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Kertas 2
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The following information may be useful. The symbols have their usual meaning.

º  |
1. Ô= |  ||||||
||||||||real depth ||
2 2  | apparent depth
1.|  =  + 2Ô|
1  |
2.|  =  |+ Ô 2| 1 1 1
2   | * |
3.| ?omentum = !|  
|  |
4.| V||!Ô|   | Linear magnification, !|||
 
5.| Kinetic energy = ÿ|! 
 ||||˜||| ||

6.| iravitational potential energy = ! | |
  |||||| |˜|||
1 
7.| ëlastic potential energy = Fx 
2
 
8.| Power, ˜ = energy  ||||˜ =
time  

9.| ‰= 
   |||| = R |
 
10.| Pressure, þ   
 |||||||
V  
11.| Pressure, þ 
 
 |||||R |
 |
12.| eat, Q = !=
  ||||||||Ra|

13.| eat, Q = !

|
 ||||Power, ˜||R|
 
14.| ˜ ||˜ 
| 
  
  |||||
15.| |||   
á á  |
  R  
| .|||ëfficiency |= x 100%
 R ˜ ˜
16.| ˜|||˜
á á |
 . ||ÿ|! |

 |
˜ |||||||!|
17.| = constant 
á . = 10 ms-2

sin 
18.| n=
sin a
2
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 . $&
Answer %%questions in this section
[60 marks]
 Diagram 1 shows the graph of velocity against time for the motion of a car.

Diagram 1
(a) State the physical quantity represented by

(i) the gradient of the graph.


|
««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««..
[1 mark]
(ii) the area under the graph.
|
««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.
[1 mark]
(b) Complete the table below.

 . $&$/, (0, 10 $/'$ $&$/, .|

2A

AB

[2 marks]

3
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0,( &3$/0 &(&)0 &(4 
V 

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˜|
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 2222c2 x (cm)

(a) The graph shows the relationship between the stretching force, F and the spring
extension, x.

(i) Calculate the spring constant of P and Q.

[4 marks]
(ii) Using the graph, determine the stretching force acts to spring P and spring Q, when their
extensions are 0.5 cm.

[2 ?arks]

4
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 Diagram 3 shows water being shot out from the side of a water tank.

water
1.0 m

A
6.0 m

B
4.0 m

Diagram 3

(a) What is meant by pressure?


«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
«..
[1 mark]
-3
(b) iiven the density of water is 1 000 kg m , calculate the water pressure
(i) at A.

(ii) at B.

[2 marks]
(c) (i) Compare the water pressure at A and at B.
«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
«
[1 mark]
(ii) Relate the water pressure and the horizontal displacement of the water et from the side
of the water tank.
«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
[1 mark]

5
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(d) State another $& application of the pressure in liquids.
«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
[1 mark]

c Diagram 4.1 shows a metal Z at 1000C being place in a beaker of water at 280 C. After a few
minutes thermal equilibrium is achieved.
The mass of metal Z and water are 0.6 kg and 0.3 kg respectively.
Diagram 4.2 shows a temperature against time graph of the water in the beaker

Diagram 4.1 Diagram 4.2

(a) (i) What is the meaning of thermal equilibrium?

«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
[1 mark]

(ii) Base on the graph in diagram 4.2, what is the temperature when the thermal equilibrium
is achieved?

.««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««..
[1 mark]

(iii) What is the purpose of wrapping the beaker with felt and put it on asbestos?

«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
«

6
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[1 mark]

(b) (i) Calculate the specific heat capacity of metal Z?


(Specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J kg -1 0C-1)

[2 marks]
(ii) What is the precaution should be taken during experiment?
««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
[1 mark]

Diagram 5 shows the pendulum bobs are oscillating.

String

P
R S
|
Q

Diagram 5

(a)| What is meant by frequency?


«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
[1 mark]
(b) 2bserve Diagram 5,
(i) When one of the bob oscillates, it will cause the rest of the bobs to oscillate. ëxplain why
all the bobs oscillate?
«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««

«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««

7
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[2 marks]

(ii) State the phenomenon displayed by the bobs in 5(b) (i).


«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
[1 mark]
(c) Based on Diagram 5,
(i) State the relationship between the length and the frequency of the pendulum?
«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
«..
[1 mark]
(ii) Which two pendulums have the same natural frequency?
«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
«..
[1 mark]
(d) Based on Diagram 5,
(i) State what happens to bob S when bob R stops oscillating?
«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
[1 mark]
(ii) iive one reason for the answer in 5(d)(i).
«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
[1 mark]
+ Diagram 6.1 and diagram 6.2 show a light ray passing through prism P and prism Q,
respectively.
Prism P and Q are made of glass with different densities.

Prism P Prism Q

Diagram 6.1 Diagram 6.2

8
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(a)| What is meant by critical angle?

Tick ( /) the correct answer in the box provided

The angle of incidence when the angle of refraction is 90 o

The angle of incidence when the incident ray is totally reflected


[1 mark]
(b) ëxplain why the light ray does not bend when it enters both prism at point A
......................................................................................................................... .........................
[1 mark]
(c) (i) Based on diagram 6.1 and diagram 6.2, how can the angle of incidence at point B, be
made equal to the critical angle?

Prism P
............................................................................................................................. .......................
[1 mark]
Prism Q
............................................................................................................................. .......................
[1 mark]
(ii) Diagram 6.1 shows the light ray passing from glass to air at point B.
Compare the density of glass with the density of air.

............................................................................................................................. ........................
[1 mark]
(iii) Based on Diagram 6.1 and 6.2, what happen to the light ray after passing point B?

Diagram 6.1
............................................................................................................................. ......................
.

Diagram 6.2
............................................................................................................................. ......................
.
[2 marks]

9
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(d) Name the phenomenon shown in Diagram 6.2


............................. .................................................................................................... ...................
[1 mark]

5 Diagram 7.1 shows an ob ect 2 placed in front of a convex mirror which is part of a sphere
with centre of curvature, C.

å$&8 3 $

-6 .7
  å

# ('52

F is the focal point of the mirror and C is the centre of curvature.

(a)| What is the meaning of focal point?


««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
[1 mark]

(b)|If the radius of the mirror is 40 cm, calculate the focal length of the mirror.

[1 marks]
(c)| Draw a ray diagram on Diagram 7.1 to show how the image is formed.
[3 marks]
(d) Diagram 7.2 shows the location where a mirror is to be placed at a sharp bend of a road
for helping road users to see oncoming vehicles from the opposite direction.

10
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# ('52

State the light phenomenon involved in 7 (d).


«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.
. [1 mark]
(e) The mirror used in Diagram 7.2 does not produce the image as desired for the purpose
mentioned above.
Suggest a modification that can be made to produce the desired image through these aspects:

(i) The type of mirror used.


«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.
.
[1 mark]
(ii)| iive one reason why the mirror you suggested in 7 (e) (i) should be used.

«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««..
[1 mark]
(iii) The reflectivity of the mirror surface.

«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««..
[1 mark]
(iv) iive one reason for the answer in 7 (e) (iii).

«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««..
[1 mark]

11
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9 Diagram 8.1 shows a 500 W electric heater being used to heat a beaker of water on a
compression balance.

Diagram 8.1

(a)| State the energy change involved when using the heater to heat the water.
«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««........
......
[1 mark]

(b)|The mass of water is 0.5 kg and the specific heat capacity of water is 4 200 J kg-1 0C-1.
The initial temperature of the water is 30 0C.
Calculate the energy absorbed by the water to reach its boiling point.

[2 marks]

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(c)| When the water is boiling, the reading of the compression balance decreases by 0.0125
kg in 60 s.
Calculate the specific latent heat of vaporization of the water.

[2 marks]

(d)|Q, R and S are three different hot plates. These hot plates are used to heat µroti canai¶.

Table 8 shows the characteristics of each plate.


0 . / . å0. 17. 7' $; 7
$%  :  :
 (  å  ( <

Q 390 3.0 600

R 900 2.5 1200

S 400 4.0 900

Table 8

The initial temperature of each plate is 30 0C.


The plates are ready to use when their temperature reaches 200 0C.
Calculate the time taken to reach 200 0C for each plate.
(i) Plat Q

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(ii) Plat R

(iii)| Plat S

[5 marks]

(e)| (i) Based on the answer in 8(d), which plate is the most suitable for heating µroti canai¶.
««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««.
[1 mark]

(ii) State one reason for the answer in 8(e)(i).


«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««
[1 mark]

14
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 . $&
[20 marks]
Answer any $& question from this section.

= Diagram 9.1 shows an ice cube melting when heat is absorbed from the surrounding.
Diagram 9.2 shows a kettle of water boiling when heat is absorbed from the fire.
| |

Diagram 9.1 Diagram 9.2

(a)| What is meant by heat?


[1 mark]

(b)|Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the processes that take place in both
situations and the type of heat needed for both processes to occur.
Relate the processes with the type of heat needed to deduce a relevant physics concept.
Name the physics concept involved.
|||||[5 marks]

(c)| (i) Your body sweats when you are feeling hot. ow does sweating helps to cool down
your body?
[2 marks]

(ii) ëxplain why a scald from steam is more serious than the one from boiling water?
[2 marks]

15
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(d)| Diagram 9.3 shows a simple solar water±heating system. ënergy from the Sun falls on
the solar panel. Water is pumped around the system so that a store of hot water is made
available in the tank.

Diagram 9.3

Using suitable physics concepts, explain the required modification needed in designing
an efficient solar water-heating system.
The modification should include the following aspects:
(i)| pipes design
(ii)| material used
(iii)| heat absorption|
|
[10
marks]

16
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   c 
 Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show photographs of two circuits. ëach circuit contains
four identical bulbs connected to four identical new dry cells.

(a) (i) State the energy transformation that take place in the bulb [1 mark]

(ii) Draw a circuit diagram for each photograph. [3 marks]

Diagram 10.1 Diagram 10.2

(b) (i) 2bserve the photographs in Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2. Compare the brightness
of the bulbs.
Relate the brightness of the bulbs between Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 to deduce a
concept in physics with regard to the potential difference and the current flow for the bulbs
in series and parallel circuits.

[6 marks]

(c) Diagram 10.3 shows a model of an incubator used to hatch eggs. The temperature in the
incubator must be maintained around 39 a C. ëvery part of the eggs must receive uniform
heat. The eggs are hatched in about 20 days.

Diagram 10.3

Using an appropriate concept in physics, explain the modification required to the above
incubator so as to efficiently hatch about 200 eggs.
[10
marks]

17
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 . $&å
[20 marks]
Answer any $& question from this section.

 Diagram 11.1 shows an apparatus which is used to determine the density of a liquid. These
apparatus is an application of Archimedes¶ Principle.

Diagram 11.1
(a)| State the Archimedes¶ Principle
[1 mark]

Rod A
Rod B

Water Water

Diagram 11.2

(b)|Diagram 11.2 shows rod A and rod B of different densities are immersed in water.
ëxplain why the rods float in water and why B sinks deeper than A.
[4 marks]

(c)| You are required to build a hydrometer that can be used to measure densities of
concentrated acids.

18
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Table 11.1 shows the characteristics of 4 types of hydrometers L, ?, N and 2.

Type of
Diameter of Density of Diameter of
ydrometer material of -3
capillary tube / cm shots / kg m bottom bulb / cm
hydrometer
L Plastic 0.5 1000 1.0
? Plastic 2.0 1300 3.0
N ilass 0.5 9800 3.0
2 ilass 2.0 8000 1.0

Table 11.1
Based on the table 11.1;

(i)| ëxplain the suitable characteristics of the hydrometer so that it can be used to
measure different densities of acids.
(ii)| Decide which hydrometer is most suitable and give reasons.
[10 marks]

(d)|Diagram 11.3 shows a boat which has a safety limit line, L. The volume of the boat
under the line L is 4 m3. The mass of the boat is 250 kg.
[density of water : 1000 kg m-3 ]

Diagram 11.3

(i) Calculate the volume of water displaced by the boat.


(ii) What is the maximum load that can be carried safely by the boat?
[ 5 marks]

 An echo sounder on a ship produces a pulse of sound. A fishing boat uses the sound echo to
determine the depth of sea bed. You are assigned to investigate the suitable characteristics of
the waves that could be used to determine the depth of seabed.

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|
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Diagram 12
(a)| State one phenomenon of waves that produces µecho¶

[1 mark]

(b)|Radio wave is used to detect the position of an aeroplane and sonar technique is used to
detect the shoal of fish below the boat.

(i)| State the difference between radio waves and sound waves.

(ii)|ëxplain why the speed of sound is greater in water than that in air?

[4 marks]

(c) Table 12.2 shows the specification of waves P, Q, R, S and T that can be used to
determine the position of a shoal of fish.

Name of waves Type of waves Frequency/z Speed/ms-1 Penetrating Power

P Transverse igh 3x10 8 Low

Q Longitudinal Low 330 ?oderate

R Transverse igh 330 Low

S Longitudinal igh 1500 igh

T Transverse Low 3x10 8 igh

Table 12.2
|

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You are required to determine the most suitable waves. Study the waves based on the
following aspects:
|
i)| The type of the waves transmitted
ii)| The frequency of the waves
iii)| The speed of waves
iv)| Penetrating power of waves
[10 marks]
1
(d) (i) If the time taken for the return of the waves is s, calculate the depth of the shoal
15
of fish below the boat if the speed of sound in water is 1500 m s -1.

(ii) State two other uses of an echo sounder


[5 marks]

#4 

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<

1 (a) (i) Acceleration 1

(ii) Displacement 1

(b) 2A : Uniform acceleration / velocity increases uniformly 1

AB : Uniform velocity / acceleration is zero 1

$%  c

2 (a) Spring constant, k = gradient of graph

6
kP = 1
0.38

= 15.79 N cm-1 1

3
kQ = 1
0.5

= 6.0 N cm-1 1

(b) When x = 0.5, FP = 8.0 N (extrapolation of graph P) 1

FQ = 3.0 N 1

$%  +

3 (a) Force per unit area. 1

(b) (i) Water pressure at A = h ‰ g

= (1) (1000) (10)

= 10 000 Pa @ N m -2 1

(ii) water pressure at B = h‰g

= (7) (1 000) (10)

= 70 000 Pa @ N m- 2 1

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(c) (i) Water at B is greater than A. 1

(ii) The higher the water pressure, the further the horizontal displacement. 1

(d) Public water supply / spirit level / Construction of a reservoir/ Dam /

Thick wall of submarine / Transfusion of glucose solutions in the

hospital / formation of water fountain 1

$%  +

4 (a) (i) The rate of heat transfer between two bodies are the same /

The temperature of two bodies are the same 1

(ii)| 40 0C 1

(iii)| To prevent heat loss to surrounding. 1

(b) (i) 0.6 u c u 100  40  0.4 u 4200 u 40  28 1

0.6 u c u 60  0.3 u 4200 u 12

c  420 J kg-1 1

(ii) Switch off the fan / stir the water before taking the reading

of thermometer 1

$%  +

5 (a) Frequency is the number of complete oscillations made in one second. 1

(b) (i) They have received energy from the bob through the string. 2

(ii) Conservation of energy. 1

(c) (i) The longer the length, the smaller the frequency and vice versa. 1

(ii) R and S 1

(d) (i) Bob S will oscillate with maximum amplitude. 1

(ii) Resonance 1

$%  9

23
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6 (a) The angle of incidence when the angle of refraction is =$ 1


 
(b) The angle of incidence at point A is zero, so the angle of refraction is zero 1

(c) (i) Prism P : Increase the angle of incidence/

Rotate P anticlockwise / = 45o 1

Prism Q : Reduce the angle of incidence

Rotate Q anticlockwise / = 45o 1

(ii) ilass is denser than air 1

(iii) Diagram 6.1 : Refract/Bends away from the normal 1

Diagram 6.2 : Total internal reflection take place/ Totally reflected 1

(d) Total internal reflection 1

$%  9

7 (a) A point on the principal axis that all parallel rays of light converge to //

diverge from after reflection from the mirror. 1

40!
(b) =
2

= 20 cm 1

(c) 2 rays drawn 1

Intersect 1

Formation of image 1

(d) Reflection of light 1

(e) (i) Convex mirror 1

(ii) It has a wider field of view. 1

(iii) igh reflectivity 1

(iv) to form a brighter image 1

$%  

24
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8 (a) ëlectrical energy -----> eat energy 1

(b) ë = mcș

= (0.5)(4 200)(100 ± 30) 1

= 147 000 J

= 147 kJ 1

(c) h = Pt / m

= (500)(60) / 0.0125 1

= 2 400 000 J kg-1

= 2.4 x 10-6 J kg-1 1

(d) (i) Pt = mcș

(600)t = (3.0)(390)(170) 1

= 198 900

t = 331.5 s 1

(ii) Pt = mcș

(1200)t = (2.5)(900)(170) 1

= 382 500

t = 318.75 s 1

(iii) Pt = mcș

(900)t = (4.0)(400)(170)

= 272 000

t = 302.22 s 1

(e) (i) Plate S 1

(ii)  heats up faster 1

$%  

25
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9 (a) eat is the quantity of energy that is transformed from one hot ob ect

to a cold ob ect. 1

(b) 1- Diagram 9.1 shows a situation where a solid changes into liquid /

Diagram 9.2 shows a situation where a liquid change into gas 1

2- Both processes have a change in the state of matter. 1

3- Both processes require heat. 1

4- The heat absorbed is not to raise the temperature, to overcome the

force between the molecule particles during the physical change. 1

5- Concept involved is Latent eat 1

(c) (i) 1- Water evaporates from the skin when we sweat. 1

2- for water to evaporate it use heat from the body 1

(ii) 1-Steam condenses to form water so, 1

latent heat of vaporization of steam is let out more steam. 1

(d)

Suggestion ëxplanation

Use insulator behind the


To prevent the loss of heat energy
absorber panel

Use an absorber panel which is A black surface is a good absorber of

painted black. radiation so it will absorb heat faster

The pipe inside the plate must ?etal is a good heat conductor, so it will

be made of metal transmit heat to water easily

Pipe embedded in plate must Longer pipe will enlarge surface area

be long will absorbs heat faster

A storage tank must be place at

a higher level To give higher pressure

26
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Use glass cover on the top of To trap heat energy. (energy is radiated

the panel in, but cannot radiate out again).

Any five suggestions and explanation [ 10


marks ]

$%  

10 (a) (i) ëlectric energy Light energy eat energy 1

(ii) Parallel circuit

bulb

Dry cell
Switch

Series Circuit

bulb

Dry cell

Switch

Correct symbols 1

Correct quantities of bulb and dry cell 1

Correct circuits 1

27
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(b) (i) Bulbs in Diagram 10.2 is brighter than Diagram 10.1 1

Brightness of all the bulbs in each circuit is the same. 1

The potential difference across each bulb in Diagram 10.2 is the same

as the battery. 1

The potential difference across each bulb at Diagram 10.2 is more

than potential difference across each bulb at Diagram 10.1. 1

Current at each bulb in Diagram 10.2 is more than at Diagram 10.1. 1

(c)

?odification ëxplanation

1. Connect the bulbs in parallel eat is supplied even though one of the bulb

is fused.

2. Put the eggs in a rack that consists of Can keep more eggs

multi level racks.

3. Fix a fan. so that all eggs obtain equal heat

28
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4. Fix more bulbs in parallel to the ?ore heat is produced

circuit.

Time for hatching can be known.

5. Fix a timer or thermostat

All eggs are supplied heat uniformly

6. The base of the rack with eggs is

connected to a motor that can rotate.

?ax 10 marks

$%  

11 (a) When an ob ect is immersed in a fluid, the buoyang force on the ob ect is

equal in size to the weight of fluid displaced by the ob ect. 1

(b) B is denser than A. 1

The weight of water displaced is the same of the weight of the rod. 1

Weight of B is greater than weight of A 1

B will displace more volume of water 1

(c) ?aterial made from glass 1

ilass does not corrode with acid 1

Small diameter of capillary tube 1

To increase the sensitivity of the hydrometer 1

igh density of shots 1

?akes the hydrometer stays upright 1

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Big diameter of bottom bulb 1

To obtaine a bigger upthrust. 1

Choose N 1

N is made from glass, has small diameter of capillary tube, high density

of shots and a big diameter of bottom bulb. 1

(d) (i) Weight of boat = weight of water displaced

2500 N = 1000 x V x 10 1

V = 0.25 m3 1

(ii) ?aximum weight = maximum water displaced

= 1000 x 4 x 10 1

= 40000 N 1

maximum mass = 4000 kg

maximum load = 4000 ± 250 = 3750 kg. 1

$%  

12 (a) Reflection of waves 1

(b) (i) Sonar is a technique that use ultrasonic sound / high frequency sound

to detect shoal of fish or to measure the depth of sea. 1

(ii)
Radio Waves Sound Waves

Transverse waves Longitudinal waves

Can travel without medium Needs medium to travel

ave long wavelength ave short wavelength

(any two comparisons)

(ii) The distance between the water molecules is closer compare to

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air molecules. 1

Thus, the sound energy can be transferred faster. 1

(c)
Characteristics Reason

Type of waves Because sonar is a sound waves


2
- longitudinal which is a longitudinal waves

igh frequency has high energy/ can penetrate

deeper into the sea 2

igh speed can travel faster 2

igh penetrating power can penetrate through medium easily


2
The most suitable The waves is longitudinal, high frequency,

waves is S high penetrating power and has high speed 2


(d) (i)



2

1
1500  $
  15 1
2

50 1

(ii) To detect the depth of seabed

To detect the position of crude oil or sunken ship

To detect the condition of baby in the womb

(any two answers) 2

   

31
c