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Microwave Devices &

Antennas
Project Report
Syed Asadullah Hussain 404

Amna Meer 442

M. Faizan Khalid 368

M. Ehtisham Asghar 367

2011
Introduction:
“A microwave filter is a two port network used to control the frequency response at a certain
point in a microwave system by providing transmission at frequencies within the pass band of
the filter and attenuation in the stop band of the filter.” [1]

There are two major techniques for designing a filter:

1. Image Parameter Method: uses cascading of two port filters to get desired frequency
response. But response cannot be specified over a frequency range.
2. Insertion Loss Method: uses network synthesis techniques for filter design, so that
frequency response can be specified over a fair range of frequencies.

Although Image Parameter Method is simpler, but as response cannot be specified over a
frequency range so many iterations are needed for desired frequency response, which is quiet
cumbersome. So we used Insertion Loss Method for Filter design as we can define our filter
specifications well through this method.

The method of insertion loss uses network synthesis technique. The design is simplified in the
beginning with low pass filter prototypes that are normalized in the beginning in terms of
impedance and frequency. Transformations are then applied to convert the prototype design to
the desired frequency range and impedance level. As our requirement is at microwave
frequencies so lumped elements will not work ideally at these high frequencies so these
lumped elements need to be transformed into distributed elements in order to observe
required frequency response. The conversion of lumped elements to distributed elements is
done using Richard’s transformation and the Kuroda identities.

Filter Design by Insertion Loss Method:


In this method a filter’s response is defined by it ‘insertion loss‘or power loss. It is defined
as the ratio of power available from source to power delivered to load.

= =
The basic steps in filter design are as follows:

Specifications

Prototype Design

Scaling & Tranforms

Implementation

The process defined above is explained and applied in detail of this report to design a ripple band
pass filter of specifications:

 Cut off Frequency: 2.8 GHz


 Attenuation 25 dB at least @ 4.7 GHz
 0.5 dB ripple in pass band

There are various topologies (configurations) for filters that can be used to implement the design
for a certain low pass filter. The choice of these topologies depends on certain factors such as:

 Type of filters, such as Chebyshive or elliptic


 Bandwidth
 Size
 Power Requirements

While the choice for the fabrication for the filter (substrate) depends on factors such as Size,
Higher-order
order modes, Couplings, Dielectric loss and Temperature stability. We will useu ladder
circuits to design the filter.

Realization:
Using the insertion loss method, we have gone through a series of steps and have arrived at the
implementation of the low pass filter of the above mentioned specifications. Our filter’s response
closely resembles the Chebyshive’s response so we have used this filter response. First the filter was
designed using Lumped elements and then it was implemented using distributed elements, using
Richard’s Transform and Kuroda Identities. Our filter is equiripple so the filter in pass band will have
ripples of amplitude “1+k2”.

The Steps leading to this transformation are given below:

Step 1:
First step is to find the order of filter, to find the order; first we will find the normalized frequency by
using:

| |
| |
-1

Using ωc (2*pi*2.8 GHz) and ω (2*pi*4.7 GHz), our normalized frequency is =0.5

So look the value of order, for 0.5 frequency in the graph of attenuation versus normalized frequency of
equiripple filter prototype (0.5 dB). The curves in the graph are used to find the order of the filter and in
our case it comes out to be 5th order.

Attenuation VS Normalized Frequency Graph [1]


Step 2:
Table exists for designing the equal-ripple low-pass filters with normalized source impedance and cutoff
2.8GHz and can be applied to either ladder circuit. This design data depends upon the specified pass
band ripple level

This table lists the elements values for normalized low-pass filter prototype having 0.5 dB. The values for
the prototype are given below

Element Values for Equal Ripple LPF Prototype with g0 = 1, wc = 1, N = 1-10 [1]

Step 3:
Next step is to design the prototype. There are two circuits. One is series circuit and other is parallel.
We have selected the parallel combination of circuit in which capacitor is placed in parallel. There were
three capacitors and two inductors. Thus the number of elements depends upon the order of the circuit.

Parallel Prototype beginning with Shunt Element

Step 4:
Next step is the impedance scaling and transforming. In the prototype design, the source and load
resistances are unity. A source resistance can R can be obtained by multiplying the impedances of the
prototype design by R. Then if we let the primes denote impedances scaled quantities, we have the new
filter component values given by:
. .

With the aforementioned steps we reach at a prototype circuit for the Low pass filter with cut off
frequency 2.8 GHz containing Lumped Elements.

R L L
R1 L6 L4
R=50 Ohm L=6.98 nH L=6.98 nH
R= R= R
V_AC R2
SRC1
R=50 Ohm
Vac=polar(1,0) V C C
C
Freq=freq C5 C6
C=3.88 pF C4 C=3.88 pF
C=5.77 pF

Redundant Filter Synthesis:


The Lumped Element circuit can be used to approximate the response of a low pass filter at low
frequencies but at high frequencies the distance between filter components is not negligible so we have
to use distributed elements for better approximation. The conversion from Lumped circuit elements to
distributed circuit elements is done through Richard’s transform. While the circuit can be simplified for
implementation through Kuroda Identities, these separate filter components through transmission lines.
As these extra elements do not affect the response of the filter this process is called redundant filter
synthesis.

Richard’s Transform:
Richard’s Transform is used to synthesize a LC circuit using Open & Short circuited transmission lines.

The input impedance of a short circuit transmission line of characteristic impedance Z0 is purely
reactive.

So an inductor can be replaced by a short circuited stub of length βl while a Capacitor can be
replaced by an open circuit stub of βl.
Richard’s Transformation [1]

The circuit will be transformed through a series of steps:

The four kuroda’s identities use redundant transmission lines sections to achieve a more practical
microwave filter implementation by performing any of following operations.

2
Four Kuroda Identities n = (1 + Z2/Z1)

Step 5:
Physically separate transmission lines stubs by adding the additional transmission lines sections called

unit elements and are at cutoff frequency. The unit elements thus commensurate with stubs used to
8
implement the inductors and capacitors of the prototype design. These elements do not affect the
filter’s performance since they are matched to source.
Adding Transmission Lines to both sides:

Term Term
L L
Term1 Term2
L1 L2
Num=1 Num=2
Z=50 Ohm L=1.2296 L=1.2296 Z=50 Ohm
R= R=

C C C
C1 C2 C3
C=1.7058 C=2.58 C=1.7058

Step 6:
The next step is to use Richard transformation to convert series inductors to series stubs and
shunt capacitors to shunt stubs Transform series stubs to shunt stubs according to the
characteristics impedances of a series stub is L, and shunt capacitor is 1/C. and all the stubs are

along. ω =ω It is usually more convenient to work with normalized quantities until the last
step in the design. The series stubs are very difficult to form so we have used one of the
kuroda’s identities to convert this to shunt stubs. We have applied kuroda’s identity to both the
ends of filter.

=1+ = 1.300

R L TLIN TLIN L R
Term Term
R1 L7 L10 R2
Term5 TL3 TL4 Term6
R=1 L=1.0 nH L=.630 R=1
Num=5 Z=1.59 Z=1.59 Num=6
R= R=
Z=1 E=90 E=90 Z=1
F=1 GHz F=1 GHz
C
C C
C7
C5 C6
C=2.08
C=2.54 C=2.08

=1+ = 2.58
R TLIN TLIN TLIN TLIN TLIN R
R3 TL9 TL6 TL5 TL7 TL8 R4
R=1 Z=1.59 Z=1.63 Z=1.59 Z=1.59 Z=1.63 R=1
E=90 E=90 E=90 E=90 E=90
F=1 GHz F=1 GHz F=1 GHz F=1 GHz F=1 GHz
C C C
C11 C10 C C C12
C8 C9
C=.388 C=2.08 C=.388
C=2.54 C=2.08

Multiplying by 50 and hence arriving at the final circuit:

Term TLIN TLIN TLIN TLIN TLIN Term


Term7 TL12 TL10 TL14 TL13 TL11 Term8
Num=7 Z=81.5 Z=79.5 Z=79.5 Z=1.59 Z=81.5 Num=8
Z=50 Ohm E=90 E=90 E=90 E=90 E=90 Z=50 Ohm
F=1 GHz F=1 GHz F=1 GHz F=1 GHz F=1 GHz
C C C
C14 C15 C C C13
C17 C16
C=129 C=24 C=129
C=19.6 C=24

Step 7:
The calculated amplitude response is plotted along with the response of the lumped elements
version. Note that the distributed element filter has a sharper cutoff. Also note that the
distributed elements response has a response that repeats after every doubles of cutoff
frequency.
Simulation:
The Response for the lumped element circuit is given below:

Lumped Element Circuit

The Response:
The Distributed Element Circuit (Unoptimized):

Response:
Response of the unoptimized Distributed Element Circuit (Unzoomed & Zoomed at pass band to show the 5 dB ripple)

Attenuation

Optimization:
Due to the fact that we didn’t get our required 25 dB attenuation @4.7 GHz so we used the
optimization function of ADS to optimize the attenuation. We set our goal & Number of
Iterations and then we simulate the results to observe the improvements.

But there is a trade off if we optimize attenuation cut off frequency will be affected and if we
optimize cut off frequency attenuation will not be our desired value. So when we optimized
attenuation of cut off frequency was affected.
Response (Optimized):

Hence attenuation was somewhat made closer to our desired value, but this was a desired
characteristic to have a filter that has high attenuation in stop band so our goal was somewhat
enhanced by this matter.
Results & Discussion:

Hence we have designed a Low pass filter using both Lumped and distributed elements of cut off
frequency 2.8 GHz. We did not get our Desired Attenuation. The reasons for these imperfections were:

1. When choosing the order of the filter we chose approximately 5 by looking at the graph there
wasn’t 100% precision in our selection. Because our order wasn’t exactly 5 so the choice for
prototype circuit elements wasn’t 100% accurate hence the deviations occurred because of that.
2. Lumped Elements are realized at low frequencies and provide sharper roll off.
3. Exact Goal cannot be achieved using optimization as there is a tradeoff between cut off
frequency and attenuation.
4. The Higher attenuation is mostly a desired characteristic of low pass filters in stop band.

References:
[1] Microwave Engineering David M. Pozar 3rd Edition

[2] Wikipedia.org