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Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 3rd edition

Irregular verbs
This is a list of the English verbs that have an irregular past simple tense and an irregular
past participle. If more than one form is listed, it could be because each form has a different
meaning. You should check this in the dictionary.
Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle

arise arose arisen draw drew drawn

awake awoke awoken dream dreamed, dreamt dreamed, dreamt
(US also awaked) drink drank drunk
be was/were been drive drove driven
bear bore borne dwell dwelt, dwelled dwelt, dwelled
(US also born) eat ate eaten
beat beat beaten fall fell fallen
(US also beat) feed fed fed
beget begot, begat begotten, begot feel felt felt
become became become fight fought fought
befall befell befallen find found found
begin began begun flee fled fled
behold beheld beheld fling flung flung
belie belied belied fly flew flown
bend bent bent forbid forbade, forbad forbidden
beseech beseeched, beseeched, forecast forecasted, forecast forecasted,
besought besought forecast
bestrew bestrewed bestrewn, foresee foresaw foreseen
bestrewed forget forgot forgotten
bestride bestrode bestridden forgive forgave forgiven
bet bet, betted bet, betted forgo forwent forgone
bid bid, bade bid, bidden forsake forsook forsaken
bind bound bound forswear forswore forsworn
bite bit bitten freeze froze frozen
bleed bled bled gainsay gainsaid gainsaid
bless blessed, blest blessed, blest get got got (US also
blow blew blown gotten)
break broke broken gird girded, girt girded, girt
breed bred bred give gave given
bring brought brought go went gone
broadcast broadcast broadcast grind ground ground
(US also (US also grow grew grown
broadcasted) broadcasted) hang hung, hanged hung, hanged
build built built have had had
burn burnt, burned burnt, burned hear heard heard
burst burst burst hew hewed hewed, hewn
bust (UK) bust, (UK) bust, hide hid hidden
(US) busted (US) busted hit hit hit
buy bought bought hold held held
cast cast cast hurt hurt hurt
catch caught caught input inputted, input inputted, input
choose chose chosen interbreed interbred interbred
cleave cleaved (US cleaved, cloven interweave interwove interwoven
also clove) keep kept kept
cling clung clung kneel knelt, kneeled knelt, kneeled
come came come knit knitted, knit knitted (US also
cost cost, costed cost, costed knit)
creep crept crept know knew known
cut cut cut lead led led
deal dealt dealt lean leaned (UK also leaned (UK also
dig dug dug leant) leant)
dive dived (US also dived leap leapt, leaped leapt, leaped

© Cambridge University Press 2008

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 3rd edition
Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle

learn learned (UK also learned, (UK refit refit, refitted refit, refitted
learnt) also learnt) remake remade remade
leave left left rend rent (US also rent (US also
lend lent lent rended) rended)
let let let repay repaid repaid
lie lay, lied lain, lied rerun reran rerun
light lit, lighted lit, lighted resit resat resat
lip-read lip-read lip-read rethink rethought rethought
lose lost lost rewrite rewrote rewritten
make made made rid rid rid
mean mean meant ride rode ridden
meet met met ring rang rung
mimic mimicked mimicked rise rose risen
miscast miscast miscast run ran run
mishear misheard misheard saw sawed sawn (US also
mislay mislaid mislaid sawed)
mislead misled misled say said said
misspell misspelled misspelled see saw seen
(UK also misspelt) (UK also seek sought sought
misspelt) sell sold sold
misspend misspent misspent send sent sent
mistake mistook mistaken set set set
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood sew sewed sewn, sewed
mow mowed mown, mowed shake shook shaken
offset offset offset shear sheared sheared, shorn
outbid outbid outbid, outbidden shed shed shed
outdo outdid outdone shine shone shone
outfight outfought outfought shit shit, shat, shitted shit, shat, shitted
outgrow outgrew outgrown shoe shod (US also shod (US also
outrun outran outrun shoed) shoed)
outsell outsold outsold shoot shot shot
outshine outshone outshone show showed shown
overbid overbid overbid shrink shrank shrunk
overcome overcame overcome shut shut shut
overdo overdid overdone sink sank sunk
overdraw overdrew overdrawn sit sat sat
overeat overate overeaten slay slew, slayed slain
overhang overhung overhung sleep slept slept
overhear overheard overheard slide slid slid
overlay overlaid overlaid sling slung slung
overload overloaded overloaded (UK slink slunk slunk
also overladen) slit slit slit
overpay overpaid overpaid smell smelled (UK also smelled (UK
override overrode overridden smelt) also smelt)
overrun overran overrun smite smote smitten
oversee oversaw overseen sneak sneaked (US also sneaked (US
overshoot overshot overshot snuck) also snuck)
oversleep overslept overslept sow sowed sown, sowed
overspend overspent overspent speak spoke spoken
overtake overtook overtaken speed sped, speeded sped, speeded
overthrow overthrew overthrown spell spelled (UK also spelled (UK also
overwrite overwrote overwritten spelt) spelt)
partake partook partaken spend spent spent
pay paid paid spill spilled (UK also spilled (UK also
plead pleaded (US also pleaded (US spilt) spilt)
pled) also pled) spin spun spun
preset preset preset spit spat (US also spit) spat (US also
prove proved proved, proven spit)
put put put split split split
quit quit, quitted quit, quitted spoil spoiled, spoilt spoiled, spoilt
read /ri:d/ read /red/ read /red/ spotlight spotlighted, spotlit spoltlighted,spotlit
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt spring sprang sprung
recast recast recast

© Cambridge University Press 2008

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, 3rd edition
Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle

stand stood stood

steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank (US also stunk
strew strewed strewn, strewed
stride strode strode
strike struck struck (US also
string strung strung
strive strove, strived striven, strived
sublet sublet sublet
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen, swelled
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
thrive thrived (US also thrived (US also
throve) thriven)
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod (US also trodden (US
treaded) also trod)
typecast typecast typecast
unbend unbent unbent
undercut undercut undercut
undergo underwent undergone
underlie underlay underlain
underpay underpaid underpaid
underwrite underwrote underwritten
undersell undersold undersold
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
undo undid undone
unwind unwound unwound
uphold upheld upheld
upset upset upset
wake woke woken
waylay waylaid waylaid
wear wore worn
weave wove, weaved woven, weaved
wed wedded, wed wedded, wed
weep wept wept
wet wet, wetted wet, wetted
win won won
wind wound wound
withdraw withdrew withdrawn
withhold withheld withheld
withstand withstood withstood
wreak wrought, wreaked wrought, wreaked
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

© Cambridge University Press 2008