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One Side Exposed to Waves

Both Sides Exposed to Waves


Preliminary Geometry Evaluation of
Construction Techniques
Refined Geometry Selected Construction Technique

Evaluation of Materials

Redesign?

Preliminary Choice
of Armor Units
Evaluation of Preliminary Design

Functional Evaluation

Economic Evaluation

Environmental/Aesthetic
Evaluation

Modify Designs
Or Abandon Project Final Design
Geometric Design Aspects
Preliminary Design Phases • Crest elevation and width
• Concrete cap
1. Structure geometry • Armor layer thickness
2. Evaluate construction • Primary layer bottom elevation
technique • Toe berm
3. Evaluate design materials
• Structure head
• Lee-side armor
• Underlayers
• Bedding/filter layer
• Scour protection
• Crest Elevation
– Prevent excessive overtopping rates
• Depends on height of runup
– Excessive overtopping causes
• Lee-side choppiness
• Serious top-bank erosion (e.g. behind revetments)
• Excessive waves in navigation channels
Smooth Impermeable Slopes
Additional Factors

γr - Influence of surface roughness


γb - Influence of fronting berm
γh - Influence of shallow water
γβ - Influence of approaching wave angle
Impermeable Rock Slopes

Coefficients

Permeable Rock Slopes


Generally expressed in the form...
Typical CEM Table
(one of six)
Critical Average
Overtopping
Discharges
Crest width:

• Depends on overtopping
• Best evaluated with model studies
• Little guidance available
• Minimum is 3 armor stones wide
• Consider use of crest
• Vehicles
• Equipment
• Concrete Caps (Superstructures)
– Strengthens the crest
– Deflects overtopping away from leeward slope
– Increases crest height
– Provides roadway access for vehicles and equipment
Failure Related to Superstructures
• Concrete Caps (Superstructures)
– Requires cap & structure stability studies
– Economic evaluation of cap versus higher rock
structure
Armor layer thickness:

Riprap layer thickness:

(whichever is greatest)
Bottom Elevation of Primary Cover Layer:
Extend downslope to
elevation below SWL equal
to the design wave height
H when the structure is in a
Depth > 1.5 H.

Extend to the bottom if


Depth < 1.5 H.
Bottom Elevation of Primary Cover Layer:
To prevent underlayer
rock from being pulled
through the armor layer,

D15 (cover) < 5 D85 (under)


Failure Due to Toe Berm Erosion and Scour
Toe Berm for Cover Layer Stability

Minimum Height of Toe

Minimum Width of Toe


W
(where W in these equations
is 1/10 the size
of armor layer stone)
Failure Due to Overtopping and Toe Erosion
Failure Due to Other Toe Problems
Backside Slope Failure Due to Overtopping
• Lee-side Cover Layer
– Based on
• OVERTOPPING
• LEE-SIDE WAVES
• POROSITY
• HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
• Lee-side Cover Layer
– If minor overtopping present,
• Lee-side armor should be the same as seaward side
• Extending down to SWL or -0.5H (preliminary)
• Model tests recommended.

– If significant overtopping present,


• Extend to bottom
• Secondary Layer
One
• As Side
thick Exposed
or thicker to Waves
than primary
• Example:
• Primary: 2 stones thick
• Secondary:
• n = 2.5 (between –1.5 &–2H)
• n = 5 (below –2H)
•Interface slope as shown

Secondary Layer
• UNDERLAYERS
• FILTER LAYERS

One Side Exposed to Waves


• STRUCTURE HEADS
•At the head and up to15m to 45m on the leeward
side, the seaward side armor stone should be used.
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Movement of armor units


• Rocking
• Displacement from layer
• Sliding of layer
• Settlement of layer

Not armor unit breakage


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Parameter Stability Equation


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Sea State Variables Structure Variables


• Wave height • Armor layer slope
• Wave length • Freeboard
• Wave steepness • Armor density
• Wave angle • Armor gradation
• Wave Asymmetry • Armor weight
• Spectrum shape • Armor shape
• Water depth • Packing density
• Water density • Layer thickness
• Porosity of layers
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Classified by:
• Type of armor unit
• Water depth
• Superstructure
• Dynamic
• Crest elevation
• Non-overtopped Model Testing
• Low-crested • Based on small-scale physical models
• Submerged • Testing of designs is recommended
• Always test unusual designs
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Design Guidance for These Situations


Hudson’s Equation
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where
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with

Gradation Range:
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Toe berms…
• Support main armor layer
• Prevent damage by scour

Design guidance for:


• Sloping trunk and head
• Vertical trunk and head
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One Side Exposed to Waves


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Both Sides Exposed to Waves


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Geometric Design Aspects


Preliminary Design Phases • Crest elevation and width
• Concrete cap
1. Structure geometry • Armor layer thickness
2. Evaluate construction • Primary layer bottom elevation
technique • Toe berm
3. Evaluate design materials
• Structure head
• Lee-side armor
• Underlayers
• Bedding/filter layer
• Scour protection
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Crest width:

Armor layer thickness:

Riprap layer thickness:

(whichever is greatest)
SUMMARY: ARMOR-LAYER STABILITY
1. Hudson (1974) SPM (1984)
• Limited applicability
- ONLY permeable structures
- ONLY non-overtopping wave conditions
• Factors not considered
- Wave period, Tp
- Variable structure permeability, P
- Damage level, S
- Storm duration (number of waves), td
SUMMARY: ARMOR-LAYER STABILITY
2. CEM (2000)
• No limitations
- Includes wave overtopping and
submerged condtions
- Includes Tp, P, S and td factors
• Methods easy for EXCEL
• Includes partial safety factors for design

Use CEM (2000) methods to estimate armor-


layer stability.

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