placed between 2 intensifying screens
„ Intensification action achieved by emitting particulate/beta
radiation (electrons)
„ Generally lead of 0.02mm to 0.15mm
„ Front screen shortens exposure time and improves quality
by filtering out scatter
„ Back screen acts as a filter only
Salt Intensifying Screens
ƒ Intensification action achieved by emitting Light radiation
(Visible or UV-A)
ƒ Intensification action twice that of lead screens
ƒ No filtration action achieved
ƒ Salt used calcium tungstate
ƒ Film placed between 2 intensifying screens
ƒ 2 types –
1. high definition (fine grain screen)
2. high speed or rapid screen
Fluorometallic Intensifying Screens
ƒ Film placed between 2 intensifying screens
ƒ Intensification action achieved by emitting light
radiation (Visible or UV-A) and particulate radiation
electrons)
ƒ High cost
ƒ Front screen acts as a filter and intensifier
ƒ Salt used calcium tungstate
ƒ Screen type
1. Type 1 – x-rays up to 300kV
2. Type 2 – x-rays 300-1000kV, Ir 192
3. Type 3 – Co60
Film Latitude
Latitude – Range of thickness
Wide latitude radiographic films meet the applications for a
variety of multi-thickness subjects. (fuji IX 29 & 59)

Wide latitude Low latitude


Poor contrast Good contrast
Good definition Poor definition
Scatter

• Radiation emitted from any other source than


that giving the primary desired rectilinear
propagation (straight line)
• Scatter will lead to
- poorer contrast
- poorer definition and
- create spurious indications
• It may also cause radiological protection
problems
Scatter

• Internal scatter
originating within the specimen
• Side scatter
walls and nearby objects in the path of the
primary beam
• Back scatter
materials located behind the film
Scatter

• Internal scatter originating within the


specimen
Scatter
• Side scatter walls and nearby objects
in the path of the primary
beam
Scatter

• Back scatter materials located


behind the film
Back Scatter Notification

The presence of back scattered radiation must be checked


for each new test arrangement by a lead letter B placed
immediately behind each cassette.

If the image of this symbol records as a lighter image on


the radiograph, it shall be rejected.

If the symbol is darker or invisible the radiograph is


acceptable and demonstrates good protection against
scattered radiation.
SCATTER
Control of Scatter

• Collimation
• Diaphragms
• Beam filtration
• Masking or Blocking
• Grids
• Filters
• Increased beam energy
COLLIMATION

• provide radiation safety to the operating personnel


and general public by directing the emerging radiation
beam to the useful area of exposure.
• X-ray equipment is always to some extent self-
collimated
• which is turn results in radiographs with better
sensitivity.
• In gamma radiography collimators consisting of
hollowed out blocks of lead weighing around 2.5 kg
are common.
• collimators for gamma radiography are made from
tungsten or tantalum.
• The principle of collimation is if there is less radiation
then there will be proportionally less scatter.
Diaphragms

• They consist of a sheet of lead which has a


hole cut in it the same shape as the object
which is being radiographed.
• shield out all unwanted radiation, the set up
for radiography must however, be extremely
accurate if the use of a diaphragm is to be
successful.
• Diaphragms are therefore more likely to be
seen where a fully automated technique is in
use that allows for a very high degree of
repeatability in the set up accuracy.
Shutters and masks

• consists of placing sheets of lead, bags of lead shot or barium putty or


any other radiation absorbing material around the object which is being
radiographed in order to reduce the undercutting effect of side scatter.
• limit the radiation beam as it is directed toward the part, thereby
decreasing scatter radiation by narrowing and decreasing beams to a
specific location.
• Shutters are usually mounted on the front of the image intensifier and
help keep radiation not passing through the part from impinging on
image intensifier screen and causing phosphor blooming.
GRIDS
• limited to medical radiography.
• A grid consists of a matrix of parallel metal bars which is set in
oscillation during exposure such that the grid itself does not produce a
radiographic image.
• effective method of reducing the effects of side scatter, but grids are
very rarely a practical option for industrial situations.
• In order to be effective the grid must be placed as close as possible to
the film.
• In microfocus x-radiography it may be placed between the film and the
object.
Sensitivity
Sensitivity

• Defined as the smallest indication or detail can be seen on the


radiographs.

• It is a function of the contrast and the definition of the


radiographic image.

• A general term of sensitivity can be determine as an overall


assessment of the quality on a radiographic image which relates
to the ability radiographic techniques to detect fine
discontinuities. .

• Image quality is determined by a combination of variables:


radiographic contrast and definition.
Sensitivity

IQI sensitivity Defect sensitivity


The image on a radiograph Ability to assist the
which is used to determine sensitivity and locate a
the quality level defect on a radiograph
(Depend on the defect
orientation)
IQI Sensitivity

„ Ideally IQI should be placed on the source side


„ IQI sensitivity is calculated from the following formula

Sensitivity % = Thickness of thinnest step/wire visible x 100


Object Thickness
Image Quality Indicators
Thickness BS 3971 DIN 54 109 BS EN 462-2 BS EN 462-1
(mm) STEP WIRE WIRE (DIN 62) STEP/HOLE WIRE
1-6 7-12 13-18 4-10 9-15 15-21 1-7 6-12 10-16 H1 H5 H9 H 13 W1 W6 W 10 W 13
0.050 7
0.063 7 6
0.08 6 5
0.10 5 7 7 4
0.125 6 4 6 6 6 3
0.15
0.16 5 3 5 5 5 2
0.20 4 2 7 4 4 4 1
0.25 3 1 6 7 3 3 7 3
0.30
0.32 2 5 6 2 2 6 6 2
0.35
0.40 1 4 5 1 1 5 5 1
0.50 6 3 4 4 4
0.60
0.63 5 2 3 3 3
0.75
0.80 4 1 7 7 2 2 6 7 2
0.90
1.00 3 6 6 1 1 5 6 1
1.20
1.25 2 5 5 4 5
1.50 1 4
1.60 4 3 4
1.80 3
2.00 6 2 3 2 6 3
2.50 5 1 2 1 5 2
3.00
3.20 4 1 4 1
4.00 3 3
5.00 2 2
6.30 1 1
IQI Sensitivity

A Radiograph of a 16mm thick but weld is viewed under the


correct conditions, 5 wires visible on the radiograph IQI pack
6-12 Din 62, what is the IQI sensitivity?

Sensitivity = Thickness of thinnest wire visible X 100


Total weld thickness
IQI Sensitivity
Using the same IQI pack 6-12 Din 62, How many IQI wires
must be visible to give an IQI sensitivity of 2 %, thickness of
material 16mm
Image Quality Indicator
Image Quality Indicators
ƒ IQI’s / Penetrameters are used to measure radiographic sensitivity
and the quality of the radiographic technique used.

ƒ They are not used to measure the size of defects detected

ƒ Standards for IQI’s include:

BS EN 462-1 – Wire Type BS 3971


BS EN 462-2 – Step/wedge Type DIN 54 109
ASTM E747
BS EN 462-3 – Classes for ferrous mat.
BS EN 462-4 – IQI values & tables
BS EN 462-5 – Duplex WireType
BS EN 462-1 wire type IQIs each consist of 7 wires
taken from a list of 19 wires.

Four standard wire groupings are available,

designation ‘W1’, wires 1 to 7,


designation ‘W6’, wires 6 to 12,
designation ‘W10’, wires 10 to 16
designation ‘W13’, wires 13 to 19.

Each of these groupings is available in any of


4 types of material;

‘FE’, for Steel or stainless steel


‘CU’, for copper, tin, zinc and their alloy
‘AL’ for Aluminium
‘TI’. for Titanium
EN 462-1 wire type IQIs
BS EN 462-1 wire diameters
Designation Diameter

W1 3.2
W2 2.5
W3 2.0
W4 1.6
W5 1.25
W6 1.0
W7 0.8
W8 0.63
W9 0.5
W10 0.4 Easy to remember the wire diameters:
W11 0.32
W12 0.25
Remember the diameters of the first
W13 0.2 three, 3.2, 2.5 and 2.0 mm divide by
W14 0.16 halve from the remaining value.
W15 0.125
W16 0.1
W17 0.08
W18 0.063
W19 0.05
ASTM E 747

The series consists of 21 wires ranging from 0.08


mm to 8.1 mm in diameter; there are 4 overlapping
groups of 6 wires, each designated by a letter (A, B,
C or D)

IQI type WIRE DIAMETERS

A 0.08 0.1 0.13 0.16 0.2 0.25

B 0.25 0.33 0.4 0.5 0.63 0.81

C 0.81 1.0 1.27 1.6 2.0 2.5

D 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.1 6.3 8.1


BS EN 462-2 Step-hole IQIs
Classification of radiographic techniques

The radiographic techniques are divided into two classes:


— class A: basic techniques;
— class B: improved techniques.

Class B techniques will be used when class A might be insufficiently sensitive.


Better techniques compared to class B are possible and may be defined by specification of
all appropriate test parameters.

The choice of radiographic technique shall be defined by specification.


If, for technical reasons, it is not possible to meet one of the conditions specified for class
B, such as type of radiation source or the source-to-object distance, f, it may be defined by
specification that the condition selected may be that specified for class A. The loss of
sensitivity shall be compensated by an increase of minimum density to 3,0 or by the choice
of a higher contrast film system.

Because of the better sensitivity compared to class A, the test specimen may be regarded
as tested within class B.

This does not apply if the special SFD reductions as described in 6.6 for test arrangements
6.1.4 and 6.1.5 are used.
CLASS ‘A’ RADIOGRAPHY CLASS ‘B’ RADIOGRAPHY
1. Single Wall Technique Source Side IQI 1. Single Wall Technique Source Side IQI
Required Thickness Required wire Wire diameter Average Sensitivity
Thickness Wire diameter Average Sensitivity
wire
≤ 1.5 19 0.05 > 3.33%
≤ 1.2 18 0.063 > 5.25%
> 1.5 ≤ 2.5 18 0.063 3.15%
> 1.2 ≤ 2 17 0.08 5%
> 2.5 ≤ 4 17 0.08 2.46%
> 2 ≤ 3.5 16 0.1 3.64%
>4≤6 16 0.1 2.0%
> 3.5 ≤ 5 15 0.125 2.94%
>6≤8 15 0.125 1.79%
>5≤7 14 0.16 2.67%
> 8 ≤ 12 14 0.16 1.6%
> 7 ≤ 12 13 0.2 2.1%
> 12 ≤ 20 13 0.2 1.25%
> 12 ≤ 18 12 0.25 1.67%
> 20 ≤ 30 12 0.25 1.0%
> 18 ≤ 30 11 0.32 1.33%
> 30 ≤ 35 11 0.32 0.98%
> 30 ≤ 40 10 0.4 1.14%
> 35 ≤ 45 10 0.4 1.0%
> 40 ≤ 50 9 0.5 1.11%
> 45 ≤ 65 9 0.5 0.91%
> 50 ≤ 60 8 0.63 1.14%
> 65 ≤ 120 8 0.63 0.68%
> 65 ≤ 85 7 0.8 1.07%
> 120 ≤ 200 7 0.8 0.5%
> 85 ≤ 120 6 1.0 0.98%
> 200 ≤ 350 6 1.0 0.36%
> 120 ≤ 220 5 1.25 0.74%
> 350 5 1.25 < 0.36%
> 220 ≤ 380 4 1.6 0.53%
> 380 3 2.0 < 0.53%
Image Quality Indicators

EN 462-5
7FE12

Step / Hole type IQI Wire type IQI


Image Quality Indicators

IQI wire Subject thicknes


= x 2
thickness 100
ASME Image Quality Indicators
4T dia
T dia
Penetrmeter Design
2T dia
Minimum Penetrmeter Thickness 0.5mm

17
(2% of the weld thickness) 12mm
Minimum Diameter for 1T Hole 0.5mm
Minimum Diameter for 2T Hole 1.0mm 38mm
T
Minimum Diameter for 4T Hole 2.00mm

IQI Sensitivity
1 Hole visible = 4T
2 Holes visible = T
3 Holes visible = 2T
Image Quality Indicators

It is important that IQIs are placed

Step/Hole Type IQI

Wire Type IQI


Placement of IQI
• IQI must be placed on the maximum thickness of weld
• Thinnest required step or wire must be placed at the extreme
edge of section under test
• IQI must be placed at the source or film side and at a position
within the diagnostic film length (DFL) in accordance with the
requirements of the contract specification.
• In case of access problem , IQI has to placed on the film side of
the object, letter ‘FS’ should be placed beside the IQI.
• IQI material chosen should have similar radiation
absorption/transmission properties to the test specimen
Radiographic Techniques
Radiographic Techniques
„ Single Wall Single Image (SWSI)
- film inside, source outside
„ Single Wall Single Image (SWSI) panoramic
- film outside, source inside (internal exposure)

„ Double Wall Single Image (DWSI)


- film outside, source outside (external exposure)
„ Double Wall Double Image (DWDI)
- film outside, source outside (elliptical exposure)

„ Double Wall Double Image (DWDI)


- film outside, source outside (superimposed)

„ Parallax / Tube shift method


- to determine the distance/depth of the defect
Single wall single image SWSI

Film

Film

IQI’s should be placed source side


Single wall single image SWSI panoramic

Film

• IQI’s are placed on the film side


• Source inside film outside (single
exposure)
Double wall single image DWSI

Film
• IQI’s are placed on the film side
• Source outside film outside (multiple exposure)
• This technique is intended for pipe diameters over 100mm
Double wall single image DWSI

Identification

• Unique identification EN W10

• IQI placing
A B
• Pitch marks indicating
readable film length ID MR11
Radiograph
Double wall double image DWDI elliptical
exposure

Film
• IQI’s are placed on the source side
• Source outside film outside (multiple exposure)
• A minimum of two exposures
• This technique is intended for pipe diameters less
than 100mm
Double wall double image DWDI

Identification 4 EN W10 3
• Unique identification
• IQI placing

• Pitch marks indicating 1 2


readable film length ID MR12

Shot A Radiograph
Double wall double image (DWDI)
perpendicular exposure

Film
• IQI’s are placed on the source side
• Source outside film outside (multiple exposure)
• A minimum of three exposures
• Source side weld is superimposed on film side weld
• This technique is intended for small pipe diameters
Sandwich Technique
It may be used on components where there are substantial
thickness differences

Density Density Density Density


3.0 1.2 3.0 1.2

Density requirement 2.0 to 3.0


Density unacceptable
Sandwich Technique

FILM A LEAD FILM A


FILM B SCREENS FILM B

Density Density Density Density


3.0 2.0 3.0 2.0

FILM A: Fast film - Thicker section


Density 2.0 to 3.0 acceptable
FILM B: Slow film - Thinner section
Parallax technique

• The parallax radiographic technique may be used to


determine the depth of defects below the surface

• This may be useful to know for repair purposes.

• It is a technique more applicable to thick specimens,


eg. over 50mm, but is rarely used

• Also known as a Tube Shift Method


Parallax technique
Alignment of beam
The beam of radiation shall be directed to the centre of the
area being inspected and should be normal to the object
surface

An appropriate alignment of the beam can be permitted if it


can be demonstrated that certain inspections are best
revealed by a different alignment of the beam

Between the contracting parties other ways of


radiographing may be agreed upon.
Interpretation conditions
Duties of a Radiographic Interpreter

ƒ Mask of any unwanted light from viewer


ƒ Ensure the background light is subdued
ƒ Check the radiograph for correct identification
ƒ Assess the radiographs density
ƒ Calculate the radiographs sensitivity
ƒ Check the radiograph for any artifacts
ƒ Assess the radiograph for any defects present
ƒ State the action to be taken, acceptable,
rejectable or repair
Viewing conditions

• Darkened room
• Clean viewer
• Minimum adequate illumination from the viewer is
3000cd/m2
• Eyesight must be adjusted to the darkened conditions
• Comfortable viewing position and environment
• Avoid fatigue
Radiographic Quality

„ Density - relates to the degree of darkness

„ Contrast - relates to the degree of difference in


density between adjacent areas on a radiograph

„ Definition - relates to the degree of sharpness

„ Sensitivity - relates to the overall quality of the


radiograph
Factors Influencing Sensitivity

Sensitivity

Contrast Definition
Radiographic Quality
• Density The ability to differentiate
areas of different film
• Contrast density
Contrast

Radiographic contrast :- The density difference on a radiography


between two areas- usually subject and
the background (overall)

Subject contrast :- Contrast arising from variation in


opacity within an irradiated area

Film contrast :- The slope of characteristic curve of the


film at specified density. ( Type of film
being used, fine grain or large grain)
Radiographic Contrast
Subject contrast is governed by the range of radiation
intensities transmitted by the specimen.

A flat sheet of homogeneous material of nearly uniform


thickness would have very low subject contrast.
Insufficient Contrast Excessive Contrast
• kV too high • kV too low
• Over exposure • Incorrect developer
compensated for by
shortened development
• Incorrect film - screen
combination
Factors Influencing Sensitivity
Sensitivity

Contrast Definition

Density Film Energy Object Processing


contrast

Time Temperature Type Strength Agitation


Radiographic Contrast

Film Contrast Subject Contrast

Film type Density Processing Scatter Wavelength Screens


Factors Influencing Sensitivity
Sensitivity

Contrast Definition

Film Screens Energy Vibration Geometry Processing


speed

Time Temperature Type Strength Agitation


Radiographic Contrast

Poor contrast

Poor contrast

High contrast
Radiographic Density
The DEGREE OF DARKENING of a processed film is
called FILM DENSITY.
Film Density is a logarithmic unit:

Where I1 is the incident light intensity and I2


is the transmitted light intensity

Thus if Film Density = 2, the incident light


intensity is 100x greater than the transmitted
intensity

* Greater contrast is achieved at higher density


Radiographic Density
The ratio of transmitted light for densities of 1.0 and
2.0 is a factor of 10, i.e. 10 times more light passes
through the radiograph for a density of 1.0 than for
a density of 2.0.

The minimum density in the area of interest,


required by specifications is typically between 1.5
and 2.5.

The maximum density stated in a specification will


typically be 3.0 or 3.5.
Radiographic Density

Lack of Density Excessive Density


„ Under exposure „ Over exposure

„ Developer temp too low „ Excessive development

„ Exhausted developer „ Developer temp too high

„ Developer too weak „ Too strong a solution

„ Insufficient development
time
Measuring Radiographic Density
„ Density is measured by a densitometer
„ A densitometer should be calibrated using a
density strip
„ A strip of film containing known densities on the
same viewer which is to be used for interpreting
the radiograph.

4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0


What is a good radiograph?

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