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Федеральное агентство по сельскому хозяйству

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение


высшего профессионального образования
Мичуринский государственный аграрный университет

О. Н. Касторнова

УЧЕБНОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ НЕЯЗЫКОВЫХ ВУЗОВ
СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ
«ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ И МУНИЦИПАЛЬНОЕ
УПРАВЛЕНИЕ»

Мичуринск 2005

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CONTENTS

Lesson 1. Employment………………………………………………. 5
Lesson 2. Innovation…………………………………………………. 15
Lesson 3. Organisation………………………………………………. 24
Lesson 4. Money……………………………………………………... 35
Lesson 5. Ethics………………………………………………………. 48
Lesson 6. Change…………………………………………………….. 56
Lesson 7. Strategy……………………………………………………. 64
Lesson 8. Leadership…………………………………………………. 73
Lesson 9. Competition………………………………………………... 84
Lesson 10. Quality……………………………………………………. 92
Appendix……………………………………………………………… 101

©Издательство Мичуринского государственного аграрного университета, 2005

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Предисловие

Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для овладения


английским языком в неязыковом вузе (специальность «Государственное и
муниципальное управление»). Оно охватывает круг основных вопросов,
представляющих несомненную значимость и интерес для студентов
данной специальности: устройство на работу, инновации, организация,
деньги, профессиональная этика, изменения, стратегия, лидерство,
конкуренция и качество. Пособие может быть также с успехом
использовано для занятий со студентами экономического факультета, а
также всеми, кто владеет достаточными навыками чтения, говорения и
письма на английском языке, интересуется вопросами бизнеса и
менеджмента и желает улучшить свое владение этим, уже ставшим
международным, языком.
Пособие призвано дать в руки преподавателя и студентов языковой
материал, специально ориентированный на одну из главных задач
обучения иностранному языку – развитию навыков свободной правильной
устной речи. Основная цель данного учебного пособия – научить
студентов читать и переводить тексты английской художественной и
специальной литературы средней трудности, а также развить навыки
разговорной речи.
Пособие состоит из десяти уроков, каждый из которых имеет
следующую структуру: Starting up, Discussion, Reading, Grammar snack,
Skills. Концентрическая подача языкового материала на протяжении
каждого урока дает возможность представить тему в различных
ракурсах, создает атмосферу естественной речевой деятельности,
обеспечивает хорошую повторяемость и прочное усвоение.
Часть Starting up вводит студентов в тематику урока, служит
своеобразной разминкой, создающей речевую обстановку на занятии,
предлагая выполнить тестирование, ответить на вопросы, связанные с
главной темой обсуждения.
Часть Discussion предназначена для усовершенствования навыков
студентов вести свободную беседу, отстаивать свою точку зрения на
рассматриваемую проблему, для чего вводится речевая ситуация и круг
вопросов, связанных с ней.
Третий этап урока – Reading – представляет собой ряд текстов
художественной и публицистической литературы, который имеет цель
не только развить навыки чтения и перевода, но и отработать активный
словарный запас урока. Тексты и диалоги, представленные в пособии,
носят познавательно-информативный характер или сюжетны и
используются как материал для проработки и закрепления изучаемой
темы. Студенты также смогут обсуждать различные точки зрения,

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отвечать на вопросы, предлагаемые до и после каждого текста,
выполнять упражнения на понимание прочитанного.
Часть Grammar snack содержит ограниченный круг вопросов,
связанный с явлением, представляющим, как правило, наибольшую
трудность у студентов, а именно видо-временными формами глагола.
Учитывая сложность и значимость овладения данным материалом, в
пособии предлагаются задания преимущественно единого характера: на
отработку правильного употребления глагольной формы в высказывании,
тексте. Таблица, предлагаемая в разделе Appendix, значительно облегчит
работу и поможет преодолеть возможные трудности, связанные с этим
языковым аспектом.
Skills – это раздел урока, направленный на развитие свободной
ситуативно-обусловленной речи, для реализации которой включены
юмористические рисунки Херлуфа Бидструпа, тематически связанные с
основным объектом обсуждения, и правильной письменной, достигаемой
путем перевода текстов с русского языка на английский.
К каждому уроку предлагается активный словарь Useful vocabulary
– (всего примерно 500 лексических единиц), который отобран по принципу
частотности их употребления в речи и тематической значимости.
Обеспечивается их хорошая повторяемость – не менее 5 раз в каждом
уроке. Иногда в упражнениях дается перевод слов активного словаря,
которые в дальнейшем будут введены и активизированы (первичное
ознакомление со зрительной опорой слова) или слов пассивного словаря
однократного употребления. Эпизодическое включение незнакомых слов
направлено на развитие языковой догадки и умения схватывать смысл
высказывания в целом. Слова близкие по звучанию и совпадающие по
значению с русскими не переводятся.
Все задания в пособии с самого начала даются на английском языке,
что должно способствовать созданию языковой обстановки на занятиях.
Комментарии преподавателя по заданиям предполагаются лишь на
начальных этапах, по мере прохождения курса надобность в них
отпадает.
Пособие содержит большое количество иллюстраций и
фотографий, призванных облегчить ориентировку в материале и создать
дополнительные стимулы для эффективной работы над ним.
Автор выражает благодарность рецензентам, высказавшим ценные
замечания, которые значительно способствовали окончательной
доработке пособия.

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Lesson 1. Employment
“It is all one to me if a man comes from Sing Sing* or Harvard. We hire a
man, not a history” *(a famous US prison)
Henry Ford (1863-1947), American car manufacture
& Useful vocabulary
1. employee – служащий: “Employee” is a person who is employed.
2. employer – наниматель, работодатель: The car industry is one of
our biggest employers.
3. to recruit – пополнять, привлекать к участию, нанимать: We are
having difficulties in recruiting well-qualified staff.
4. to sack – увольнять: “To sack” means to dismiss from a job.
5. to hire – брать на работу, нанимать: We’re going to hire a new
manager.
6. ability – способность: I did the work to the best of my ability.
7. appearance – внешний вид: They changed the appearance of the
house just by painting it.
8. to connect – соединять, связывать:This railway line connects London
and Edinburgh.
9. connection – связь, соединение, отношение: His career was
excellent because of his connections with that company.
10. background – социальное, семейное, профессиональное
происхождение, образование: She has a background in a child psychology.
11. intelligence – интеллектуальный, умственный уровень: Use your
intelligence!
IQ – intelligence quotient.
12. marital status – семейное положение: He is married \ divorced \
single…
13. personality – характер, личность: He has a strong \ dynamic \ weak
personality.
14. experience – опыт, знания: How many year’s experience do you have
of teaching English?
15. sickness record – медицинская карта: There have been a lot of
people off work this week because of sickness.
16. reference – отзыв, отношение: We’ll need to have references from
your former employers.
17. challenging – соревнующийся, требующий умений и усилий: She
finds her new job very challenging.
18. shift – смена, рабочий день: The night shift arrives at six o’clock.
19. skill – мастерство, умение: He handled the negotiations with great
skill.
20. satisfaction – удовольствие: Being able to work with children is one
of the greatest satisfactions in this job.

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21. variety – разнообразие: She didn’t like the work because there was
no variety; she was doing the same things all the time.
22. responsibility – ответственность: The head of the large company has
many responsibilities.
23. opportunity – возможность: May I take this opportunity of thanking
everyone for their hard work on the project?
24. to persuade – убеждать: Despite all my efforts to persuade him, he
wouldn’t agree.
25. boring – скучный: The lecture was deadly boring.
26. to select – выбирать: He was selected to play for England.
27. to avoid – избежать: He tried to avoid answering my questions.
28. conscientious – добросовестный, совестливый: He is a
conscientious worker.
29. astute – проницательный: “Astute” means to be clever and able to
see quickly something that is to one’s advantage.
30. calm – спокойный: She calmed the baby by giving him some milk.
31. easy-going – беспечный, беззаботный: Our teacher is very easy-
going: he doesn’t mind if we turn up late.
32. moody – неровный, непостоянный: “Moody” means bad-tempered,
angry, displeased or unhappy without good reason.
33. quick-tempered – с быстрой сменой настроения: “Quick-
tempered” means easily showing anger.
34. reliable – надежный: She may forget to come – she’s not very
reliable.
35. sharp – резкий, грубый, сообразительный: He was rather sharp
with his secretary when she got back late from lunch. He replied very sharply
when I criticized him.
36. slow – медлительный, не сообразительный: I’m sorry I’m so slow
today; I didn’t get much sleep last night.
37. to upset – расстраивать, огорчать: Do what he wants, or you’ll upset
him.
38. to apologize – извиняться, оправдываться: She kept us waiting for a
whole hour and she didn’t even apologize!
39. to accept – принимать, соглашаться: It is generally accepted that
smoking causes bad health.
40. to intend – намереваться: She intended to catch the early train, but
she didn’t get up in time.
41. to sue – просить, подавать в суд: If you don’t return our property,
we’ll sue.
42. advertisement – реклама: He’s not a very good advertisement for the
driving school – he’s failed his test six times!
43. equipment – оборудование: Their equipment is of high quality.
44. clerk – клерк, служащий: Clerk is a person employed to keep records

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or accounts, or to do general office work.
45. to require – требовать: The regulations require that all students
attend at least 90 per cent of the lectures.
46. immediately – незамедлительно, сразу же: Stop that immediately!
47. conversation – разговор: This is a private conversation, don’t
interrupt!
Starting up: 1. In your opinion, which factors below are important for
getting a job? Choose the seven most important. Is there anything missing from
the list? Think about some other factors.

age appearance astrological sign contacts and connections


experience family background handwriting hobbies intelligence marital
status personality qualifications references sickness record blood group

2. All of the following sentences could be used to describe jobs. Mark


each sentence as follows:
(+) if you think it describes a positive aspect to a job.
(-) if you think it describes a negative aspect to a job.
(?) if it could be either positive or negative.
● It’s well-paid.
● It’s badly-paid.
● It’s challenging.
● It’s stressful.
● It’s hard work physically.
● You work long hours.
● You have to work shifts.
● You need to be talented.
● You need special training and qualifications.
● You need good people skills.
● There’s a lot of job satisfaction.
● There’s a lot of variety.
● There’s a lot of responsibility.
● There are a lot of opportunities.
3. Work in pairs or groups. Which of the above do you associate with the
following jobs: a journalist, a police officer, a concert pianist, a supermarket
cashier, an accountant, a train driver, a social worker, a professional footballer?
Think of one more job that you can associate with each of the sentences in
Exercise 2.
Discussion: Working in something different
a) Look at the pictures and discuss the following questions.

● Do you know anyone who does any of these jobs?


● Are you surprised to see any of these people doing these jobs?

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● Which of these jobs would you be suited to / not suited to? Why?

Dave-nursery Kevin-house Pat-bank manager Debbie-engineer


school teacher husband

b) Read each story and answer the questions.


“I’ve been working in a bank for about five years, and actually I wasn’t
very ambitious or career-minded. Then a new manager came to my branch – he
persuaded me to take the job more seriously, so I started studying to become a
manager myself. I had to do evening classes for five years to get the
qualifications I needed … but it’s been worth it. I enjoy coming to work much
more now. Some people think working in a bank is boring, but for me every day
is different. It’s all about dealing with people … and that’s always a challenge.”
“I’ve been doing the job for about four years now, and I still really enjoy
the actual work. There is a lot of satisfaction, just being with the children and
watching them develop, and seeing things the way they see them – that’s still
great. Mind you, a lot of people no idea just how tiring and stressful a day with a
class of four-year-olds can be. Some people think it’s an easy job, because the
holidays are quite long, and everything. The thing I find depressing, though, is
that there’s no real career structure or chance of promotion in education. I could
easily still be doing exactly the same thins in twenty years’ time!”
“I wasn’t really that academic at school, but I was always a lot more
interested in science subjects than in languages or history or anything … so at
sixteen I applied for an a engineer with a lot of small companies. I was really
shocked to find out that a lot of them only accepted boys! Eventually I was
accepted for a course in electronic engineering. I was the only girl out of
seventeen students! I’m doing my basic training in the engineering centre here at
British Aerospace. The other people who work here are fine to me, it’s no
problem, but people I meet outside are sometimes very surprised when I tell
them what I do, especially older people.”
“About six months ago my wife started saying she couldn’t stand it at
home any more with the children, it was driving her mad, so I said: “Okay then
– if you find yourself a job that pays enough, I’ll change places with you!” I’m a
roofer by trade, mending and building roofs, but I’m self-employed, so I can

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please myself how much I work. Anyway, to my surprise she found herself a job
in less than a week! So here I am – what they call a “house husband”, I suppose,
taking the kids to school and doing the shopping and what have you. The wife
didn’t think I’d be able to do it – but actually I’m really enjoying myself. I never
used to see that much of the kids, so it’s nice to really spend some time with
them, taking them to the park and all that. It’s harder work than you imagine,
mind you… I don’t think I’d want to do it for ever.”
a How did each person start doing his / her job?
b What are the advantages / disadvantages of each job?
c Do the speakers make any other interesting points about their jobs?
c) Discuss the following questions in groups.
●If you could choose any job in the world, what would you choose?
Why?
●Can you think of any jobs that you would particularly hate to do? Why?
●Which of the following statements do you agree with?
- Men and women are both equally capable of doing any job.
- There are a number of jobs that women are naturally better suited to than
men.
- There are a number of jobs that men are naturally better suited to than
women.
Reading I: 1. Discuss this question: Do people change during their
working lives? If so, how?
2. Now read the article. What does it say about the question above? Find
the answer as quickly as you can.

How to select the best candidates - and avoid the worst

Investing thousands of
pounds in the recruitment and
training of each new graduate
recruit may be just the beginning.
Choosing the wrong candidate
may be one the great mistakes for
an organization.
Few companies will avoid
all of the following failures:
people who panic at the first sign
of stress; who don’t have the ability of learning; hypochondriacs (persons who
worry about their health too much) who must be present but stay away; and the
unstable person later discovered to be a thief or worse.
Less dramatic, but just as much a problem is the person who simply does
not come up to expectations, who does not quite work; who never becomes a
high-flyer or even a steady employee.

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The first point to remember at the recruitment stage is that people don't
change. Intelligence levels refuse modestly, but change little over their working
life. The same is true of abilities, such as learning languages and dealing with
numbers.
Most people like to think that personality can change, particularly the
more negative features such as anxiety, low respect, impulsiveness or a lack of
emotional warmth. But the information collected over 50 years gives a clear
message: still stable after all these years. Extroverts (persons who like to spend
time in activities with other people rather than being quiet and alone) become
slightly less extroverted; shy persons appear a little less so, but the fundamentals
remain much the same. Personal crises can affect the way we deal successfully
with a difficult situation: we might take up or drop drink, drugs, religion or
relaxation techniques, which can have rather dramatic effects. Skills can be
improved, and new ones introduced, but at rather different rates. People can be
taken care of the appearance for a job. Just as politicians are carefully dressed,
have good hairstyle and speech specialists, so people can be sent on training
courses, diplomas or experimental weekends. But there is a cost to all this which
may be more than the price of the course. Better to select for what you actually
see rather than try to change it.
3. Read the article again and answer these questions.
1) What types of failures do companies experience, according to the article?
2) What is the worst failure managers can deal with?
3) What advice does the article give to managers?
4. In another part of the article (not included here), the writer says that
selectors should look for three qualities:
a) intelligence and ability; b) emotional stability; c) conscientiousness.
Do you agree? Explain your opinion.
Complete the table with the adjectives below. What other words can you
add?

astute bright calm clever easy-going hard-working moody


neurotic punctual quick-tempered reliable responsible sharp slow

Intelligence and Emotional Conscientiousness


ability stability
bright calm reliable

Reading II: 1. Read two cases and answer these questions.


1) What job did the man do?
2) Why were the employers upset?
3) Who apologized? Who accepted the change?
4) Who intends to sue his employer? Why?

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CASE 1
John Humphries, aged 62, is a lorry driver
who is proud of being well-dressed for work.
However, his employer told him that he must not
come to work in a collar1 and tie2 to drive his 17-
tonne lorry. If he did so, he risked to be sacked3.
When working, Mr. Humphries, an ex-Royal
Airforce man, wore dark blue trousers, a light
blue shirt, and a red and grey striped tie. He felt
he looked excellent and impressed the customers.
“If you present yourself well, you look good and get respect4,” he said.
Mr. Humphries' employers were not impressed when he refused to give
up his collar and tie. They wanted him to conform5 to the company's new image
of clothing such as T-shirts or sweat shirts. They even wanted to sack him if he
didn't accept their new dress code. Union officials advised him to accept the
change and follow the company's policy. He agreed.
Notes:
1. collar – воротник.
2. tie – галстук.
3. respect – уважение.
4. to conform – соответствовать.

CASE 2
Yoshiaki Nishiura, a 25-year-old lorry driver from western Japan, was
sacked because he dyed 1 his hair brown. (This is a popular fashion with a
growing number of young Japanese.) Although he apologised2 and dyed it black
again, he was still fired3. His employer, Mr. Yamago, believed that behaviour
like Mr. Nishiura's made company discipline worse and ruined morale. He
blamed4 it on American influence. “We need drivers to keep a professional
appearance to make a good impression,” he said. A Japanese journalist said,
“Japanese firms expect all employees to look the same and think the same.
When you come into a company, you sign away your human rights.”
Mr. Nishiura is going to sue his employer for unreasonable dismissal.
Notes:
1. to dye – красить.
2. to apologise – извиняться.
3. to fire – разг. увольнять, выгонять.
4. to blame – порицать, обвинять.
2. Discuss these questions.
What do you think of: a) the employers' decisions? b) the employees' reactions?
How important is your personal appearance at work?
Think about formal clothing, uniforms, men with earrings, and tattoos,
etc.

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Reading III: Read the story.

The Double Life of Alfred Bloggs


These days, people who do manual1 work often receive far more money
than clerks who work in offices. People who work in offices are normally
referred to as “white collar workers” for the simple reason that they usually wear
a collar and tie to go to work. Such is human nature2, that a great many people
often want to sacrifice3 higher pay for the privilege of becoming white collar
workers.
This can give rise4 to curious situations, as it did in the case of Alfred
Bloggs who worked as a dustman5 for the Ellesmere Corporation.
When he got married, Alf was too uncomfortable to say anything to his
wife about his job. He simply told her that he worked for the Corporation. Every
morning, he left home dressed in a fine black suit. Then he changed into
overalls6 and spent the next eight hours as a dustman. Before returning home at
night, he took a shower and changed back into his suit. Alf did this for over two
years and his fellow dustmen kept his secret. Alf’s wife has never discovered
that she married a dustman and she never will, for Alf has just found another
job. He will soon be working in an office as a junior clerk. He will earn only
half as much as he used to, but he feels that his rise in status is well worth the
loss of money. From now on, he will wear a suit all day and others will call him
“Mr. Bloggs”, not “Alf”.
Notes:
1. manual – ручной.
2. Such is human nature – Такова человеческая природа.
3. to sacrifice – жертвовать.
4. to give rise to – быть поводом чего-либо.
5. dustman – мусорщик.
6. overalls – рабочая одежда.

Give your opinion to the information you have read. Retell the story.
Reading IV: Read the story.

A job in Mexico
It happened some years ago. Two of my friends lived in a small town
near Liverpool. They were out of work and were happy to agree to any job.
Their names were Stevenson and Black. Stevenson was a very talented
engineer, and he had a large family and no money to live on his life was very
difficult.
One day when I was coming back from my office I saw Stevenson. He
was going along the street with a suitcase in his hand. Stevenson had read an
advertisement in a newspaper that a manufacturing plant of chemical
equipment wanted an engineer.

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“You see, I must get that job. I’ve got a large family.”
“Why must you go to Liverpool yourself?” I asked, “It’s better to send
the documents by airmail.” “I think,” Stevenson answered, “many people want
to get the job and I’m sure all of them will send letters. If I get there before the
manager of the plant receives the letters I think I’ll be able to get the job.”
Stevenson was right. He received the job.
My other friend Black had lost three or four jobs though he was a very
good clerk. I told him Stevenson’s story. The story impressed him. A few days
later I met Black with a suitcase in his hand. “Where are you going” I asked
him. “To Mexico,” was the answer. “A bank there requires a clerk. I have sent
my documents by post, but to settle the matter sooner I decided to go there
myself. I remember the story you told me the other day about Stevenson.”
So black went to Mexico City. But his letter had come there three days
earlier. When he came to the Bank and spoke to the assistant-manager, the
assistant-manager said, “I’m sorry to say we have already got a man. But I’ll
clarify the matter with the manager”. And he left the office.
“Yes,” the manager said, “I have received a letter from a man who lives
near Liverpool. His name is Black. A good young man, he suits us right. I’ve
sent him a telegram to come here immediately and we’ll keep the job for him
for 10 days.”
“There is a man outside,” said the assistant-manager, “who wants to get
this job.”
“But we’ve got this man Black and we’ll wait for him.”
Black had not heard the conversation between the manager and his
assistant. He had to go back home. But as he had spent all his money and
nobody in Mexico could help him it took him two months to get back to
England. There he found the telegram, which was waiting for him.
Say what you have learned from the story about:
1.Stevenson and the way he got the job;
2. Black and his problems.
Think and answer.
1. Why was it difficult for Stevenson and Black, good specialists, to find a
job?
2. Why did the writer recommend Stevenson to send his documents by
airmail?
Why didn’t Black go back to Mexico when he got the telegram?
¨ Grammar snack: Put the verbs into the correct form.
AN ITNTERVIEW FOR A JOB
On Wednesday I had an important interview for a job. I (get up) ____ at 7
o’clock in the morning and (shave) ____ carefully. I (put on) ____ my best
jacket and trousers. I (must, travel) ____ by train, so I (walk) ____ to the station.
On my way I (see) ____ a man who (paint) ____ his fence with red paint.

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The man (notice, not) _____ me: he (look) _____ at the fence. Then he (turn)
____ suddenly and (splash) _____ my beautiful trousers! The man (apologise)
____ to me, but the damage (already, do) _____ . “If I (go) _____ home, I (be
late) ____ for the interview,” I (think) ____. There (be) a department store not
far from the station, so I (decide) ____ to bye a new pair.
I (find) ____ a nice pair of trousers and since I (be) _____ in a hurry, I (decide)
____ to change on the train. The shop (be) ____ full, so I (pay) ____ quickly for
my trousers, (take) ____ my shopping bag and (leave) ____.
I (arrive) ____ at the station just in time to catch the train. Now I (be sure)
____ that I (be late, not) ____ for the interview. I (smile) ____ happily at an
elderly lady
who (watch) ____ at my trousers and (go) ____ to the toilet to change. I
(throw) ____ my discoloured trousers out of the window. Then I (open) ____ the
bag to get my new ones, but all I (find) ____ was a pink woolen sweater!
— Skills: 1.Comment on the picture.

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? 2.Translate from Russian into English using a dictionary.
15 вопросов претенденту
Вы впервые столкнулись с проблемой приема на работу. Перед вами
стоит претендент на вакантную должность, а вы не знаете, как построить с
ним беседу. Вот вопросы, задав которые, вы сможете выяснить все, что вас
интересует.
* Почему вы обратились с просьбой о приеме на работу именно к
нам?
* Что вы знаете об этой должности и о предприятии?
* На какую зарплату вы рассчитываете?
* Что вы могли бы рассказать о себе?
* Как вы оцениваете свои сильные и слабые стороны?
* Какого типа работу вы предпочитаете?
* Какие результаты доставляют вам наибольшее удовлетворение?
* Какая была ваша самая серьезная ошибка?
* Почему вы оставили свою прежнюю работу?
* Бывали ли у вас конфликты непроизводственного характера?
* Каковы ваши цели в жизни?
* Как вы планируете достичь их?
* Каким вы представляете свое будущее через 5, 10 лет?
Желательно дополнить этот список еще одним вопросом:
* Как вы будете действовать в критической ситуации?
При этом надо заранее продумать и описать претенденту какую-то
нестандартную ситуацию.

Lesson 2. Innovation
“Man will never fly, not in a thousand years”
Wilbur Wright (1867-1912), American aviation pioneer
& Useful vocabulary
1. to invent - изобретать: Algebra was invented by the Arabs.
2. invention – изобретение, выдумка: The whole story is an absolute
invention. I don’t believe a word of it!
3. to research – исследовать: This book has been very well researched.
4. to develop – развивать: They do exercises to develop their muscles.
5. development – развитие: This was an important stage in the country’s
development.
R&D – research and development
6. brainwave - внезапная свежая идея: I’ve just had a brainwave.
Here’s what we should do!
7. blueprint – фотокопия: The report is a blueprint for the reform of the

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nation’s tax system.
8. prototype – прототип, первоисточник: “Prototype” means the first
form of smth., for example of a machine or industrial product, from which all
later forms develop, sometimes with improvements.
9. setback – препятствие: There is a major setback to our hopes of
reaching an agreement
10. breakthrough – прорыв, достижение: What is the major
breakthrough in the development of agriculture?
11. to be successful – быть успешным: I’m afraid my attempt to make a
cake wasn’t very successful.
12. to make a success – делать успехи: I hope she makes a success.
13. to sweep away – удалять, уничтожать: This old machine was
completely swept away.
14. exception – исключение: You must answer all these questions
without exception.
15. dominance – превосходство: Our dominance of the market was
reached by this new product.
16. quickly – быстро: You got here quickly; did you come by car?
17. to appear – появляться: Her new book will be appearing in the shops
very soon.
18. to disappear – исчезать: These beautiful birds are fast disappearing.
19. to come on the scene – появиться: He came on the scene just when
his country needed a great man to lead them.
20. closely related – тесно связанный: The fall in the cost of living is
closely related to the drop in the oil price.
21. to compete – конкурировать, соревноваться: Several companies are
competing to get the contract.
22. competitive – конкурентоспособный: Jane’s got a very competitive
nature.
23. advantage – преимущество: One of the advantages of this method is
that it saves a lot of fuel.
24. disadvantage – недостаток: If you don’t speak good English, you’ll
be at a big disadvantage when you try to get a job.
25. eponymous – герой, в честь которого названо что-либо: Hamlet is
the eponymous hero of Shakespeare’s play “Hamlet”.
26. remote – дальний, незначительный, действующий на расстоянии:
I’m afraid your chances of success are rather remote.
27. pioneer – инициатор: He was a pioneer of heart transplant
operations.
28. to design – проектировать, конструировать: Who designed the
Sydney Opera House?
29. to produce – производить: Canada produces high-quality wheat.
30. create – создавать, изобретать: God created the world.

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31. creative – творческий: He is a very creative musician.
32. creativity – творчество: An education system lets children use their
creativity.
33. useful – полезный: She is a useful person to know.
34. essential – всеобщий, обязательный: Good timing is essential for
our plans.
35. patient – спокойный: You need to be patient if you want to work
here.
36. to arrive – появляться, приходить: Shall we start now, or shall we
wait for the others to arrive?
37. complicated – сложный: It’s rather complicated to explain, but I’ll
try.
38. exhibit – экспонат: Many of the exhibits were flown here from
Mexico.
39. exhibition – выставка: The newly discovered Greek sculpture is now
on exhibition at the national museum.
40. purpose – цель: This computer is not quite as powerful as the other
one, but for all practical purposes it is just as good.
Starting up: 1.What inventions and innovations do you associate with
these names?
Gillette Singer Benz Microsoft Disney Ford Edison Mc
Donald’s Coca Cola
What are the most important inventions and innovations for you:
a) at work? b) at home?
2. The words below are often used when talking about innovation. What
do they mean? Use the Vocabulary notes if necessary.
R&D brainwave blueprint prototype setback breakthrough
patent
3. Work in groups. One person thinks of an invention. The others ask
questions to guess what the invention is. You can only ask yes\no questions. For
example:
— Was it invented in the 19th century? Yes.
— Is it made of metal? Partly.
— Does it work with electricity? Yes.
— Do you find it in the home? Yes.
— Is it used for communication? Yes.
— Is it the telephone? Yes, it is.
Discussion: Read about the real inventions and innovations below. What is
your opinion of each one? Give your reasons.
1. The laser shaver, by Frenchman Eugene Politzer, gets free of stubble
(небритая борода) by burning rather than cutting.
2. The self-extinguishing (самопогашаемая) cigarette, by Danish inventor
Kaj Jensen, has a container of water hidden near the filter tip (верх).

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3. The petless leash (ошейник), invented by two scientists from Illinois, can
mew (мяукать) or bark (лаять) depending on whether you want a non-
existent cat or dog.
4. Glow-in-the-dark (светящаяся в темноте) toothpaste was invented in
America as a road safety aid.

5. Ice cubes (кубики) that crackle (трещат) louder according to the strength
of your drink have been developed in Japan.
6. Economy Class passengers could be carried in pressurized containers in
the holds of jets, says a Washington design firm.
7. Chocolate shock absorbers can reduce the effects of a vehicle travelling
over bumpy surfaces because the chocolate becomes a gel when
electrified, say Michigan scientists.
Reading I: Discuss these questions. Then read the article.
1. Do you think it is better to innovate or imitate products and services?
2. Can you name any companies which were a) innovators? b) imitators?

Why the last shall be first


Have you heard of Berkey or Ampex? Gablinger or Chux? Perhaps you
should have, because each occupies an important place in the history of product
innovation. Berkey produced the first hand-held electronic calculators, Ampex
the first video recorders. Gablinger developed low-alcohol beer and Chux sold
the first not reusable nappies.
Or perhaps you should not, because none of these companies made a
commercial success of their innovations. Today the calculators we use are
probably made by Casio, our video recorder comes from Matsushita, our low-
alcohol beer is Miller Lite, our nappies are made by Proctor & Gamble. In each
of these markets the innovator was swept away.
Xerox looks like an exception to this sorry catalogue. The company was
first into the photocopier market and, even if its dominance was finally
challenged by Canon, it remains a large and successful company today. But
Xerox was also a pioneer in fax machines and personal computers. Each of these
sooner or later proved to be a success but not for Xerox Corporation.

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As we all know, it was Apple that developed
the personal computer market. But Apple's
leadership quickly disappeared when IBM came on
the scene. Apple then jumped to the lead by
introducing the graphical user interface. Its
windows and mice brought personal computing
within the reach of everyone. But it is Microsoft
that does this now.
The business world is not kind to pioneers.
Even if you know how a market will develop,
timing is a matter of luck - or of quite exceptional
skill.
There are two closely related lessons. One is
that being first is not often very important. The
other is that innovation is rarely a source of
competitive advantage on its own. Individuals and small companies can make a
great deal of money out of good new ideas.
The success of large well-known corporations - Matsushita, Philip Morris,
IBM or General Electric is generally based on other things: their power of
technical expertise, their marketing skills. And time and again these
characteristics make them possible to develop the innovative concept far more
effectively than the innovators themselves.
This is not to say that there is no role in business for the great innovator.
After all, General Electric was built on the extraordinary creativity of Thomas
Edison’s mind, the Ford motor company on the abilities of its eponymous
founder. The imagination of Walt Disney created a company that is still without
parallel or competitor. Perhaps Akio Morita of Sony occupies a similar place in
the history of modern business.
Make notes about the first four paragraphs of the article. Use the
following headings:
Innovator Developer Product
Berkey Casio hand-held calculator
Answer these questions about the article.
1. What is the main point made by the writer?
2. Several well-known companies are mentioned. What reasons are given for
their success?
3. What is the connection between Disney, Ford, General Electric and Sony?
4. Look at the picture. What innovation does the word it refer to?
Reading II: Read about three machines you can buy to make your life
easier. Which machine is ...
a) the most useful?
b) the cheapest?
c) the most useful for cooking ideas?

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d) the most expensive?
e) the smallest?
f) the best one for people who hate housework?
The three most intelligent machines for your home...
Thanks to computer chips, you can now buy machines that can
think!! Here are some of the best machines which can really make your life
easier.
The Bryson D838 Robot Vacuum Cleaner
Do you like housework? No? Then this new
robot vacuum cleaner (пылесос) is the machine for
you. It can clean your living room automatically. It has
a computer, which tells it to go around objects such as
chairs and table legs as it cleans your floor. And if a
person - or your pet dog or cat - comes too close, it stops automatically. The
Bryson D838 Robot Vacuum Cleaner comes with electric batteries, and costs
£1,800.
The Freezolux Smart Fridge
A fridge (холодильник) which tells you what it's
got inside ... and gives you ideas about what to cook for
dinner!! A visual display shows you what's inside the
fridge - you don't even have to open the door, and the
fridge can also tell when food is too old to use. And if
you haven't got any ideas about what to cook for your
family this evening ... just touch the computer screen on the door of the fridge,
and you can look at over a thousand of your favourite recipes. You can also use
it to send e-mails and to surf the Internet. The Freezolux Smart Fridge is more
than just a fridge and costs only £999!
The Ultimate Power Control System
How many remote control units do you have in your
house ... for the TV, the video, the CD player... now you can
control everything in your house - from a light in the
bedroom to your front door - using just one special remote
control unit. It works with radio signals so you can do
everything in your house without getting out of bed. You can even surf the
Internet, send e-mails, watch videos or listen to a CD with the Ultimate Power
Control System's video screen. Price - £45. Buy now!!
Reading III: Read the article.

How to be a successful inventor


What do you need for an invention to be a success? Well, good timing for
a start. You can have a great idea which the public simply doesn’t want…yet.
Take the Italian priest1, Giovanni Caselli, who invented the first fax machine
using a huge pendulum2 in the 1860s. Еven with the excellent quality of the

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reproductions, his invention quickly died a commercial death. It was not until
the 1980s that the fax became an essential piece of equipment in every
office…too late for Signor Caselli.
Money also helps. The Frenchman Denis Papin (1647-1712) had the idea
for a steam engine3 almost a hundred years before the better-remembered
Scotsman James Watt was even born…but he never had enough money to build
one.
You also need to be patient (it took scientists nearly eighty years to
develop something which actually worked)…but not too patient. In the 1870s,
Elisha Gray, a professional inventor from Chicago, developed plans for a
telephone. Gray saw it as no more than “a beauty toy”, however. When he
finally sent details of his invention to the Patent Office on February 14th 1876, it
was too late; almost identical designs had arrived just two hours earlier…and the
young man who sent them, Alexander Graham Bell, will always be remembered
as the inventor of the telephone.
Of course what you really need is a great idea – but if you haven’t got
one, a walk in the country and a careful look at nature can help. The Swiss
scientist, George de Mestral, had the idea for Velcro4 when he found his clothes
covered5 with sticky seeds6 after a walk in the country. During a similar walk in
the French countryside some 250 years earlier, Rene-Antoine Ferchault de
Reaumur had the idea that paper could be made from wood when he found a
vacant wasps’ nest7.
You also need god commercial logic. Willy Higinbotham was a scientist
doing nuclear research in the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton. USA.
In 1958 the public were invited to the Laboratory to see their work; but both
parents and children were less interested in the complicated equipment and
diagrams than in a tiny 120cm screen with a white period which could be hit
back and forth8 over a “net” using some buttons9. Soon hundreds of people were
ignoring the other exhibits to play the first ever computer game – made from a
simple laboratory instrument called an “oscilloscope”. Higinbotham, however,
never made a cent from his invention: he thought people were only interested in
the game because the other exhibits were so boring!
Notes:
1. priest – священник.
2. pendulum – маятник.
3. steam engine – паровой двигатель.
4. Velcro – a trademark (торговая марка) for a material used for
fastening (соединение) clothes, bags, or shoes.
5. to be covered – быть покрытым.
6. sticky seeds – липкие, клейкие семена.
7. wasp’s nest – осиное гнездо.
8. back and forth – туда и сюда.
9. button – кнопка.

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Answer the following questions in pairs.
a Did Caselli’s “fax machine” actually work?
b Who designed the first steam engine?
c Who built the first steam engine?
d Why does the story show that inventors need to be patient?
e Who invented the first telephone?
f What did the inventors of Velcro and of paper have in common?
g What was the purpose of the exhibition at the National Laboratory at
Upton in 1958?
h Did professor Higindotham understand the potential of his “computer
game”?
Discuss the following questions in pairs
● Which information in the article did you already know?
● Which information did you find the most surprising?

¨ Grammar snack: Remake the sentences using Passive Voice instead


of Active, for example: In 1876 Alexander Graham Bell, an American engineer,
invented telephone. – Telephone was invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham
Bell, an American engineer.
1. Akito Morita (Japan) developed the first personal stereo – Sony
Walkman.
2. In 1908 James M. Spangler from the USA built the first vacuum
cleaner.
3. In 1908 US automobile manufacturer Henry Ford created the world’s
first car assembly line.
4. John Logie Baird from Scotland invented television in 1926.
5. Nicephore Nience from France pioneered photography in 1829.
6. In 1981 Bill Gates (USA) created Microsoft-DOS (Disk Operating
System).
7. In 1895 the Lumier brothers patented their cinematography and opened
the world’s first cinema in Paris.
8. Wilbur and Orville Wright built the first airplane in 1903 (USA).
9. Scottish scientist Ian Wilmat developed the idea of cloning in 1997.
10. Karl Benz produced the world’s first petrol-driven motor-car in
Germany in 1885.
11. Sergey Korolyev (Russia) designed the first artificial satellite in 1957.

— Skills: 1.Comment on the picture:

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? 2.Translate from Russian into English using the dictionary

Изобретение века
Если наш век называют веком электроники и информатики, то
штрих-код – это поистине тоже изобретение века. Придумали штрих-код

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американцы. В одной из диссертаций Гарвардской школы бизнеса впервые
появилось его символическое изображение. Однако новое изобретение
было признано не сразу. Прошло еще около двух десятков лет, когда в
США был выдан первый патент на линейный код. А практическое его
использование началось в 60-х годах с идентификации американских
железнодорожных вагонов. С тех пор штрих-код завоевал весь
цивилизованный мир.
Если бы штрих-коду надо было придумать девиз, то он мог быть
таким: «Скорость + надежность».
В развитых странах применяется кодирование информации о всех
параметрах произведенной продукции с помощью разработанной
международной стандартизированной системы. Код продукции состоит из
ряда цифр и штрихов над ними. Цифры – это товарный номер. Обычно он
состоит из 13 цифр. Первые две обозначают код банка той страны, где
выпущен товар. Следующие пять указывают на производителя продукции
– его порядковый номер в каталоге страны. Еще пять содержат все
необходимые характеристики товара. И последняя цифра – это
контрольное число, подтверждающее правильность самого кода. Полосы
над штрихами – штриховой код, который представляет собой запись этого
же товарного кода, но в форме, удобной для чтения с помощью
компьютера. Каждой цифре товарного кода соответствует особая
последовательность штрихов и пробелов.

Lesson 3. Organisation
“How many people work in your
office? About half.” Anonymous
& Useful vocabulary
1. cause – причина, причинять: Ice on the road was the cause of the
accident.
2. honest – честный: Give me your honest opinion.
3. to suggest – предполагать: Can you suggest how we should do it?
4. arrangement – договоренность: I phoned Ann and we made an
arrangement to meet on Friday.
5. to promise – обещать: “Don’t forget to call me when you get to
London.” “OK, I promise.”
6. debt –долг: As soon as she gets her salary, she wants to pay off her
debts.
7. message – сообщение: Let’s leave her a message to meet us at the
station.
8. to be sure – быть уверенным: I feel sure I’ve met her before
somewhere.
9. to blame – обвинять, жаловаться: She always blames me when

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anything gets broken.
10. conclusion – заключение, вывод: I found the conclusion of his book
very interesting.
11. description – описание: This book gives a good description of life on
a farm.
12. to provide – обеспечить: The course is free but you have to provide
your own books.
13. liability – ответственность, фин. пассив: A child is it’s parents’
liability.
14. asset – фин. актив: If your liabilities exceed your assets, you may go
bankrupt.
15. share – акция: She’s got all her money in shares.
16. shareholder – акционер: “Shareholder” is the owner of shares in a
business.
17. to vote – голосовать: At the election I shall give my vote for Tom
Smith.
18. Annual General Meeting – ежегодное генеральное собрание:
Today we are going to have an Annual General Meeting.
19. to elect – выбирать: They elected him President.
20. Board of Directors – совет директоров: “Board of directors” is the
group of people who have been elected by shareholders to manage a company.
21. stock exchange – фондовая биржа: “Stock exchange” is a place
where stocks and shares are bought and sold.
22. owner – владелец: Who is the owner of this car?
23. to fail – не удаваться, потерпеть неудачу: “Did you fail your
driving test?” “I went through a red light.”
24. to participate – принимать участие: Everybody in the group should
participate in these discussions.
25. investment – инвестиция, капиталовложение: She made an
investment of £1000 in the new firm.
26. cold – холодный, безучастный, равнодушный: She seemed rather
cold towards the visitors.
27. paternal – отцовский, отеческий, ограничивающий: “Paternal”
means protecting people and satisfying their needs but without allowing them
any freedom or responsibility.
28. to respond – отвечать, реагировать: They still haven’t responded to
my letter.
29. flat – плоский, не интересный, to fall ~ не удаться, не иметь
успеха: Everything seems so flat after the Christmas and New Year
celebrations are over.
30. to encourage – поощрять, поддерживать: You should encourage her
in her attempts to become a doctor.
31. to earn – зарабатывать: How does she earn her living?

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32. return – доход, прибыль: These shares have brought in good
returns.
33. to preach – проповедовать: My sister has been preaching at me
again about my behaviour.
34. flexibility – гибкость, податливость, уступчивость: We can visit
you on Saturday or Sunday; our plans are rather flexible.
35. target – цель, план, задание: I’m on a diet, and my target weight is
70 kilos.
36. to abolish – отменять, упразднять: Slavery was abolished in the US
in the 19th century.
37. headquarter (HQ)– главное управление, центр: Our headquarters
are in Geneva.
38. to switch – выключать, переключать, менять: We have switched
our plans.
39. to supervise – наблюдать, заведовать, просматривать: The work
was done under my upervision.
40. branch – филиал, отделение: The bank has branches all over the
country.
41. to urge – подгонять, торопить, побуждать: They urged us to go
there.
42. responsible – ответственный: You can leave the children with him –
he’s very responsible.
43. to remind – напоминать: I’ve forgotten his name – will you remind
me of it?
44. transaction – сделка: This transaction is very successful.
45. to offer – предлагать: I’ve been offered a job in advertising.
Starting up: 1. Discuss the following questions in groups.
• Are you an organized person or not? Do you like to plan carefully in
advance or do you prefer to be more spontaneous?
• Do you have any friends or relatives who are very different from you in
this respect? Does this ever cause problems?
• Do you think age or sex affect how organized people are?
2. Do the quiz in pairs. What do you think your partner’s answers show about
him / her?
HOW ORGANISED ARE YOU? Situation: how do you behave? A or B.
1. You have an important document to fill in and you know it’ll take
at least two hours to do it well. It’s Tuesday today and you have to do it by
nine o’clock on Friday morning at the latest.
A. You’re planning to do it tonight. That’ll give you time to read it
through tomorrow night and finish it early on Thursday.
B. You’re going out tonight, but you plan to do it tomorrow night. If you
are honest though, you know you probably won’t even get down to it until about
ten o’clock on Thursday evening.

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2. You bump into a friend you haven’t seen for ages in the street – she
suggests a night out together next week.
A. You get out your diary to see what you’re doing next week, and make
an arrangement there and then.
B. You agree enthusiastically and promise to ring her tomorrow … and
then forget all about it!
3. To your surprise, you win £500 in a competition you took part.
A. You put the money in the bank towards the new car/ holiday/ computer
that you are saving up for.
B. You pay off a few debts, buy some CDs and some new clothes, take a
friend out for a meal to celebrate … and the money’s gone!
4. It’s the end of June. You have two weeks holiday from work at the
beginning of August.
A. You have already booked your holiday and are starting to plan what
clothes you need. You are planning various excursions and trips.
B. You’re thinking of going to Greece, but you haven’t decided yet.
You’re going to start phoning travel agents next week.
5. You have been given an important message for a friend.
A. You phone him immediately, in case you forget about it next time you
meet.
B. You’re sure to see him in the next few days – you’ll remember to tell
him then.
6. You are to be at a meeting in another town at three o’clock. You
know it’ll take you at least thirty minutes to get there.
A. You give an hour for the journey – that way you’re sure you won’t be
late. You’d like to have enough time to have a coffee and make a few notes
before the meeting starts.
B. You allow yourself twenty-five minutes and hope you don’t have any
problems on the way. If you are late, you can blame the traffic or the public
transport system!
7. You’re about to go on holiday. It’s eight o’clock the evening before.
Your friend is picking you up to take you to the airport at eight-thirty
tomorrow morning.
A. You’ve finished your ironing and packing. Now you’re going to have a
nice bath and an early night, so that you’re fresh for the journey tomorrow.
B. You throw a few clothes into the washing machine and go to a café
with a few friends. You’re going to pack after that.
3. Discuss the answers and read the conclusions in the Appendix. Are they
the same as your own conclusions?
Discussing: 1. How important is each of the following for showing a
person's status in an organisation? Give each one a score from 1 (not
important) to 5 (very important).
—a reserved parking space —having a secretary

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—an office with a window —taking holidays when you like
—a uniform —the size of your desk
—a personal business card —having more than one seat in your office
—your own office —flying business class
—a company car —a company credit card
—your name on your door
2.Read the three descriptions of company structures. Then answer the
questions. Use a dictionary to help you.
Sole trader
One person sets up and runs the company. The person provides all the
capital and has unlimited liability for business debts, even if this means selling
personal assets.
Limited company
In a limited company (AmE corporation), the capital is divided into
shares, which are held by shareholders. Shareholders have limited liability, but
they can vote at the Annual General Meeting to elect the Board of Directors.
There are two types of limited company:
1) In a private limited company, all shareholders must agree before any
shares can be bought or sold.
2) In a public limited company, shares are bought and sold freely, for
example on the stock exchange.
Partnership
A group of people provide the capital, set up the company and manage it
together. There are two types of partnership:
1) Partners in an unlimited partnership are like sole traders - if the
business fails they are fully liable for all debts, and may even have to sell
personal assets.
2) In a limited partnership there can be sleeping partners who do not
participate in the management of the company. Sleeping partners have limited
liability - in the event of bankruptcy, they only lose their investment, not their
personal assets.
1. What are most people's main personal assets?
2. How can a sole trader get the capital to set up a business? Think of five
methods.
3. If a limited company has 5000 shares and each share is worth £2.50, what
is the capital of the company?
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of being a sleeping partner?
5. What is the difference between a sleeping partner and a shareholder?
6. If a private limited company goes bankrupt, do the shareholders lose their
personal assets? Why?
7. What must you do to sell your shares in a private limited company?
8. What are the advantages of a public limited company? Think of three.
3. Discuss these questions.

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1. Which of the words below can describe:
a) good qualities of an organisation?
b) b) bad qualities of an organisation?

professional impersonal cold caring disciplined democratic


decentralized paternal hierarchical welcoming centralized slow-to-
respond flat market-driven bureaucratic
2.Which words could you use to describe your own organisation or an
organisation you know well?
Reading I. 1. Here are some ideas for creating a good working environment.
Which do you consider a) bad? b) good for motivating staff?
— singing at meetings
— having no individual offices
— having no dress code
— organizing company holidays
— supplying flowers regularly for all offices
— encouraging managers to invite staff home for dinner
— dressing in strange clothes at meetings
— buying birthday presents for staff
—keeping small animals and birds at head office.
2. Read the article. Which of the ideas above are used by the Finnish
company, SOL?

Pioneer preaches flexibility while her firm cleans up


A Finnish innovator finds new ways to work that earn big returns in a
hard sector.
This is a company in which people work when they like, and flexibility is
being strongly tested. It is one that Dr Joseph Juran, the management expert
based in New York, considers to be the future. SOL is a Finnish company where
its employees look well in yellow uniforms and produce heavy-duty vacuum
cleaners.
SOL's owner, Liisa Joronen, a slim1, charismatic brunette of 50, back
from a 90-mile keep-fit cross-country ski run in Lapland, says that she has
thrown out traditional management styles and hierarchies in help of people
motivation and targets.
She has brought fun to the workplace in a nation noted for its engineering
innovation, but also for its people's nervousness and introversion. This most
extrovert of Scandinavian business leaders sometimes dresses as a sunflower
and sings at sales meetings if it will help. The company's name is from the
Spanish for sun, and its sun logo has a curved2 line turning it into a smile.
The key words around SOL are freedom, trust, goals, responsibility,
creativity, joy of working and lifelong learning, Ms. Joronen says. People's
creativeness is controlled by everyday and traditional office hours. As work

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becomes more competitive, so we need more flexible, creative and independent
people.
To help staff towards independence of mind, Liisa has abolished
territorial space, such as individual offices and desks, and organised a collective
area similar to a social club. It has a colourful playground, with trees, caged
birds3 and small animals, a garden center, a billiard table, sofas, modern art and
kitchen corners.
Staff sit anywhere. There is not a secretary in vision. The boss makes the
tea if everyone is on the phone to the field teams. Headquarters can be empty in
the day and busy in the evenings and weekends. One headquarters worker, keen
to go to midweek tango classes, was switching tasks with a colleague. The
person supervising the cleaning of Helsinki's metro was working from home.
Flying the country Economy Class, Liisa tells 3,500 staff at 25 branches
to kill routine before it kills you. At SOL Days, Japanese - style motivation
sessions, she has the whole hall dancing, and urges staff: The better you think
you are, the better you will become.
Half the country sees Liisa as a revolutionary boss, and several television
programmes have been devoted4 to her. The other half thinks she is crazy5.
Notes:
1. slim – стройная, изящная.
2. curved – изогнутый.
3. caged birds – птицы в клетках.
4. to devote – посвящать.
5. crazy – сумасшедший.

3. Which of these adjectives describe the type of worker SOL likes to employ?
fun-loving competitive ambitious responsible animal-loving shy
punctual independent flexible creative
4. Discuss these questions.
1.Would you like to work in a company like SOL?
2.Which of Liisa Joronen's ideas would you like to introduce into your
own company or organisation? Which would you not like to introduce? Why?
Reading II. Read and translate the dialogue. Learn useful expressions by heart.
- Good morning, Mr Brown.
- Good morning, Miss Benton. Are there any letters of faxes for me?
- There is a letter from Kenton Company and a fax from Canada.
- Thank you. Were there any phone calls while I was out?
- Your wife called and asked when you would be home today. She wanted to
remind you about your son’s birthday.
- I know, I remember. But first I have to finish work in the office. Could you
give me the reports that Mr. Andrews left yesterday?
- Reports? What reports?
- The ones about our co-operation with UCF Company.

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- Oh, yes. I’m sure they are somewhere here. Just a second, please.
- Miss Benton, is it difficult to keep your desk clean?
- I’m sure I took the reports out of the drawer (выдвижной ящик) and put them
in my briefcase (ручной чемоданчик) yesterday.
- Maybe you should check whether they are still in your briefcase!
- Oh, no. It’s empty! I must have thrown all that stuff in the wastepaper basket
(корзина для мусора). Exactly. Here you are, Mr. Brown.
- Thank you. But I’ll have to ask you to rewrite them on the computer and print
them once more, please.
- Of course, Mr. Brown.
- Now, have we got any meetings arranged for today?
- There is one at 2.15. There is also a conference at half past three. And don’t
forget about your meeting with Mr. Grant for lunch.
- OK. Put all the details of the plan for today on the noticeboard (доска
объявлений), please. Here are the letters that should be answered today.
Please, send this fax, too. If anyone calls, I’ll be in my office.
- Of course, Mr. Brown. Thank you.
Useful expressions
Are there any letters or faxes for me? – Есть какие-либо письма или
факсы для меня?
Could you give me the reports that Mr. Andrews left yesterday? – Вы
можете мне дать отчёты, которые вчера оставил мистер Эндрюс?
Have we got any meetings arranged for today? – У нас назначены
какие-либо встречи на сегодня?
Here are the letters that should be answered today. – Вот письма, на
которые следует сегодня ответить.
Put all the details of the plan for today on the noticeboard, please. –
Пожалуйста, повесьте все детали сегодняшнего плана на доске
объявлений.
Were there any phone calls while I was out? – Были какие-либо
телефонные звонки в моё отсутствие?
Learn these expressions by heart and make your own dialogue as in the
example.
Reading III. 1. Read the story.

A Transaction
Mr. Boggis was dealing in antique furniture1 and had his own shop. When
customers came to his shop he showed them round it so that they could see the
whole range of his goods.
Mr. Boggis was a talented salesman: he could buy furniture at a very low
price and sell it at a price several times higher. He bought furniture from people
in the country who didn’t know the value2 of antique furniture.
One Sunday Mr. Boggis was delighted3 to find a very old commode by a

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famous carpenter4. There were only four commodes of this kind. Other salesman
had sold the three commodes at an extremely high price, and that was the fourth.
It was a nice piece of furniture with beautiful legs.
Mr. Boggis wanted to buy the commode but he did not want to show Mr.
Rummond who had the commode that it was great value.
Mr. Boggis said:
“Well, the commode doesn’t look beautiful. I can’t compare it with the
others that I already have. Besides, it’s not the original, it’s a copy of a
commode by a well-known carpenter. I’ve just remembered that I could use its
legs for some other furniture, but I can’t buy the whole commode just for the
legs.”
“How much could you give for the commode if you are interested in the
legs?” asked Mr. Rummond.
“Shall we say 20 pounds? That will be quite reasonable5.”
“Make it 35.”
“I can’t offer you a higher price, this is my final offer!”
“I’ll take it,” Rummond said. “It’s yours. How are you going to take it?”
“In my car. I’ve left it not far from here.”
Mr. Boggis walked to his car to get it nearer the door. He was smiling to
himself. The commode was his for 20 pounds and he could get 15 or 20
thousand pounds for it later.
In the house Mr. Rummond discussed the transaction with his so Bert.
“You did it very well,” Bert said, “Do you think he will pay you?”
“We shan’t put it into the car till he pays us the money.”
“The commode is very big and what if it doesn’t go in the car? He’ll go
away and you’ll never see him or his money again. Besides, he didn’t like it
very much.”
“I can’t say he did.”
“Listen to me, father. I’ve got an idea. He told us that he wanted only the
legs. Right? So all we’ve got to do is to cut them of right now before he comes
back. Then the commode will go in his car. Besides, he won’t have to cut them
off at home himself.”
“It’s not a bad idea,” Rummond said.
After they had cut off the legs Rummond thought that the commode was
still big for Mr. Boggis’s car and he was afraid Mr. Boggis would not take it. So
he decided to cut the commode itself into several pieces. It was very difficult to
do it and Rummond said, “That was a very good carpenter who did the job.”
“We are just in time,” Bert said, “Here he comes.”
(After R. Dahl)
Notes:
1. antique furniture - антикварная мебель.
2. value – цена, стоимость, ценность.
3. to be delighted – быть довольным, восхищаться.

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4. carpenter – плотник.

2. Say what you have learned from the story about:


1. Mr Boggis’s business;
2. his transaction with Mr Rummond.
3. Think and answer:
1. Why did Mr Boggis look for antique furniture in the country and not in
the city?
2. Why did Mr Rummond agree to sell his commode at a very low price?
3. Will Mr Boggis take the commode after Mr Rummond cut it into several
pieces? Why do you think so?
¨ Grammar snack: Supply the correct tense forms.
A POLITE1 COMPUTER
Computers can solve difficult problems. One day a famous general was
given a computer which (be) ____ able to answer complicated questions on war
problems. The War Office also (send) ____ an expert to fix the computer. The
general (think) ____ hard over an important military2 problem for a long time
and the computer (bring) ____ at the right moment to help the general. It (take)
____ the general ten minutes to set the problem. “The enemy just (open) ____
fire from the south.” The general wanted to know what the results (be) ____ if
he (attack) ____ the enemy or if he (remove) ____ his army. The computer
(start) ____ (work) ____ at once. While the computer (operate) ____ by the
expert, the general (watch) ____ the screen (flash3) ____. At last the answer
(received) _____ “Yes”. The general’s face (grow) ____ dark red. He shouted at
the top of his voice: “Yes, what?” The computer (get)____ down to work again.
“Yes, sir!”. It (be)___ half an hour later when the next answer (come) ____.
“Yes? Sir!”
Notes:
1. polite – вежливый.
2. military – военный.
3. to flash – светиться.

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— Skills: 1. Comment on the picture.
? 2. Translate from Russian into English using the dictionary.
«Десять правил» от «Макдоналдса»
Канадский ресторанный гигант – фирма Mc Donald’s, обобщив свой
опыт ведения дел, выпустила рекомендации для тех, кто хочет преуспеть в
бизнесе. Возможно, они окажутся полезными и для вас.
1. Не тратьте денег зря, ради ложного престижа. Средства
необходимо вкладывать только в целях улучшения сервиса.

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2. Не подводите клиента, держите слово и выполняйте свои
обязательства в срок.
3. Не «кормите» клиента пустыми обещаниями. Его интересует не
то, что вы сможете предложить когда-то в будущем, а конкретные
нынешние услуги.
4. Успех предприятия в целом зависит от работы его отдельных
подразделений. Чаще всего неудача кроется не в плохой работе отдельных
сотрудников, а в плохой организации дела.
5. Научите персонал своевременно и без лишних эмоций исправлять
ошибки.
6. Старайтесь удивить клиента, постоянно совершенствуя сервис.
7. Честность и качество обслуживания – это единое целое, по
которому клиент судит о солидности фирмы. Качество зависит от
профессионализма и преданности фирме ее сотрудников.
8. Успех фирмы – в создании дружной квалифицированной команды,
а поэтому на руководящие посты необходимо воспитывать и назначать
умных людей. Не жалейте денег на их образование.
9. Если вы руководитель, чаще прислушивайтесь к предложениям
сотрудников, видящих производственный процесс изнутри.
10. Сотрудники всегда должны помогать друг другу. Это показатель
слаженности команды!

Lesson 4. Money
“Money talks they say. All ever said to
me was ‘Goodbye’.”
Gary Grant (1904-1986), American film
star
& Useful vocabulary
1. exactly - точно: They were doing exactly the opposite to what I had
told them.
2. approximately – приблизительно: The plane will be landing in
approximately 15 minutes.
3. change – менять, сдача, мелкие деньги: If it cost 25 pence and you
gave her a pound you should get 75 pence change.
4. bill – счет: Have you paid the phone bill yet?
5. receipt – чек: Ask the shop for a receipt when you pay the bill.
6. beggar – нищий: He’s a cheerful little beggar!
7. charity – благотворительность: She gave the old woman some shoes
because of charity.
8. to divide – делить, разделять: Divide this line into 20 equal parts.
9. equal – равный, одинаковый: “x = y” means that x equals y.

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10. to avoid – избегать, уклоняться: To avoid the city centre, turn right
here.
11. amount – количество, сумма: Large amounts of money were spent
on the bridge.
12. tax – налог: The government plans to increase taxes by five per cent
over the next year.
13. decline – упадок, ухудшение: Do you think standards of morality
have declined in recent years?
14. gain – увеличение, прирост, заработок: The car gained speed as it
went down the hill.
15. drop – падение, снижение (внезапное): The price of oil has dropped
to $12 a barrel.
16. increase – рост, увеличение, возрастание: They have increased the
price of petrol by almost 20 %.
17. to rocket – взлетать, резко возрастать: The price of sugar has
suddenly rocketed.
18. to plummet – внезапно и быстро падать в цене или количестве:
Prices have plummeted.
19. to double – удваиваться: I paid only £2 for this old book and a
dealer offered me double for it.
20. to fall (fell, fallen) – спадать, понижаться: The temperature fell four
degrees.
21. to halve – сокращать наполовину: By introducing robots we have
halved the time it takes to operate the car.
22. to level off – прекратить рост: “Level off” means to stop climbing or
growing and become steady or continue at a fixed level.
23. triple – тройной, утроенный: The firm tripled its profits last year.
24. to recover – получать обратно, обретать снова: The company hopes
to recover the cost of developing this product within about two years.
25. decrease – уменьшение, понижение, убавление: Our sales are
decreasing.
26. to fluctuate – колебаться, быть неустойчивым, волновать(ся): The
price of vegetables fluctuates according to he weather.
27. to improve – улучшать, усовершенствовать: I want to improve my
English.
28. peak – высшая точка, максимум: Demand of coal is at its peak in
January and February.
29. to rise (rose, risen) – увеличиваться, возрастать, повышаться: The
rise of computer technology has transformed industry.
30. precious – драгоценный: My time is precious; I can only give you a
few minutes.
31. currency – денежное обращение, деньги, валюта: The British
teachers in China were paid in local currency.

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32. property – собственность: The city is growing and property in the
centre is becoming more expensive.
33. real estate – недвижимость: He sells real estate.
34. interest – процент, rate of ~ процентная ставка: Bank interest rates
are going to rise this month.
35. venture – рискованное предприятие, опасная затея, спекуляция:
Now is not the time to venture on such an ambitious project.
36. profit – прибыль, выгода: We sold our house at a profit.
37. huge – огромный: “Huge ” means “extremely large”.
38. boom – бум, сенсация: There’s been a boom in exports this year.
39. collapse – падение, крушение, гибель: The company collapsed in its
first year of trading.
40. unfortunately – к сожалению: We were going to have a picnic but
unfortunately it rained all day.
41. confidence – доверие, уверенность: After another poor
performance, the company’s management has now lost the confidence of its
shareholders.
42. to reach – получать, достигать: She’s reached the age of 50.
43. to burst (burst, burst) – лопаться, разрываться: You’ll burst if you
eat any more of that cake.
44. explosion – взрыв, вспышка: How can we account for the recent
population explosion?
45. salary – жалованье, оклад: He is on a very good salary now.
Starting up: 1. Do the quiz individually. Then compare answers with a
partner.
1. How much cash do you have with you at the moment? Do you: a)
know exactly? b) know approximately? c) not know at all?
2. Do you normally check: a) your change? b) your bank statements and
credit card bills? c) restaurant bills? d) your receipts when shopping? e) prices in
several shops before you buy something?
3. Do you: a) give money to beggars? b) give money to charities? c) give
away used items, such as clothing?
4. If you go for a meal with someone you don't know well, do you: a)
offer to pay the whole bill? b) suggest dividing the bill into equal parts? c) offer
to pay the whole bill but expect them to pay next time? d) try to avoid paying
anything?
5. What do you think about people who do not pay correct amount of
tax? Is this: a) a serious crime? b) morally wrong but not a crime? c) excellent
business practice?
6. If you lend a colleague a small amount of money and they forget to
pay it back, do you: a) say nothing b) remind them that they owe you money?
c) arrange to go for a drink with them and say you've forgotten your wallet or
purse?

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Write one more question to add to the quiz above. Ask a partner to answer
it.
Discuss your answers to the quiz. What do they say about your attitude to
money? What do they say about your culture?
Discussion: 1. What kind of movement do the verbs below describe?
Match them to the symbols. Then compare your answers with a partner. (Use
some symbols more than once.)

decline gain drop increase rocket plummet


double fall halve level off triple recover
decrease fluctuate improve peak rise

2.Peter Bingham, President of a clothing company, is in a meeting with his


Sales Director John Amidon, and his Financial Director, Kate Simmons.
Complete their conversation with appropriate forms of the verbs in brackets.
Sometimes more than one tense is possible.
Peter: I'm glad you decided to make it today. I'd like to start by taking a
look at the year's sales and profit figures. First of all John, could you summarise
the sales figures?
John: Well, we had a good January- 5.2 million. January's a difficult
month because sales always_____1 (drop) after Christmas. In February we
started the new children's line and it went very well. Total sales_____2 (rise) to
almost 8 million, which was nice. Unfortunately they then_____3 (plummet)
after the fire in the main factory. But by the end of April we_____4 (recover) -
10.2 million was the figure - and since then sales_____5 (go up) progressively
month by month. The December figures aren't in yet, but it looks like we____6
(probably reach) 15 million this month.
Peter: Good. I've got a couple of questions, but I'll save them for later.
Kate, sales have increased, but has that meant higher profits?
Kate: Yes, it has. We're waiting for the final figures, but we already know
that generally, in the first three quarters of the year, profits_____7(rise) by 15%
compared to last year, from 960,000 to 1.1 million. In fact since April,
profits_____8 (increase) every single month and they_____9 (still go up).
Peter: What about next year?

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Kate: Well, as you know, next year we're going to centralise distribution,
so costs____10 (decrease). Even if sales_____11 (level off), profits______12
(improve).
Make your own dialogue about talking prices.
Reading I. 1. In your opinion, which of the following give the best
return on your money? Which are very risky? Which are less risky?
• gold • currencies • a high-interest deposit
account
• precious stones • property • antiques and paintings
• stocks and shares • land/real estate • a new business
venture
2.Work in three groups. Each group reads a different text: either The South
Sea Bubble or Tulipomania or The Wall Street Crash. Make notes on the key
points.

The South Sea Bubble1


The South Sea Bubble is the name given to a speculation in 1720 and
associated with the South Sea Company in London. People bought shares in the
company expecting to make a huge profit, but the boom in shares collapsed and
many investors lost all money.
The South Sea Company was founded in 1711 to trade with Spanish
America The company's stock offered a guaranteed interest of 6% and it sold
well. Unfortunately, however, Spain allowed the company to send only one ship
a year to trade in the area.
The first voyage in 1717 was a success. Then King George I became
governor of the company in 1719. This created confidence in the business, and
soon it was paying 100% interest.
In 1720, there was a boom in the South Sea Company's shares because it
agreed to take over the country's national debt. It expected to get back its money
by increased trade and a rise in the value of its shares.
The shares did, in fact, rise dramatically. The stock of the company,
which had been around £128 in January 1720, reached £1,000 in August.
However, by September the market had collapsed, and the price fell back to
£124. Finally, with the support of the Government, the shares levelled off at
around £140.
The South Sea Bubble had burst and it led to an economic depression in
the country.
Note:
1. bubble – пузырь.

Tulipomania
The first modern stock market appeared in Amsterdam at the beginning of
the 17th century. In Holland in the 1630s, there was one of the first and most

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extraordinary speculative explosions in history. It was not in stocks and shares,
in real estate or in fine paintings, as you might expect, but in tulip bulbs1. It has
become known by the name Tulipomania.
People from all classes invested in the bulbs. Many sold their property so
that they could pay for the bulbs they had bought in the tulip market. Foreigners
joined in the rush2 to buy the flowers and money poured3 into Holland from
other countries.
In 1637, the boom in the market ended. No one knows why, but people
began to sell. Soon there was a panic among investors and the tulip market
collapsed. Many people who had offered their property as security for credit
went bankrupt. People who had agreed to buy tulips at inflated prices were
unable to pay their debts. When sellers took legal action to recover their money,
the courts4 were not helpful because they saw such investment as a kind of
gambling5.
It is not surprising that the collapse in prices led to a strict economic
depression in Holland.
Notes:
1. tulip bulbs - луковицы тюльпанов.
2. rush – наплыв, спешка.
3. to pour – течь, литься.
4. court – суд.
5. gambling – спекуляция, мошенничество.

The Wall Street Crash


The stock market crash in the United States in 1929 was huge and it led to
a severe2 and lasting economic crisis in the world. Many bankers and
industrialists lost their money and reputations. Some went to prison3 and others
committed suicide.
Share prices on the New York stock exchange had begun rising in 1924,
and in 1928 and 1929 they rocketed to unbelievable levels. In spring 1929 there
was a break in the rising prices when the Federal Reserve Bank said it might
raise interest rates to slow down the boom. However, a major bank, the National
City Bank, assured investors that it would continue to lend4 money to them at
reasonable5 rates.
Soon the market took off again. People could buy stock for 10% of its
value and borrow6 the remaining 90%. The lending rate varied from 7% to 12%.
Almost everyone was optimistic. One economist, at the peak of the boom, said
that people generally agreed «stocks are not at present overvalued».
It all ended on 21 October, 1929. The market opened badly and there was
heavy selling. Confidence in the market disappeared. There was a story that the
big bankers were getting out of the market. Share prices fell dramatically and
kept on falling. The boom was over. But its cost would last for years to come.

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Notes:
1. crash - крушение, крах, банкротство.
2. severe – строгий, суровый.
3. prison – тюрьма.
4. to lend (lent, lent) – давать взаймы, одалживать.
5. reasonable – приемлемый, подходящий.
6. to borrow - брать взаймы, занимать.

3. Form new groups of three people, each of whom has read a different
text. Exchange information and complete the chart below.

South Sea Bubble Tulipomania Wall Street Crash


Where did it
happen?
When did it
happen?
Who was
involved?
What happened?
Why did it
happen?
What were the
consequences?

4. Discuss these questions.


1. What are the similarities and differences in the three speculations?
2. What do you think people will speculate in during the next 20 years?
Reading II. Study the situation

Lottery winners
a) Which of these things do you expect people to do if they win a lottery
“jackpot” (the biggest prize)?
1 give up their job / stay in the same job?
2 stay in their old house / buy a new house?
3 give away money to their family / keep all the money for themselves?
4 eat in expensive restaurants / almost never go out?
b) Read this text about Bert Dunstan and mark the statements below
T (True) or F (False).
Two years ago Bert Dunstan won £12,000,000 on the National Lottery.
Today he is dead. The 53-year-old factory worker was found lying lifeless on
the sofa at his home last weekend.
When Bert won his fortune, he immediately gave up his £200-a-week job
at the local chocolate factory and bought a luxurious (роскошный) new house.

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However, he did not immediately head for the sun on a Caribbean holiday or a
round-the-world cruise, as others have done; instead, he packed his family of
seven into one of his new cars and took them camping in Scotland.
Bert always liked his food and, instead of giving his only daughter, Sally,
part of his winnings, he employed her as a full-time cook on a salary of £500 a
week. “I used to cook him three big meals every day: burgers, steak and chips
were his favorites.” But Sally doesn't think Bert died through overeating: “He
just seemed to lose interest in life.”
Chloe Godwin, a psychologist who specializes in the effects that winning
a large amount of money can have on people, says “For some people the most
terrible thing that can happen to them is change. This is why people have
problems when they get married or pass exams. It's nice to win a few thousand
pounds, but you shouldn't have so much that you move too far away from the
life you've got.”
Certainly other lottery winners have had their problems: one of them left
the country because of the publicity and because her family was aggressive over
the money. Another left his wife of 40 years and gave her nothing - the ticket
was in his name, after all!
Losing can be just as bad, though: Freddie McMahon actually went crazy
when a group of people at his office won the jackpot - and he had refused to join
them the week before.
So, whichever way you look at it, you just can't win!
1. Bert died two years after winning the lottery.
2. He spent some of the money on a new car.
3. He only gave his daughter £500.
4. Sally thinks that Bert ate himself to death.
5. The psychologist says that people find it very difficult when
they have big changes in their lives.
6. One person left the country partly because of her relative.
7. A husband and wife bought a winning lottery ticket together
and then he left her.
8. Freddie McMahon went mad over a lottery ticket.
Reading III. 1. Read the story.

A Cent Cut into Two Pieces1


I worked at an office. I wrote short stories about life in New York. One
day, as I was engaged at the office, Tripp came in. I didn’t know exactly where
Tripp was working, but he was very poor. He was pale 2 and unhealthy, and
whenever he came I knew that he was going to ask me for a dollar, and then
spent it on whisky.
This time Tripp looked more unhappy than ever.
“Well, Tripp, how are you?” said I. “Have you got a dollar, Mr.
Chalmers?” asked Tripp. “Would you like a good plot for a story? I’ve got an

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excellent one. It will probably3 cost you a dollar or two”.
“What is the story?” I asked impatiently.
“It’s a girl. A real beauty. She had lived in a village for twenty years and
has never seen New York before. I happened to meet her in the street. I was
passing by4 when she addressed me and asked where she could find George
Brown. Asked me where she could find George Brown in New York! She comes
from a little village and has seen nothing in her life but farms. I talked to her.
She told me she was going to marry a farmer next week. But there had been a
certain George Brown who had left the village some years ago and gone to the
city to earn money.
He never returned to the village. But before marrying the farmer, Ada –
her name is Ada – wants to find George Brown and to have a talk with him as
she seems to care for him still. That is why she has come to New York…I
couldn’t leave her alone. She told me that she had spent all her money and that
she didn’t know what to do and where to go. So I took her to a boarding house
and left her there. I want you to come with me to see her.”
“What nonsense5 you are talking, Tripp”, said I. “I thought you said you
had a ploy of a story.”
“Oh, it will make a story, I assure you,” said Tripp. “You can describe the
girl and add a lot about true love – well, you know how to do it and it will cost
you only four dollars.”
“How will it cost me four dollars?” I asked.
“One dollar to the landlady6 in the boarding house7,” Ttripp answered,
“and two dollars to pay the girl’s cost home.”
“And the fourth dollar?” I asked.
“One dollar to me,” said Tripp, “for whisky. Are you coming?”
There was nothing to be done but I said to myself that Tripp would never
persuade me to give him his dollar for whisky. Angrily I went with him to the
boarding house. Tripp was right; she was a beauty. We found Ada comfortably
sitting in an armchair and crying. She told me everything. When she spoke about
George Brown tears came to her eyes. What could I do? I was not George.
“George and I”, she went on, “loved each other. When he was nineteen –
that was six years ago – he left the village and went to New York to earn money.
He said he would come back for me. But I never heard from him any more. On
the day we parted George and I cut a cent into two pieces. I took one piece and
he took the other, and we promised to be devoted to each other. Something has
happened to him, I am sure. It certainly was very silly of me to come here
looking for him. I never even thought what a big place New York is.”
And then Tripp and I told her how important it was for her to stop looking
for the unlucky George and to return home at once.
I paid the landlady a dollar, and the three of us left the boarding house. I bought
a ticket and a red rose for Ada. We saw her off. And then Tripp and I looked at
each other. Tripp seemed even more unhappy than usual.

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“Can’t you make a story of it?” he asked me. “Not a line,” said I. “There
is nothing interesting in this little adventure; but we have helped Ada. Let us try
to forget it,” said I. I didn’t want to give Tripp his dollar for whisky. Just as we
were walking toward the bus stop, Tripp took out his handkerchief, and I saw a
cheap silver watch chain. Something was hanging on the watch chain. It was a
half of a cent that had been cut into halves.
“What?” I said, looking at him with surprise. “Oh, yes,” he answered,
“my real name is George Brown. But what’s the use?” Without another word I
took Tripp’s whisky dollar out of my pocket and put it into his hand.
(After O. Henry)
Notes:
1. piece - кусок.
2. pale – бледный.
3. probably – вероятно.
4. to pass by – проходить мимо.
5. nonsense – ерунда, чепуха.
6. landlady – хозяйка пансиона.
7. boarding house – пансион, меблированные комнаты со столом.

2. Say what you have learned about:


1) Tripp; 2) Ada; 3) Chalmers.
Think and answer.
1. What made Tripp sure that Chalmers would get interested in the girl’s story?
2. Why couldn’t Ada marry the farmer without seeing George brown first?
3. Why did Tripp want the girl to leave New York?
4. Why didn’t Ada recognize Tripp?
5. Why didn’t Tripp tell Ada his real name?
Choose the proverb which best illustrates the idea of the story. Prove your
choice.
1. A good name is better than riches.
2. East or West, home is best.
3. Lost time is never found again.
Reading IV. Read the dialogue.

Money and paying


(At the greengrocer’s (овощной магазин))
- Good morning. Can I help you?
- Good morning. I’d like a kilo of potatoes, two tomatoes, and one
lettuce (кочан салата).
- A big one?
- Yes, a big one, please.
- Is this one big enough?
- Yes, it’s all right.

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- Anything else?
- Yes, a cucumber half a meter long.
- Is this one long enough?
- That’s perfect. Ah, yes. One more thing. Have you got a cabbage?
- No, I’m sorry, there are no cabbages at the moment.
- Well… what else… Oh, yes, fruit.
- What kind of fruit?
- Two kilos of apples and four bananas.
- Four bananas… Here you are.
- How much is it?
- That’s 5 pounds 50 p.
- Can you change a £10 note? I’m sorry; this is all I’ve got.
- Yes, of course. Here’s your change.
- Thank you very much.
- Thank you. Goodbye.
(At the stationer’s (магазин канцелярских товаров))
- Hello, can I help you?
- Hello, I’d like to buy ten envelopes (конверт), five notebooks, and
three pens.
- What size of notebook would you like?
- The big ones, please.
- And what kind of pens would you like?
- One felt-tip pen (фломастер) and two fountain pens (авторучка).
How much is that fountain pen?
- This is specially designed fountain pen for businessmen and it costs
£20.
- It’s incredibly expensive. I’m afraid I can’t afford it. I’ll take the
cheaper ones.
- Is that everything?
- Yes, I believe so. How much is it?
- £10.40. How are you paying? Cash (наличные) or credit card?
- Cash, please. Can you change a twenty-pound note?
- I’m sorry, I don’t have any change.
- In that case I’ll pay with my credit card. Here you are.
- Thank you. Have a nice day.
- Good bye.
Useful expressions
Can you change a ten-pound note, please? – Вы можете разменять
двадцатифунтовый банкнот?
How are you paying? – Как Вы будете платить? Наличными или
кредитной карточкой?
How much is it? – Сколько это стоит?
I can’t afford it. – Я не могу себе это позволить.

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I don’t have any change. – У меня нет сдачи.
I’ll take the cheaper pen. – Я возьму ручку подешевле.
It is incredibly expensive! – Это невероятно дорого!
Learn these expressions by heart and make your own dialogue as in the
example.
¨ Grammar snack: 1. Read these paragraphs about what people do with
money, and choose the correct preposition.
“I don’t know why my daughter wastes money
(1) by/on unnecessary things like magazines and make
up. If she was more careful and put a little money (2)
into/for the bank every month, she would save up (3)
on something really nice, like a new CD player.”
“I’m really fed up with my boyfriend: he never
has any money. He doesn’t pay (4) on/for drinks or a
meal when we go out, and you can see that he never
spends any money (5) in/on clothes! In fact, I don’t
think I’ve ever seen him take any money (6) off/out of
the bank.”
“My grandma is really old-fashioned: she
hates banks. When she goes shopping she always
pays (7) on/in cash: she thinks that if you pay (8)
with/by cheque or credit card, it’s not real money.
She’s got lots of money, though, and I’m always
telling her to invest it (9) in/into some kind of
business, instead of keeping it under the
mattress.”
2. Complete the gaps in these sentences with the best form of a verb from
the box and/or the correct prepositions.
waste invest put take pay(×3) save up spend
1. Bob: Each month I ……… about a quarter of my salary into the bank,
because I’m ……... ….. ….. a holiday in the Bahamas and I’m really trying not
to ……… money ….. stupid things like beer and lottery tickets.
2. Sheila: I don’t carry much cash around with me. When I go shopping
for food, I usually ………. …. cheque.
3. Katie: My mum ……… ….. all my clothes, and she gives me some
money every week to …….. …. sweets and magazines.
4. Paul: I don’t like ……… money …… …… a cash dispenser when it’s
late at night. I know someone who was robed while he was doing that.
5. Jack: I do a lot of small building jobs for people, so I prefer it if they
……… me ….. cash. I suppose about three quarters of my customers do this.
6. Maria: Well, my souvenir shop’s doing very well at the moment, so I’m
planning to ……… two thirds of the profits …… another shop.

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— Skills: 1. Comment on the picture.

? 2. Translate from Russian into English using a dictionary

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Роковой луидор
Известно, что случай играет немалую роль не только в жизни
каждого человека, но и в истории. Часто из-за непредвиденных
обстоятельств менялось ее течение, рушились царства и гибли их владыки.
20 июня 1791 года Людовик XVI, переодетый в платье слуги, тайно
бежал из революционного Парижа. Вместе с ним пытались спастись
королева и дети – все были переодеты простолюдинами. Путь их лежал к
границе Бельгии.
На почтовой станции в Варенне они остановились, чтобы поменять
лошадей. При расплачивании они уронили золотой луидор. Его подняла
дочка почтмейстера и, протянув отцу, заметила, что изображение на
монете похоже на господина, который сидит в экипаже.
Ее слова заставили насторожиться почтмейстера Друэ. Заглянув в
карету, он убедился, что девочка права. Сходство человека в платье слуги с
изображением на монете было несомненным. Ошибки быть не могло – это
король, тайно бежавший из столицы. В итоге беглецы были арестованы.
Так случай решил судьбу Людовика XVI: он был казнен. Луидор
оказался роковым.

Lesson 5. Ethics
“Those are my principles; if you don’t
like them, I have others”
Groucho Marx (1895-1977) American
comedian and film actor
& Useful vocabulary
1. mission – миссия, призвание, поручение: Mission accomplished! (= I
have done what I was sent to do).
2. to claim – требовать, утверждать: This problem claims our exclusive
attention.
3. expense – трата, расходы, стоимость: He tried to be clever at my
expense.
4. facility – легкость, уступчивость, благоприятные условия,
преимущество: The facility of this piece of music makes it a pleasure to play.
5. statement – сообщение, утверждение, заявление: What is this
statement about?
6. purpose – цель: What was the purpose of her visit?
7. to accept – принимать: I’m sorry, but I can’t accept that.
8. praise – похвала, восхваление: The new film received high praise
from everyone.
9. to influence – влиять: What were the factors that influenced you to
take the job?

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10. nepotism – семейственность, кумовство: “Nepotism” means the
practice of giving one’s relatives advantages when one has power, esp. by
giving them good jobs.
11. sick – больной: She’s visiting her sick uncle in hospital.
12. to extend – расширять, оказывать, протягивать: The hot weather
extended into October.
13. to appoint – назначать: She has been appointed as sales director.
14. honesty – честность: Honesty is the best policy.
15. fairness – справедливость, честность: “Fairness” means freedom
from injustice, dishonesty, or self-interest.
16. wage – заработная плата: The workers have asked a wage rise of
10%.
17. to dip (dipped, dipt) – погружать, спускать: I dipped my pen in the
ink.
18. recession – удаление, уход, углубление: “Recession” means a
period of reduced trade and business activity.
19. to lay off – откладывать, увольнять, прекращать работу: There
have been a lot of lay-offs in the shipbuilding industry recently.
20. to sacrifice – приносить жертву, жертвовать: His parents made a
lot of sacrifices to make sure he got a good education.
21. guilty – виновный: I feel very guilty about forgetting to post your
letter.
22. to suffer – страдать: If the factory closes, the other local businesses
would suffer to.
23. to approve – одобрять, проявлять, показывать: You made a good
decision, and approve of it.
24. to disapprove – не одобрять: I disapprove of smoking.
25. to reflect – отражать: The mountains were reflected in the lake.
26. to survive – выживать: “How can you do this huge amount of
work?” “Don’t worry, I’ll survive.”
27. commitment – обязательство, заключение, предание суду: Come
and look round our shop without commitment to buy anything.
28. to contribute – содействовать, вкладывать, способствовать: This
advertising campaign has contributed significantly to the success of the new car.
29. accountable – ответственный, объяснимый: Should the police be
more accountable to the public?
30. to follow – следовать: We expect even greater successes to follow.
31. to define – определять: Some words are hard to define because they
have many different uses.
32. dilemma – затруднительное положение: She was in a dilemma
about her future profession.
33. bribe – взятка, подкуп: The child was bribed with a piece of cake to
go to bed quietly.

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34. to involve – вовлекать, включать: If I were you I wouldn’t get
involved in their problems.
35. obviously – очевидно, ясно: This key is obviously the wrong one.
36. reason – причина: He decided not to accept the job, but wouldn’t tell
us his reasons.
37. instance – пример, отдельный случай, настояние, требование: You
can’t rely on her: for instance, she arrived an hour late for an important
meeting yesterday.
38. to supply – предлагать, поставлять: The firm that used to supply us
has gone out of business.
39. meantime – тем временем, между тем: The new secretary won’t
come until next week; in the meantime we have arranged for a temporary one.
40. representative – представитель: I couldn’t present myself , but I sent
my representative to the meeting.
Starting up: 1. Discuss these questions.
1. What is the purpose of a business, in your opinion? Is it just to make
money?
2. What do you understand by these phrases?
a) business ethics b) a code of good practice c) a mission statement
3. Should mission statements include statements about ethics?
2. Rank the professions below according to how ethical you think they are.
accountant civil servant lawyer police officer
banker estate agent nurse teacher
car sales executive journalist dentist taxi driver

3. Discuss this list of unethical activities. In your opinion, which are the worst?
Are any common in your country?
1. Avoiding paying tax.
2. Claiming extra expenses.
3. Using work facilities for private purposes (for example, personal phone
calls).
4. Accepting praise for someone else's ideas or work.
5. Selling a defective product (for example, a second-hand car).
6. Using your influence to get jobs for relatives (nepotism).
7. Ringing in sick when you are not ill.
8. Taking extended lunch breaks.
9. Giving good references to people you want to get rid of.
10. Employing people illegally.
Discussion: 1. Work in groups. Discuss the ethical questions below.
A different person should lead the discussion of each issue.
1. You have a shortlist of people for the post of Sales Manager. One of the
female candidates is clearly the best qualified person for the job. However, you
know that some of your best customers would prefer a man. If you appoint a

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woman you will probably lose some sales. What should you do?
2. Your company, a large multinational, has a new advertising campaign
which stresses its honesty, fairness and ethical business behaviour. It has
factories in several countries where wages are very low. At present it is paying
workers the local market rate. Should you increase their wages?
3. A colleague in a company which tests medical equipment has been
making bad mistakes recently at work. This is because she has a serious illness.
You are her friend and the only person at work who knows this. She has asked
you to keep it a secret. What should you do?
4. You are directors of a potato snack manufacturing company. Research
has shown that any price increase causes an immediate dip in sales (although
sales recover within six months). It has been suggested that you could maximise
your profits by simply reducing the weight of the product in the packets and
maintaining the current price. What should you do?
2.Do you agree with this statement? Give your reasons.
“If we face a recession we should not lay off employees. The company
should sacrifice a profit. It's management's risk and management's
responsibility. Employees are not guilty; why should they suffer?”
Akio Morita (1921-1999), co-founder of Sony
3. Discuss these questions.
1) There is a proverb, 'When in Rome, do as the Romans do.' What does
the proverb mean? Do you agree with this advice?
2) Would you continue to do business with someone if you disapproved of
their private life? Explain why or why not.
3) Give examples of behaviour which would cause you to stop doing
business with someone.
4. Discuss the following questions.
1) Is it important for companies to have a written code of ethics?
2) Is it more important for some industries than others to have a code of
ethics?
Reading I. 1. Claire Bebbington is External Affairs Manager for a
division of BP (British Petroleum). Read the interview.
(I = Interviewer, CB = Claire Bebbington)
I: Why should companies be ethical or what are the advantages of a
company in behaving ethically?
CB: Mm, I think the whole issue of ethics is a very complex one.
Companies are made of people. Multinationals are made up of many different
nationalities. I think that companies are part of society and as such they should
reflect society’s standards. Companies, especially multinational ones, do have
responsibilities in the world and should try to be a positive influence and I think
if a company is not ethical, then it will not survive as a company.
I: Should a company have a code of ethics?
CB: I think from my point of view it’s useful in two ways. Firstly, it

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makes a commitment to certain good behaviour and it’s a way of
communicating the importance of good behaviour to all of its employees and
partners. Secondly, if a company has a code of ethics and spends time
communicating it, it does actually contribute to its ethical behaviour. If you
express these things in writing, especially, then you can be held accountable for
them. It means that you are much more likely to act on them as well. I think
following up that code is difficult. People have different ethical standards, and
defining the term “ethics” can I think be a problem. But I think generally to
express what your ethics are is a positive thing to do.
I: What kinds of moral dilemmas do large companies face? Can you
think of any examples?
CB: I think if you were to look at any company’s ethical code you
would usually find in it a section about offering bribes and this can be an area
where I think people can get themselves into hot water. Facilitation payments
are part of doing business in many countries, and bribes are something which
most companies are not going to want to get involved in. But when does a
facilitation payment become a bribe? And that is a question that can be quite
difficult to answer.
I: Can you think of an example where a facilitation payment is
clearly a facilitation payment and not a bribe?
CB: I think that there are many examples. When you are paying
consultants to make introductions to new business contacts, obviously the reason
you choose these consultants is because they are well placed to give that kind of
advice in a particular country. And you’re paying for that introduction. I would
say size is important. Sometimes facilitation payments are out of proportion to
the kind of business that you are expecting to win. I think there are many
instances. Also, you have to be careful with issues such as nepotism.
2. Decide whether these statements are true or false, according to Claire.
1) The issue of ethics is simple.
2) If a company puts its code of ethics in writing, it is better to act on it.
3) Following up a code of ethics is difficult.
Reading II. 1. Read the story.

Success Story
I met Richard about 10 years ago when I came to South America to work
for Pan-America Company. Richard worked for the same Company. He was a
short pleasant man of 22, who easily made friends with people and I liked him.
Soon after I arrived, Pan-America Co signed a contract for the
construction of a plant. I made most of the calculations and Richard only helped
me because he wasn't very good at this job.
In January a few representatives of the customers together with the
President of the company, Mr. Prossert, arrived from the USA. The next day our
company manager invited all of them to go and see the construction of the plant.

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They decided to go there by train. The manager asked Richard and me to pick up
Mr. Prossert at the hotel and take him to the station.
On the way to the station Mr. Prossert asked me a lot of questions and I
often answered: "I'm afraid I don't know, sir. We haven't made any calculations
on that."
Although I knew the job better than Richard I was very much surprised
when Richard began to speak: '"I did these calculations last night," he said, "just
for pleasure." "Oh," said Mr. Prossert, "That's very interesting. Well, now,
probably you could tell me about..."
And Richard could. He knew everything. He answered all the questions
Mr. Prossert asked him. When we got to the station Mr. Prossert said good-bye
to Richard. (However he didn't say goodbye to me.) On our way back to the
office I told Richard what I thought of him.
"Your information wasn't true. Why did you give him that kind of
information?" I said. "You see, John, if the President of a big company wants to
know something, why can't I tell him everything he wants?" "But what is he
going to think if he checks the information?" "Do you think he'll remember it?
What he is going to remember is you and me. He is going to remember that Pan-
America Co has a clever young man, Richard by name, who could tell him
everything he wanted to know and the other man who couldn’t answer his
questions”.
Some time later I remembered all that. I read in one of the newspapers
that Richard is Vice – President of a big American Company. As to me I’m still
doing my ordinary everyday job for Pan – America Co.
(After James Gould Cozzens)
2. Ask questions on the story.
3. Say what have you learned about:
1) Richard;
2) John.
4. Think and answer.
1) Why was the job easy for John and difficult for Richard?
2) Why was John surprised to hear Richard’s answers to Mr. Prossert’s
questions?
3) Why didn’t Mr. Prossert say good-bye to John?
4) Why did the writer call the story “Success Story”?
5. Tell a story about any of these ideas.
1) A significant news event you remember well.
2) An ethical problem you know about.
3) A memorable event in your life (good or bad).
4) An unusual or memorable experience while you were traveling.
Reading III. Read the story.

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A Noble Gangster1
There was a time when the owners of shops and businesses in Chicago
had to pay large sums of money to gangsters to return for “protection”2. If the
money was not paid promptly3, the gangsters would quickly put a man out of
business by destroying4 his shop. Obtaining5 “protection money” is not a
modern crime. As long ago as the fourteenth century, an Englishman, Sir John
Hawkwood, made the remarkable6 discovery that people would rather pay large
sums of money then have their life-work destroyed by gangsters.
Six hundred years ago, Sir John Hawkwood arrived in Italy with a band of
soldiers and settled near Florence. He soon made a name for himself and came
to be known to the Italians as Giovanni Acuto. Whenever the Italian city-states
were at war with each other, Hawkwood used to hire his soldiers to princes who
were willing to pay the high price he demanded. In times of peace, when
business was bad, Hawkwood and his men would march7 into a city-state and,
after burning down a few farms, would offer to go away if protection money
was paid to them. Hawkwood made large sums of money in this way. In spite of
this, the Italians regarded8 him as a sort of hero. When he died at the age of
eighty, the Florentines gave him a state funeral9 and had a picture painted which
was dedicated10 to the memory of “the most valiant11 soldier and most notable12
leader, Singor Giovanni Haukodue”.
Notes:
1. a noble gangster – благородный гангстер.
2. protection – защита.
3. promptly – быстро.
4. to destroy – разрушать.
5. to obtain – получать.
6. remarkable – примечательный.
7. would march – бывало, маршировали.
8. to regard – рассматривать, считать.
9. funeral – похороны.
10. to dedicate – посвящать.
11. valiant – доблестный.
12. notable – замечательный.
Give your opinion about the information you have read. Retell the story.

¨ Grammar snack: Complete the story below with the correct tenses
of the verbs in brackets.
That reminds me of the problem we had 1(have) with our new milk
carton. We______2 (introduce) it a few months earlier and it____3 (become)
popular with customers. People_____4 (buy) it______5 (talk) about it and_____6
(recommend) it to their friends, and so on. Then we_____7 (change) to a new
supplier who_____8 (be) cheaper and we_____9 (start) to get lots of complaints.
People_____10 (can not) open the cartons any more.

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We were surprised about the problem because we_____ 11 (test) it on some
of our workers. They_____12 (say) it was fine.
In the end, we______13 (decide) to go
back to our original supplier.
We_____14 (look) really stupid. In the
meantime, we ______15 (lose) a lot of
customers. We______16 (be) very careful
about choosing suppliers for packaging ever
since.

— Skills: 1. Comment on the picture.

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? 2. Translate from Russian into English using a dictionary
О крепости духа и тела
Когда речь идет об успехе в бизнесе, в первую очередь учитываются
профессиональные (квалификация, эрудиция) и человеческие (обаяние,
уверенность) качества. Однако немало зависит и от физиологии и
психологии предпринимателя. Современный рынок предъявляет очень
высокие требования в плане работоспособности, выносливости.
Популярный немецкий журнал «Bunte» предлагает следующие
советы начинающим бизнесменам, которыми, кстати, пользовались и такие
известные люди, как политик Вилли Брандт, мыслитель Махатма Ганди,
певица Мадонна:
1. Развивай силу воли. Постоянно повторяй про себя: я хочу, я могу,
я все сделаю.
2. Постарайся понять свои лучшие качества и культивируй их.
Честно назови себе свои слабости. Тот, кто обманывает себя, никогда не
добьется успеха.
3. Укрощай стресс. Пойми его причину, отбрось сомнения и не бойся
вступать в спор.
4. Двигайся: гуляй, плавай, не позволяй «застаиваться» телу и духу.
Если ты хочешь чего-то достичь – оставайся всегда в форме.
5. Развивай положительное мышление. Пессимизм не улучшает
качество жизни.
6. Будь решителен. Учтя все «за» и «против», принимай такое
решение, чтобы потом от него не отступать.
7. Будь прозорливым. Просчитай заранее степень риска – и тогда
тебя ничто не собьет с пути.
8. Фантазируй. Разум не всесилен. Доверяй собственным
ощущениям.
9. Помни: больше всего мешают работе гордость и трусость. Внимай
советам и критике – это путь к успеху.
10. Не бойся поднимать планку своих возможностей. Только так ты
растешь!

Lesson 6. Change
“There is nothing permanent except
change” Heraclitus of Ephesus (535 –
475 BC), Greek philosopher
& Useful vocabulary
1. permanent – постоянный, неизменный: Is it your permanent
address, or are you only staying there for a short time?
2. divorce – развод: Their marriage ended in divorce.

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3. victim – жертва: Four people were killed in the explosion, but police
have not yet named the victims.
4. robbery – грабеж, кража: He was the victim of robbery.
5. to merge – поглощать, сливать(ся), соединять(ся): One colour
merged into the other.
6. to promote – продвигать, способствовать: Milk promotes health.
7. to charge – обвинять: He was charged with a robbery.
8. hostile – враг, вражеский, неприятельский: The prime minister was
greeted by a hostile crowd.
9. quotation – цитата: “Quotation” is a sentence or phrase taken from a
work of literature or other place of writing and repeated.
10. to hang on – стойко держаться, упорствовать, полагаться: I know
you’re tired but try to hang on a bit longer.
11. to beat (beat, beaten) – бить, ударять, стучать: The rain was
beating against the windows.
12. to frighten – пугать: The little girl was frightened by the big dog.
13. opportunity – возможность: You should go and see this film if you
get the opportunity.
14. threat – угроза: Some people see computers as a threat to their jobs.
15. to swing (swung, swung) – качать(ся), колебать(ся),
поворачивать(ся): He swung round and said “Why are you following me?”
16. increment – возрастание, увеличение, прибыль: “Increment”
means an increase in money or value.
17. versus – против: It’s going to be Mexico versus Holland in the final.
18. external – внешний, наружный: This medicine is for external use,
not to drink.
19. courageous – храбрый, отважный, смелый: It was courageous of
you to say what you did.
20. weakness – слабость, недостаток: I have a weakness for chocolate.
21. to win (won, won) – побеждать, выигрывать: Who do you think will
win the election?
22. to lose (lost, lost) – терять, проигрывать: Here are the tickets: don’t
lose them.
23. constant – постоянный: He drove at a constant speed.
24. to compare – сравнивать, сопоставлять: I compared the copy with
the original, and there wasn’t much difference.
25. term – срок, период, термин, выражение: She spoke in difficult
terms about her work.
26. brave – храбрый: It was brave of you to stand up and speak in front
of all those people.
27. to oppose – сопротивляться, возражать, противопоставлять,
мешать: “To oppose” means to take action to try to prevent it from happening.
28. resistance – сопротивление, противодействие: There has been a lot

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of resistance to this new low.
29. uncertainty – неуверенность, неустойчивость: I believe there is
some uncertainty about whether she’s coming.
30. fear – страх, боязнь: That child will do anything – she seems totally
without fear!
31. lack – недостаток, отсутствие: What the company lacks is sufficient
money to invest in new products.
32. to handle – трогать руками, обращаться, управлять, торговать: It
was a difficult situation and he handled it very well.
33. to achieve – достигать: He will never achieve anything if he doesn’t
work harder.
34. chap – 1) парень; 2) челюсть, щека; 3) растрескиваться: His hands
were chapped.
35. gain – увеличивать; увеличение, прирост, заработок, доходы: I
think he’s gaining weight.
36. exactly – точно: Tell me exactly where she lives.
37. aim – цель: What’s your aim in life?
38. to happen – случаться, происходить: What time did the accident
happen?
39. stuff – вещество, материал: “That’s the stuff!” (= that’s the right
thing to do \ say)
40. to fit – подходить, соответствовать: Will the key fit the lock?
41. hard – трудный, тяжелый: There were some hard questions on the
exam paper.
Starting up: 1.Which of these situations would you find the most
stressful?
1. Divorce.
2. Going on holiday.
3. Moving house.
4. Moving to another country.
5. Losing your job.
6. A personality conflict with your boss.
7. A yearly health check-up.
8. Being the victim of a robbery.
2. What has been the most significant change in your life?
Discussion: Which of these business situations would worry you most?
Why?
1. You read in the paper that your company will probably be merging with
another company.
2. You keep your job after a merger, but you are in a less powerful
position.
3. Your company has to change place to the other side of the city.
4. You are asked to move to an exotic foreign country.

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5. You are promoted but are now in charge of a hostile workforce.
6. You have to decide who to make unnecessary in your new department
after a merger.
Reading I: 1. Jack Welch successfully led General Electric through a
period of great change. Do you think he sees change as a danger, an
opportunity or a challenge?
Read the quotations quickly. What is Welch's general attitude to change?
1. “We want to be a company 4. “Regular change doesn't
that is constantly renewing itself, work very well in the type of
leaving the past behind, adapting to transformation General Electric has
change. Managements that hang on to gone through. If your change isn't big
weakness for whatever reason - enough, the bureaucracy can beat
tradition, emotion, or their own you. Look at Winston Churchill and
management weakness - won't be Franklin Roosevelt. They said, "This
around in the future.” is what it's going to be." And then
they did it. Big brave changes”.

2. “How do you bring people 5. “(GE leaders always) have


into the change process? Start with colossal energy and the ability to
reality. Get all of the facts out. Give energise and stimulate others, to
people the motivation for change, motivate and enjoy change and not be
laying it out in clearest, most dramatic frightened or paralyzed be it, and to
expressions. When everybody gets the see change as an opportunity, not a
same facts, they'll generally come to the danger.”
same finale.”

3. “The difference between 6. “Most bureaucracies


winning and losing will be how the unfortunately still think in
men and women of our company view incremental terms rather than in
change. If they see it as a threat, we terms of fundamental change.
lose. But if they are provided with the Changing the culture means
educational apparatus and are constantly asking now how fast am I
optimistic to use them - to the point going. How well am I doing versus
where they see change as an how well I did a year or two years
opportunity, then every door we must before? How fast and how well am I
pass through to win big around the doing compared with the world
world will swing open to us.” outside? Are we going faster, and are
we doing better against that external
standard?’
2. Which quotation:
1) refers to how people react to change?
2) refers to the qualities and abilities that a leader of General Electric
should have?

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3) gives examples of a famous British and American political leader?
4) suggests that giving people full and clear information is important?
5) suggests that companies that do not change will not survive?
3. Write sentences about how companies should or shouldn't react to
change, according to Jack Welch.
For example, Companies should adapt to change; they shouldn't hang
on to weaknesses.
4. Write down words and phrases which suggest the idea of change. Then
compare your list with a partner.
5. Find words or phrases in the quotations which mean:
1) the reasons for an action (quotation 2).
2) potential danger (quotation 3).
3) courageous (quotation 4).
4) to enjoy (quotation 5).
Reading II: Read the dialogue.
(I = Interviewer, JK = Jeremy Keeley)
I: OK Jeremy, let me start by asking you, why do people oppose change?
JK: Resistance to change is the most natural of human reactions and is
based on uncertainty and it’s based on fear – fear of losing your job, fear of,
perhaps, not being able to survive in a new situation. It’s based on lack of trust
in the decision-makers and it’s based on an absolute feeling of lack of control
over the situation. All of those are very natural reactions, and the way to manage
resistance is nit to completely ignore it but actually to manage it as if it were
natural.
I: Can you think of an example where change was handled well?
JK: One of my favourite examples. I was working for a client a number
of years ago, and a new Chief Executive came and the client had to reduce its
cost very much. It had been trying to compete with its major competitor on a
basis of amount and was trying to be cheaper. And its major competitor was four
or five times its size and there was just no way that could happen. And the new
Chief Executive came in and within three weeks had published exactly what he
was trying to achieve. And every single person in the organization knew this
chap’s idea. They knew they were going to go for corporate, high speed, high
profile customers, and they were going to ignore the mass volume residential
market which was a lot bigger, and with much larger limits. And the company
was going to go for much more value-added. And the Chief Executive made
absolutely clear, right from the beginning, exactly what he was going to do. He
talked about the number of heads he was going to have to take out of the
organization. So he talked about the problems – he was absolutely honest about
it. But he also talked about the gains and explained his vision in a lot of detail to
everybody but in a number of face-to-face communications and in a weekly
letter that he wrote to everybody in the organization. Every week a letter came
out from this chief executive saying exactly what progress had been made,

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exactly what he was still aiming to do – what the next steps were. And this
happened week after week after week.
He was a very effective manager. And the second thing he did was move
very quickly on the painful stuff. So he very quickly took out the people who
didn’t fit. So sometimes the decisions were hard, but he made them and he made
them quickly.
Reading III. 1. Read the story.

Art for Heart’s Sake


Old Ellsworth was sitting in his study and reading a newspaper, when
Koppel, his servant, came in:
“Will you take orange juice, sir?”
“No,” answered Mr. Ellsworth.
“But it’s good for you, sir.”
“No.”
When doctor Caswell came Koppel told him: “I can’t do anything with
the old man. He doesn’t take his juice, he doesn’t want to listen to the radio, he
doesn’t like anything.”
Doctor Caswell had thought a lot about Mr. Ellsworth since his last visit.
It was a difficult case.
The old gentleman was quite well for a man of seventy six, but he had a
kind of mania – he bought everything he saw: cars, factories, railroads. He was
losing his money quickly and it was necessary to keep him away from business.
The doctor came into Mr. Ellsworth’s study.
“Well, how’s the young man today?”
“Umph,” came from the man in the armchair.
“I’d like to recommend something to you,” the doctor said.
“What’s it? Is it something to keep me away from business?”
“How would you like to study art?”
“But I’m not good at painting.”
“I can get a student from one of art school who’ll give you lessons.”
The doctor found a young student Frank Swain by name, who agreed to
give Mr. Ellsworth lessons on art.
Swain came to Mr. Ellsworth the next afternoon and the lessons began.
Time flew and Swain came more and more often.
It was difficult to say whether Mr. Ellsworth had really got interested in
art but one thing was certain: he stopped buying things and his family was
delighted.
Frank took him to art galleries and exhibitions. Ellsworth wanted to know
everything about art galleries and artists who exhibited their paintings in them.
He also wanted to know how the museums arranged exhibitions and who chose
paintings for those exhibitions.
When spring came Ellsworth produced an awful piece of painting which

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he called “Trees dressed in white”. Though the picture was awful the old man
said that he was going to exhibit it at one of the largest in New York.
Swain was sure that nobody would accept his paintings, but one day when
he visited the exhibition at the Gallery he saw Ellsworth’s picture there.
Two days before the exhibition closed Ellsworth received a letter from the
Gallery. The letter said that Ellsworth had got the first prize for his panting.
When his doctor heard about it he said: “Well, now you see yourself that
art is more interesting than business.”
“Art it nothing,” answered the old man, “I bought the Gallery last
month.”
(After Rube Goldberg)
2. Say what you have learned about:
1) Mr. Ellsworth; 2) Mr. Ellsworth’s lessons with a student of art; 3) the
exhibition at the Gallery.
3. Think and answer.
1) Why did the family think that Mr. Ellsworth got interested in art?
2) What was the real purpose of Mr. Ellsworth’s visits to art galleries and
exhibitions?
3) Could the doctor keep Mr. Ellsworth away from business? Why do you
think so?
¨ Grammar snack: Put the verbs into the correct tense form.
A LACONIC ANSWER
There are a lot of interesting events in history that gave the beginning to
many words of the language. The Spartans (live1) ____ in that part of Southern
Greece which (call2) ____ Laconia. It is known that they (set3) ____ a number of
famous rules of behaviour. Up to present a short answer (refer4) _____ to as
Laconic. Long ago a war-like king from Macedonia (begin5) _____ (destroy6)
_____ one small state after another. And only the Lacons (fight7) _____ angrily
for their independence. They (know8) _____ that if they (give9) _____ up
fighting they (beat) ____ by the enemy. It (make11) ____ them (unite12) ____ all
their forces. The king (send13) ____ a letter to the Spartans: “If I (attack) ____
your country, I (bring15) ____ your capital to the ground”. In a few days the
answer (receive16). After the letter (open17), the King (find18) _____ only one
word which (write19) ____ by the Spartans. The word (be20) ___ “If”.

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— Skills: 1. Comment on the picture.

? 2. Translate from Russian into English.


Как веселый человек стал миллионером
Кто не знает захватывающую игру «Монополия»? А как появилась
«Монополия»? Кому пришло в голову создать в миниатюре этот
головокружительный круговорот денег, товаров, отелей? И как был

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вознагражден этот труд?
В 1932 году скромный американский инженер Чарльз Дэрроу
остался без работы. Положение усугублялось тем, что и жена его тоже не
работала: она ожидала ребенка. Чарльз Дэрроу взялся бы за любое дело,
лишь бы заработать хоть доллар. К счастью, супруги Дэрроу обладали
здоровым чувством юмора и могли с улыбкой относиться к своей судьбе.
А чтобы не было совсем тяжело, вечерами развлекались тем, что
изобретали разные игры.
Вспоминая свой счастливый отпуск, который они провели в лучшие
времена на курорте в Атлантик-Сити, муж и жена Дэрроу решили сделать
макет района, который примыкал к набережной. Из маленьких кусочков
дерева они сделали дома и отели, расставили их на доске, написали
названия улиц, и перед ними возник замечательный город. А чтобы
почувствовать себя хозяевами, они начали торговать друг с другом всем
этим богатством.
В те времена супруги Дэрроу не могли угостить своих друзей даже
чашечкой кофе, зато предложили им захватывающую игру «Монополия».
Всем она очень понравилась. Тогда Чарльз, сделав несколько копий, отнес
их производителям игрушек. Но те, включая и братьев Паркер, отвергли
ее.
Чарльз начал сам демонстрировать игру в магазинах. Вскоре вся
Филадельфия играла в «Монополию». Теперь Паркеры сами обратились к
Чарльзу Дэрроу и предложили ему поистине королевский контракт. И
Паркеры, и Дэрроу разбогатели в одночасье.
Семья Дэрроу живет в Пенсильвании на собственной ферме.
Большую часть денег Чарльз жертвует благотворительным фондам. А
«Монополия» пошла по свету…

Lesson 7. Strategy
“Strategies are okayed in boardrooms
that even a child would say are bound
to fail. The problem is, there is never a
child in the boardroom.”
Victor Palmieri, Italian turnaround
expert
& Useful vocabulary
1. boardroom - зал заседаний: “Boardroom” is a room in which the
directors of a company hold meetings.
2. definition – определение, четкость: This photograph lacks definition.
3. prediction – предсказание: He made a prediction that the government
would be beaten at the general election.

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4. to involve – вовлекать, включать в себя: The job involves traveling
abroad for three months each year.
5. junior – младший: He is a junior partner in a law firm.
6. senior – старший: He is a very senior officer.
7. takeover – взятие под контроль: “Takeover” is the act of getting
control of a company by buying more than half of its shares.
8. joint venture – объединение инвесторов: “Joint venture” is a
business activity in which two or more companies have invested together.
9. alliance – союз, общность: The two countries entered into a self-
protective alliance with each other.
10. distribution – распределение, распространение: This newspaper is
having distribution problems, and in some parts of the country people are
unable to buy it.
11. to link – соединять: The road links all the new towns.
12. entertainment – развлечение: It’s not a very serious film, but it’s
good entertainment.
13. network – сеть, сетка, система: What do you know about Britain’s
railway network?
14. to negotiate – обсуждать, вести переговоры: The trade union
negotiated a new contract with the management.
15. stake – ставка, доля капитала в предприятии: The company is
selling off its 15 % stake in the Commercial Bank.
16. to cut (cut, cut) – резать, срезать, вырезать: Some scenes have been
cut from the film.
17. demerger – отдельная, независимая компания: “Demerger” is a
separate company.
18. sell off – продажа: “Sell off” – when a business, company etc., or
part of one, is sold to another company.
19. disposal – передача, продажа: During their visit I put my car at their
disposal.
20. economy drive – экономия: “Economy drive” is a planned effort by
an organization to reduce costs.
21. acquisition – приобретение: She is a valuable acquisition to the firm.
22. to combine – соединять(ся), объединять(ся), комбинировать: Let’s
combine my scientific knowledge and your business skills and start a company.
23. to review – (снова) просматривать, проверять: All prices are
subject to review.
24. to implement – приводить в исполнение, выполнять, снабжать:
The committee’s suggestions will be implemented immediately.
25. goal – цель, место назначения: The company has achieved all its
goals this year.
26. target – план, задание: I’ve set myself a target of saving £ 5 a week.
27. supporter – сторонник, приверженец, опора: Several of the English

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football supporters were arrested after the match.
28. provider – поставщик: “Provider” is a person who provides, esp.
one who supports a family.
29. to add – добавлять, дополнять: Add a few more names to the list.
30. common – обычный: It is now quite common for women to hold
managerial jobs.
31. to prepare – готовить, подготавливать: It’s a course that prepares
students for the English exams.
32. to diversify – разнообразить: Our factory is trying to diversify its
range of products.
33. equal – равный, одинаковый: We should be equal in the eyes of the
law.
34. demand – спрос: There’s not much demand for houses of this sort.
35. to widen – расширять(ся): They are widening the road.
36. to respond – отвечать, реагировать: They still haven’t responded to
my letter.
37. to concern – касаться, иметь отношение: These problems concern
all of us.
38. forward – вперед, способствовать, ускорять: Their plans are going
forward.
39. to acquire – приобретать, получать, овладевать: The company has
recently acquired new offices in central London.
40. to drive (drove, driven) – управлять, править: The engines drive the
ship.
Starting up: 1.What is strategy? Which of these definitions do you
prefer? Why?
1) Strategy is making predictions based on analysis.
2) Strategy is having a clear plan, then putting it into action.
3) Strategy is continually adapting to change.
2. Which groups below should be involved in deciding strategy? Why?
shareholders middle and junior managers suppliers
boards of directors government representatives other employees
senior managers trade union representatives customers

Discussion: 1.Match the terms below with the definitions. Then use three
of the terms to complete the newspaper extract on the opposite page.
1) a takeover a) combining two or more companies
2) a joint venture b) when two or more companies agree to work on a project
3) a merger c) an agreement between companies to cooperate in certain
business activities
4) an alliance d) buying enough shares in a company to get control of it

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BUSINESS IN BRIEF
Glaxo buys 80% stake in Polish drug group
Glaxo Wellcome, one of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies, is
paying $220m (£131.7m) to take an 80% stake in Polfa Poznan, Poland's second
largest drugs group. The____1 is the biggest made by a western Pharmaceuticals
producer in east Europe.
Canal Plus and Pathe in film distribution link
Canal Plus and Pathe, two of France's largest media and entertainment
groups, are joining forces to form a pan-European network of film distribution
companies. Their new____2 will negotiate the achievement of cinema, television
and video rights for pictures across Europe, both with the Hollywood studios
and other European film producers.
Elf pays $528m to take 5% stake in Russian group
Elf Aquitaine, the French company, is to form a strategic____3 with Yuksi
of Russia, paying $528m (£316m) for a 5% stake in the country's largest oil
company.
2. Discuss the meaning of these strategies. Use a good dictionary to help
you.
cost cutting a demerger rationalisation
a sell off a disposal an economy drive acquisition
1) Which of the above strategies can be used by companies to
a) get bigger? b) get smaller? c) become more efficient?
2) Which are likely to result in people losing their jobs?
3. The verbs and nouns below are often combined when talking about
strategy.
Make word partnerships. Then use them to write five sentences.
For example, The company has achieved its target of a 20% market
share.
Verb Noun
achieve review develop goal objective target
implement set employ plan strategy tactics
4. Some companies state their strategy publicly in mission statements.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of doing this?
5. Read these mission statements. What is each company trying to
achieve?
1) The business of Newcastle United is football - our aim is to play
attractive football, to win trophies, to satisfy our supporters and shareholders
and to continually improve our position as a top European club.
(Newcastle United plc)
2) Glaxo Wellcome is a research-based company whose people are
committed to fighting disease by bringing innovative medicines and services to
patients throughout the world and to the healthcare providers who serve them.
(Glaxo Wellcome)

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3) Pret creates handmade, natural food, avoiding the unclear chemicals,
additives common to so much of the 'prepared' and 'fast' food on the market
today.
(Pret a Manger)
6. Discuss these statements. Do you agree with them? Give your reasons.
1) “Small is beautiful” is a better strategy in business than “big is best”.
2) Big companies should aim to gain market share rather than make
profits.
3) Companies should focus on what they do best rather than diversify.
Reading I: 1. Discuss these questions.
1) Why do firms merge?
2) What problems can arise before and after a merger takes place?
2. In the interview below a Chief Executive1 describes how he and his
board decided whether to merge with a larger company in the same industry.
Read the interview and note down the arguments for and against the merger.
Interview with John T. Chambers, Chief Executive, Cisco Systems
A merger of equals had a lot of demand. If you combine the Number 1
and Number 2 players in an industry, by definition you're Number 1 in terms of
size. And when you are growing that fast, you have a number of key
management openings you have to cultivate. By combining two companies with
good management teams2, you automatically build up the strength3 of your
management and you do it quickly. You can also widen your customer base and
have more distribution channels.
In addition, the merger automatically makes your lasting competition
second level. As a result, your competition must rethink its strategy. In the end,
you force a period of mergers and acquisitions on your competition. They have
no choice but to respond to the changes you initiated.
When we looked more closely, our concerns were raised. For example, 50
percent of large-scale mergers fail. Mergers can fail on a number of levels. They
can fail in terms of their profit to the shareholders, customers, employees and
business partners. A decision has to be right with each of those groups, or we
would not go forward with it.
If you merge two companies that are growing at 80 percent rates, you
stand a very good chance of stopping both of them. That's a fact. For a period of
time, no matter how easily they operate, you lose energy.
Our industry is not like the banking industry, where you are acquiring
branch banks and customers. In our industry, you are acquiring people. And if
you don't keep those people, you have made a terrible 4, terrible investment. We
pay between $500,000 and $2 million per person in an acquisition. So you can
understand that if you don't keep the people, you've done a wonderful disservice
to your shareholders. So we focus first on the people and how we incorporate
them into our company, and then we focus on how to drive the business.

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Notes:
1. Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the manager with the most authority
in the day to day management of a company, especially in the USA. The job of
CEO is sometimes combined with others, such as that of president.
2. team – команда.
3. strength – сила.
4. terrible – ужасный.
3. Choose the best answer.
When Cisco Systems buys another company it pays special attention to:
a) the money it has spent b) the staff it acquires
c) the opinions of its shareholders
4.What is the most interesting point in this article, in your opinion?
Explain why.
Reading II. 1. Before reading, choose the best definition for each of the
underlined words below.
1. The assets 1 of a company are
a) the customers they have.
b) the things they own.
c) The markets they are in.
2. If a company improves its cash generation2
a) it increases its sales revenue.
b) it has cash available at all times.
c) it invests more in its business.
3. If a company disposes3 of an asset, it
a) values it.
b) keeps it.
c) sells it.
4. If companies have an authoritarian way of management
a) the management give responsibility to workers at lower levels.
b) the management keep tight control over everyone and everything.
c) the management have many ways of communicating with employees.
5. If you stitch4 two materials together, you
a) separate them.
b) cut them.
c) join them.
Notes:
1. asset – something belonging to an individual or business that has value or the
power to earn money.
2. cash generation – money that a company gets from sales after costs are taken
away. Cash generation is often used in talking about the degree to which the
company is able to do this.
3. dispose – 1) if you dispose of something, toy get free of it.
2) if a company disposes of a particular asset, activity etc, it sells it.

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4. stitch – to sew, put stitches on to fasten together or for decorative effect.

2. Read the dialogue.


(I = Interviewer, MS = Marjorie Scardino)
I: How do you develop a strategy for a large company?
MS: There are lots of ways to go about it. I think the way we’ve done it
is to first think about what assets we have – that’s unique about those assets,
what markets we know about and what markets are growing, and which of those
markets can make the best use of our assets. We then put that into a bowl
(чаша), heat (нагревать) it up, stir (помешивать) it around, and come out with
a strategy.
I: Аnd what is your strategy at Pearson?
MS: Well, we have approached (приближаться) our strategy… Let me
answer in this way, by looking at it as three simple steps. When I joined Pearson
two years ago, we needed to improve our operations. We needed to run the
companies we had, and the businesses we had better. So our first step in our
strategy was simply to operate better. To create better profits, and better cash
generation, and better long term value for the shareholders. We then … the
second step which was not happening in a serial way but happening at the same
time, the second step was to look at the assets we had and see which ones we
should keep and which ones we should dispose of. Those we dispose of, we did
because they would be more important to other companies than to us, because
they didn’t fit with the rest of our company, or were things we didn’t actively
control – we had a passive interest in – so those disposals were an important
part. And the third step was to stitch together all our businesses, so that they
were able to use each other’s assets, to make a greater complete.
3. Complete the summary of what you have read.
First, the management thought about five things:
1. The assets of the company.
2. What’s unique about those assets.
3. ………………………………….
4. ………………………………….
Their strategy consisted of three simple steps:
The first step
………………………
The second step
………………………
The third step
………………………
Reading III. Read the story.

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A Very Dear Cat
Kidnappers are rarely interested in animals, but they recently3 took
1 2

considerable4 interest in Mrs. Eleanor Ramsay’s cat. Mrs. Eleanor Ramsay, a


very wealthy old lady, was shared a flat with her cat, Rastus, for a great many
years. Rastus leads an orderly5 life. He usually takes a short walk in the evenings
and is always home by seven o’clock. One evening, however, he didn’t arrive.
Mrs. Ramsay got very worried. She looked everywhere for him but couldn’t find
him.
Three days after Rastus’ disappearance, Mrs. Ramsay received an
anonymous letter. The writer stated thet Rastus was in safe hands and would be
returned immediately if Mrs. Ramsay paid a ransom6 of £ 1000. Mrs. Ramsay
was instructed to place the money in a cardboard box7 and to leave it outside her
door. At first, she decided to go to the police, but fearing that she would never
see Rastus again – the letter had made that quite clear – she changed her mind.
She drew £ 1000 from her bank and followed the kidnapper’s instructions. The
next morning, the box had disappeared but Mrs. Ramsay was sure that the
kidnapper would keep his word. Sure enough, Rastus arrived punctually at seven
o’clock that evening. He looked very well, though he was rather thirsty8, for he
drank half a bottle of milk. The police were astounded9 when Mrs Ramsay told
them what she had done. She explained that Rastus was very dear to her.
Considering the amount she paid10, he was dear in more ways than one!
Notes:
1. kidnapper – похититель детей.
2. rarely – редко.
3. recently – недавно.
4. to take a considerable interest – проявить значительный интерес.
5. orderly – упорядоченный.
6. ransom – выкуп.
7. a cardboard box – картонная коробка.
8. to be thirsty – хотеть пить.
9. to astound – поражать
10. Considering the amount she paid… - Учитывая сумму, которую она
заплатила…

Give your opinion about the information you have read. Retell the story.
¨ Grammar snack: Supply the correct forms of the verbs.
Mr. Smith, the manager of a small furniture (мебель) company, (speak)1
____ with his regular and very important customer.
Customer: All right. I (give)2 ____ you one last chance. That’s this order
(заказ). No more mistakes. You last (deliver (поставить))3 _____ the furniture
which I even (not order)4 ____.
Manager: Oh, I’m very sorry. We (not to do)5 _____ that again.
Customer: I (hope)6 ___ not. Remember! This order (be)7 ____ very important

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and I’d like to stress that I must have it next week. Any other delivery time (be
not good enough)8 _____ to me.
Manager: Yes, certainly. We (send)9 ____ it on time. We always (send)10 ____
you your orders on time, ____ we?
Customer: No, you11 ____. You once (deliver)12____ me an order with a six
months’ delay. Another thing, packing must be excellent.
Manager: Yes, of course. I think you (agree)13 ____ that this (be)14 ____ one
thing we always (do)15 ____ in the past.
Customer: No, you… One last thing, write my name clearly, please.
Manager: Certainly. I (do)16 ____ that myself. The goods (товары) (come)17
____ to the right address and at the time you (require)18 _____ them.
Customer: Good. That’s all.
Manager: Thank you, Mr. Harden, and good-bye, Mr. Harden.
Customer: What you (say)19 ____?
Manager: Not that. I mean the name.
Customer: Mr. Harden.
Manager: Harden? My name (not to be)20 ____ Harden. It’s Marden. “M” as in
“man” and not “H” as in “ham”. Oh, I (think)21 _____ I (have) 22____ to order
goods from another company.

— Skills: Comment on the picture. Translate from Russian into English.

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NOKIA.
Тщательно запланированный успех
Десять лет назад название этой фирмы знали немногие даже в ее
стране. Сегодня NOKIA занимает второе место в мире по производству
мобильных телефонов. Она производит 20% всех телефонов в мире
(больше 30% - лишь знаменитая MOTOROLLA).В чем секрет
фантастического успеха скромной финской компании? В планировании,
утверждает ее президент Лаури Кивинен. В фирме существует два вида
бизнес-планов.
Один рассчитан на перспективу и определяет те цели, которых
необходимо добиться через год, пять лет, семь… Именно благодаря такому
плану NOKIA вовремя сменила стратегию, перейдя от широкой
наукоемкой деятельности к развитию одного приоритетного направления –
телекоммуникационной индустрии. Результат – два года объем продаж
вырос в 2 раза и составил 3,6 млрд. долларов. Над составлением
долгосрочных планов в каждом подразделении работают два-три
высокопрофессиональных экономиста, анализирующих как
внутрифирменную информацию, так и данные конкурентов.
Второй вид бизнес-планов – тактический. Он переносит
долгосрочную стратегию в каждодневную практику. Здесь у фирмы свои
находки. Например, постоянная ротация кадров. Скажем, 500 ученых,
работающих в подразделениях передвижных средств связи по всему миру
– Европе, Австралии, США, - каждые 2-3 года переезжают на другое место
работы. Постоянно меняющийся круг общения позволяет избежать застоя,
способствует
взаимному обогащению идеями. Особое внимание уделяется планам по
рекламе. На эти цели тратится 3-5% общего оборота компании. Причем
рекламируется не отдельная продукция, а товарный знак – NOKIA,
который выставляется в самых престижных точках земного шара.
Например, в Москве – на Красной площади. «Мысли глобально – действуй
локально» - этот главный принцип своего планирования компания NOKIA
успешно претворяет в жизнь.

Lesson 8. Leadership
“We all work together as a team. And
that means you do everything I say.”
Michael Caine, British film actor (in the
film The Italian job)
& Useful vocabulary
1. to admire – восхищаться: He’s always looking in the mirror,
admiring himself!
2. decisive – решительный: You’ll have to be more decisive if you want

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to do well in business.
3. passionate – вспыльчивый, невыдержанный: Why are you so
passionate?
4. charismatic – обаятельный:He could never be a film star; he isn’t
charismatic.
5. ruthless – безжалостный, жестокий: “Ruthless” means showing no
human feelings; without pity or forgiveness.
6. straight – прямой, честный, искрений: I like him for his straight
character.
7. careful – старательный, аккуратный, осторожный: Be careful
crossing the road.
8. motivation – мотив, побуждение: The stronger the motivation, the
more quickly a person will learn a foreign language.
9. flexible – гибкий, уступчивый, легко приспособляющийся: He is
rather flexible in difficult situations.
10. accessible – податливый, доступный: A manager should be
accessible to his\her staff.
11. thoughtful – думающий, мыслящий: The girl looked thoughtful for
a moment and then answered.
12. adventurous – смелый, рискованный: “Adventurous” means ready
to take risks.
13. uncaring – беззаботный: He seems to be so uncaring!
14. lunatic – помешанный, сумасшедший: You’re lunatic – you nearly
drove straight into me!
15. moderate – выдержанный, умеренный: The union’s demands are
very moderate; they’re only asking for a small wage increase.
16. to predict – предсказывать: The economists predicted an increase in
the rate of inflation.
17. trait – штрих, черта (лица, характера): Anne’s kindness is one of her
most pleasing traits.
18. to stifle – подавлять, гасить: “To stifle” means “to prevent from
happening or developing.”
19. waste – тратить: It’s a waste of John’s talents to use him for such an
easy job.
20. self-confidence – самоуверенность: “Self-confidence” means “to be
sure of one’s own power to succeed.”
21. to allow – позволять, разрешать: Walking on the grass is not
allowed.
22. reward – награда, награждение: As a reward for passing her exams,
she got a new bike from her parents.
23. to reach – достигать: After several changes of plane, we finally
reached London on Tuesday.
24. to establish – устанавливать, основывать: The company was

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established in 1850.
25. to articulate – произносить отчетливо, ясно: “Articulate” means to
express or able to express thoughts and feelings clearly and effectively.
26. fringe – обрамление, кайма: It was easier to move about on the
fringe of the crowd.
27. to belong to – принадлежать: That dictionary belongs to me.
28. quality – качество, качественный: The “Financial Times” is a
quality newspaper.
29. foreman – мастер, старший рабочий: “Foreman” is a skilled and
experienced worker who is put in charge of other workers.
30. expectation – ожидание: I usually enjoy his films, but that one didn’t
come up to my expectations.
31. to provide – обеспечивать: These letters should provide us with al
information we need.
32. chairman – председатель: He was elected chairman of the education
committee.
33. breadth – ширина, широта (взглядов): His book shows the great
breadth of his thoughts.
34. tutor – учитель, руководитель:“Tutor” is a teacher who gives
private instruction to a single pupil or to a very small class.
35. to encourage – поощрять: He encouraged me to apply for the job.
36. to fascinate – очаровывать: Chinese art has a great fascination for
him.
37. to gamble – азартная игра, рискованное дело, афера: He’s
gambling with his passengers’ lives, driving as fast as that.
38. to troop – собираться толпой, двигаться (строем), разделять (на
взводы): We all trooped in the street.
39. aspiration – стремление, желание: She has aspirations to become a
great writer.
40. conventional – условный, общепринятый: I’m afraid I’m rather
conventional in my tastes.
41. matter – иметь значение, вопрос: There are several important
maters we must discuss.
42. crucial – решающий, критический: Тhe success of this experiment is
crucial to the project as a whole.
43. solution – решение: We bought a second car; it was the solution to
all our problems.
44. to thrive (throve, thriven) – процветать, преуспевать, богатеть,
хорошо развиваться: How are your children? Thriving, I hope!

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Starting up: Discuss these questions.
1) What do you know about the leaders pictured above? Compare your
answers with the information in Appendix.
2) Which modern or historical leaders do you most admire? Which do you
admire least? Why?
3) What makes a great leader? Write down a list of characteristics.
Compare your list with other groups.
4) Are there differences between men and women as leaders?
5) Are people who were leaders at school more likely to be leaders later in
life?
6) What makes a bad boss? Draw up a profile of factors.
7) What is the difference between a manager and a leader?
Discussion: 1. Think of someone in a position of power. List three
positive and three negative things about them. Then compare ideas with a
partner.
2. Which adjectives below describe positive aspects of someone's
character? Which describe negative aspects? Write “+” or “-” next to each one.
decisive open passionate energetic balanced charismatic ruthless
impulsive straight careful motivating informal flexible accessible
thoughtful adventurous uncaring lunatic moderate aggressive

Can you think of adjectives with opposite meanings to the ones above?

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Reading I: 1. Jack Welch is Chief Executive Officer of General Electric.
In the extracts below he talks about leadership. Before you read what he says,
try to predict which of the adjectives above describe his idea of a good leader.
2. Read what Jack Welch thinks and check your answers. Do you agree
with him?
“I simply dislike the traits that have come to be associated with
"managing" - controlling, stifling people, keeping them in the dark, wasting their
time on details and reports. You can't manage self-confidence into people.
You have to get out of their way and let it grow in them by allowing them to
win, and then rewarding them when they do. The word "manager" has too
often come to be synonymous with control - cold, uncaring, passionless. I
never associate passion with the word "manager", and I've never seen a leader
without it”.
“Above all else good leaders are open. They go up, down, and around
their organisations to reach people. They don't join to established channels.
They're informal. They're straight with people. They make a religion out of
being accessible”.
“One of the things about leadership is that you cannot be a moderate,
balanced, thoughtful, careful articulator of policy. You've got to be on the
lunatic fringe”.
“The future will not belong to "managers" or those who can make the
numbers dance. The world will belong to passionate, driven leaders - people
who not only have enormous amounts of energy but who can energize those
whom they lead”.
3. Discuss these questions. Imagine you are the leader of a large
company.
1) What qualities do you need to run a large company effectively?
2) Which business leaders do you admire? Why?
3) What do business leaders actually do?
4) As a leader, how would you motivate your employees?
5) Do you think leaders are born or made?
Reading II: 1. Douglas Ivester is Chief Executive Officer of Coca-Cola.
Before you read the article about him, discuss what qualities you expect him to
have.
3. Now read the article and complete the fact sheet on the opposite page.

Focus on Douglas Ivester,


CEO of Coca-Cola
Ivester, a factory foreman's son and former accountant,
stepped in easily to run Coca-Cola as CEO following the death
of champion wealth creator Roberto Goizueta. Early in his job
as Coke's chief, Goizueta had recognised Ivester's drive,
commenting that he was the hardest-working man he had ever

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met. Together the two changed the company' operations and capital structure to
maximize shareholder value.
Both of Ivester's parents were factory workers from a small mill town in
Georgia. His parents were children of the depression, he recalls, “strong savers,
very strong religious values,” and had very high expectations for their only son.
If he got an A, his father would say, “They give A pluses, don't they?”
Doug Ivester is the man who for nearly two years worked constantly to
provide essential support to Roberto Goizueta as he not only turned Coca-Cola
around but made it into a powerhouse. If you want to know just how driven
Ivester is, know that more than a decade ago he set himself the goal of becoming
the CEO and chairman of Coca-Cola. Then he put on paper the dates by which
he intended to do that.
By comparison with Goizueta, Ivester is an accountant by training, an
introvert by nature. He worked systematically to obtain the breadth needed to be
a modern chief executive — getting media education and spending three years'
worth of Saturdays, six hours at a time, being tutored in marketing. He is a
straight rocket, constantly encouraging his executives to “do the right thing”, yet
he is fascinated with Las Vegas, which he visits once a year, gambling and
people-watching a lot.
He is big on discipline, which to him means: be where you're supposed to
be. Return phone calls punctually (employees know never to get too far away
from their office voice-mail, even on weekends). Still, when directing his troops,
he asks them to set “aspirations” (difficult targets).
Hierarchy is out - it slows everything down: he communicates freely with
people at all levels. The “conventional” desk job is also out. Ivester prefers that
employees think of themselves as knowledge workers — their office is the
information they carry around with them, supported by technology that allows
them to work anywhere. This really matters when your business is as large as
Coke's, which gets 80% of its profit from overseas.
At Coke, business planning is no longer a yearly ceremony but a continual
discussion - sometimes using voice-mail - among top executives. Technology is
not just nice; it's crucial. Huge volumes of information don't frighten Ivester; he
insists that they are necessary for “real-time” decision-making. With past-
generation executives, their style was more “don't bring me your problems,
bring me your solutions,” says Tim Haas, Senior Vice President and Head of
Latin America. “Doug thrives on finding the solutions.” “In a world this
complicated and fast-moving, a CEO can't afford to sit in the executive suite and
guess,” Ivester says. He believes that many of America's executives “are getting
terribly isolated.”

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Douglas Ivester

Parent’s background/values Personal qualities

Present position Management style/beliefs

Previous job Achievements at Coca-Cola

Previous boss Hobbies

3. Answer these questions about the article.


1) The writer says that “Goizueta had recognised Ivester's drive”
(paragraph 1). What does drive mean? How did Ivester show that he had this
quality?
2) “They give A pluses, don't they?” (paragraph 2). Who is Ivester's father
referring too when he says they?
3) How did Ivester prepare for the position he now holds?
4) Explain the meaning of this sentence: “Dress the part (he is opposed to
casual Fridays)” (paragraph 5). Do you agree with this policy?
5) Why does Ivester want employees to think of themselves as 'knowledge
workers'?
6) Ivester believes that many American executives “are getting terribly
isolated.” What is Ivester doing to avoid becoming cut off from his staff?
4. Find words and phrases in the article which mean the following:
1) Someone who has greatly increased the company's profits (paragraph
1).
2) A time of high unemployment and poverty (paragraph 2).
3) A very successful, profitable company (paragraph 3).
4) Very determined to succeed (paragraph 3).
5) Carefully, following a fixed plan (paragraph 4).
6) Organising people into different levels of importance (paragraph 6).
7) Something that happens regularly each year (paragraph 7).
8) Gets a feeling of satisfaction from doing something (paragraph 7).
5. Discuss these questions.
1) What do you think Douglas Ivester's main objectives should be as
leader of Coca-Cola?
2) What sort of problems do you think he has to deal with when running
the company?
Reading III. Read the dialogue.
- Hi, Mark.
- Hi, Jane. What are you reading?
- It’s a horoscope for next year.
- Do you believe in horoscopes?

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- Not really, but sometimes I have doubts about my future and I want
to find out what will happen. Then I read horoscopes.
- I never read horoscopes. I don’t believe in what they say.
- What is your zodiac sign?
- Libra.
- So you must be reliable, well-balanced, practical and rather
realistic. That’s why you don’t believe in horoscopes.
- That’s interesting. What else can you tell me about my personality?
- You are logical and generally calm.
- And what about my future?
- You will be really absent-minded this week. You will forget about
important meetings and it’s not the best time to be alone. You have to start
taking part in more activities – go on holiday.
- You know, it’s true that I have been feeling rather lonely recently.
But I can’t imagine myself being absent-minded. I never lose things or arrive
late for meetings. What about my career?
- You will begin to look for a new job. You can start thinking about
your future now.
- That’s amazing! I really want to change my job! My boss doesn’t
want to give me a rise and I’m beginning to feel fed up with my work there.
- So, it’s high time you changed it.
- Thanks for the lesson, but I’m still not sure if I should start
believing in horoscopes. What’s the time?
- It’s 6.40.
- What? I’m going to be late for the meeting concerning my new job!
- Didn’t I warn you?
Useful expressions
I (don’t) believe in horoscopes. – Я (не) верю в гороскопы.
It’s high time you changed it. – Самый подходящий момент на то,
чтобы это изменить.
What can you tell me about my personality? – Что Вы можете мне
сказать о моем характере?
What is your zodiac sigh? – Каков Ваш знак зодиака?
You are calm, well-balanced and realistic. – Вы являетесь
спокойным, рассудительным и реалистичным человеком.
Learn these useful expressions by heart and make your own dialogue as
in the example.
Reading IV. Read this biography of the film star Tom Cruise and mark
the statements below T (true) or F (false).

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Tom Cruise
Born in Syracuse, New York on 3rd July 1962, Tom
Cruise had a difficult childhood. His parents divorced when
he was twelve, and in the first eleven years of his life his
family moved a total of seven times. He had problems at
school, partly because he never stayed in one place long
enough to make friends and partly because he suffered from
dyslexia and found reading very hard. As a teenager he
couldn’t decide whether to become a priest or a wrestler, but
at the age of eighteen he chose acting as a career.
His first film Endless love, in 1981, was followed quickly in the same
year by Taps in which he had a strong supporting role as an angry young cadet.
Over the next few years he made a name for himself in a series of fairy
successful films often playing attractive types. His big break came in 1986 in the
hit Top Gun, where he played a rebellious fighter pilot with a killer smile.
By the late 1980s magazines were calling him “easily the most powerful
star of his generation” because of his more serious roles in Rain Man, in 1988,
opposite Dustin Hoffman, and Born on the fourth of July, which was made in
the following year. For this film he received his first Oscar nomination for Best
Actor for his powerful performance as the anti-war hero Ron Covic. People who
have worked with him say he’s a perfectionist, preparing carefully for each role,
and focusing 100 per cent whilst in the studio. Success continued in the 90s with
films such as Mission Impossible and Eyes Wide Shut. He is now on of the few
actors who receives more than 20 million dollars a picture.
Cruise is a very private man, who rarely gives interviews. His personal
life has had its ups and downs. In 1987 he married actress Mimi Rogers who
was several years older than him, but the marriage ended in divorce in 1990. In
the same year he married his co-star from Days of Thunder, red-headed actress
Nicole Kidman.
Whatever happens in his private life, people will remember him as one of
the most charismatic actors of modern cinema and many will probably agree
with People magazine in 1997 when they chose him as one of the fifty most
beautiful people in the world.
a. Tom Cruise was very successful at school.
b. He always wanted to become an actor.
c. He played the star part in Taps.
d. Top Gun was his most successful early film.
e. He was nominated for an Oscar for Born on the Fourth of July.
f. He is a very hard worker.
g. He hardly ever gives interviews.
h. He got married to Nicole Kidman in 1991.
¨ Grammar snack: Complete the text using the correct forms of the
verbs.

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A GENUINE* REMBRANDT
When I went to school I always (think)1 ____ that if one day I (get)2 ____
to London I certainly (go)3 ___ to the National Gallery. Last year my friend
Dick and I (take)4 ____ by our parents to the city of our dreams. We (hear)5
____ so much about the Gallery that we (go)6 ____ to see all the exhibits. Very
soon I realized how much Dick (know)7 ____ about painting. He (make)8 ____
me (admire)9 ____ the pictures more and more. I (understand)10 _____ that my
knowledge (improve)11 ____ by the end of our visit. Presently Dick (stop)12
____ (look)13 ____ at something which (hang)14 ____ in the corner. He said
thoughtfully that it (look)15 ____ a genuine Rembrandt to him. I (come)16 _____
closer to the picture and (see)17 _____ my own face (stare**)18 ____ at me from
the wall. It (be)19 ____ a mirror. Up to now I (not, forget)20 ____ Dick’s
embarrassment***.

— Skills: 1. Comment on the picture.

Notes:
* genuine – подлинный.
** stare – пристально смотреть.

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*** embarrassment – смущение.

? 2. Translate from Russian into English using the dictionary.


Генри Форд (1863-1947)
Конвейер служит людям
Сегодня вряд ли можно найти человека, который не знал бы имени
Генри Форда – одного из автомобильных «королей». Машины,
выпускаемые на многих заводах компании «Форд», летят по улицам
практически всех городов мира, в том числе и России.
Интерес Генри к технике стал очевидным еще с детства. Его сестра
Маргарет вспоминала: «Когда на Рождество нам дарили механические
игрушки, мы всегда говорили: не давайте их Генри! Он просто разберет их
по деталям на мелкие части». Детские способности привели к тому, что
взрослый Форд занялся организацией по производству автомобилей. И
хотя в руководстве своим делом Генри Форд проявлял огромные
способности и железную волю, первые две фирмы лопнули – не хватило
опыта. В 1913 в тяжелом положении оказалась и третья – она не
справлялась с возросшим объемом заказов. И тут у Форда появилась
гениальная идея, воплощение которой означало настоящий прорыв в
промышленном производстве.
Дело в том, что в то время сборка деталей одного автомобиля
осуществлялась одним и тем же рабочим, который сам выполнял все
необходимые операции. При таком подходе автомобиль строился долго и
стоил очень дорого. Форд разбил вес процесс сборки на ряд
последовательных операций и каждую из них поручил отдельному
рабочему. Получалось, что весь коллектив завода делал один автомобиль.
Производительность труда возросла. И совсем резко она подскочила, когда
Форд решил заменить низкий стол для сборки на движущуюся ленту – так
появился первый конвейер! Компания Форда значительно увеличила и, что
существенно, удешевила выпуск своих машин. Теперь их могли
приобретать семьи со средним достатком. Конкуренты оказались далеко
позади. Ну а Генри Форд вписал свое имя в историю развития
промышленности на планете!

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Lesson 9. Competition
“Competition brings out the best in
products and worst in people.”
David Sarnoff (1891-1971),
American business leader
& Useful vocabulary
1. to compete – конкурировать, соревноваться: Several advertising
agencies are competing to get the contract.
2. competitor – конкурент: We lost the contract to our competitors.
3. competitive – конкурентоспособный:I always shop at that
supermarket; its prices are very competitive.
4. competition – конкуренция, соревнование: They had to keep their
prices low because of foreign competition.
5. to impress – впечатлять: My father impressed me with the value of
hard work.
6. jealous – завистливый, ревнивый: He is jealous of their success.
7. to boast – хвастаться: Don’t believe her; she’s just boasting.
8. to insist – настаивать: You must come with us – I insist! All right, I’ll
do it, if you insist.
9. queue – очередь: There was a long queue outside the cinema.
10. luxury – роскошный, роскошь: It’s a real luxury to be able to stay
in bed instead of getting up for university.
11. quantity – количество: It was a bad year for new films, in terms of
both quantity and quality.
12. attribute – свойство, характерная черта: Kindness is one of his best
attributes.
13. to perceive – осознавать, понимать, воспринимать: They perceived
that they were unwelcome and left.
14. unique – единственный в своем роде, несравнимый: Each person’s
fingerprints are unique.
15. durability – прочность, стойкость, длительность: “Durability”
means long-lasting.
16. to tailor – работать портным, портняжничать: We can tailor the
insurance policy according to your special needs.
17. exclusion – исключение; to the ~ of за исключением: He plays golf
to the exclusion of all other sports.
18. narrow – узкий, ограниченный, трудный: The decision was taken
for narrow economic reasons, without considering its social effects.
19. to gain – зарабатывать, добиваться, достигать: I hope you’ll gain
by the experience (= learn a useful lesson from it).
20. to relate – связывать, устанавливать связь, иметь отношение: The
cost relates directly to the amount of time spent on the job.

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21. to vary – менять(ся), отличаться: Opinions on this matter vary.
22. to depend on – зависеть от, полагаться на: The price of the shares
will depend on the number of people who want to buy them.
23. pursuit – преследование, погоня, in ~ of в поисках: The pop stars
ran from the theatre to their car, with dozens of fans in hot pursuit.
24. raw material – сырье: Coal and oil are important raw materials for
the manufacture of plastics.
25. dimension – измерение, размеры, величина: Length is one
dimension, and breadth is another.
26. peculiar – индивидуальное свойство, особенность: This style of
cooking is peculiar to the south-west of the country.
27. approach – приближение, подход, приближаться: He’s a god
player, but doesn’t approach international standard.
28. availability – пригодность, полезность, наличие, ассортимент:
Details of the competition are available from our head office.
29. to possess – владеть, обладать: I don’t know what possessed him to
(= made him) drive so fast down that busy street.
30. to engage – нанимать, заказывать заранее: I’ve engaged a room at a
hotel.
31. performance – исполнение, выполнение: Her performance in the
exams was rather disappointing.
32. cheap – дешевый: The industry is maintained by the cheap labour (=
work done for low pay) of immigrant workers.
33. rival – соперник, конкурент: She left her job and went to work for a
rival company.
34. to enter – входить, вступать, вносить, приступать: Before you
enter into an agreement of this nature, you should read the contract carefully.
35. to launch – запускать, начинать, выпускать: He left his father’s
shop and launched out into business for himself.
36. campaign – кампания, to launch a ~ начать кампанию: The
government has launched a campaign against smoking.
37. fashionable – модный: It’s fashionable among the British to go to the
south of France for their holidays.
38. to respond – отвечать, удовлетворять, реагировать: He responded
that he would come.
39. value – ценность, стоимость, цена: You’ll find this map of great
value in helping you to get around London.
40. to guess – предполагать, догадываться: “I don’t know the answer”
“Well, just guess!”
41. budget – бюджет: The sales director is preparing the company’s
advertising budget for 2006.
Starting up: Answer the questions in the quiz. Then turn to Appendix and
find out your score.

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How competitive are you?
1. Which of the following statements do you agree with?
a) Winning is everything.
b) It’s not the winning that counts; it’s the taking part.
c) We are in this world to help each other.
2. Which of the following would satisfy you?
a) Earning more money than anyone else you know.
b) Earning more than most of your friends.
c) Earning enough to have a comfortable life.
3. You have just won $40,000 and need to buy a new car. Do you:
a) spend $ 9,000 on a reliable car that will get you from A to B?
b) spend $ 16,000 on a middle-ranged car?
c) Spend $ 40,000 on a top-of-the range car that will impress your
friends?
4. If a colleague did something very successful, would you feel:
a) pleased for then?
b) pleased for them, but a bit jealous?
c) very jealous and unhappy?
5. If you lose at something, do you:
a) forget about it immediately?
b) think about it for a while?
c) never forget?
6. How do you feel when you win? Do you:
a) boast about it and tell everyone?
b) feel good, but keep it to yourself?
c) feel sorry for the person who lost?
7. What do you want for your children? Do you want them:
a) to be happy?
b) to achieve more than you did?
c) to be the first at everything?
8. You are at the traffic lights next to another car. The lights change
to ‘go’. Do you:
a) let the other car go first?
b) move away slowly, without being aware of another car?
c) try to be the first away?
9. You are waiting to check in at a crowded airline counter. There
does not seem to be a system of queuing. Would you:
a) push your way to the front?
b) insist loudly that a fair system is adapted?
c) keep quiet and wait?
10. How do you feel about doing this quiz? Do you want to:
a) show that you are the most competitive person in the group?
b) show that you are the least competitive person in the group?

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c) find out something about yourself?
Reading I: 1. The text below presents three strategies for firms to achieve
above-average performance. Before you read it, discuss what strategies
companies in the following sectors might use to compete with their rivals: a)
supermarkets b) construction equipment c) luxury cars.
2. Read the first sentence only of each paragraph. What three strategies
does the text mention? Do you think they are similar to any of the ideas you
discussed?
3. Match the words below to the definitions. Then read paragraph one.
broad scope saving money by producing goods in large quantities
breadth wide range
segment width
economies of scale a section of a market or industry
4. Match the words below to the definitions. Then read paragraphs two
and three.
attributes see, realise
perceive ability to last a longtime
uniqueness something very unusual and special
durability qualities
5. Match the words below to the definitions. Then read paragraphs four
and five.
tailors making the best use of
to the exclusion of adapts
optimizing the opposite of wide
narrow not including
6. Read the text.
Three strategies to gain a competitive advantage
Cost leadership is perhaps the clearest of the three strategies. In it, a firm
sets out to become the low-cost producer in its industry. The firm has a broad
scope and serves many industry segments, and may even operate in related
industries; the firm's breadth is often important to its cost advantage. The
sources of cost advantage are varied and depend on the structure of the
industry. They may include the pursuit of economies of level, technology,
special access to raw materials and other factors.
The second strategy is differentiation. In a differentiation strategy, a firm
tries to be unique in its industry along some dimensions that are widely valued
by buyers. It selects one or more attributes that many buyers in an industry
perceive as important, and uniquely positions itself to meet those needs. It is
rewarded for its uniqueness with a best price.
The means for differentiation are peculiar to each industry.
Differentiation can be based on the product itself, the delivery system by
which it is sold, the marketing approach, and a broad range of other factors. In
construction equipment, for example, Caterpillar Tractor's differentiation is

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based on product strength, service, additional parts availability, and an
excellent seller network.
The third strategy is focus. This strategy is quite different from the
others because it is based on the choice of a narrow competitive scope within
an industry. The focuser selects a segment or group of segments in the industry
and tailors its strategy to serving them to the exclusion of others. By
optimizing its strategy for the target segments, the focuser tries to achieve a
competitive advantage in its targets segments even though it does not possess a
competitive advantage in general.
A firm that engages in each strategy but doesn’t achieve any of them is
“fixed in the middle”. It possesses no competitive advantage. This strategic
position is usually a method for below-average performance. A firm that is
fixed in the middle will compete at a disadvantage because the cost leader,
differentiators, or focusers will be better positioned to compete in any segment.
In most industries, quite a few competitors are fixed in the middle.
7. Answer these questions about the text.
1. Which sentence best expresses the main idea in paragraph one? A firm
can get a competitive advantage by:
a) selling goods in many markets.
b) making as wide a range of goods as possible.
c) producing goods more cheaply than its rivals.
2. Which sentence best expresses the main idea in paragraphs two and
three? When a firm uses a differentiation strategy:
a) it tries to persuade consumers that its products have special qualities.
b) it tries to reach a small group of loyal customers.
c) it wants to attract as many buyers as possible.
3. Which of these sentences best expresses the main idea in paragraph
four? If a firm chooses focus as its strategy, it tries to:
a) do better than its rivals in a small part of the market.
b) prevent other firms from entering the market.
c) do business in a large number of narrow markets.
4. In the final paragraph, does the writer say it is a good or bad thing for
firms to be stuck in the middle? Why?
8. Discuss these questions.
1) Can you think of companies which use one of the strategies in the text?
What about your own company or a company you know well?
2) Can you think of any companies which are fixed in the middle? What
do you think they could do to improve their competitive position?
Reading II: Read the two texts below. Discuss the questions that follow.

The Reds
In 1996, after over 100 years of competition, Pepsi launched “Project
Blue” to challenge Coca-Cola's position as market leader in the soft drinks

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market. At a cost of £330 million, Pepsi changed the colour of their can to blue
as well as painting a Concorde airliner blue. They also used supermodels
Claudia Schiffer and Cindy Crawford, and tennis star Andre Agassi in the
campaign. It was felt that blue was a fashionable, innovative colour which
would differentiate Pepsi from the red of Coca-Cola. However the campaign
failed to achieve its main aim.
1. Why do you think the campaign was unsuccessful?
2. Can you suggest ways for Pepsi to compete more successfully with
Coca Cola?
Fly Me, I'm Cheap
In autumn 1995 Easyjet and Ryanair, two
small North European airlines, introduced
budget flights on UK domestic routes. Other
carriers responded with similar services but
British Airways decided not to. Later,
British Airways changed its mind and in
May 1998 it launched its successful airline Go. This offers low-cost flights with
no on-flight food or entertainment on certain domestic and European routes.
1. Why do you think British Airways changed its strategy?
2. How do you think its decision affected the small airlines? What can
they do to respond?
Reading III: Read the story.

Not Guilty1
Going through the Customs2 is a tiresome business. The strangest thing
about it is that really honest people are often made to feel guilty. The hardened
professional smuggler3, on the other hand, is never troubled by such feelings,
even if he has five hundred gold watches hidden in his suitcase. When I returned
from abroad recently, a particularly officious4 young Customs Officer clearly
regarded5 me as a smuggler.
“Have you anything to declare?” he asked, looking me in the eye.
“No,” I answered confidently6.
“Would you mind unlocking this suitcase please?”
“Not at all,” I answered.
The Officer went through the case with great care. All the things I had
packed so carefully were soon in a dreadful mess7. I felt sure I would never be
able to close the case again. Suddenly, I saw the Officer’s face light up. He had
spotted8 a tiny bottle9 at the bottom of my case and he pounced on it with
delight10.
“Perfume, eh?” he asked sarcastically. “You should have declared that.
Perfume is not exempt from import duty.”
“But it isn’t perfume,” I said. “It’s hair-oil.” Then I added with a smile,
“It’s a strange mixture I make myself.”

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As I expected, he didn’t believe me.
“Try it!” I said encouragingly11. The Officer unscrewed12 the cap and put
the bottle to his nostrils13. He was greeted by an unpleasant smell14 which
convinced him that I was telling the truth. A few minutes later, I was able to
hurry away with precious chalk-marks on my baggage.
Notes:
1. guilty – виновный.
2. the Customs – таможня.
3. smuggler – контрабандист.
4. particularly officious – особенно назойливый.
5. clearly regarded as… – явно считал (рассматривал) …
6. confidently – уверенно.
7. dreadful mess – ужасный беспорядок.
8. spot – заметить.
9. a tiny bottle – крошечная бутылка.
10. he pounced on it with delight – он накинулся на нее с
наслаждением.
11. encouragingly – с подстреканием.
12. unscrew – отвинтить.
13. nostrils – ноздри.
14. an unpleasant smell – неприятный запах.
Give your opinion about the information you have read, retell the text.
¨ Grammar snack: Complete the text using the best tense forms of the
verbs in brackets.

AN UNUSIAL CHESS PLAYER


The other day I went to see Jim. I (not see)1 _____ for a couple of months.
When I (drive)2 ____ up to the house, I (ring)3 _____ the door bell. The doctor
(open)4 ____ and Jim’s wife said that Jim (be)5 ____ very glad to see me. She
added that he (play)6 ____ chess with his partner in the sitting room. What I
(see)7 ____ there (make)8 ____ me speechless for some time. Jim (sit)9 ____ at
the head of the table and opposite him there (be)10 ____ his dog Spot. Their eyes
(fix)11 ____ on the chess-board lying between them. At the sound of my voice
Spot (begin)12 ____ barking, but Jim (keep)13 ____ silent. When I called Spot
the cleverest dog I ever (know)14 ____ Jim answered: “Not at all. He just (lose)15
____ his third game”.

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— Skills: 1. Comment on the picture.
? 2. Translate from Russian into English using a dictionary.
Ноу-хау
Не все, может быть, знают, что это понятие произошло от выражения
know how to do it – «знаю, как это делать». Впервые оно появилось в
деловой практике США и распространилось в международной торговле.
Со временем это понятие становилось более многозначным и сложным, и
до сих пор нет ни одного наиболее общего его определения.

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Обычно ноу-хау связывают с секретами производства. Это могут
быть чертежи, технология, программа, результаты экспериментов,
производственный опыт. Во многом ноу-хау близко к изобретениям: и в
том и в другом главное – новизна. Определяют ноу-хау также как «знание
и навыки».
В мире коммерции ноу-хау означает информацию о выгодных
формах реализации товара, ситуации на рынке и на фирмах, сведения об
организации рекламы, секретных контрактах и соглашениях, списках
клиентов и поставщиков и т.п. К ноу-хау можно отнести товарные знаки,
другими словами, все, что делает товар конкурентоспособным
Однако, как правило, владелец ноу-хау хранит свои секреты от
конкурентов, пользуясь этой секретной информацией в своем бизнесе, что
создает ему определенные преимущества в борьбе с соперниками на рынке
Недаром, видимо, рецепт изготовления знаменитой кока-колы застрахован
на 40 млн. долларов. По законам многих стран похищение ноу-хау
рассматривается как «недобросовестная конкуренция» и уголовно
наказуема, так как ноу-хау – это интеллектуальная и прочая собственность.

Lesson 10. Quality


“Quality is the elimination of variation”
W. E. Deming (1900-1993),
American quality expert
& Useful vocabulary
1. elimination - исключение, упразднение: Their elimination from the
competition in the first round was a great surprise.
2. variation – изменение, разновидность, отклонение: Because these
clothes are handmade there may be some variations in colour.
3. identify – устанавливать тождество, распознавать: She was asked to
identify the criminal.
4. modify – (видо)изменять, определять, смягчать: The design has been
modified to improve fuel consumption.
5. durability – прочность, стойкость, продолжительность срока
службы: These trousers are of durable material.
6. feedback – отзыв: The company welcomes feedback from people who
use its goods.
7. fault – недостаток, дефект: There are several faults in that page of
figures.
8. investigate – расследовать, исследовать: “Investigate” means to try
to find out more information about.
9. withdraw (withdrew, withdrawn) – уходить, отходить, удалять,
брать назад: She withdrew £ 50 from her bank account.

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10. due to – вследствие, благодаря: He arrived late due to the storm.
11. monitor – наставник, советчик, корректирующее или
управляющее устройство: The instrument monitors the patient’s heartbeats.
12. questionnaire – вопросник: “Questionnaire” is a written set of
questions which a large number of people are asked to answer in order to
provide information, e.g. for a government or company.
13. to flaw – трескаться, портить(ся): Unfortunately, there was one
flawed picture.
14. goodwill payment – плата за дефекты: “Goodwill payment” is a
payment made by a supplier to a customer because of a problem the customer
has had, for example with quality or late delivery of goods.
15. to complain – жаловаться, выражать недовольство: He complained
that the room was too late.
16. to mean (meant, meant) – значить, означать: The red light means
“Stop”.
17. nowadays – в данное время, сейчас: We used to listen to the radio a
lot, but nowadays we mostly watch television.
18. to doubt – сомневаться: There’s some doubt whether John will come
on time.
19. to acquire – приобретать, получать, овладевать: I managed to
acquire two tickets for the concert.
20. consistency – последовательность, постоянство, стойкость,
консистенция: Your behaviour lacks consistency – you say one thing and do
another!
21. profit margins – прибыль от покупки и продажи: Our profit
margin (= the difference between the buying and selling price of our goods) is
very low.
22. stock – запас, фонд: How long will coal stock last?
23. balance sheet – балансовый отчет: “Balance sheet” is a statement of
how much money has come in and how much has gone out.
24. duly – должным образом, правильно, вовремя: The taxi that we had
ordered duly arrived, and we drove off.
25. to bust – обанкротиться, потерпеть неудачу: I’m not surprised he
went bust, considering the sort of risks he was taking.
26. to turn down – загибать, подвертывать, подавлять, отвергать:
Thank you, but I’ll have to turn down your offer.
27. circle – круг: The teacher circled the students’ spelling mistakes in
red ink.
28. masterpiece – шедевр: The “Mona Lisa” was Leonardo’s
masterpiece.
29. trash – отбросы, хлам, макулатура: His new film is absolute trash.
30. tin can – консервная банка: “Tin can” is a small closed metal
container in which food or drink is sold.

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31. to qualify – готовить(ся), ограничивать, видоизменять, смягчать,
получать квалификацию: She qualified as a doctor this year.
32. fair – честный, справедливый: He was late for the meeting but, to be
fair, he didn’t know about it until this morning.
33. according to – в соответствии с…: We will be paid according to the
amount of work we do.
34. mistake – ошибка: He’d mistaken the address, and gone to the wrong
house.
35. to owe – быть должным кому-л., быть в долгу перед кем-л., быть
обязанным кому-л.: We owe a lot to our parents.
Starting up: 1. Which of the words and phrases below best represents the
idea of quality?
reliable value of money long lasting
well-known expensive well-made
2. Give examples of high quality products or services. Explain your
choices.
3. There is a saying “You get what you pay for”. What does it mean? Do
you agree with this idea?
Discussion: 1.Use the words in the box to complete the flow chart.
identified re-launched reliability modified durability tested
failed recalled launched

A DEFECTIVE PRODUCT
The product was launched two years ago.

Shortly after that, companies were received about its _______ and______.

Because of market feedback, it was _______ so that any faults could be


investigated. At the same time, it was withdrawn from sale.

After extensive tests, a fault was______ by engineers.

As a result, they were able to correct the fault and the product was_____.

It was then _______ under controlled conditions.

Finally, the redesigned product was ______ in the market.

Unfortunately, it ______ due to lack of consumer confidence caused by


bad publicity.

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2. Match the words and phrases in the box to the correct headings. Use
the Vocabulary notes if necessary.
after sales care consumer satisfaction questionnaire compensation
faults monitoring defects routine checks flaws inspection
minimum standard goodwill payment warranty zero defects

PROBLEMS

QUALITY CONTROL

CUSTOMER SERVICE

3. Think of a product or service that you have complained about. Tell


your partner what the problem was and whether it was solved.
Reading I: 1. Read the first paragraph of the article. Then complete the
sentence below.
In the past, quality meant__________; nowadays, business people believe
that quality means______________.
2. Read the article.

New-style quality
Old-style excellence got a bad name, says Tony Jackson. The aim should
be to provide a product over and over
again and make it the best you can. The
term “quality” is one of the most misused
in the business world. What exactly does
it mean? Our grandparents would have
been in no doubt. Quality meant
excellence: a thing was the best of its
kind, and that was that. A Stradivarius
violin had quality, a tinker's fiddle did not. In business, however, the word has
acquired a very different meaning. As defined by the American statistician
Edward Deming some 50 years ago, quality means consistency, a lack of

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defects. Around 1970, it is said, a group of investment analysts visited a world-
famous UK engineering company. They asked the questions of their trade: about
profit margins, stock control and balance sheets. The company's executives
seemed honestly puzzled. They did not see the point of all this, they said. Their
products were the finest in the world. Why all these detailed questions about
numbers?
Rolls Royce, the company in question, duly went bust in 1973. The
trouble with old-style quality, it seemed, was that it encouraged supply - driven
management. The engineers would make the product to the highest possible
standard and price it as a result. If the public was so uncultured that they turned
it down, so much the worse for the public. And so old-style quality got a bad
name in business circles. It was all very well for artists to produce masterpieces.
The job of companies was to please the market.
Additional damage to old-style quality was done by the rise of Japan.
When Japanese cars, toys and television sets first reached the market in the US
and UK, local manufacturers considered them cheap trash. In the beginning,
they were. But under the teaching of Edward Deming, the Japanese were
learning about the second definition of quality. Western customers then began to
realise that while Japanese cars might be tin cans, they did not keep breaking
down, as did British and American cars.
In time of course, Japanese cars stopped being tin cans, and became
stylish and comfortable vehicles instead. That is, they achieved old-style quality
as well. As western manufacturers discovered to their cost that was in some
respects the easy bit. New-style quality was harder.
Quality has a third meaning: that of value for money. To qualify for that
meaning, a product must be of certain standard; and it should express a sense,
not of outright cheapness, but of being sold at a fair price.
The US fast foods group McDonald's, for example, talks of its “high
quality food”. But at 99c or 99p, its hamburgers are as close to absolute
cheapness as any person in the developed world could wish. They are also
highly reliable. Eat a McDonald's anywhere around the world and the results
will be approximately similar. But as 100 anyone who has eaten a really good
American hamburger knows, a McDonald's is also a long way from quality in its
original sense.
3. Discuss these questions.
1. Why were the Rolls Royce executives “puzzled” when the analysts
asked their questions?
2. According to the writer, what mistake caused Rolls Royce to go
bankrupt?
3. What advantage did Japanese cars have compared with British and
American cars?
4. Complete the definition below.
Nowadays, high quality products have three essential features:

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1…………………………………………………………………
2…………………………………………………………………
3…………………………………………………………………
5. Match these phrases from paragraph two to the definitions.
1. profit margins a) checking supplies of goods
2. balance sheets b) the difference between manufacturing
cost and selling price
3. stock control c) statements of the amount of money a
company has, including money it owes
or it owed
6. Find words or phrases in the article which mean:
1. reliability (paragraph 1)
2. went bankrupt (paragraph 3)
3. management focus on production (paragraph 3)
4. refused to buy the product (paragraph 3)
5. badly-made goods sold at low prices (paragraph 4)
7. Which sentence means the same as these quotations from the article?
1. And so old-style quality got a bad name in business circles.
(paragraph 3)
a) Business people did not try to produce well-made products.
b) Business people no longer accepted this idea of quality.
c) Business people tried to find another name for quality.
2. It was all very well for artists to produce masterpieces. (paragraph
3)
a) It was right that artists should try to produce masterpieces.
b) Artists don't have to produce masterpieces.
c) All artists produce masterpieces at some time.
8. Can you think of products that are made according to: a) old-style
quality? b) new-style quality? Make two lists. Then compare lists with a partner.
Reading II: 1. Read the story.

Quality
I knew Mr. Gessler from the days I was a child because he made my
father’s shoes. He had a little shop in a small street. There was no sigh on the
door of his shop that could attract people’s attantion and Mr. Gessler had a few
customers like my father who ordered their shoes only from Mr. Gessler. They
knew that they could not get more comfortable shoes from any other
shoemaker.
I often wondered if it was difficult lo make shoes and Mr. Gessier's
answer was the same: “ It's an art”. The shoemaker was a very pleasant and
really talented man. He made wonderful shoes, he made them very quickly
and the price was quite reasonable. I enjoyed each visit to his shop But I

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didn't have to call at this shop very often as his shoes were always of high
quality, f i t t e d me nicely and wore them for a long time.
Once I called on him in a pair of shoes which I had bought in some
large shop when I was on a business t r i p in a foreign country. He took my
order and all the time he was looking at my shoes. At last he said: “Those
are not mine”.
H e touched my left shoe when it was not quite comfortable and said:
“Those big companies are not reliable at all. They take our buyers from us by
their advertising, not by work. It seems people do not want good shoes. Soon I’ll
have no more work, I’m afraid”. Unexpectedly I saw things I had never seen
before. I understood how difficult his life was. He couldn't be a competitor to
big well-known companies who produced shoes and got much profit. I tried to
explain to him why I had bought those shoes. But he didn't hear me. He looked
very unhappy and I was so sorry for him that I ordered many pairs, more than I
wanted.
As a result of my purchase I did not have to go to him for about two years.
Time Hew. When I came to his shop one day I was surprised to find
another name which was painted on the door. The sign on the door was very
colorful and attractive. It said that here was a shoemaker who was making shoes
for the Royal Family. I decided to come in to find out what had happened to Mr.
Gessier.
A young man in a well-made suit met me. He greeted me warmly.
“Do you want shoes, sir? We can find anything you like”. “No”, I
answered. “Thank you. You see. I'd like lo know if Mr. Gessler works here”.
“Oh, poor old man”, the shoemaker said, “he died a few months ago”.
And he told me that Mr. Gessler had to sell the shop as it had become too
expensive for him to keep it. He had no one in London who could help him.
“Oh, but what could you expect of a man with his ideas? He never advertised his
shoes though nobody in London could make shoes of better quality. I really feel
sorry for him”.
I could not stay at the shop any longer and left it.
(After J. Galsworthy)
2. Say what you have learned from the text about:
1) Mr. Gessler;
2) the young shoemaker.
3. Think and answer.
1) Why was Mr Gessler’s life very difficult?
2) Why was there no sign on Mr Gessler’s shop?
3) Why did the writer enjoy visiting Mr Gessler’s shop?
4) Why did the writer think that the young man was doing good business?
5) Why couldn’t the writer stay in the shop any longer?
4. Give your viewpoint.
1) Wide advertising doesn’t always men “high quality”.

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2) Good advertising is a key to successful trade.
Reading III: 1. Read the story.

The Loss of the “Titanic”


The greatest ship, Titanic, sailed for New York from Southampton on
April 10th 1912. It was carrying 1316 passengers and a crew1 of 891. Even by
modern standards, the 66,000 ton Titanic was a colossal ship. At that time,
however, it was not only the largest ship that had ever been built, but was
regarded as unsinkable2, for it had sixteen water-tight compartments3. Even if
two of these were flooded4, it would still be able to float5. The tragic sinking of
this great liner will always be remembered, for it went down on its first voyage
with heavy loss of lives.
Four days after setting out6, while the Titanic was sailing across the icy
waters of the North Atlantic, a huge iceberg was suddenly spotted7 by a look-
out8. After the alarm9 had been given, the great ship turned sharply to avoid a
direct collision10. The Titanic turned just in time, narrowly missing11 the gigantic
wall of ice which rose over 100 feet out of the water beside it. Suddenly, there
was a slight trembling sound12 from below, and the captain went down to see
what had happened. The noise had been so faint that no one thought that the ship
had been damaged. Below, the captain realized to his horror13 that the Titanic
was sinking rapidly, for five of its sixteen water-tight compartments had already
been flooded. The order to abandon14 ship was given and hundreds of people
plunged15 into the icy water. As there were not enough life-boats for everybody,
1500 lives were lost.
Notes:
1. a crew – команда.
2. unsinkable – непотопляемый.
3. water-tight compartments – водонепроницаемые отсеки.
4. to flood – затапливать.
5. to float – плыть.
6. Four days after setting out – спустя четыре дня после отплытия.
7. to spot – обнаруживать.
8. a look-out – сторожевой, дозорный.
9. alarm – тревога.
10. direct collision – прямое столкновение.
11. narrowly missing – зд. едва избежав.
12. slight trembling sound – легкий дрожащий звук.
13. horror – ужас.
14. to abandon – покидать.
15. to plunge – прыгать, погружаться в воду.
2. Give your own ideas about the information you have read, retell the text.

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¨ Grammar snack: Complete the story with the prepositions of time.
……1 the summer last year, I think it was …..2 August, my car kept
breaking down. I bought it second hand. I went to the same garage that I’d
bought it from. The car salesman said that it would take five days to get it fixed.
This was …..3 the Monday and we agreed that I would be back to pick it up
…..4 the Friday. So I went to pick the car up …..5 the Friday – and I had to take
time off work. I turned up …..6 9.30 in the morning. The salesman hadn’t
arranged for any of the work to be done and he was on holiday ….7 a week. So
we agreed that the work would be done the following Tuesday. I dropped the car
off ….8 the Tuesday …..9 9.30 on the way to work. Fortunately, when I turned
up ….10 the evening, all the repairs had been finished. Three weeks later, they
had the check to send me a customer service evaluation questionnaire – and they
wanted the answers ….. 11 the end of the week!

— Skills: Comment on the picture.

? 2. Translate from Russian into English using a dictionary.

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Торговая марка «Фаберже»
Первая половина XIX века. Блестящий светский Санкт-Петербург. К
его богатству и роскоши потянулись золотых дел мастера, поражая мир
своими творениями. Одним из них был Густав Фаберже, открывший здесь
в 1842 году маленькую ювелирную мастерскую. Сына Карла заботливый
отец отправил учиться в Германию и во Францию, а в 1870 году передал в
его руки свое дело.
У Фаберже трудились лучшие мастера. Это были и русские
самородки, пришедшие пешком из деревень, и талантливые иностранные
ювелиры, охотно в ту пору приезжавшие в Россию. Они работали с
самоцветами, драгоценными камнями, цветным золотом, создавая
изысканные украшения: часы, цветы, фигурки животных, птиц и людей.
Но вершиной творчества Фаберже стали ювелирные пасхальные яйца с
сюрпризами. Их дарили друг другу члены императорской фамилии.
В 1883 году, увидев первый такой шедевр с золотым желтком,
миниатюрным золотым цыпленком, крохотной короной и рубином внутри,
Александр III пришел в восторг. С тех пор каждый раз к великому
празднику Фаберже получал заказ на изготовление новых пасхальных яиц.
Всего известно о 57 таких изделиях. Далеко не все из них сохранились до
наших дней.
Фаберже и его мастера, базируясь на древнерусских традициях и
фольклоре, создали блестящую национальную школу ювелирного
искусства. А сам он познал мировую славу после Всемирной выставки в
Париже в 1900 году. Позже Фаберже был удостоен ордена Почетного
легиона. То был Золотой век в русском ювелирном искусстве, символом
которого стала марка «Фаберже».

APPENDIX
Lesson 3. Organisation
Conclusions to quiz
Mostly As: you are an extremely well-organised person, who has every
aspect of their life carefully planned. There are many advantages to this. Make
sure, however, that you do not become hard, or ignore other people's needs
because they do not fit in with your plans.
A combination of As and Bs: you try hard to be organised, yet plastic and
sensitive to other people. On the whole you manage to get the balance right,
though sometimes perhaps you need to prioritise more carefully, and be more
determined about achieving your goals.
Mostly Bs: you are a very spontaneous person, who hates too much
organising and planning ahead. This can have a very positive side - you often
have great fun. But because you refuse to make plans, you may also miss out
on the things other people do. Be careful, too, that your spontaneity doesn't

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mean more work for someone else.

Lesson 8. Leadership
From left to right:
Top row: Mikhail Gorbachev, born 1931, Stavrapol, Russia, Secretary
General of the Communist Party and Soviet Leader 1985-1991, began the policy
of Perestroika which brought greater freedom the Soviet Union and eventually
led to democratic governments in Central and Eastern Europe; Carly Fiorina,
born 1955, Austin, Texas, taught English in Italy before joining AT&T in 1980
as a sales representative, appointed Chief Executive of Hewlett-Packard 1999;
Nelson Mandela, born 1918, Transkeu, South Africa, South African President
1994-1999, leader of the African National Congress, imprisoned for life 1964
for his campaign against apartheid, released 1990; Bill Gates, born 1955,
Seattle, USA, founder of Microsoft, left Harvard University without a degree,
now believed to be worth over $100 billion.
Bottom row: Aung San Sui Kyi, born 1945, Burmese political opposition
leader, educated in India and Oxford, returned to Burma 1988 and elected
President but blocked by the military and put under house arrest; Akio Morita,
1921-1999, co-founder, with Masaru Ibuka, of Sony Corp. in 1946, inventor of
the Walkman, introduced the world's first all-transistor TV in 1960; John
Lennon, 1940-1980, co-founder of The Beatles pop group, 1960, one of the key
figures in music and youth culture of the 19605, assassinated outside his
apartment block in New York; John F Kennedy, 1917-1963, Captain in the US
Navy in World War II, elected US President 1961, assassinated Dallas, Texas,
22 November 1963; Margaret Thatcher, born 1925, Grantham, England, British
Prime minister 1979-1990, her policies transformed the UK economy,
emphasising the importance of the free market and privatisation of the public
sector.

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Видо-временная система английского глагола
Изъявительное наклонение
Действительный залог (Active Voice)

Название Неперфектные формы Перфектные формы

Общий вид Продолженный Общий вид Продолженный


вид вид
Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect
continuous
характеристика действие, действие,
действие как действие как предшествующее начавшееся в
факт (обычное, процесс какому-то прошлом и
постоянное, (незаконченный, моменту, продолжающееся
повторяющееся) длящийся) соотнесенное с вплоть до
время ним какого-нибудь
момента
Present ask, asks am have have
(настоящее) (спрашиваю are asking has asked has been asking
вообще, обычно, is (уже спросил) (уже спрашиваю
всегда) (спрашиваю в течение…)
сейчас)
Past asked was asking had asked had been asking
(прошедшее) (спросил, were (уже спросил к (к тому моменту
спрашивал (спрашивал в тому моменту) уже спрашивал в
когда-то) тот момент) течение…)

Future shall ask shall be asking shall have asked shall have been
(будущее) will will will will asking
(спрошу) (буду (уже спросил к (к тому моменту
спрашивать в тому моменту) уже буду
тот момент) спрашивать в
течение…)

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Страдательный залог (Passive Voice)

Название Неперфектные формы Перфектные формы


Общий вид Продолженный Общий вид Продолженный
вид вид
Indefinite Continuous Perfect Perfect
Continuous
характеристика действие как действие как действие, действие,
факт (обычное, процесс предшествующее начавшееся в
постоянное, (незаконченный, какому-то прошлом и
повторяющееся) длящийся) моменту, продолжающееся
соотнесенное с вплоть до
ним какого-нибудь
время момента
Present am am have
(настоящее) are asked are being asked has been asked
is is (уже спросили)
(спрашивают (спрашивают
вообще, обычно, сейчас)
всегда)
Past was was being had been asked
(прошедшее) were asked were asked (к тому моменту
(спросили вчера) (спрашивали в уже спросили)
тот момент)
Future shall shall have been
(будущее) will be asked will asked
(спросят) (буду уже
спрошен к тому
времени)

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LITERATURE

1. Владиславова А. В., Либерзон В. Д., Чеснокова В. И. Самоучитель


английского языка. – М., 1970.
2. Павлоцкий В. М. Test your English (Intermediate and Upper-
Intermediate). - СПб, 2001.
3. Практикум по английскому языку. Менеджмент: Учебное пособие
/ Сост. Колесниченко С. А., Варганова Г. В. – СПб, 2001.
4. Учебник английского языка для делового общения: В 6-ти ч. /
Дудкина Г. А., Павлова М. В., Рей З. Г., Хвальнова А. Т. – М., 1991.
5. Цветкова И. В., Клепальченко И. А., Мыльцева Н. А. Английский
язык для поступающих в вузы. – М., 2002.
6. David Cotton, David Falvey, Simon Kent. Market Leader
(Intermediate). - Pearson Education Ltd., 2000.
7. Farrell Mark. British life and institutions. – Chancerel International
Publishers Ltd., 2000.
8. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. – Longman, 1992.
9. Michael Vince. Advanced Language Practice. – Macmillian Publishers
Ltd. – Oxford, 1998.
10. Raymond Murphy. English Grammar in Use. – Cambridge University
Press, 2001.
11. Sarah Cunningham, Peter Moor. Cutting Edge (Intermediate). –
Addison Wesley Longman Ltd, 1999.

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