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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Государственное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования


ТОМСКИЙ ПОЛИТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ИНСТИТУТ ЯЗЫКОВОЙ КОММУНИКАЦИИ

Агафонова Л.И.
Вакурина Н.А.
Верхотурова В.В.

SOCIAL WORK:
WHAT IS IT?
Учебное пособие

Издание второе, исправленное

Рекомендовано Научно-методическим советом по иностранным языкам


Министерства образования и науки РФ в качестве учебного пособия для
студентов высших учебных заведений, обучающихся по специальности
521100 – «Социальная работа»

Издательство Томского политехнического университета


ТОМСК 2007
УДК 802.0:37+364.3 (075.8)
ББК Ш 143.21-923.8+У9(2)272 я73
А 235

Агафонова Л.И.
А 235 Social Work: What is it? Учебное пособие по английскому языку для
студентов гуманитарных факультетов и институтов, обучающихся по
специальности 521100 «Социальная работа» / Агафонова Л.И., Вакурина
Н.А., Верхотурова В.В. - 2-е изд., испр. – Томск: Изд-во Томского
политехнического университета, 2007. – 99 с.

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов гуманитарных


факультетов и институтов, обучающихся по специальности 521100
«Социальная работа» и рассчитано на 92 аудиторных часа (Unit 1 – 10ч.,
Unit 2- 8ч., Unit 3 – 6ч., Unit 4 – 10ч., Unit 5 – 8ч., Unit 6 – 10ч., Unit 7 –
14ч., Unit 8 – 12ч., Unit 9 – 12ч.).
Целью пособия является развитие навыков и умений использования
английского языка в сфере профессионального общения. Пособие содержит
аутентичные тексты по основным темам специальности. Система
упражнений, разработанных с учетом современных тенденций в теории и
практике преподавания иностранных языков, направлена на развитие
умений чтения, говорения, письменной речи, а также на развитие стратегий
обучения и учебной автономии. Пособие можно использовать как основной
курс, либо как дополнение к базовому курсу по данной специальности.

УДК 802.0:37+364.3 (075.8)


ББК Ш 143.21-923.8+У9(2)272 я73

Рекомендовано к печати Редакционно-издательским советом


Томского политехнического университета

Рецензенты

MA (Honours) Languages (Interpreting and Translating),


British Council Language Assistant (Tomsk)
Gemma Tracey

Старший преподаватель кафедры общих и гуманитарных наук


Сибирского филиала Российского государственного университета
инновационных технологий и предпринимательства
М.В. Юрова

© Томский политехнический университет, 2007


© Оформление. Издательство Томского
политехнического университета, 2007
2
TO THE STUDENT

Welcome to “Social Work: What is it?” This


textbook was written for current or future
professionals with an intermediate level of English,
who need to develop communicative English skills
for their job.

The textbook is primarily intended for


classroom use, but we believe you will also find it
useful for self-study. Each of the 9 units has
authentic input texts and practice tasks and the
activities require you to develop the language
skills you need or will need in real life , beyond
the classroom (e.g. taking part in meetings and
discussions, making presentations, interpreting
diagrams\graphs, writing reports etc.). Each task
demands the use of one main skill (e.g. reading),
which is, however, integrated with other skills
(speaking, writing), just as in real-life communication. For example, while trying
to extract the main ideas from a text that you are reading, you will have to
complete a table, take notes, which you will later use to make oral presentations,
take part in discussions or writing reports. At the end of each unit there are also
key terms, answers to the exercises and evaluation questions.

We hope you will find these materials challenging and interesting. Work in
pairs or groups (e.g. project work) will give you the chance to share your
knowledge, opinions and feelings and a lot of opportunities to develop your
English skills. We also hope you will find the activities which require you to use
the Internet motivating and meaningful.

We believe this textbook will encourage you in developing your own


learning styles and learning strategies.

We hope you enjoy learning with this textbook.


Good luck with your English and with your future job!

3
Unit 1 Social Work: What is it? 5

Unit 2 Social Workers Code of Ethics 15

Unit 3 Social Security Policy 27

Unit 4 Disability 31

Unit 5 Discrimination against Women – 44

is it Really a Great Problem?

Unit 6 Family in the Modern World 49

Unit 7 Natural and Human Disasters 55

and Disaster Relief

Unit 8 Charity 67

Unit 9 International Organizations 81

Dealing with Social Problems

Answer Keys 90

Key Terms 92

References 98

4
Social Work: What is it?

I hear - I know. I see - I remember. I do - I understand.

Confucius
(Chinese philosopher)
………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

1 Look at this drawing. What associations do you have connected


with the phrase “social work”? Work with a partner and complete the
drawing with as many words as you can.

Social work poverty

2 Compare your drawing with another pair’s. How many words are
the same? Extend your diagram.

3 Come up with your own definition of ‘social work’ and write it


down. Work in pairs and share your ideas with the partner.

4 Make comments on the quotation given at the beginning of the


unit.
5
5 You are going to read a text about social work in the USA. Four
paragraphs (A-D) have been removed from the text. Choose from
paragraphs A-D the one which fits each gap (1-4).

A. Some give advice to elderly people or family


members about choices in areas such as housing,
transportation, and long-term care; they also
coordinate and monitor services. Through employee
assistance programs, they may help workers cope
with job-related pressures or with personal problems
that affect the quality of their work.

B. Some work on interdisciplinary teams that evaluate


certain kinds of patients — geriatric or organ
transplant patients, for example. Medical and public
health social workers may work for hospitals,
nursing and personal care facilities, individual and
family services agencies, or local governments.

C. Other types of social workers include social work


planners and policymakers, who develop programs to
address such issues as child abuse, homelessness,
substance abuse, poverty, and violence. These workers
research and analyze policies, programs, and regulations.
They identify social problems and suggest legislative and
other solutions. They may help to raise funds or write
grants to support these programs.

Nature
A. Most social workers ofAlthough
specialize. the Work some conduct research or
are involved in planning or policy development, most social workers
prefer an area of practice in which they interact with clients.

6
Social work is a profession for social workers may be known as child
those with a strong desire to help improve welfare social workers, family services
other people’s lives. Social workers help social workers, child protection services
people to function the best way they can in social workers, occupational social
their environment, deal with their workers, or gerontology social workers.
relationships, and solve personal and Medical and public health social
family problems. Social workers often see workers provide persons, families, or
clients who face a life-threatening disease vulnerable populations with the
or a social problem. These problems may psychosocial support needed to cope with
include inadequate housing, chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses, such as
unemployment, serious illness, disability, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, or AIDS. They
or substance abuse. Social workers also also advise family caregivers, counsel
assist families that have serious domestic patients, and help with a plan for patients’
conflicts, including those involving child needs after discharge by arranging for at-
or spousal abuse. home services—from meals-on-wheels to
Social workers often provide oxygen equipment.
social services in health-related settings __________3________ Mental health and
that now are governed by managed care substance abuse social workers assess and
organizations. To contain costs, these treat individuals with mental illness, or
organizations are emphasizing short-term substance abuse problems, including abuse
intervention, ambulatory and community- of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs. Such
based care, and greater decentralization of services include individual and group
services. therapy, outreach, crisis intervention,
_____________1______________ social rehabilitation, and training in skills
Child, family, and school social workers for everyday living. They may also help
provide social services and assistance to with a plan for supportive services to ease
improve the social and psychological patients’ return to the community. Mental
functioning of children and their families health and substance abuse social workers
and to maximize the family well-being are likely to work in hospitals, substance
and academic functioning of children. abuse treatment centers, individual and
Some social workers assist single parents, family services agencies, or local
arrange adoptions; and help find foster governments. These social workers may be
homes for neglected, abandoned, or known as clinical social workers.
abused children. In schools, they address ____________4___________ Social
such problems as teenage pregnancy, workers held about 477,000 jobs in 2002.
misbehavior, and truancy. They also About 4 out of 10 jobs were in State or
advise teachers on how to cope with local government agencies, primarily in
problem students. Some social workers departments of health and human services.
may specialize in services for senior Most private sector jobs were in the health
citizens. They run support groups for care and social assistance industry.
family caregivers or for the adult children Although most social workers are
of aging parents. employed in cities or suburbs, some work
____________2_________Child, family, in rural areas.
and school social workers typically work
in individual and family services agencies, (http://www.collegegrad.com/careers/proft41
schools, State or local governments. These .shtml)

7
6 Look at the words in bold in the text and try to explain them.

7 In groups of three discuss the following points:

- What are the main types of social workers mentioned in the text?
- What are advantages and disadvantages of these types of social
workers?
- What type do you prefer for your future specialization? Why?

8 The following table shows 2002 employment in the USA by type of


social worker. Make your comments on the data given. Work in pairs
and share your ideas with your partner.

Type of work Number of workers


Child, family, and school social workers 274,000
Medical and public health social workers 107,000
Mental health and substance abuse social workers 95,000

(http://www.collegegrad.com/careers/proft41.shtml)

9 Disclose the meaning of the following terms used in the text you
are going to read:

ofull-time social workers


ovoluntary nonprofit agencies
olong-term care facilities
osubstance abuse social workers
omedian annual earning
omental health

10 Read the text below that reveals the problem of working conditions
and earnings in the USA.

Working Conditions and Earnings


8
Full-time social workers usually tend to patient care or client needs, many
work a standard 40-hour week; however, hospitals and long-term care facilities are
some occasionally work evenings and employing social workers on teams with a
weekends to meet with clients, attend broad mix of occupations — including clinical
community meetings and handle specialists, registered nurses, and health
emergencies. Some, particularly in voluntary aides.
nonprofit agencies, work part-time. Social Median annual earnings of child,
workers usually spend most of their time in family, and school social workers were
an office or residential facility, but may also $33,150 in 2002. The middle 50 percent
travel locally to visit clients, meet with earned between $26,310 and $42,940. The
service providers or attend meetings. Some lowest 10 percent earned less than $21,270,
may use one of several offices within a local and the top 10 percent earned more than
area in which to meet with clients. The work, $54,250. Median annual earnings in the
while satisfying, can be emotionally industries employing the largest numbers of
draining. Understaffing and large caseloads child, family, and school social workers in
add to the pressure in some agencies. To 2002 were:

Elementary and secondary schools $44,100


Local government 38,140
State government 34,000
Individual and family services 29,150
Other residential care facilities 28,470

Median annual earnings of medical and the top 10 percent earned more than
and public health social workers were $56,320. Median annual earnings in the
$37,380 in 2002. The middle 50 percent industries employing the largest numbers of
earned between $29,700 and $46,540. The medical and public health social workers in
lowest 10 percent earned less than $23,840, 2002 were:

General medical and surgical hospitals $42,730


Local government 37,620
State government 35,250
Nursing care facilities 33,330
Individual and family services 31,000

Median annual earnings of mental than $21,050, and the top 10 percent earned
health and substance abuse social workers more than $52,240. Median annual earnings
were $32,850 in 2002. The middle 50 in the industries employing the largest
percent earned between $25,940 and numbers of mental health and substance
$42,160. The lowest 10 percent earned less abuse social workers in 2002 were:

State government $38,430


Local government 35,700
Psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals 34,610
Outpatient care centers 31,370
Individual and family services 31,300
(From: http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/code.asp.)

11 In pairs discuss the challenges provided by the text you have just
read and think what could be done to improve the situation.
9
12 What do you know about working conditions and earnings of
social workers in Russia? Speak about the main problems that social
workers come across in our country. In groups of four make a plan of
your ideas and develop some strategies on how to improve the situation.
Be ready to present your opinion in class.

13 Read the following passage about the structure of social work in


the USA and to answer the questions bellow.

Social Work
Social work is a term used to between these three methods are not
describe a variety of organized methods distinct and in all social work great
of helping people in some need which emphasis is placed on enabling people to
they cannot meet unaided. The use their own resources, and those
organization of social work has always resources which already exist within the
tended to be related to specific needs or community, in order to help themselves.
problems, such as poverty, delinquency, The uniqueness of social work is
and mental or physical disablement. in the blend of some particular values,
Social work methods fall into knowledge and skills, including the use of
three main categories: social casework relationships as the basis for all
which is concerned with individuals and interventions and respect for each
their families; social group work in person’s choice and development.
which association with others is the
primary therapeutic agent and (From: http://www.nber.org/papers/w9913)
community resources. The boundaries

14 What are the three main categories of social work methods?

15 What are about the distinctions among the methods?

16 Match the words with their definitions.

10
1. Method a. Making use or
finding use for something

2. Poverty
b. The practice of
performing charitable
3. Utilization actions

4. Concept c. Capacity to endure


something

5. Philanthropy
d. A manner, a process
or the regular way of
6. Tolerance doing
something

e. The condition or
state of needing money

f. Idea

17 What do you know about the history of social work? Read the text
about Jane Addams, “the mother of social work”. Have you know this
name befor?

11
Jane Addams – Mother of Social Work
Growing up as the eighth of nine poor. They decided to bring the concept
children in rural 1860’s Cedarville, IL, to America, and found a decayed
Jane Addams described herself as an mansion on Chicago’s Halstead Street
“ugly, pigeon-toed little girl” with a originally built by a merchant named
crooked back. Surgery eventually Charles Hull. Hull house opened its doors
corrected her congenial spinal defect, for all those who cared to enter on
but not before Jane identified herself September 18, 1889. So great was the
with the misfits and victims of society. need for basic social service that 2,000
The “horrid little houses” in the slums people a day asked and received help. The
nearby Freeport shocked her and got her old mansion grew to include many firsts
wondering about what could be done to for Chicago, including a playground,
improve them. She was six years old at gymnasium, citizenship preparation
that time. classes, public baths and a swimming
Jane was blessed with a father pool. It led to the enactment of the first
whom she adored and who impressed factory in Illinois, the first tenement code
her with his virtues of tolerance, and was the birthplace of four labour
philanthropy and his strong work ethic. unions. Hull house became a national
He was a man of influence himself, an historic landmark in June of 1967.
owner of grain mills, officer in the Civil Jane Addams made her childhood
War, State Senator for 16 years and dream of improving living conditions for
personal friend of President Abraham the poor come true. She didn’t make it to
Lincoln, also from Illinois. John Addams Oslo for the Nobel Prize, though, as her
encouraged his daughter to pursue an health had begun to fail by 1931. When
education. Her schooling emphasized she passed away on May 21, 1935, a train
social responsibility and passion for carried her from the funeral services at
culture and good works. For a while, she Hull House to rest in Cedarville, the place
set her sights on becoming a doctor and where she grew up and began her life’s
stayed at the school for another six passion of service. So great has been the
years. lasting effect of her works that Jane
After school Jane and a friend Addams has been described as one of
from college, Ellen Starr were touring social work’s “founding mothers”.
Europe and Britain when she visited
London’s East End and Toynbee Hall. (Adapted from Shepler, J. (1999)).
Toynbee Hall was a “settlement house”,
ministering to the needs of London’s

18 Look at the words in bold in the text above and try to explain
them.

19 Fill in the sentences with the correct word (s) from the text.

12
a. Jane Addams has been described as one of social work’s “ ..1..
mothers”.
b. She made her childhood dream of ..2.. come true.
c. Jane and a friend from college, Ellen Starr were touring ..3..
when she visited London’s East End and Toynbee Hall.
d. So great was the need for ..4.. that 2,000 people a day asked and
received help.
e. John Addams encouraged his daughter to ..5.. education
f. Jane Addams described herself as an “ugly, ..6.. little girl” with a
crooked back.

Creating a timeline when reading helps you to understand the order of


events in the text. Some texts present a series of events in chronological
order. If you record these events on a timeline, it will help you to understand
and remember the order of these events.

20 A timeline with key dates from “Jane Addams – Mother of Social


Work” is shown below. Record the events that happened on those dates
in the spaces provided. Use the timeline to help you to review the story.

Where and/ or when? Events in the life of Jane Addams


1860’s Cedarville, IL

Europe and Britain

September 18, 1889

June of 1967

1931

May 21, 1935

21 What do you know about the history of social work in our


country? Find information about the main steps in the development of
social work in Russia and be ready to share it with your group.

13
22 The manager of the company you work for has asked employees to
give their opinions on the role of social work in modern Russian society.
Write an article for a newspaper. Before you start writing, be sure you
know the main features of a newspaper article (see below Language
Learning Strategies section).

Articles are pieces of writing which appear in newspapers or


magazines aiming to make a topic interesting to readers. They can be formal
or informal in style depending on the type of publication and the topic of the
article itself.

A good article should consist of:

• an eye-catching headline which gives the reader an idea of what the


article is about. Headlines are normally brief and are written in the
same style (i.e. formal or informal) as the article itself.
• an interesting introduction.
• a main body consisting of two or more paragraphs where details on
the topic are given.
• a conclusion which gives an appropriate ending to the article.

Evaluation

1. What have you done in this unit?


2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you enjoy about it?
4. Have you any criticisms of it?
5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently?

14
Social Workers Code of Ethics

God is dead, but fifty thousand social workers


have risen to take his place.

J.D. McCoughey,
Delegate of NASW in America

…………………………………………………………………………………

1 Look at this drawing. What are your associations connected with


the social workers’ code of ethics? Work with a partner and complete
the drawing with as many words as you can.

code ethical
of principles
ethics

2 Compare your drawing with another pair’s. How many words are
the same? Extend your diagram.

3 Give your own definition of ‘code of ethics’ and write it down.


Work in pairs and share your ideas with your partner.
15
4 You are going to read the preamble from the Code of Ethics of the
National Association of Social Workers in America. Skim the following
text in order to understand the main ideas.

The primary mission of the administration, advocacy, social


social work profession is to and political action, policy
enhance human well-being and development and implementation,
help meet the basic human needs education, and research and
of all people, with particular evaluation. Social workers seek to
attention to the needs and enhance the capacity of people to
empowerment of people who are address their own needs. Social
vulnerable, oppressed, and living workers also seek to promote the
in poverty. A historic and defining responsiveness of organizations,
feature of social work is the communities, and other social
profession's focus on individual institutions to individuals' needs
well-being in a social context and and social problems.
the well-being of society. The mission of the social
Fundamental to social work is work profession is rooted in a set of
attention to the environmental core values. These core values,
forces that create, contribute to, embraced by social workers
and address problems in living. throughout the profession's history,
Social workers promote are the foundation of social work's
social justice and social change unique purpose and perspective:
with and on behalf of clients. service
"Clients" is used inclusively to social justice
refer to individuals, families, dignity and worth of the person
groups, organizations, and importance of human relationships
communities. Social workers are integrity
sensitive to cultural and ethnic competence.
diversity and strive to end This constellation of core
discrimination, oppression, values reflects what is unique to the
poverty, and other forms of social social work profession. Core
injustice. These activities may be values, and the principles that flow
in the form of direct practice, from them, must be balanced within
community organizing, the context and complexity of the
supervision, consultation, human experience.

(adapted from http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/code.asp)

16
5 The preamble describes the mission and core values of this
profession. Read the text again and make a list of the purposes of the
social work profession.

Example:

The purpose of social work is to enhance the life of human beings,


helping…… etc.

6 Look at the words in bold in the text and try to explain them.

7 Fill in the correct preposition or the word, then make sentences


using the phrases.

a) to … somebody’s needs

b) to focus …. individual well-being

c) to contribute …… social development

d) to pay attention …. empowerment of people

8 In groups of three discuss the purposes of social work. Can you


add any other purposes besides those mentioned in the preamble? Do
you know whether such a document exists in Russia?

17
10 The NASW (National Association of Social Workers) Code of
Ethics sets forth basic values, ethical principles and ethical standards to
guide the conduct of social workers. The following extract from this
document deals with values and ethical principles.

Skim the table below and match the values in the left column with their
ethical principles in the right column. There is a description of the principles
in the right column, too.

Values Ethical principles

1. Competence A. Social workers' primary goal is to help people in


need and to address social problems.

Social workers elevate service to others above self-


interest. Social workers draw on their knowledge,
values, and skills to help people in need and to address
social problems. Social workers are encouraged to
volunteer some portion of their professional skills with
no expectation of significant financial return.

2. Service B. Social workers challenge social injustice.

Social workers pursue social change, particularly with


and on behalf of vulnerable and oppressed individuals
and groups of people. Social workers' social change
efforts are focused primarily on issues of poverty,
unemployment, discrimination, and other forms of
social injustice. These activities seek to promote
sensitivity to and knowledge about oppression and
cultural and ethnic diversity. Social workers strive to
ensure access to needed information, services, and
resources; equality of opportunity; and meaningful
participation in decision making for all people.

18
3. Importance of C. Social workers respect the inherent dignity and
Human worth of the person.
Relationships
Social workers treat each person in a caring and respectful
fashion, mindful of individual differences and cultural and
ethnic diversity. Social workers promote clients' socially
responsible self-determination. Social workers seek to
enhance clients' capacity and opportunity to change and to
address their own needs. Social workers are cognizant of
their dual responsibility to clients and to the broader society.
They seek to resolve conflicts between clients' interests and
the broader society's interests in a socially responsible
manner consistent with the values, ethical principles, and
ethical standards of the profession.

4. Integrity D. Social workers recognize the central importance


of human relationships.

Social workers understand that relationships between and


among people are an important vehicle for change. Social
workers engage people as partners in the helping process.
Social workers seek to strengthen relationships among
people in a purposeful effort to promote, restore, maintain,
and enhance the well-being of individuals, families, social
groups, organizations, and communities.

5. Dignity and E. Social workers behave in a trustworthy manner.


Worth of the Person
Social workers are continually aware of the profession's
mission, values, ethical principles, and ethical standards and
practice in a manner consistent with them. Social workers
act honestly and responsibly and promote ethical practices
on the part of the organizations with which they are
affiliated.

6. Social Justice F. Social workers practice within their areas of


competence and develop and enhance their
professional expertise.
Social workers continually strive to increase their
professional knowledge and skills and to apply them in
practice. Social workers should aspire to contribute to the
knowledge base of the profession.
19
11 Imaging that you are taking part in the All-Russia Conference
whose agenda is to develop the Code of Ethics for social workers in
Russia. Which values and which ethical principles are the most
important ones for Russia? Make a list of values and principles
according to their importance for Russia. Now you will take part in a
round – table discussion in which you will be expected to put forward a
certain point of view. Examine the Learning Strategies section to be sure
how to plan your speech.

When speaking about a topic, you need special words and phrases for
organizing your ideas. Group the phrases in the box below according to the
purpose of the speaker.
Expressing ideas/Suggesting: ………………………………………
Interrupting politely: ……………………………………………
Agreeing / Disagreeing: ……………………………………………
Bringing discussion back to the point: ………………………………..
Concluding: ……………………………………………

1. Certainly/ I agree entirely


2. Perhaps /Though / We should consider an alternative option. For example…
3 .I see what you mean but … 4. I think that
5. That is not what I meant…. 6. Could we conclude our discussions?
7. Perhaps I might summarize our view…. 8. My main point is…
9. To return to what I was just saying … 10. Yes, but….
11. That is all very well but … 12. I take your point, but …
13. Forgive me for interrupting, but …. 14. My view is that …..
15. If there are no objections, let’s see if we have a consensus. It seems to me….
16. As I said before…. 17. Let’s get back to your point
18. Getting back to the original idea…. 19. In my opinion….
20. As far as I am concerned … 21. Perhaps we might consider …
22. Well, I suggest that … 23. Can I say something here?
24. I couldn’t agree more …

20
12 On the home page of the NASW of America you can find a lot of
information about the Association and its activities including description
of social workers ethical standards.

These standards concern:


(1) social workers' ethical responsibilities to clients,
(2) social workers' ethical responsibilities to colleagues,
(3) social workers' ethical responsibilities in practice settings,
(4) social workers' ethical responsibilities as professionals,
(5) social workers' ethical responsibilities to the social work
profession, and
(6) social workers' ethical responsibilities to broader society.

Navigate this site http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/code.asp Choose


one issue in all of the 6 areas (total 6 standards) depending on your
preferences and interests and write short annotations. Be ready to make a
presentation to your peers on the ethical standards you have chosen at the
next lesson.

13 The next text describes three client profiles. Read it and complete
the table.

Client’s Age Her/his challenge Social worker’s Results


name assistance

Client Profiles

21
Tara, a new mother, is 16 years old. She
lives with her grandparents and hasn't finished
high school. Her social worker helped her child
get health insurance and regular check up, and
helped Tara apply for public assistance. With her
social worker's support, Tara enrolled in evening
classes to finish high school and found a support
group to help young mothers with parenting
skills.

Bob is experiencing stress as a single parent.


He is referred by a social worker to a good child
care agency. The social worker also helps Bob
explore flextime with his employer and works
with a coalition of local employers to make
flextime and child care more available to others
in the same situation. In addition, the social
worker provides therapy to help this young father
handle the immediate stress of raising children on
his own.

Scott is 8 years old and loves to learn. He


began skipping school after bigger kids started
teasing him. His school's social worker alerted
Scott's teachers who helped control the bullying.
He met with Scott's parents to suggest ways to
help the situation. Now, he and Scott talk a lot not
only about bullies, but also all the things Scott is
excited to be learning about.

22
14 Scan the text again and highlight all the verbs, verb phrases and
verb collocations. Transfer them to the Infinitive form in your exercise-
book. If you don’t know the meaning of them, look them up in the
dictionary (e.g. to enroll in evening classes, to handle the stress, etc.).

15 What are the profiles of clients in your city, in your social and
cultural context? Have you already had experience as a social worker?
What were your clients’ profiles? Discuss these questions with your
partners.

16 Write one client’s profile from the social and cultural context you
are concerned with.

17 Look at the press releases (A, B and C) taken from the web site of
the NASW and try to answer the questions below. Work in pairs.

i. Which press release is the most recent?


ii. What programs or projects do the press
releases cover?
iii. Which press release refers to family planning?
iv. Which press release focuses on working with
young people to prevent suicides?
v. Which program will be implemented in
schools?
vi. How are the programs and projects funded?

23
A

For Immediate Release


September 24, 2004

NASW Sponsors the SOS High School Suicide Prevention Program

WASHINGTON —The National Associatio of Social Workers (NASW) is proud to sponsor and support the SOS High
School Suicide Prevention Program , a program created and managed by Screening for Mental Health, Inc.

The SOS High School Suicide Prevention Program has demonstrated a dramatic increase in help-seeking by depressed
students, and reduced suicide attempts by 40 percent in high school students exposed to the program. This program
is the only school-based suicide prevention program selected by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services
Administration (SAMHSA), U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, as a “promising program” for the
National Registry of Effective Programs (NREP).

The program is designed to be easily replicable in a variety of school settings, using existing school personnel and
implemented during one or two classroom periods. The basic message of the SOS Program is to teach high school
students to respond to the signs of suicide as a mental health emergency, much as one would react to a heart
attack. It focuses on teaching youth to recognize the signs of suicide and depression in themselves and others, as
well as the specific action steps needed to respond to those signs.

Since 2000 the SOS High School Suicide Prevention Program has been implemented in more than 1,300 schools across
the country. The cost for the program is $200.00. Registration information and downloadable forms are available
Online at http://www.mentalhealthscreening.org/sos_highschool/index.htm or call (781) 239-0071.

NASW encourages social workers employed in school settings to consider making this a part of ongoing mental health
prevention services.

For Immediate Release


September 16, 2004

NASW Endorses World Mental Health Day — October 10, 2004

WASHINGTON—The National Association of Social Workers (NASW) endorses World Mental Health Day (WMHDAY) on
October 10, 2004.

In the years since the World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as “the complete state of physical, mental,
and social well being and not merely the absence of disease,” there has been an increased understanding of the
interrelationship between physical health and mental health. The theme of World Mental Health Day 2004, The
Relationship Between Physical and Mental Health: Co-occurring Disorders, focuses attention on an emerging
recognition of the integral relationship between physical and mental health.

Organizations and individuals from more than 150 countries will participate in this educational event. NASW
encourages members to participate in educating colleagues and communities about the interrelationship between
physical health and mental health.

This year's WMHDAY global education packet offers information, resources, and research findings to support the idea
of fully body health. Materials can be downloaded through the World Federation for Mental Health—the organization
responsible for World Mental Health Day—Web site at http://www.wfmh.org . Download the packet by section or in
its entirety.

24
C

For Immediate Release


February 23, 2004

NASW is Co-Sponsoring Partner of the “March for Women's Lives”

April 25, 2004 on the National Mall in Washington , DC

WASHINGTON — At 10 am, Sunday, April 25, 2004 , at the Lincoln Memorial social workers from around the country
will be joining the March for Women's Lives and will rally for women's rights to reproductive freedom on the National
Mall from 1 pm to 4 pm .

“The government is sending a clear message to women by not funding abortions for poor women and decreasing
availability of family planning and reproductive health services for others, including men,” says Elizabeth J. Clark,
PhD, ACSW, MPH, executive director of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW).

“Oftentimes, family planning clinics are the primary source of medical care for both women and men. These clinics
are also the place where medical and psychosocial problems, such as domestic violence, that are unrelated to family
planning, are first identified and addressed,” she adds.

The social work profession bases its position on family planning and reproductive health services on self-
determination.

“Every woman and every man should have the choice of which reproductive health services, family planning, or
abortion services they want or need without stress and harassment from others within their own personal beliefs,”
says Clark.

NASW opposes government restrictions on access to these reproductive health services, including abortion, or in
financing them in health insurance and foreign aid programs. NASW also opposes any legislative and funding
restrictions on medically approved forms of birth control, including emergency contraception. NASW does, however,
support legislative measures to protect clients and providers seeking and delivering reproductive health services from
harassment and violence.

For more information about the March for Women's Lives, please contact Dina Zarella at dzarella@naswdc.org or sign
up to join NASW at the march by visiting http://www.socialworkers.org/advocacy/events/choiceMarch/default.asp

NASW's position statement on Family Planning and Reproductive Health can be found in Social Work Speaks, Sixth
Edition, NASW Press 2003. Media can contact Lahne Mattas-Curry at media@naswdc.org for a copy of the position.

More information about the March for Women's Lives can be found at www.marchforwomen.org

18 Look again at press releases A, B and C. How would you fully


express the following word combinations? Which words have been left
out?

a) World ..... Health Day


b) Family Planning and ..... Health
c) the SOS High School Suicide ..... Program
d) the Substance ..... and Mental Health ..... Administration
e) U. S. Department of Health and Human …..

25
19 Match the adjectives with the nouns.

promising dramatic depressed


global medical ongoing
domestic reproductive executive

a) .... students b) …. program c) …. education d) …. Violence


e) …. increase f) …. care g) …. director h) …. health
i) …. services

20 Choose one of the projects described in Exercise 17 and write a


summary of the project.

Evaluation

1. What have you done in this unit?


2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you enjoy about it?
4. Have you any criticisms of it?
5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently?

26
Social Security Policy
Never for the sake of peace and quiet deny your convictions.

Hammarskjold, Dag; 1905-1961,


Swedish Statesman, Secretary-general of U.N.

……………………………………………………………………………………………….

1 What does the phrase “social security policy” mean? Give your
own explanation.

2 What are the main branches of Social Security Policy? Fill in the
scheme below and discuss your answers within your group.

3 Make comments on the quotation given at the beginning of the


unit.

Social
Security

27
4 Read the text about the Social Security Policy in the USA and be
ready to complete the tasks which follow.

The Politics of Reforming Social Security

Why is Social Security on The 1972 law essentially


the agenda for the first time in removed Social Security from the
fifteen years? Why are policy regular governmental agenda. The
makers considering modifying or program had reached maturity, and
replacing the program? Social particularly as the economy stalled,
Security was once such a regular there were no further pressures to
item on the governmental agenda expand it. Although insulated from
that no detailed explanation was inflation, Social Security was still
really required. Between 1935 and vulnerable to other economic
1973 Congress and the President shocks and to long-term
enacted twenty-five Social demographic changes. Social
Security laws – more than one bill Security has returned to the
every two years – as they governmental agenda only twice
transformed a relatively small since 1972, each time because of
retirement program, with initial tax actuarial imbalances. It first
rates of one percent each on returned in 1975, after actuaries
employees and employers, into the calculated that the program was
mature program we know today, facing a deficit within three years.
with tax rates of 6.2 percent. The sources of the problem were
During the final six years of this two: some mistakes in drafting the
period, Social Security was original adjustment formula, which
constantly on the agenda, as overcompensated for inflation, and
Congress and the President economic stagnation which
responded to unusually high reduced revenues below their
inflation by raising benefits seven projections. After two years of
times. Finally, in 1972, they placed debate, Congress and the President
Social Security on automatic pilot enacted a 1977 bill that phased in
by enacting a provision that each tax increases and recalibrated the
year adjusts the wage base for inflation adjustment.
changes in average wages and
(Douglas, A.R.., (1998)).
retirement benefits for changes in
the consumer price index.

28
5 Look at the words in bold in the text and try to explain them.

6 Explain the meaning of the following terms used in the text.

enacted inflation
tax vulnerable
agenda imbalances
maturity stagnation
to expand

7 How well did you understand the article? Complete the following
sentences.

1. The 1972 law essentially removed Social Security from the


regular ..1.. agenda.
2. Social Security has returned to the governmental agenda only
twice since 1972, each time because of ..2.. .
3. Between 1935 and 1973, Congress and the President ..3..
twenty-five Social Security laws – more than one bill every two
years.
4. After two years of debate, Congress and the President enacted
a 1977 bill that phased in ..4.. and recalibrated the inflation.
5. Although ..5.. from inflation, Social Security was still vulnerable
to other economic shocks and to long-term ..6.. changes.

8 Cross the odd word out.

A. Inflation Stagnation Development Government


B. Protection Security Control Disorder
C. Law Edict Decree Request

9 Compare the history of Social Security Policy in the USA and in


our country. Make up a report about Social Security Policy in modern
Russia. Be ready to present your opinion in class.
29
10 Read the following passage from an article about Pension reform
in Germany.
The financing problems beleaguering the public pension system have
again shifted the spotlight onto the retirement age. This paper examines the
impact of various reform options on the actual retirement choices of older
workers. The paper focuses in particular on the long-term implications of the
changes implemented in pension legislation since 1992 and the reform
options discussed by the German Social Security Reform Commission
installed in 2002. Our simulations show that the early-retirement pension
adjustment factors introduced by the 1992 pension reform will, in the long
term, raise the average effective age of retirement for men by somewhat less
than two years. The across-the-board two-year increase in all the relevant
age limits proposed by the German Social Security Reform Commission
would raise the effective average age of retirement of men by about eight
months. If the actuarial adjustment factor is increased from 3.6% to 6% per
year, the effective average retirement age rises by almost two years. The
effects are considerably weaker for women.
(By Axel Borsch-Supan, Barbara Berkel. NBER Working Paper, 9913, August 2003. //
http:// www. nber.org/papers/w9913)

11 Write an annotation to the text above.

12 Discuss the problem of pension reform in Russia. Do you know


the history of modern pension reform in Russia?

Evaluation
1. What have you done in this unit?
2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you enjoy about it?
4. Have you any criticisms of it?
5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it
differently?

30
Disability
“Fear and prejudice are often based on
ignorance and unfamiliarity.”

B. Barnes,
British Psychologist, Writer 20-th century
……………………………………………………………………………….
..

1 Could you define the term ‘a disabled person’? What other


synonyms of this phrase that are used in English-speaking countries do
you know? Which of these words seem to be offensive when referring
to a disabled person? If necessary look up the information in a
dictionary.

‘a disabled
USA person’
Canada

UK Australia

2 Give your own definition of a ‘disability’ and write it down.


Work in pairs and share your ideas with your partner.
31
3 Now read the text below on how the problem of defining
disability is viewed in the UK and check whether your ideas coincide
with the views expressed in the passage or not.

What is a ‘disability’?
Several writers and ‘impairment’ to refer to the
organizations have tried to make a physical dimension and
distinction between physical ‘disability’ as the term that
aspects of disability and socially incorporates the socially created
created limitations. Ann Shearer aspects.
uses the terms ‘disability’ and These distinctions are
‘handicap’ in this way, suggesting important because they reflect
that disability must be taken as differing ways of thinking about
given, but handicap is something disability. On the one hand, there
that is imposed on that disability to is a medical model of disability,
make it more limiting then it must which focuses on the individual
necessarily be. The extent to which and physical conditions
a disability is a handicap depends (impairments). A social model of
on a number of factors such as a disability takes the focus away
type of job a person has, the from the individual and looks at
services that exist to help, the disabling environments – ways in
attitudes of society and the which society creates disabilities.
personality of the person with the The definition, adopted by
disability. Ann Shearer illustrates Oliver and Barnes, suggests that
this point by arguing that not being the term disability refers to:
able to run for a bus wouldn’t be a
handicap if buses waited for the the disadvantage or restriction
passengers. However, many caused by a contemporary social
disabled people find a term organization which takes no or
‘handicap’ offensive because of its little account of people who
historical association with begging have…impairments and thus
and charity. A similar distinction excludes them from the
can be made using the term mainstream of social activities.

(By Y. Pat, Mastering Social Welfare.)


32
4 Look at the words in bold in the text ‘What is a ‘disability’?’ and
try to explain them. Make up sentences with these words.

5 Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the word(s)
only once.

limitations contemporary the mainstream disability


begging the individual environments created
society account personality handicap

1. different ways of thinking about ……

2. caused by a …… social organization

3. historical association with …… and charity

4. excludes them from …… of social activities

5. that incorporates the socially …… aspects

6. the attitudes of …… and the …… of the person

7. takes the focus away from ……

8. looks at disabling ……

9. but …… is something that is imposed on that disability

10. socially created ………

11. which takes no or little …… of people


33
6 Answer the following questions using the information from the
text above:

o What are the definitions of disability given by Oliver and


Barnes and Ann Shearer? What do they focus on?

o Explain the meaning of the following terms used in the text:

- medical model of disability


- social model of disability
- impairment and disability
- disabling environments

7 Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups:

o Can you identify any common areas of need for disabled


people in your country?

o To what extent are disabled people’s needs being met?

8 Imagine that you are a person who has some kind of disability.
Tell about your life using the scheme that is given below.

disability
problems actions to get
1. lack of communication rid of problems
2. ……… feelings 1. to commit a
1. frustration dreams suicide
2. .…………. 1. to be ‘normal’ 2. ………
2. … ….

34
9 Read the statement provided below and give your own comments.
Back up your opinion.
“The people with a disability are human beings in the same way as everyone else and
only different to the extent that they suffer from a particular condition.”
M. Oliver

10 Read the text that reveals one of the problems of disabled people
and be ready to fulfil the tasks given after this text.

Acceptance
Needs vary but may include disablement. There is no such thing as
financial support, special educational THE DISABLED, there are just people.
facilities, sheltered employment, On leaving hospital and finding
support, help in making social contacts, the mantle of ‘disabled’ places firmly
and aids and help in the practicalities of upon my unwilling shoulders I entered a
daily life. Often the greatest problem is world which was alien, absurd and
not the impairment itself, but other ultimately defeating. My weak grasp on
people’s attitudes which may then be my identity was no real match for the
internalised by the sufferer. massed forces of society who firmly
In the following extract, a woman believed themselves as ‘normal’ and
with multiple sclerosis explains how she myself just as firmly as ‘abnormal’. I
felt about categories of normality after found myself inhabiting a stereotype. I
the onset of the disease: became my illness.
I was confused; I still felt
fundamentally the same. My body was (By Y. Pat, Mastering Social Welfare.)
different, I know that all right, but inside
it was me. Normality is after all what
you know. The male who is very short is
normal to himself, it’s other people who
make him aware of an ‘abnormality’.
The ugly female is ‘normal’ to herself,
it’s the others who make her
‘abnormal’. ’Normality’ and
‘abnormality’ are socially defined.
Disability can and sometimes does
interfere with the practical running of a
life, but it is the reaction of and non-
action of society which causes

35
11 Go back to the text, look at the word(s) in bold and try to explain
them. Make sentences with these word(s).
12 Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the word(s)
only once.

contacts a stereotype the practical running


employment the massed forces educational
alien unwilling the practicalities

1. interfere with …… of a life


2. sheltered ……
3. help in making social ……
4. entered a world which was ……
5. special …… facilities
6. inhabiting ……
7. was no real match for ……
8. help in …… of daily life
9. firmly upon my ……shoulders

13 Make your comments on the statement underlined in the text. Do


you agree or disagree with these words?

In pairs discuss the problem considered


in the text “Acceptance” and think what
can be done to improve the attitudes to
disability? Make a plan of your ideas
and develop some strategies on how to
improve the situation in our society and
change the stereotypes which exist. Be
ready to present your opinion in class.

36
What would you say about educatind
people attitudes?

14 Read the passage about the 1995 Disability Discrimination Act


that was brought in as anti-discriminatory legislation in the UK in 1995.
However, before reading the text, try to predict what this Act could be
about. Read to check whether your predictions were right or wrong.
While reading fill in the gaps with the appropriate word or phrase.

discriminate access unlawful polices


impairment disabled employers learning
insurance disability treat second-rate day-to-day
sensory cancer law

The 1995 Disability Discrimination Act


In the 1995 Disability 10……. for providers of goods, services
Discrimination Act ……1…. is defined and facilities to ……11…… against a
as long-term physical or mental …… disabled person either by refusing to
2…….. that substantially affects the serve disabled customers or providing
ability to carry out normal ……3…….. them with ……12…….. services. All
activities. This includes physical and goods and services provided to the
………4……... impairments, …… public are covered, including health,
5…… disabilities and mental health ……13….., legal services, and sport and
conditions lasting 12 months or more, or leisure facilities. …14……. and
likely to recur. ‘Severe disfigurements’ practices which have the effect of
and progressive conditions such as …… excluding disabled people have to be
6…., HIV and multiple sclerosis are also changed, for example a restaurant can’t
included. The Act means it is against the refuse a person with a guide dog because
…7…... for employers with twenty or they do not allow animals. If a …15…..
more stuff to ……8…… disabled people person needs a helper, a shop must
less favourably than others and requires change a policy of only allowing one
…9…… to make ‘reasonable person in a changing room at a time.
adjustments’ to work practices and People who sell or let properties can’t
premises to overcome barriers to unreasonably discriminate against
employment. The Act also makes it …… disabled people. Schools and colleges
37
must provide information on their government to set minimum criteria for
facilities for disabled students. The law disabled access to new buses, trains and
also provides a right of …..16…….. to taxis.
railways and bus stations and allows the
(By Y. Pat, Mastering Social Welfare.)

15 Explain the meaning of the word(s) given in the box before the
passage. Make up sentences with these words.

16 Translate the extract in written form using a dictionary if


necessary.

17 Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups.

Is there any similar anti-discriminatory


legislation in your country? Does it really
have an impact on the places you visit –
colleges, schools, sport centers, and
workplaces? Are people familiar with the
requirements of this legislation?

What is really done in your country for disabled


people? What changes are needed to
improve the life of disabled people?

38
18 Look through newspapers and magazines or use other sources
available and try to find information on how the problem of disabled
people is dealt with in your society. Be ready to make a presentation
about this issue in class. Compare the situations and the ways of solving
the problems of disabled people in your country with those in other
countries.

19 Write a composition describing your life as if you’ve just been


made redundant because of your disability. Write about the importance
of social status and being part of society. To what extent has your life
changed?

o What services are provided for disabled people in your


country?

o What organizations are in charge of providing and


arranging support services for groups of people with
different kinds of disabilities? Fill in the table:

Organisations Services

Government ……..

Local authorities ……..

Voluntary organizations ………


39
20 Read the passage about the problems of educational provision
for disabled people and about care and support services that exist in the
UK. Be ready to answer the questions that are asked at the end of the
passage.

Education and care and support services


There are disadvantages and If people with a disability are
advantages of educating children to lead a full life in the
and young disabled people in community, practical help and
separate schools. A girl with support are needed. These services
restricted movement in one side are provided either by health
tells how the cruelty of other girls authorities or by local social
in school led her to ask if she services departments. Services
could attend a special school. She provided by local authorities can
says that in the special school: vary from area to area but are
likely to include the following: of
It was much easier to make daily living and organise aids and
friends and I didn’t feel an adaptations for the home;
outsider any more. Everyone had
a disability and no one was self- • social workers providing
conscious about it. They treated advice, information and
each other as human beings and counselling;
you could be friends with anyone. • home care stuff to help with
personal care at home;
This young woman is however • meals-on-wheels;
aware of her loss of contact with • occupational therapists who
the outside world. Another woman provide advice on the
who suffered from a disease called practicalities
brittle bones tells of her isolation • day-centers offering a variety
until she went to a boarding school of educational, therapeutic
for girls with disabilities. Here she and recreational facilities.
learnt the joy of sharing doubts
and fears.
40
All of these services may be
charged for, although usually on a
means-tested basis.

(By Y. Pat, Mastering Social Welfare.)

21 Explain the meaning of the words and phrases underlined in the


passage ‘Education and Care and Support Services’. Make up sentences
using these words and phrases.

22 Explain the meaning of the following words and phrases. Complete


the sentences given below filling in the gaps with the appropriate word
or phrase. There is one extra word that you do not need to use.

a) Employment Training g) supervision register


b) special hospitals h) residential care
c) health care i) disability
d) a key worker j) a care plan
e) voluntary organizations k) short-term care
f) legislation l) day care centers

1. In Britain, ……… is provided partly by the National Health Service (NHS) and
partly by private medicine.

2. She gets a ……… pension from the government.

3. In the 1990s the program of ……… was issued by the British government for
training people who have been unemployed for six months or more to help them
get jobs.

4. ……… is a system of care for old people who are unable to look after
themselves at home, need nursing or other professional care which their families
cannot provide.

5. Where appropriate, mentally ill people are provided with accommodation in


………, local authority accommodation, or homes run by private or …………… .

6. Local authority services include ……… , support in the home, the provision of
………, and help with the other activities outside the home.

41
7. Patients who have been discharged from hospitals may be placed
on a ………. .

8. Under the Care Program Approach, mentally ill people should be assessed by
specialist services, ………, and ……… should be appointed for each patient.

23 Answer the following questions and share your ideas with your
partner.
o What are the advantages and disadvantages of
organising special educational institutions and
educational programs for disabled people?
o Is there any special educational provision for
disabled people in your country?
o Compare the system of educational provision and
care and support services described in the
passage with those that exist in your country.
o What can be done to improve the system of
services for disabled people?

24 Use any sources of information available (newspapers, magazines


or Internet resources) and carry out a project on any of the problems
suggested below. You may fulfill this task in pairs or groups and
consider the problem using the example of any English-speaking
country.

o What educational and training opportunities are available for people with
learning disabilities in your country?
o What kind of specialist assistance is provided for mentally disordered
people in any English-speaking countries?
o What special hospitals or medical institutions for mentally disordered
people are there in your country? What problems do these institutions
experience?
o What are the problems that people with learning disabilities suffer in
special hospitals?

42
o What are the main problems that disabled people experience being out of
work (emotional, financial, the problem of socialization and etc.)?
o Speak on the organizations that deal with problems of employment of
disabled people and their training.
o What are the reasons for launching a special system of financial provision
for disabled people?
o Describe the system of financial support in your country. Speak on the
main problems that disabled people come across.

25 Write a composition giving your opinion on one of the statements


below. Write your composition in 120 - 180 words.

o The line from ‘normality’ to ‘abnormality’ is a


continuum with no sharp cut-off point.
o The greatest need for many people is to be accepted and
not rejected as somehow ‘abnormal’.
o Schools could help young people by extending
community projects and encouraging young people to
get to know disabled people.
o Many fears would be eliminated if disabled people were
further integrated into the communities.
o There is a tendency for the media to overdo the
‘tragedy’ aspect of disability. The media could play a
role in changing attitudes by portraying people with a
disability in everyday situations, leading a normal life.

Evaluation
1. What have you done in this unit?
2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you enjoy about it?
4. Have you any criticisms of it?
5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it
differently?

43
Discrimination against Women:
is it Really a Great Problem?
It's only women who are not really quite women at all, frivolous
women who have no idea, who neglect repairs.

Duras, Marguerite,
French Author, Filmmaker

…………………………………………………………………………………

1 Discrimination against women – what is it? Think about the topic


and fill in the drawing below.

Discrimination
against women

2 What is your attitude to this problem (discrimination against


women)? Does it really exist in morden society?

3 Make comments on the quotation given at the beginning of this unit.

44
4 Study these survey results (UK, 2003). How would you answer the
survey question given below? Discuss your responses within your group.

Do you think it is easier to be a man or a woman?


Females Males
To be a man 30% 21%

To be a woman 59% 65%

5 Ask five women and five men outside the classroom the survey
question and present your results to the class.

6 You are going to read a text which contains examples of the


discrimination against women in different parts of the world. Some parts
from the text have been removed.

A. In the U.S.A., students discriminate and attack


girls in school who are lesbian, bi-sexual, or
transgendered, or do not conform to male standards
of female behavior.

B. We live in a world in which women do not have basic control over what happens to
their bodies. Millions of women and girls are forced to marry and have sex with men
they do not desire.

C. Men in Pakistan, South Africa, Peru, Russia, and Uzbekistan beat


women in the home at astounding rates, while these governments
alternatively refuse to intervene to protect women and punish their
batterers or do so haphazardly and in ways that make women feel
culpable for the violence.

D. Doctors and government officials disproportionately


target women from disadvantaged or marginalized
communities for coercive family planning policies.

E. Arguments that sustain and excuse these human rights abuses - those of cultural
norms, "appropriate" rights for women, or western imperialism - barely disguise their
true meaning: that women's lives matter less than men's.
Because I'm Worth it!
45
Millions of women throughout the Women in state custody face sexual assault
world live in conditions of abject by their jailers. Women are punished for
deprivation of, and attacks against their having sex outside of marriage or with a
fundamental human rights for no other person of their choosing (rather than of their
reason than that they are women. family's choosing). Husbands and other male
Combatants and their sympathizers in family members obstruct or dictate women's
conflicts, such as those in Sierra Leone, access to reproductive health
Kosovo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, care.____4____Our duty as activists is to
Afghanistan, and Rwanda, have raped expose and denounce as human rights
women as a weapon of war with near violations those practices and policies that
complete impunity. ____1____ As a direct silence and subordinate women. We reject
result of inequalities found in their countries any law, culture, or religion in which women
of origin, women from Ukraine, Moldova, are systematically discriminated against,
Nigeria, the Dominican Republic, Burma, excluded from political participation and
and Thailand are bought and sold, trafficked public life, segregated in their daily lives,
to work in forced prostitution, with raped in armed conflict, beaten in their
insufficient government attention to protect homes, denied equal divorce or inheritance
their rights and punish the traffickers. In rights, killed for having sex, forced to marry,
Guatemala, South Africa, and Mexico, assaulted for not conforming to gender
women's ability to enter and remain in the norms, and sold into forced labor.____5____
work force is obstructed by private Cultural relativism, which argues that there
employers who use women's reproductive are no universal human rights and that
status to exclude them from work and by rights are culture-specific and culturally
discriminatory employment laws or determined, is still a formidable and corrosive
discriminatory enforcement of the law. challenge to women's rights to equality and
____2____Women in Morocco, Jordan, dignity in all facets of their lives.
Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia face The Women's Rights Division of Human
government-sponsored discrimination Rights Watch fights against the
that renders them unequal before the law - dehumanization and marginalization of
including discriminatory family codes that women. We promote women's equal rights
take away women's legal authority and place and human dignity.
it in the hands of male family members - and The realization of women's rights is a
restricts women's participation in public life. global struggle based on universal human
Abuses against women are relentless, rights and the rule of law. It requires all of us
systematic, and widely tolerated, if not to unite in solidarity to end traditions,
explicitly condoned. Violence and practices and laws that harm women. It is a
discrimination against women are global fight for freedom to be fully and completely
social epidemics, notwithstanding the very human and equal without apology or
real progress of the international women's permission Ultimately, the struggle for.
human rights movement in identifying, Women's human rights must be about making
raising awareness about, and challenging women's lives matter everywhere all the time.
impunity for women's human rights In practice, this means taking action to stop
violations. discrimination and violence against women.
____3____Women are unable to depend on
the government to protect them from
physical violence in the home, with (From: Newsweek. September 22, 2003.)
sometimes fatal consequences, including
increased risk of HIV/AIDS infection.

46
7 Divide the text above into logical parts and give them each a title.

8 Prepare a summary of the text.

9 Give a direct translation of the underlined part of the text.

10 Look at the words in bold in the text above and try to explain
them.

11 Cross the odd word out.

A. Discrimination Glass ceiling Sexism Rights


B. Gender Violence Massacre Humiliation
C. Charity Contribution Human rights

12 Make comments on the following statements:

o Unkindness is death to the home. One unkind, unsocial, critical,


eternally dissatisfied member can destroy any family.

o Beauty is unbearable, drives us to despair, offering us for a minute the


glimpse of an eternity that we should like to stretch out over the whole
of time. (Camus Albert, 1913-1960, French Existential Writer).

47
13 Look through the questions below and share your ideas with your
partners:

What do you think governments should do to


prevent discrimination in our society? What is the
role of social workers on this issue?

What organizations do you know that provide aid and


support to women and work for the emotional and
physical relief of people involved in troubles?

What can we do as individuals to help and


improve the situation of victims of
discrimination?

14 Find information about different types of discrimination against


women in modern Russia. Prepare a report about this isssue and suggest
your own solution to this problem.

Evaluation

1. What have you done in this unit?


2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you enjoy about it?
4. Have you any criticisms of it?
5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it
differently?

48
49
Family in the Modern
World
Family is the most important thing in the world.

Diana, Princess of Wales; 1961-1997

…………………………………………………………………………………………….....

1 Express your opinions on the following terms.


Divorce Two-career families
Working mothers Single-parent family

2 Make comments on the quotation given at the beginning of the


unit.

3 Express your ideas on the statements below and back up your


opinion.
o Healthy families are our greatest national resource
o The great advantage of living in a large family is that early lesson of life's essential
unfairness.
o Every family is a "normal" family - no matter whether it has one parent, two or no children
at all. A family can be made up of any combination of people, heterosexual or
homosexual, who share their lives in an intimate (not necessarily sexual) way. Wherever
there is lasting love, there is a family.

4 Look at the words and phrases and try to explain their meaning.

industrialized societies irretrievable breakdown of Proposed laws


marriage Welfare
50
adultery the rise in the divorce rate
socially acceptable break-up of a marriage

5 Divorce is one of the most important problems in our society now.


Read the text below and list two possible reasons for the divorce rate
rising sharply since the Second World War.

The History of Divorce in the 20th Century


In the past, families tended to rise. The total number in 1990 was over
stay together. They felt it was their 153,000, around 2% higher than in
duty to do this and that marriage was 1989. Proposed laws may make
for life. Divorce was not socially divorce even easier. Couples can now
acceptable. It was a commonly held afford the legal side of getting and
view that a bad marriage was better surviving a divorce more easily than at
than no marriage at all. any time in the past. However, for many
In Britain, as in many families it is still an economic disaster
industrialized societies, there has as well as being emotionally difficult.
been a steady rise in the numbers of Another possible reason behind the
divorces. The Second World War rise in the divorce rate is the changing
disrupted a lot of marriages, due to attitude to marriage itself in the 20th
enforced separation and hasty century. The traditional Christian
marriages which were later regretted. approach to marriage has been against
Immediately after the war there were a divorce. As the Church becomes less
record number of divorces and the influential in the Western Europe, the
proportion of marriages involving a view of marriage as a union for life has
divorced partner grew from 2% in weakened. The result is that the break-
1940 to 32% in 1985. up of a marriage is seen as less of a
Legal changes in this century have moral crisis and more as a matter of
made it much easier to get a divorce. personal happiness.
The most dramatic change resulted Perhaps the people most affected by
from the 1971 divorce law. The law a divorce are the children. According to
stated that there needed to be only one current forecasts, about 20% of children
reason for a divorce petition – the in Britain, for example, will experience
“irretrievable breakdown of family breakdown by the age of 16.
marriage.” This was a much wider There has been growing concern for
category than the previous ones of such children, who are usually between
cruelty, insanity, desertion or adultery. the ages of five and ten. Recent laws
The change in the law had an have indicated that first consideration
immediate effect. In 1972 there were should be given to the welfare of the
over 119,000 divorces in England and children when making financial
Wales and the rate has continued to arrangements after a divorce.

51
(Catherine Addis. Britain now: British
life and institutions. BBC English. 1994.)

6 Look through the questions below and share your ideas with the
partners:

Was there a “golden age” of the family in Russia?

What role do discipline and moral standards have in Russia?

Does our country have an equivalent of British “Victorian


values”?

How does “traditional” family life differ from Russian family life in
the present?

7 Divide the text above into logical parts and give each part a title.

8 Prepare a summary of the text.

9 Give a direct translation of the underlined parts of the text.

10 Express your ideas on the following situations

 A man and a woman living together without getting


married

 A man or a woman living alone and never getting married

 People marrying two or three times during their lifetime


52
How acceptable are these ways of life in your country?
11 Read the article from Newsweek magazine about people’s attitude
to the older generation in the USA. Do you agree with the author?

The Whiniest Generation

Yesterday, in the Costco beaches at Normandy and saved the


Parking Lot, a seventysomething world. And then, back home after
woman was trying to squeeze into years of blood and dirt, they raised
a narrow spot in her not-so-narrow bedroom cities, built skyscrapers
Cadillac. Between sudden and atom smashers and sent a man
whiplash lurches and the sound of to the moon. But today they mostly
her side-view mirror clumping drive too slowly. They purchase
against the car on her right, she many of the lame products you see
wasn’t happy. “You’re doing on late-night TV. Politicians can
fine”, I told her, trying to Boy scare a million of them before
Scout her into the spot. “I am not breakfast, terrify the rest before
doing fine!” she shouted. “It upsets lunch and claim to “save Medicare”
me that I can’t pull right in!” Like by dinner-time.
it was my fault. Like I was that
one said, “Get the triple-wide car, How did this generation –
dear.” And I was suddenly filled forged in war, tempered by mortar
with the anger of a guy in his mid- fire, flinty and rock-tough in their
30s who is tired of hearing old fatigues and counterman’s hat –
Americans complain about things. gets so whiny? How do you get
from “Next stop, Berlin!” to “I’ve
They are, I know, the greatest so old and I can’t get up”?
generation. They stormed the
(From: Newsweek. February 17. 2003.)

12 Discuss the relationship between different generations in Russia.

53
13 Match the words in the left column with their definitions in the
right column. Make the sentences using the new words.

1. Stigma A. an application for legal


action to be taken

2. Breadwinner B. children who have their


own key to their home
because there is no one to let
them after school

3. Petition C. living together as


husband and wife without
being married

4. latch key kids D. a reputation of shame or


dishonour

5. Permissive society E. a person supporting a


family financially by earning
money

6. Cohabiting F. a term given to a society


which allows people a great
deal of freedom, especially
sexual freedom

54
13 Another issue related to the modern family is
called “working mothers”. Read the text below and try to explain the
words in bold.

Working Mothers – Guilty Mothers?


Do mothers who work do so to the the Sex Discrimination Act was a further
detriment of their children? Can toddlers attempt to protect women in employment,
who grow up with full-time, quality day care education and other areas. The 1975
do as well as their peers who had full-time Employment Protection Act gave women the
moms? The debate is nearly as right to maternity leave.
acrimonious as the argument over abortion. In Britain today women make up 44% of
And as in that argument, each side in the the workforce, and nearly half the mothers
working-moms debate appeals to with children under five years old are in paid
emotions, insisting that the issue is clear work. It is not uncommon to find that the
and obvious, if only you see it from their mother is the main breadwinner. The
side. incentives for women to work or to return to
Until relatively recently, most mothers in work are increasing all the time, but there are
Western Europe did not take paid work still problems for women who want or have to
outside the home. Sometimes women did work.
voluntary work, especially those of the Although there is a greater acceptance of
middle classes. However, most women’s men taking more of an interest in child care
main (unpaid) labour was to run the home and domestic duties, studies show that men’s
and look after their family. Whether they did and women’s roles have not changed as
this themselves or supervised other people much as could be expected. In most families
doing it was a matter of class and money. working women are still mothers,
By entering the labour market, women housekeepers and income providers.
have now altered the face of family life. As There is a stigma attached to the
the role of the woman in the family changed, phenomenon of “latch key kids”. Society
so did the role of the man. expects someone – usually the mother – to
Recent legal changes have given women be there. Because of the difficulties of
new opportunities. In 1970 the Equal Pay combining the mother role with the demands
Act attempted to stop discrimination against of a career, women’s work also tends to be
women in the field of employment. In 1975 low-paid and irregular.

15 In your group discuss the issue of “working mothers” in Russia.

16 Write a paragraph about one of the mentioned family problems


and put forward your opinion of this problem.
Evaluation
1. What have you done in this unit?
2. What have you learnt from it?
55
3. What did you enjoy about it?
4. Have you any criticisms of it?
5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently?

56
Natural and Human Disasters
and Disaster Relief
“The last few years have been the worst period on record
for environmental disasters and experts are predicting far
worse to come”.

P. Fuller,
Information Delegate for the International
Federation of the Red Cross, 2001

………………………………………………………………………………

1 Look through the key words given and say which of these issues
are ‘environmental’ and which ‘human’?

Key words:

o deforestation o global warming


o the destruction of habitats o the greenhouse effect
o endangered species o malnutrition
o ethnic cleansing o terrorism
o the exploitation of women o natural disasters
o famine o overpopulation
o flooding o poverty
o racial discrimination
57
2 Which of the disasters given in the following list of key words do
you think are:
▪ caused by people ▪ made worse by people ▪ natural
Key words:
o avalanches o forest fires
o cyclones o hurricanes
o droughts o landslides
o earthquakes o volcanic eruption
o floods o windstorms

3 Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups:


o What is your attitude towards the future?
o Who is most likely to be a victim of natural disasters?
o What could be the biggest threat to the planet in the future?
o What effects might this threat have?
o What natural disasters have happened in the world or in the area you
live for the last few months? Discuss the causes and results of each of
them. What can we do to protect ourselves from events like these?

4 Look at the words and phrases underlined in the article ‘India


Quake Leaves Legacy of Chaos’ and try to explain their meaning. After
reading the text check whether your ideas were right or wrong.

5 Read the article about the earthquake that happened in some of


the regions of India and be ready to give answers to the following
questions:
o What are the main consequences of the earthquake?
o What kind of assistance is provided by officials to alleviate the
difficulties the disaster caused? What problems do the officials
come across?
o According to experts, what factors increased the death toll? What
should have been done to diminish the damage?
58
India Quake Leaves Legacy of Chaos Thousands Vie for Space on
Trains to Flee a Land of Fear and Misery
Thousands of families dragging her name as Meenatai, her eyes brimming
possessions salvaged from the ruins of with tears as she settled back to wait for
their homes camped in Gujarat state’s the next train.
main railroad station on Thursday, hoping In Bhuj survivors complained about
to catch a train out of Ahmadabad after six problems with the relief effort.
days of misery following the earthquake “A lot of things are coming in, but I
that killed more than 14,200 people. don’t know where they are going,” said
Back in town, about 600,000 homeless Madhobhai Maheshwari, who worked as a
people were living in camps or on the driver in Bhuj. He was in a crowd waiting
streets. Bulldozers continued to bring outside a government office in Bhuj,
down fractured buildings as rescue crews hoping to receive food and material to
raced ahead, shouting into the ruins in a provide shelter.
last attempt to find more survivors of the “We are being kicked around like a
quake. At least five people trapped in the football,” he said. “I have come here four
rubble were rescued in three towns on times for sheets, water and rations. They
Wednesday. are sending us from place to place.”
The exodus here is fueled partly by His brother, Balram Maheshwari, said
aftershocks and fears of another major government officials had demanded to see
quake, but survivors also say food is not his ration card before doling out food.
reaching them, despite all the aid that is “How can I find it, my house has
flowing into the disaster zone. collapsed completely,” he said.
As Thursday dawned, Kamli Mahato, R.S. Ninnama, deputy collector of the
mother of four and one of thousands of Kutch district where Bhuj is situated, said
people living in the train station in the checks were essential because some
Ahmadabad, tried to get her children people were returning for repeated
cleaned up. “We’ve been trying to get into handouts.
a free train to Calcutta. But I just couldn’t “There is no proper coordination from
get onto the last one,” said Mrs. Mahato. here because there is no office,” Mr.
When another free train to Calcutta Ninnama said, adding that his office was
came into the station, thousands of people short-staffed because several employees
rushed forward before it rolled to a halt. had no reported for work since the quake
Young men leaped onto the coaches, hit.
while others ran alongside banging at Residents are furious the high-rises
doors that were jammed or locked. were built in the first place. “The
Women, many of them carrying bundles government shouldn’t have given
of clothing in each hand, ran after their permission,” said one, Kishore Chandan.
husbands, yelling at straggling children to Experts say flawed design, poor
catch up. construction materials, violation of local
The railroad police, fearing a stampede, building laws and lack of simple quake-
tried unsuccessfully to bring order to the proofing measures which are common
chaos. Each train can carry about 1,200 across most of India greatly increased the
seated passengers, but about 4,000 people death toll in Gujarat.
squeezed in. “Old people and children just
have no chance,” said a woman who gave (By B. Bearak, International Herald
Tribune, 2001.)
59
6 Give a direct translation of the underlined part of the article.

7 Read the article entitled “Five Days Later, Rescuers Find a Sole
Survivor” and fill in the gaps with the appropriate word or phrase from
the box. There are three words that you do not need to use.
trained dogs survivor assistance contaminated explosives
rescue teams death toll volunteers ruins injured alive
crews relief agencies disease lifting equipment suppliers
sanitation system confusion

Five Days Later, Rescuers Find a Sole Survivor


Rescuers pulled another .......1......... from the Patrick Fuller, information delegate for the
ruins on Wednesday as a vast domestic and International Federation of the Red Cross, said
international operation sought to help hundreds five planes a day were arriving at the airport in
of thousands of people left ....2........, hungry and the district of Bhuj.
homeless by the earthquake that struck western “It takes a long time to clear stuff through the
India on Friday. airport, as there is no .......11......... and we do not
Just as hope of finding anyone else alive have enough ........12.. to simply shift everything
seemed to have disappeared, an Indian rescue by hand,” he said. “At the moment there is a lot of
team freed Jyotsnabhen Gandhi from the ruins of mess and confusion, and it will take a at least a
a four-story apartment building, where the 55- couple of days to get things together.”
year-old woman had been trapped for five days. Fear of .......13........ was growing. In the
“It’s a miracle that she is ....3...,” said K. village of Lodai, near the quake’s epicenter, a
Kailashnathan, the commissioner of the local doctor said some people had already fallen
commercial capital of the state of Gujarat. But the sick, including four children under three, probably
grim reality remained that .......4....... were making from drinking .....14........ water. “I think it is
their last rounds with .......5.......... and other inevitable in a situation like this when there is no
equipment before heading home. running water,” Mr. Fuller said. ” You have kids
Estimates of the ........6........ from the quake, playing in the rubble; the car-casses of animals
which measured 7.9 on the Richter scale, have and dead bodies are around.” Conditions were
gone as high as 100,000, although state officials grim for the 800 survivors living in tents in the
said Wednesday that the confirmed toll so far ravaged city of Bhuj. Though food and drink were
was 12,000. available, no ........15........ had been set up.
Demolition .....7.... using dynamite began “We haven’t had a chance to think about the
clearing away the shells of buildings and homes. future,” said Bharpi Thakkar, 42, huddled with her
In Ahmadabad, engineers wearing motorcycle three children and four other families under a
helmets broke up slabs of concrete with sledge- tent. “The challenge now is to deal with the
hammers and crowbars. Clouds of dust rose into present.”
the air as bulldozers moved into the ....8...... “In
most places we’ve used a small quantity of (By B. Bearak,
plastic .......9..... to pull down the more
dangerously balanced parts. It’s a delicate
operation which needs very careful handling,”
said Colonel Rajat Raftogi of the Indian Army
engineering corps.
The international response to India’s worst
quake in 50 years has been swift and
comprehensive. But .......10....... said they were
having difficulty handling the volume of traffic.

60
International Herald Tribune, 2001.)

8 Look through the questions below and share your ideas with your
partners:
o What do you think governments should do to prevent
natural disasters? What can governments do to diminish
the results of disasters and solve the problems they cause
for the population on the whole? What is the role of the
social welfare system in this issue?
o What can we do as individuals to improve the
environmental situation on our planet and help victims of
natural disasters and disasters caused by humans?
9 Read the information given below on how to behave during an
earthquake, discuss the main ideas in groups and devise your own
instructions on how to behave during disasters or accidents that might
happen: floods, tornados, fires, car accidents, epidemics etc. Choose any
disaster suggested and develop your own plan.

What should I do during the Earthquake?

Falling objects pose the greatest danger during a major earthquake. In


Canada, no house has ever collapsed during an earthquake. However, many
types of objects may fall and cause damage or injuries. Of prime concern,
therefore, is protection from falling objects such as framed pictures, light
fixtures, plaster from ceilings or the upper part of walls, or chimneys which
may fall outside or through the roof into the house.
When an earthquake occurs,
• turn away from windows and other glass; windows may break
and glass shards can fly great distances;
• take cover under a sturdy desk, table, or door frame to prevent
injury from falling debris;
• if you are outside, try to keep to open areas well clear of
buildings and power lines;
• if you are driving, pull over and stop your vehicle, preferably in
an open area.
61
After an earthquake, follow emergency radio broadcasts carefully, and
restrict your telephone calls to genuine emergencies.
What should I do after a strong earthquake?
 Stay calm.
 Help the injured, if any.
 Speak calmly with family members, especially children
about what has just happened, in order to relief stress.
 Stay tuned to the radio and follow instructions.
 Use the telephone only in an emergency.
 Do not enter damaged buildings.
 To prevent fire, check the chimneys or have them
checked before using the furnace or fireplace. Check all
gas pipes.

10 Read the information about an imaginary country. Imagine that


you are a participant in a committee which is planning an aid program.
Decide on your priorities and think of solutions to the problems. Discuss
and share your ideas with the other members of your group; be ready
to present your entire aid program before the class and to justify your
decisions.

Population: 16 million
Gross National Product (GNP): $ 13,000
Unemployment: 35%
Agriculture: poor soil - some production of bananas, oranges
Industry: not developed - a chemical factory in the capital
Communications: most roads – muddy; problems in the wet seasons; airport in need of
repair; very few telephones

11 Express your ideas on the statements given below and back up


your opinion. You should use about 120-180 words.
1. “Disasters don’t kill people, buildings do.”
2. Many lives are in danger when hastily erected buildings collapse
because safety standards have been sacrificed to hopes of a quick
profit. To prevent disasters of this kind, governments should play a
62
greater role in setting and enforcing safety standards for building
construction.

12 You are going to read an article about events that happened in the
US on 11 September, 2001. Read the article carefully so that you are
ready to fulfill the tasks set after the article.

First Reactions
Even before the dust of the World attack. These fears resulted in vacation
Trade Center settled, people began plans being canceled, school and work
reaching out to help. Donors lined up at absentee rates increasing, and calls for
blood banks around the country to give massive security reforms. And
blood in the hope of helping survivors occasionally, they resulted in an attack
(unfortunately there were few). on an innocent American who had the
Celebrities, aid agencies, and grade “wrong” profile.
school children started fund raisers; and In these days following September
the money poured in - $1.2 billion and 11, hate crimes against Muslims and
counting. So much money that it has Arab Americans increased dramatically.
been difficult to distribute it all. Around Bomb threats were made against
the country people attended memorial mosques, Muslim school children were
services, sobbing for the loss of people taunted, and a Sikh gas station owner,
they did not know, and mourning their mistakenly thought to be an Arab, was
own loss of innocence. And everywhere, shot and killed. When arrested, the
there were flags. American flags hung gunman who killed the gas station owner
from freeway overpasses, office towers, declared, “I am an American,” implying
car antennas, lapel pins, and mail boxes; that his actions were somehow justified
they showed solidarity with the victims because he was protecting his country.
and represented a determination to stand The difficulty with that argument is
firm for freedom in the face of that Muslims and Arab Americans are
terrorism. American too. And despite the actions of
But amidst all of this generosity there a few individuals who let their fear
existed overwhelming fear. Fear of consume them, the majority of
flying, fear of leaving children, fear of Americans recognize this reality.
visiting public places, fear of another (From: The Times, 2001.)

13 Look at the words and phrases underlined in the article and try to
explain what they mean. Make up sentences using these words.

63
14 Share your ideas and make comments on the initial reactions of
American people to the events of September 11, 2001.

15 You are going to read an article that describes the reaction of the
American government and officials to the events of September 11, 2001.
Read the article and fill in the gaps with the appropriate word from the
box. There are three words that you do not need to use.

hijackers volunteers cells military immigrants


war memory religious civilian visas silence
freedom embassy rights wisdom cultural
horror wreaths

Struggling for balance in government reactions


The government too has struggled to hate a nation that believes in ……8…. and
balance compassion with fear. Immediately liberty?
after September 11, hundreds of Middle So deep was the hurt that even
Eastern ……1…. were arrested on visa committed pacifists called for ……9… .
violations and it was announced that President Bush’s approval ratings were
thousands more immigrants would be extremely high – 80% of Americans
questioned. The reason behind this massive supported the ………10….. campaign
dragnet – these individuals fit a profile against the Taliban.
similar to the …2…… They were Muslim, Yet even in the midst of this anger came
between the ages of 18 and 33, had entered calls for compassion. Concern for the
the country on student ……3.., and came Afghan people led the military to drop food
from nations that were known to have AL and clothing over …11……. areas of
Qaeda ……4.. But initial interviews went Afghanistan. Hundreds of thousands of
badly and Muslim leaders and civil …… American children responded to President
5….. advocates screamed “racial profiling”. Bush’s call to send their allowances to
The FBI adopted a different approach – Afghan children. Millions of dollars have
offering a ……6….. sensitivity training been pledged and ……12…… are being
program to agents, writing to invite recruited to help the country to re-build. Of
individuals to come in for an interview course, much of this compassion was
(rather than showing up unannounced at the strategic.
door), and reaching out to …7……. and In the midst of tremendous pain last
community leaders. September, Americans took great comfort in
Looking beyond the country’s borders, the compassion of the international
the struggle to balance fear and compassion community: The Star-Spangled Banner
is all the more difficult. Americans have playing at Buckingham Palace, ……13……
thought long of themselves as a generous, being laid at the American ……14……. in
open, and just people – self-image that made Beijing, a candlelight vigil in Tehran, a
the events of September 11 all the more moment of …15……. observed across
difficult to understand. Why would people

64
Europe – these gestures set an important
tone in international cooperation. (From: The Times, 2001.)

16 Answer the questions suggested:

o What is the reaction of the US government to the events


of September 11, 2001?
o What tendencies in the international policy of the US
have become evident?
o What is the reaction of the international community?

17 Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups:

o Did ‘September 11’ change you in any important way as a


person?
o How would you describe the reaction of a ‘typical American’?
o In your opinion, what social welfare services were necessary to
deal with the consequences of the attack?
o What preventative measures should be implemented to
alleviate the possible consequences of events like those
described in the text?

18 Disclose the meaning of the following phrase:

“Fear and compassion are two sides of the same coin…and


both have been in abundant supply in the United States since
September 11, 2001.”

19 In groups share your ideas on the statement given below:

65
“Events like September 11, 2001 and Beslan September 1, 2004
have re-shaped our understanding of ourselves and our place in
the world.”

20 Read the article ‘Recovery from Traumatic Stress’ and fill in the
gaps with the parts A, B, C, D and E. There is one part that you do not
need to use.

A) Usually no other treatment is needed other than that offered by a good


friend’s concern and, for a limited time, sleeping pills at night.
For all those who could be described as suffering from the symptoms of acute
stress disorder, there are thousands more who may find that their general
mood has been altered by the terrorists’ atrocity.

B) Others have developed post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of living


through a time of great fear, while witnessing an event that could possibly
involve death or injury to family, friends or colleagues at a time when they felt
helpless because they were unable to influence the outcome.

C) The survey showed that more than 30% people were injured in the terrible
disaster and most of them suffered a long post-traumatic stress.

D) They will be numbed by the event, emotionally unresponsive, indifferent to


their surroundings to varying degrees and have a sense that such a ghastly
event couldn’t really have happened.

E) Both medication and psychotherapy have their place in the treatment of


post-traumatic stress disorder. There is debate over the most efficient form of
psychotherapy, but what is not in dispute is that the therapist needs to be
sympathetic and empathetic.

66
67
Recovery from Traumatic Stress
It will take years to clear the minds of again reported similar changes in their
some of those who were witnesses, mood and feelings. Other patients with a
directly or not, to the terrorist attack on history of psychological problems have
the twin towers of the World Trade noticed a significant deterioration in
Center. their mood; depression, if present, has
After experiencing a traumatic event, been deeper, and most have complained
many people showed signs of acute of insomnia, anxiety attacks and a
stress disorder. Though it has similar general, but undefined, sense of unease
symptoms to post-traumatic stress and uncertainty.
disorder, it is, however troublesome and Post- traumatic stress disorder affects
short-lived, like the dust clouds. Acute those who have been in terrific situations
stress disorder begins within a month of where they have either suffered or been
the incident, lasts for not less than two threatened by serious injury, with the
weeks, but not more than four weeks. possibility of death.
Many people who suffer from acute ………………3……………
stress disorder have the nightmares and After surviving the horrific incident,
flashbacks characteristic of post- the image of it is constantly recalled, its
traumatic stress disorder, but they also memory triggered through any of the
show various psychological defence senses that would remind the person of
mechanisms. the disaster. Not unnaturally, people
……………1…………………. with post-traumatic stress disorder
They may have transient amnesia, so arrange their lives so that these triggers
that much of the detail of the horror is are avoided. Many patients develop
apparently forgotten. severe depression, which may appear in
Those who have suffered from acute many forms. The symptoms may recur
stress disorder often say that once they on the anniversary of the date.
can start to talk repeatedly about their ………4………………………
experiences, they begin to improve. This desire accounts for the need of
They benefit from the ear of those who have had terrible experiences
understanding and kindly confident who to seek the company of those who have
is prepared to listen to the same story undergone similar ones. The aim of the
many times over, and on each occasion therapy is to gradually desensitize
be as interested, empathetic and people to the haunting memory of the
sympathetic as the first time they heard trauma and to remove any habits that
it. they may have adopted to avoid
…………2…………………… confronting the memories that interfere
A New Yorker told me that the only with their domestic or professional life.
difference he had noticed in his mood Meanwhile, the depressive
was that his usual autumnal early- component of the disorder is treated with
morning depression was slightly deeper antidepressants. The ones favoured are
than it was usually. Several British those that also have a strong anti-anxiety
patients who watched the television effect.
images of the planes crashing into the
towers and the Pentagon over and over (From: The Times, 2001.)

68
21 Answer the questions:
o What is acute stress disorder? What are its symptoms? How long
does it last?
o What symptoms characterize post-traumatic disorder? What kind
of people does it affect?
o What is used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder?

22 Use any sources available (newspapers, magazines or Internet


resources) to find information about organizations that provide aid and
support after disasters and accidents and work for the emotional and
physical relief of the people involved in troubles. Be ready to make a
presentation basing on the information you’ve found.

23 Write any of the following compositions using 120 -180 words.

You work as a journalist. You’ve interviewed


the information delegate of the International
Federation of the Red Cross about the results
of the devastating flood. Write a news report
about the measures the organization is going to
implement to alleviate the consequences of the
disaster.

You work as a journalist on a newspaper. You’ve


been sent to report on a typhoon that recently
stuck the western coast of Japan. Write the report
for the newspaper describing the performance of
social welfare organizations in helping people
overcome the consequences of the disaster.

Evaluation
1. What have you done in this unit?
2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you enjoy about it?
4. Have you any criticisms of it?

69
5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it
differently?

Charity
“Donations go further when you give to groups that
spend responsibility”.

N. Jacobe,
French Philosopher and Thinker, 20-th century

……………………………………………………………………………………………...

1 Could you give a definition for the term “charity”? Are there any
differences between the words “charity” and “sponsorship”? What are
the main aims and principles of charity and sponsorship programs
existing in your country? Give any examples to back up your opinion.

2 Before reading the text make any comments on the quotation


suggested at the beginning of the unit. Look at the heading of the text
and try to predict what it’s going to be about.

70
3 Read the text “Money Where their Mouth is” and be ready to
answer the questions given after it.

71
Money where their Mouth is

Whether your altruism is prompted by spending habits of individual


a large-scale tragedy or just old- organizations. Generally speaking, their
fashioned goodwill, you should guidelines demand that at least 50 or 60
always carefully evaluate the percent of donations received by a
organizations that will benefit from charity goes directly to the cause being
your hard-earned cash. promoted, though 70 percent is ideal,
You want to be sure the money being says Langan.
donated is actually going to the purposes Some smaller charities may not be
promoted by the charity, as many non- evaluated by this watchdog group, but
profits spend a substantial portion of you can do your own homework.
their donations on fund-raising, salaries Charitable organizations are required to
and other administrative expenses. provide anyone who asks a copy of their
A good relief appeal should define most recent Form 990. The form includes
what special need or service the group is the information about their budget and
filling or providing, says Weiner. Even a plans.
newly-created organization should be A charity has the right to charge a
open about why it was created, what “reasonable” copying fee if this
niche it hopes to fill and how it plans on document is requested, so don’t be
spending contributions. “If they don’t surprised if the group asks for a few
have a plan, it may be a sign of good dollars in exchange.
intentions, but bad management. It may Charities with gross income less than
not be evidence of fraud, but it may $25,000 are not required to file a Form
indicate whether the donation will be 990, but you can check with the help of
used effectively,” said Weiner. your local Better Business Bureau to see
Charity watchdog groups, such as the if any complaints have been filed against
National Charities Information Bureau the organization.
and the Council of Better Business
Bureaus, can tell you more about the (From http://www.bbc.co.uk/info/)

4 Answer the following questions referring to the text above:

a) What problems can people come across while donating money for some
charitable purpose? Why is it necessary to evaluate the organizations
people donate money to?
b) What kind of information should ‘a good relief appeal’ contain?
c) What is the function of charity watchdog groups in controlling the
process of donating money to the cause being promoted?

72
d) What information should be presented in the so-called Form 990? Is it
obligatory for all organizations to have such a document?

5 Can you explain the meaning of the following words and word
combinations mentioned in the passage? Make up sentences with these
words and word combinations.

altruism
non-profits
charity watchdog groups
Form 990
hard-earned cash
fund-raising
contributions

6 Fill in the correct word from the words in the box below. Use each
word only once.

goodwill large-scale fee newly-created


administrative hard-earned organizations
intentions charity special substantial

1. ……… need or service


2. old-fashioned ………
3. ……… portion
4. ……… cash
5. a ……… organization
6. a “reasonable” copying ………
7. a sign of good ………
8. charitable ………
9. the purposes promoted by the ………
10. ……… expenses
11. a ……… tragedy

73
7 Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups:

Is it possible to
control money flows? Is it possible to
avoid misuse of
money given?
What charitable
organizations do you know
that exist in your country?
What are the procedures
when making donations?

Do problems of the same kind exist


in the country where you live? What
measures should be implemented to
control the situation and prevent
the society from being cheated by
various charities?

8 Role-play the following situation with your partner:


Imagine that one of you is a charity fund manager and the
other is a very curious person who is going to donate a large
sum of money for charitable purposes. What is going to
win: curiosity or professionalism?

9 Answer the following questions and share your ideas with your
group mates:

1. What social group of people would you donate or give money


to?
2. Have you given money to anybody in the street recently? If not,
do you ever give money?
74
3. Is begging prohibited in your country?
4. Do you often see people asking for money in the streets in your
town or in other towns in your country?
10 Look through the opinions of different people who were asked to
express their views on whether they help people asking for money in the
streets or not. Analyze their actions and motives and make your
comments.

a) “I don’t think it’s a good idea to give money because I’d


be really worried that somebody would spend it on
alcohol rather than something nourishing… What I
think I might do is to buy a sandwich or hot drink or
give them something in winter: may be find some old
clothes.”

b) “I usually put a couple of coins in a donation box if I’m not in a hurry and
if it’s easy to get at the change. I don’t believe in giving money to beggars.”

c) “I never give money to anybody. As far as I’m


concerned it just encourages them. I pay my taxes so the
state will look after these people. I think it’s sheer
laziness. I think they could get up off their bums and get a
job if they really wanted to. It’s just that they don’t want
to work.”

d) “Well, I don’t mind giving a few pennies to people who are doing
something to earn them. I’d rather they actually did something…street artists
or someone who is actually playing music; it puts people in a good mood on
the way to work.”

e) “I never give money on the street any more. I do give


money through my bank to charities that I’m particularly
concerned about. Once a month they get money from my
bank. And that way I know where it’s going and it also
means that you’re giving extra money because of tax
relief.”

f) “It really annoys me... these people with their squeezes. I don’t see why I
should give money for cleaning my windscreen. I haven’t asked them. I think

75
it’s high time the government did something about it because it really is
annoying.”

11 Summarize the ideas discussed above and express your opinion on


the question suggested. Use about 120-180 words.

What do you think is the best way to help people who ask for money in the
streets?

o What things do people do to raise money for charity?


o What kinds of events raise most money?
o Have you ever done anything to raise money for charity?

12 Look at the headline of the article ‘A Weekend of Charity, Hope


and Redemption (The Selfless Side of NBA All-Star Hoopla)’ and say
what you think the article is going to be about. Read the first paragraph
to find out if you are right.

13 Read the article quickly to find out some specific information and
answer the questions below:

a) Who are the main characters in the article?

b) What cause is Dikembe Mutombo raising money for?

76
c) What country was Dikembe Mutombo born in?

d) What sum of money is Alonzo Mourning planning to


raise on the whole?

14 Now read the article more carefully to be ready to speak on the


questions suggested after it.

A Weekend of Charity, Hope and Redemption


The Selfless Side of NBA All-Star HOOPLA
There are stories that don’t need an Africa needs almost everything. The Africa
apology playing out this All-Star of the future doesn’t look too good when
Weekend, stories that have to do with men you consider the poverty, the lack of
who want to be here, stories of charity, medical care, the rate of AIDS. The human
humanity and even redemption. There are resources have to come together.”
two stories of heroism unfolding, not of Clearly, Mutombo needs every cent he
scoring and rebounding, but of using one’s can get. Still, just before he walked into a
station in life to save lives. media session, Mutombo handed one of his
There is no better place to start than former teammates Mourning a check for
with Dikembe Mutombo, the Atlanta $50,000. Why? Because Mourning is also
Hawks’ center now halfway to his goal of on a mission.
raising $15 million to build a 300-bed Mourning seeks to raise $4 million to
hospital in his home country, the fight focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, a
Democratic Republic of the Congo. All- degenerative kidney disease that has
Star Weekend means schmoozing sidelined him this season. He told his
potential corporate sponsors. It means fellow NBA player what he wanted from
asking people of means to support, in a them: one-half of one day’s pay. He wants
tangible way, a project that many in to raise $2 million, then will match it by
America would hardly give a second writing a check for $2 million himself.
thought. Once someone asked Mouring, who has
“My target is to break the ground in lost weight as he continues to undergo
September,” said Mutombo, whose wife is aggressive treatment, if he ever wakes up
expecting their second child. “And then it and asks God, “Why me?” Mourning
will take 38 months to complete building. replied with a short sermon.
It does wear me out, because there is so “How could I have a nerve to ask, “Why
little time to be a father and to be the best me?” he said. “ I don’t have a problem. The
ballplayer I can be, to give something to people who have to ration their medication
my people that is important. This is an because it costs so much – they’ve got a
important thing in my life. problem. The people who have six days of
“My parents didn’t have that much, but sick leave a year – they have the problem.
they were charitable. They served their They have the right to ask, “Why me?”
community. I have so much more than my “People out there need help. I never
dad; why shouldn’t I make a contribution? asked, “Why me?” I asked, “What do you
77
want me to do now?” I can utilize swelling will go down. This is a reality
resources. I can get the best doctors, I can check”.
afford the medication. Man, I live in a Of course, not every story is dripping
fantasy world. We work two, three hours a with that kind of emotion, but these ones
day at the most. We’re getting paid need public’s attention.
extremely well to do something you love
to do. You train your mind and body to (By M. Wilbon, Washington
ignore the injuries and rigors of your work Post Service, 2001.)
and you think you’re Superman. I can’t
put this in an ice bucket and know the

15 Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups:

o How are people in the article helping charity?


o Explain the meaning of the phrase “All-Star Weekend”.
o What are the reasons that inspire the main characters of
the article to raise money for charity?

16 Give a direct translation of the paragraphs underlined in the


article.

17 Look through the paragraphs of the article carefully and find the
words that mean:

a) the act of doing smth. or having a quality that compensates


for the faults or bad aspects of smth. (paragraph 1)
b) clear and definite (paragraph 2)
c) to make smb. very tired (paragraph 3)
d) the people living in one place, district or country, considered
as a whole (paragraph 4)
e) a particular aim or duty that one wants to fulfill more than
anything else (paragraph 5)

78
f) to remove smb. from a game, team, etc. (paragraph 6)
g) a talk on a moral or religious subject, usually given by a priest
during a religious service (paragraph 7)
h) to limit the amount of smth. that smb. is allowed to have
(paragraph 8)
i) harsh and difficult conditions (paragraph 9)

Make up sentences with these words.


18 Fill in the phrases from the article with the correct word(s) given
in the list below. Use the word(s) only once.

corporate sponsors humanity to break a contribution


rigors human resources to ration medical care
to undergo a second thought served

1. to ignore the injuries and ………


2. my target is ……… the ground
3. as he continues …….. aggressive treatment
4. people who have ……… their medication
5. many in America would hardly give ………
6. ……… have to come together
7. stories of charity, ……… and even redemption
8. they ……… their community
9. why shouldn’t I make ………
10. schmoozing potential ………
11. when you consider the poverty, the lack of ………

19 Decide whether you agree or disagree with the following


statements, give any reasons to support your decision:

79
a) “Whenever a disaster appeal is launched or a charity begins a
new campaign, there is one thing you should be aware of - there will
always be a celebrity.”

b) “No one doubts the sincerity of superstars who lend their


names to worthy causes, and many of them have backed other
campaigns. In most cases they genuinely believe in what they are
supporting.”
20 Do you know any celebrities who care enough to show real
dedication and help out when there is no prospect of money or a
photograph in the papers? Give examples.

21 You have been asked to organize a fund-raising event. Consider


the points below and make a presentation.
1. Who the money is going to.
a. Will it be a local charity?
b. An international organization?
c. Or may be a country or a group of people which is in particular
need at the moment?
d. Why have you decided to help this particular cause?
2. The kind of event you are going to organize.
a. Will it be sponsoring sports event?
b. If so, what kind of sport?
c. Or, will it be some kind of cultural event?
d. Maybe a film show or a play or a concert? What will you do
exactly?
3. Who you’re going to invite.
a. Are you going to invite any celebrities or local dignitaries?
b. If yes, who, why?
4. The practicalities.
Decide on the date, the time and the venue.
5. Prepare to present your ideas to the class following the structure given
below:
a. Nominate a spokesperson.
b. Help the spokesperson to prepare a presentation according to the
plan:
80
1. Explain who you are raising the money for and why you chose this
cause.
2. Explain what kind of event you are going to organize and why you chose
this kind of event.
3. Explain the practicalities.
4. Invite your audience to be generous in their support and answer any
questions they may have.
5. Listen to the other groups’ presentations. Which group presented
a) The most original fund-raising idea?
b) The most practical fund-raising idea?

The headline of the article you are going to read is “Charitable


appeals policy”. What do you understand by this heading? Try to
predict what subject is going to be touched upon in the article. Is
there any similar policy that exists in your country? If yes, speak
about the major principles and rules of this policy based on your own
knowledge and life experience. Be ready to share your ideas on the
topic whether it is obligatory or not to have such regulations in
contemporary society.

22 Read the article carefully to be ready to answer the questions


suggested:

o What are the primary purposes of BBC appeals broadcasting?


o What is the main responsibility of the Appeals Advisory
Committee?

Charitable Appeals Policy

The BBC has always three primary purposes in mind in its broadcasting
of appeals.
• The first is to raise money for good causes and, by
extension, to encourage the habit of giving.
• The second is to provide a service to those members of the
public who are charitably inclined, and to offer
81
authoritative information and guidance on causes that
deserve their support.
• The third is to give charities an opportunity to raise public
awareness of their work.
The policy incorporates the accumulated experience of over sixty years
of appeals broadcasting. The following paragraphs summarize its main
provisions:
Organizations should be concerned directly or indirectly through
preventative work, with the alleviation of human suffering, or they should
aim to promote social, physical, cultural, mental or moral well-being.
The policy continues with a list of working principles and rules, as
follows:
• A charity should have gained or be likely to gain public
support.
•It should be registered with the Charity Commission.
• It should have attained or have a good prospect of
attaining an established track record of charitable
achievement and be able to demonstrate financial viability.
• Charitable work undertaken by certain religious
organizations is eligible provided that the funds will be
used for the relief of suffering or promotion of physical,
mental or moral well-being, that these activities represent a
substantial part of the work of the organization and that the
benefits from the appeal are available to all sections of
society.
• Educational charities are considered only if their work has
some special and additional social interest.
• Organizations which exist primarily to raise funds for
medical or other research should provide evidence that their
work is of UK-wide significance and that they have
appropriate procedures for ensuring that the research they
fund is of the highest quality and is of public benefit.
•When some serious or major disaster occurs at home and a
public fund is set up, a special appeal may be arranged.
(From: http://www.bbc.co.uk/info/policirs/charities/,
http://www.bbc.co.uk/foi/docs/community_involvement/)

23 Explain the meaning of the underlined phrases.


82
24 Make comments on the following quotation which summarizes the
main idea of the appeals policy: “In general, appeals should be
restricted to causes which concern themselves with the relief of distress,
the preservation of life and health, and the amelioration of social
conditions.”

25 Point out the two essentials the policy is based on, analyze and
comment on the main principles and the rules of the policy.

26 Role-play the following dialogue in pairs. Use the words and word
combinations underlined in the article to sound more sophisticated and
efficient.

You’re a representative of an organization and you


would like the opportunity to broadcast an appeal so
as to raise money for a certain charitable purpose.
Follow the plan suggested to present your views and
do your best to reach the aim you have:

a) The sphere of charity and its main priorities.


b) The aims of the project (program) promoted and its specific
features.
c) The benefits of the project for the public.

Stand your ground and make your partner accept


your arguments. Use the word combinations
underlined in the article so as to have a powerful
effect on the listener.

83
You’re the representative of a BBC Appeals
Advisory Committee. Listen to the representative of
the organization that would like their charitable
appeal to be broadcasted and find out whether the
ideas suggested suit the main principles and rules of
the Appeals Broadcasting Policy. Ask any questions
to clear up unclear points.

27 Use any sources available (newspapers, magazines or Internet


resources) to find the information about celebrities, their participance in
different charitable events and their contribution to charitable
foundations and causes. You may use the following table while preparing
your project work:

Who? ………
When? ………
Where? ………
Motives of the person ………
Social reasons for the
charitable cause (event, ………
foundation etc.)
Results of the charitable
activities ………

28 Write a composition expressing your opinion on the following


topic. Defend your opinion using 120-180 words.

84
What is ‘charity’? What person can be called a charitable
one? Is ‘being charitable’ a quality people are born with or
do we acquire it socially?

Evaluation
1. What have you done in this unit?
2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you enjoy about it?
4. Have you any criticisms of it?
5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it
differently?

International Organizations
Dealing with Social Problems
“Aid is not charity but a vital
investment in global peace and security”.

D. Wolfensohn,
President of the World Bank, 2001

…………………………………………………………………………………………….....

1 Make comments on the quotation given at the beginning of the


unit.

2 Discuss the following questions in pairs or groups:

85
o What international organizations that help people solve their social
problems do you know?
o What are the main problems these organizations are concerned with?
o Give examples of international economic, social, cultural, and
humanitarian problems that exist in the world.

3 You are going to read the passage about the United Nations
Organization (UNO), one of the largest international organizations
dealing with social, economic and humanitarian problems in the world.
Before reading the passage try to recollect the events happened recently
in the world that required the assistance and interference of the UNO.
What is the role of the UNO in these events? Share your ideas with your
partners.

4 Read the passage ‘Organization of the United Nations’ to be ready


to answer the questions after the passage.

Organization of the United Nations


The purposes, principles, and the principles of equal rights and self-
organization of the United Nations are determination of peoples; achieving
outlined in the Charter. The ultimate worldwide cooperation to solve
goals of the United Nations, according to international economic, social, cultural,
its Charter, are “to save succeeding and humanitarian problems; respecting
generations from the scourge of war, … and promoting human rights; and serving
to reaffirm faith in fundamental human as a centre where nations can coordinate
rights, … to establish conditions under their actions and activities towards these
which justice and respect for the various ends.
obligations arising from treaties and Chapter 6 of the Charter provides
other sources of international law can be for the pacific settlement of disputes,
maintained, and to promote social through such means as negotiation,
progress and better standards of life in mediation, arbitration, and/or judicial
larger freedom.” Its primary purpose, decisions. When pacific settlement fails,
therefore, is to maintain international the goal of collective security – whereby
peace and security. the security of each member is assured
Other important objectives listed by all, and aggression against one would
in Chapter 1 of the Charter include be met by the resistance of all – underlies
developing friendly relations among the provisions in Chapter 7 for coercive
nations based on respect for the measures, including economic and
86
military sanctions, against an aggressor. In addition to traditional
In practice, however, collective security peacekeeping and preventive diplomacy
has been extremely difficult to achieve. tasks, the functions of UN forces in the
During the Cold War, collective security post-Cold War era have been expanded
was replaced by peacekeeping and considerably. From 1990 they supervised
preventive diplomacy. In the post-Cold elections, encouraged peace negotiation
War period, appeals to the United and distributed food in many parts of the
Nations for peacemaking purposes world.
increased dramatically, renewing (From: The New Encyclopaedia
discussion about the feasibility of putting Britannica, V. 2).
into practice the original UN provisions
for collective security.

5 Make comments on the quotation given at the beginning of the


unit.

6 Discuss the following questions in pairs:


o What are the main principles and objectives of the UNO listed
in the Charter?
o What are the main ways that UNO uses in order to fulfill its
functions and achieve goals listed in the Charter?
o What are the functions of UN forces?

7 Look at the words and phrases underlined in the passage


‘Organization of the United Nations’ and explain what they mean.
Make up sentences with these words.

8 Read the passage about the importance of child caring in the


international contemporary society and fill in the gaps with the
prepositions suggested in the box. You may use the same preposition
more than once.

by with under for in to of at


up

87
To look into some aspects of the future, we do not need projections …1…
supercomputers. Much of the next millennium can be seen how we care …2…
our children today. Tomorrow’s world may be influenced …3….. science and
technology; but more than anything, it is already taking shape …4…. the bodies
and minds of our children.

Over 200 million children …5….. developing countries …6….the age of


five are malnourished. For them, and for the world …7….. large, the message is
especially urgent. Malnutrition contributes ……8… more than half of the nearly
12 million under-five deaths in developing countries each year. Malnourished
children often suffer the loss of precious mental capacities. They fall ill more
often. If they survive, they may grow ……9…. …10… lasting mental or physical
disabilities.

This human suffering and waste happens because …11…. illness – much
of it preventable; because breastfeeding is stopped too early; because children’s
nutritional needs are not sufficiently understood; because long-entrenched
prejudices imprison women and children …12…. poverty.

9 Use additional sources available to find the information about


well-known international organizations that are involved in solving
social problems in the world. Making your project you may use the plan
suggested:

1. History
2. Members, National Committees, regional and field offices
3. Aims and objectives
4. Categories of people they help
5. Problems they deal with
6. Countries they provide assistance for
7. Plans and perspectives of the organization
9. Problems and difficulties the organization comes across

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10 You are going to read the article ‘To Feed a Growing World
Family, Fund Science for Farmers’. Look at the heading and try to
predict what this article might be about.

11 Look through the words that will appear in the article and try to
explain what these words mean. What context might these words
appear?

malnutrition
famine
fertilizer
underinvestment
genetics and genomics
philanthropic
starvation

12 You are going to read an article where the writer Robert M.


Goodman is sharing his ideas on how to solve the problems of poverty
and malnutrition in developing countries. Some parts of the article are
removed, read the article and fill in the gaps with the appropriate part
(A, B, C, D or E). There is one extra part that you do not need to use.

A) And they need access to the best and most appropriate technologies,
from modern genetics to organic methods, to serve the needs of farmers
and local entrepreneurs who will play the critical roles.

B) But it isn’t enough. What shall we do in the developing countries of


Africa, Asia and Latin America, where the pressure of population, the
underinvestment in infrastructure, the degradation of the environment and
the constraints of natural resources conspire to make hunger acute in the
coming decades?

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C) The 19th century’s westward expansion in North America was in part
driven by impoverishment of soils in the East. Intensive tillage made
possible by mechanization helped create the Dust Bowl of the 1930s.

D) All of this growth will occur in the less developed countries, where more
than 2 billion people, mostly children, already suffer from grinding poverty,
malnutrition, hunger and sometimes famine. In these countries the
population will rise from 4 to 7 billion in a single generation. No one has a
clue about how these people will be fed.

E) It also will help them be intelligent shoppers for appropriate technologies


that enable them to make progress. Today’s situation is much more difficult
than the problem the developed world solved in the Green Revolution.
Population has doubled and will double again.

To Feed a Growing World Family,


Fund Science for Farmers
Madison, Wisconsin – Obesity and hunger coexist in the United States. Farmers in
China rebel against low prices and high taxes. India raises excess grain but leaves its
people malnourished in protein. Consumers rebel against genetically modified foods in
Europe, where pesticide and fertilizer use is ubiquitous and uncontroversial.
These are a few of the visible issues that swirl around world agriculture today. More
profound but less visible an issue is world food security.
World population will grow in the next 30 years to 9 billion.
………………………………1……………………………………
Since 1960, as world population doubled, agriculture has performed a small miracle.
For the first time in human history, increasing food production came not primarily from
using more land for crops but from advances in science. Any future increases in
production will likewise depend upon wise investments in science.
Philanthropic dollars are trickling in – from the Gates, Rockefeller, Kellogg and
McKnight foundations, to name a few that work to improve nutrition by funding
agricultural research.
……………………………….2…………………………………..
Should we be promoting, as many are, adoption by developing countries of
industrialized methods that are failing at home?
I say “no”. We should apply programs that empower the people of developing
countries to better feed themselves. Instead of food aid in crises, we should invest for the

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long haul in research that equips them to make decisions about agriculture that fit within
their societies, environments and economies.
………………………………3……………………………………
Technologies used in agriculture, including genetics and genomics, are controversial.
Today we understand the environmental damage caused by some of the very methods
that were seen as solutions back then. And today we in the developed world lack the
political will to invest in agricultural development for developing countries.
For all of these reasons, we must look to philanthropic foundations and others of
vision and means to step up to this challenge. With their resources and broad
commitment to a better quality of life throughout the world, they can provide the
leadership and money that will again draw public interest – and, in time, governmental
commitment – to investment in agricultural advances in the poorer nations.
These nations need strong public institutions for agriculture and significant additional
investments in research.
………………………….….4………………………………
History shows the political consequences of hunger, disease and starvation in the
human family. The scale of disaster that could result from agriculture’s failure in the less
developed countries would far exceed anything we have experienced.

(By Robert M. Goodman, The Times, 2001).

13 Discuss the following questions in groups:

o Is there any connection between economic situation in the


country and its social problems? Give examples.
o Does the political system have any influence on the social
welfare policy and social programs of the country?
o What is the role of the governments of developing
countries and the world community in solving social
problems these countries face? What actions should they
implement to improve the situation? What fields of life
should be paid more attention to?

14 Use the information below and think which of these actions should
be done by international communities or organizations and which by
national governments? Back up your opinion.

International Communities and National Governments

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Organizations

o To restore peace to countries engulfed by military and civil


conflicts
o To tackle the AIDS crisis
o To stem the spread of malaria and tuberculosis
o To invest in human and physical capital
o To reduce poverty
o To improve access to education and health services
o To improve the infrastructure
o To use technological advances
o To endorse free market access for poor countries to industrial
countries’ markets
o To phase out trade barriers
o To reduce agricultural subsidies

15 Use additional sources (newspapers, magazines or Internet


resources) to find the information about the events and foundations
mentioned in the article ‘To Feed a Growing World Family, Fund
Science for Farmers’:
o Gates foundation
o Rockefeller foundation
o Kellogg foundation
o McKnight foundation
o The Green Revolution
Represent your work in class.

16 Before reading the article that is called ‘Africans Are Ready for Bold
Change, With Help’ make comments on the following statement:

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“It is time that politicians and voters in reach countries realized that without a
bright future for the poor, the future can’t be bright for the rest of the world.”
Horst Kohler,
representative of the world Bank, 2001.

17 Read the article paying attention to the main steps of the World
Bank program in helping African countries.

Africans Are Ready for Bold Change, With Help


We at the World Bank and the environment for private investment, both
International Monetary Fund regard debt domestic and foreign, which is so
relief, especially for the poorest important for economic growth and
countries, as crucial to our mission of poverty reduction. We will respond to
alleviating poverty. We have been leaders’ requests to help build their
working with national governments to capacity through technical assistance and
develop comprehensive poverty training on a larger scale.
reduction strategies, drawing on the The fight against poverty requires
experience of civil society groups, as courage, commitment and sustained
well as donors, in their preparation, to effort. It requires new partnerships and a
ensure that money goes where it is most spirit of cooperation. It will succeed only
needed. if it is based on a strategy designed by
We recognize that we have more to the affected country itself. Governments,
do. In the coming months we will be together with their people, must be in the
supporting countries in their efforts to driver’s seat.
use debt relief for poverty reduction. In We have great expectations. With
particular we hope to see debt relief Africans themselves insisting on leaders
extended to countries emerging from who govern for the good of people rather
civil conflict and trying to put themselves than for themselves, the sharply
back together again. disappointed experience of the last 40
The World Bank has committed years can become a thing of the past.
half a billion dollars to fight AIDS, and This will be all the more possible if
will commit more once that is spent. At the international community mobilizes
the same time, in line with African behind African countries willing to work
proposals to reduce conflict in the region, for the benefit of their people.
we will be moving swiftly to cut
assistance to aggressor countries. (By Horst Kohler and James D.
We will step up our work with Wolfensohn, International Herald
African governments to build an enabling Tribune, 2001.)

93
18 Discuss in groups the ideas on how to help African countries in a
contemporary society expressed by Horst Kohler and James D.
Wolfensohn in the article ‘Africans Are Ready for Bold Change, With
Help’. Work out your own strategies on how to help developing countries
overcome social and economic problems.

19 Write a paragraph about one of the problems mentioned and


support you decision. You should use 120-180 words.

Should wealthy nations be required to share their wealth among poorer nations by
providing such things as food and education? Or is it the responsibility of the
governments of poorer nations to look after their citizens themselves?

To what extent will migration from the developing world to the developed world become
a social and political issue in the 21st century?

Evaluation
1. What have you done in this unit?
2. What have you learnt from it?
3. What did you enjoy about it?
4. Have you any criticisms of it?
5. Have you any recommendations or suggestions for doing it differently?

94
Answer Keys
Unit1 Ex. 8
1. d
Ex. 1 2. e
1. D 3. a
2. A 4. f
3. B 5. b
4. C 6. c

Unit 2 Ex. 10 Ex. 19


1. F a) depressed
Ex. 8 2. A b) promising
a) meet/ address 3. D c) global
b) on 4. E d) domestic
c) to 5. C e) dramatic
d) to 6. B f) medical
g) executive
h) reproductive
i) ongoing
Unit 3 Ex.8.
A. government
Ex.7. B. disorder
1. governmental C. request
2. actuarial imbalances
3. enacted
4. tax increases
5. insulated
6. demographic

Unit 4 Ex. 12 Ex. 14


1. the practical running 1. disability
Ex. 5 2. employment 2. impairment
1. disability 3. contacts 3. day-to-day
2. contemporary 4. alien 4. sensory
3. begging 5. educational 5. learning
4. the mainstream 6. a stereotype 6. cancer
5. created 7. the massed forces 7. law
6. society, personality 8. the practicalities 8. treat
7. the individual 9. unwilling 9. employers
8. environments 10. unlawful
9. handicap 11. discriminate
10. limitations 12. second-rate
11. account 13. insurance
14. policies
15. disabled
16. access
Ex. 22
1. c (health care)
2. i (disability)
3. a (Employment Training)
4. j (a care plan)
5. l (day care centers), e (voluntary organizations)
6. h (residential care), k (short-term care)
7. g (supervision register)
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8. b (special hospitals), d (a key worker)
Unit 5 Unit 6

Ex 6 Ex.9 Ex.13
1. C A. rights 1. d
2. A B. gender 2. e
3. B C. contribution 3. a
4. D 4. b
5. E 5. f
6. c

Unit 7

Ex. 7 Ex. 15 Ex. 20


1.survivor 1. immigrants 1. D
2.injured 2. hijackers 2. A
3.alive 3. visas 3. B
4.rescue teams 4. cells 4. E
5.trained dogs 5. rights
6.death toll 6. cultural
7.crews 7. religious
8.ruins 8. freedom
9. explosives 9. war
10. relief agencies 10. military
11. lifting equipment 11. civilian
12. volunteers 12. volunteers
13. disease 13. wreaths
14. contaminated 14. embassy
15. sanitation system 15. silence

Unit 8

Ex. 6 Ex. 17 Ex. 18


1. special a) redemption 1. rigors
2. goodwill b) tangible 2. to break
3. substantial c) wear out 3. to undergo
4. hard-earned d) community 4. to ration
5. newly-created e) mission 5. a second thought
6. fee f) sideline 6. human resources
7. intentions g) sermon 7. humanity
8. organizations h) ration 8. served
9. charity i) rigors 9. a contribution
10. administrative 10. corporate sponsors
11. large-scale 11. medical care
Unit 9
6. under Ex. 11
Ex. 7 7. at 1. D
1. of 8. to 2. B
2. for 9. up 3. E
3. by 10. with 4. A
4. in 11. of
5. in 12. in

96
Key Terms

Abnormality the state of being different, especially in a way that is not


desirable, from what is normal, ordinary or expected
Access a means of approaching or achieving a place, a way in
Advocacy giving of a public support or suggesting an idea,
development or way of doing something
Agenda a) a list of matters to be discussed at a meeting
b) a list of aims or possible future achievements
Aggressor country a country that begins a fight or war with another country
Alien a being from another world
Alleviation making something bad such as pain or problem less severe
Altruism willingness to do things which benefit other people, even if it
results in disadvantage for yourself
Arbitration the process of having a dispute settled by a person or group
not involved in the dispute
Breadwinner the member of a family who earns the money that the family
needs
Cell a) a small group of people forming a centre of political
activity
b) a very small unit of living matter
Charity a) a system of giving money, food or help free to those who
are in need because they are ill, poor or homeless
b) any organization that gives money, food or help to people
who need it
Charity watchdog group a group of people responsible for making certain that
companies maintain particular standards and don’t act
illegally
Child care agency a department or organization that is responsible for looking
after children
Civil rights the rights of each citizen to be free or equal to others, for
example, in voting and employment, regardless of sex, race
or religion
Civilian a person not serving in the armed forces or the police force
Clinical social workers mental health and substance abuse social workers are likely
to work in hospitals, substance abuse treatment centers,
individual and family services agencies, or local
governments
Code of ethics set of principles that are accepted and used by society or a
particular group of people
Cohabitate If two people, especially a man and woman who are not
married, cohabit, they live together and have a sexual
relationship
Commitment a) the use of money, time, people, etc. for a particular
purpose
b) a promise to do something or to behave in a particular
way
c) the hard work and loyalty that someone gives to an
organization, activity
Community a group of people with the same interests, nationality, job,
etc.

97
Community based care when people with mental illness or reduced mental ability are
allowed to continue living in their own homes, with treatment
and help, and are not kept in hospital
Compassion pity for the sufferings of others, making one want to help
them
Contribution something that you do or give to help produce or achieve
something together with other people, or to help make
something successful
Contribution something that you do or give to help produce or achieve
something together with other people, or to help make
something successful
Corporate related to a large company or group
Counseling providing with some advice or information
Death toll the number of people killed, fo example, in a war or natural
disaster
Debt relief the reduction of a sum of money that someone owes
Depressive causing making somebody sad and without enthusiasm or
hope
Dignity a) calm, serious and controlled behaviour that makes people
respect you
b) the opinion that you have of the standard of your own
importance and value
Disability the condition of having a permanent illness or injury that
makes it difficult for him or her to move about easily. It may
exist from birth or be caused by an accident or illness
Discriminate to treat a person or particular group of people differently,
(treat differently) especially in a worse way from the way in which you treat
other people, because of their skin colour, religion, sex.
Discriminate to recognize a distinction between people or things; to treat
one person or group worse/better than others
Disorder a disturbance of the normal processes of the body or mind
Diversity when many different types of things or people are included in
something
Divorce when a marriage is ended by an official or legal process
Donation the process when money or goods are given to help a
person or organization
Economic and military relating to economy and army permission or approval of an
sanctions action or a change
Empathetic being able to imagine and share another person’s feelings,
experience, etc.
Enact to put something into action, especially to change something
into a law
Exodus a departure of many people at one time
Expand to increase in size, number or importance, or to make
something increase in this way
Explosives a substance which is able or is likely to blow up, burst loudly
and violently
Famine a situation in which a large number of people have little or no
food for a long time and many people die
Feasible a plan , idea, or method that is possible and is likely to work
Financial viability the state of a system related to money or management of
money being able to work successfully
Flashback a part of a film, play, etc. that shows a scene earlier in time
than the main story
Full-time social workers usually work a standard 40-hour week; however, some
98
occasionally work evenings and weekends to meet with
clients, attend community meetings, and handle
emergencies
Fund raising a sum of money saved, collected, or provided for a particular
purpose
Gender (sex) the physical and/or social condition of being male or
female
Glass ceiling a point beyond which you cannot go, usually in improving
[usually cingular] your position at work
Goodwill friendly and helpful feelings
Handicap a serious, usually permanent, physical or mental condition
that affects one’s ability to walk, see, speak, etc. *The words
“physically or mentally handicapped” were used a lot in the
past, but many people now feel these words offensive and
prefer to use expressions with “disabled and disability”
Handout a small amount or portion of something that is given out
Home-care staff people who help with personal care at home
Housekeeper a person, especially a woman, whose job is to organize
another person's house and deal with cooking, cleaning
Human rights the basic rights which are generally considered all people
should have, such as justice and the freedom to say what
you think
Humanity people in general
Imbalance when two things which should be equal or are normally
equal are not
Impairment if somebody’s ability to hear, speak or see has been
damaged, but not destroyed completely, they have a certain
impairment: impaired hearing, speech, sight (or vision).
People can also be described as visually/ hearing impaired
or partially sighted
Inflation a general, continuous increase in prices
Interfere with to distract somebody or prevent them from doing something
Investment using money to buy, for example, shares or property,
develop a business enterprise, in order to earn interest, bring
profit, or improve the quality of something
Labour market UK, the supply of people in a particular country or area who are
US labor market able and willing to work
Latch key kids children who have their own key to their home because there
is no one to let them in after school
Legislation a law or a series of laws
Life - threatening a disease which is dangerous for individual’s life
disease
Lifting equipment special tools or machines that you need to raise, move or
carry something
Local social services bodies that deal with social problems and are in charge of
departments how they are treated
Maintain a) to make something continue in the same way or at the
same high standard as before
b) to provide someone with the things they need, such as
money or food
Malnutrition illness or weakness caused by not having enough food to
eat, or by not eating good food
Massacre a) an act of killing a lot of people
b) INFORMAL a bad defeat, especially in sport
Maturity the quality of behaving mentally and emotionally like an adult
99
Meals-on-wheels a service in which meals are taken by car to old or sick
people in their own homes
Means-tested basis basing on an official enquiry into somebody’s wealth or
income in order to discover if they are qualified for financial
help from public funds
Mediation trying to get agreement between two or more people or
groups who disagree with each other
Memorial services an object, work or duties established to remind people of a
past event or a person who died
Mental [before noun] relating to the mind, or involving the process of
thinking
Mission any work that someone believes is their duty to do
Non-profits organizations which don’t make profit, usually intentionally
Normality the state of being typical, usual, or expected; not suffering
from any mental disorder
Pacific settlement an official making peace agreement that ends with an
argument or a dispute
Partnership a) the state of being a partner in business
b) a relationship between two people, organizations, or
countries that work together regularly
Peacekeeping and the management of relations between countries, especially
preventive diplomacy by each country’s representatives abroad based on the
intention to help maintain peace and prevent war
Philanthropic a philanthropic person or institution gives money and help to
people who are poor or in trouble
Philanthropy helping poor people, especially by giving them money
Physical dimension related to body measurement of any sort: length, size,
extent, height, breadth, thickness, etc.
Pledge a solemn promise
Post-traumatic stress the condition that is unpleasant and causing distress usually
followed by some accident or unpleasant event
Poverty a) the condition of being extremely poor
b) formal a poverty of sth is lack of something or when the
quality of something is extremely low
Preventative work actions intended to stop something happening or a situation
getting worse
Public - pension system it is a system when state is responsible for financial support
of retired people
Public awareness knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or
situation by ordinary people in a country
Quake-proofing evidence that shows or helps to show that shaking of earth is
true or is a fact
Ration a limited amount of something which one person is allowed
to have, especially when there is not much of it available
Redemption the state of being freed from the power of evil, believed by
Christians to be made possible by Jesus Christ
Relief agencies bodies dealing with easing or removing of pain, distress or
anxiety
Relief appeal an urgent request for something important such as money,
food, or services, especially to help someone in a bad
situation

Retirement when you leave your job and stop working, usually because
you are old
Right (morally acceptable) considered fair or morally acceptable by
100
most people
Rigors severe conditions
Second-rate being of poor quality, not very good
Self-determination the right or opportunity of individuals to control their fates
Sexism (actions based on) the belief that the members of one sex
are less intelligent, able, skilful, etc. than the members of the
other sex, especially that women are less able than men
Single - parent family such family is headed by one parent, usually female
Social justice/injustice behaviour or treatment that is fair and morally correct /
a situation or action in which people are treated unfairly
Social security a system of payments made by the government to people
who are ill, poor or who have no job
Social worker a person who works for the social services or for a private
organization providing help and support for people who need
it
Solidarity unity, agreement and support resulting from showed
interests, feelings, actions, sympathies, etc.
Sponsor a person or organization that gives money to support an
activity, event, or organization sometimes as a way to
advertise your company or product
Sponsorship the process when someone gives money to support
something (an activity, event, organization) sometimes as a
way to advertise your company or product
Stagnate to stay the same do not grow or do not develop
Starvation suffering or death caused by lack of food
Substance abuse assess and treat individuals with substance abuse
problems, including abuse of alcohol, tobacco, or other
drugs
Suicide prevention a plan of activities or a set of instructions dealing with
program stopping acts of killing yourself intentionally from happening
or stopping a person from doing this
Suppliers persons or firms giving somebody something that is needed
or useful, providing somebody with something for a need
Tangible real or not imaginary; able to be shown, touched or
experienced
Tax (an amount of) money paid to the government, which is based on your
income or of the cost of goods or services you have bought
Terrorism the use of violence for political aims or to force a government
to act, especially because of the fear it causes among the
people
Therapeutic and a piece of equipment, buildings, services that provide
recreational facilities enjoyment and good general effect on the body or mind of a
person
To abuse to use or treat someone or something wrongly or badly,
especially in a way that is to your own advantage
To address problems to deal with a matter, situation, person or thing that needs
attention and needs to be dealt with and solved
To encourage a) to make someone more likely to do something or to make
something more likely to happen
b) to talk or behave in a way that gives someone confidence
to do something
To enhance human to improve the process of people’s growing, changing and
development becoming more advanced
To handle stress to deal with a great worry caused by a difficult situation, or
something which causes this condition
101
To meet smb’s needs to do, fulfill or satisfy somebody’s basic necessities or
requirements
To run the home to be the head of the household
To take advantage of 1) to make use of something well, properly
2) to treat someone badly in order to get something good
from them
Tolerance (acceptance) willingness to accept behaviour and beliefs which are
(FORMAL toleration) different from your own, although you might not agree with or
approve of them
Treat to give medical care or attention to a person or a condition
Trigger to be the cause of a sudden , often violent reaction; to start
something
Two - career families a type of the family when both of the parents have a work
Undergo if you undergo a change, an unpleasant experience etc. it
happens to you, or is done to you
Unlawful being against the law, illegal
Victim someone or something which has been hurt, damaged or
killed or has suffered, either because of the actions of
someone or something else, or because of illness or chance
Violation breaking or being contrary to a rule, principle, treaty, etc.
Violence a) actions or words which are intended to hurt people
b) extreme force
Vulnerable able to be easily physically, emotionally, or mentally hurt,
influenced or attacked
Wear out to make someone feel extremely tired
Working mother a woman/man/parent who has a job and cares for his or her
children
Worth of the person the importance or usefulness of something or someone

102
REFERENCES

1. Addis, C. (1994). Britain now: British life and institutions. BBC English.
2. Bearak, B. India quake leaves legacy of chaos thousands vie for space on trains
to flee a land of fear and misery. International Herald Tribune, 2001.
3. Because I’m worth it! Newsweek, № 22, September 2003.
4. Borsch-Supan, A., Berkel, B. (2003) Pension reform in Germany: the impact
on retirement decisions. Retrieved January 15, 2005 from the Web site of the
National Bureau of Economic Research: http://www.nber.org/papers/w9913
5. Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers, approved by the
1996 NASW Delegate Assembly and revised by the 1999 NASW Delegate
Assembly. Retrieved September 5, 2004, from
http://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/code.asp
6. Douglas, A.R. (1998). The politics of reforming social security. Political
Science Quarterly, № 3, 213-241.
7. Goodman, R. To feed a growing world family, fund science for farmers. The
Times, 2001.
8. International Herald Tribune, № 3, February 2001.
9. International Herald Tribune, № 4, April 2001.
10. Kohler, H., Wolfensohn, J.D. Africans are ready for bold change, with help.
International Herald Tribune, № 1, February 2001.
11. Pat, Y. (2000). Mastering social welfare. MacMillan Press LTD, 127-148.
12. Shepler, J. (1999). Jane Addams, mother of social work. Her life of activism
from Cedarville to Hull House. Retrieved January 15, 2005, from
http://www.johnshepler.com/articles/janeaddams.html
13. Social workers: nature of the work. Retrieved February 15, 2005, from the
Web site of Collegegrad.com:
http://www.collegegrad.com/careers/proft41.shtml
14. Struggling for balance in government reactions. The Times, October 2001.
15. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica (2001). V.2.
16. The whiniest generation. Newsweek, № 17, February 2003.
17. Thompson, N. (2000). Understanding social work. New York, 40-50.
18. Wilbon, M. (2001). A weekend of charity, hope and redemption. The seldless
side of NBA all-star HOOPLA. Washington Post Service, April 2001.
19. http://gorod.tomsk.ru/index-1175743167.php
20. http://www.quotatiospage.com

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Агафонова Лидия Ивановна
Вакурина Наталья Анатольевна
Верхотурова Вера Викторовна

SOCIAL WORK:
WHAT IS IT?
Учебное пособие
по английскому языку
для студентов гуманитарных факультетов
и институтов, обучающихся по специальности
521100 «Социальная работа»

Издание второе, исправленное

Компьютерная верстка: Дерюгина А.А.

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