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PGB2004: PEDAGOGY IN EDUCATION

Course Leader: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bustam Kamri

Topic: 1

The power of experience in your learning and your students’


learning.

We learn from experience.


We learn from experience that comes across in everyday life. The experiences
from formal and informal provide us to learn.
Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors,
including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. It is the product
of experience and the goal of education. Learning ranges from simple forms of
learning such as habituation and classical conditioning seen in many animal
species, to more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent
animals.

For small children, learning is as natural as breathing. In fact, there is evidence


for behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as
early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is
sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on
in development.[3]

Learning has also been mathematically described as a differential equation of


knowledge with respect to time, or the change in knowledge in time due to a
number of interacting factors (constants and variables) such as initial knowledge,
motivation, intelligence, knowledge anchorage or resistance, etc.[4][5] Thus,
learning does not occur if there is no change in the amount of knowledge even
for a long time, and learning is negative if the amount of knowledge is decreasing
in time. Inspection of the solution to the differential equation also shows the
sigmoid and logarithmic decay learning curves, as well as the knowledge
carrying capacity for a given learner.

Pedagogy is also sometimes referred to as the correct use of teaching strategies


(see instructional theory). For example, Paulo Freire referred to his method of
teaching adults as "critical pedagogy". In correlation with those teaching
strategies the instructor's own philosophical beliefs of teaching are harbored and
governed by the pupil's background knowledge and experiences, personal

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situations, and environment, as well as learning goals set by the student and
teacher. One example would be the Socratic schools of thought.

Experiential Learning, David Kolb describes learning as a four-step process. He


identifies the steps as (1) watching and (2) thinking (mind), (3) feeling (emotion),
and (4) doing (muscle). He draws primarily on the works of Dewey (who
emphasized the need for learning to be grounded in experience), Lewin (who
stressed the importance of a people being active in learning), and Jean Piaget
(who described intelligence as the result of the interaction of the person and the
environment).

Formal learning:
• Teacher provides the student with experiences:
- subjects
- activities
• The school environments
- school co-curricular
- tools and infrastructures

Formal learning is planned learning that derives from activities within a structured
learning setting

Formal learning is learning that takes place within a teacher-student relationship,


such as in a school system.

Formal Learning typically provided by education or training institutions. It is


structured in terms of learning objectives, duration, content, method and
assessment and leads to certification.

Formal learning is usually defined as instructional content in the form of


courses, lessons, workshops, etc, whether for education, training of continuous
professional development purposes. Examples of formal learning might be:

• A university programme that consists of a series of lectures, workshops as


well as seminars or tutorials
• A classroom-based corporate training workshop that offers group or
individual activities
• An online course that presents a topic and includes interactive elements
as well as tests and online discussions

Informal learning:
• Parents

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• Peers
• Society

Informal learning is unorganized and not formally defined learning at home,


work, and throughout society. For many learners this includes speech
acquisition, cultural norms and manners. Informal learning for young people may
happen during out of school time, as well as in youth programs and at community
centers.

Informal learning can be characterized as follows:

• It does not take place in special educational establishments standing out


from normal life and professional practice;
• It has no curriculum and is not professionally organized but rather
originates accidentally, sporadically, in association with certain occasions,
from changing practical requirements;
• It is not planned pedagogically conscious, systematically according to
subjects, test and qualification-oriented, but rather unconsciously incidental,
holistically problem-related, and related to situation management and fitness
for life;
• It is not unrealistic stockpile-learning, but is experienced directly in its
"natural" function as a tool for living and survival.

We learn by doing
The knowledge that students learned effectively by doing. Teacher provides
students with;
• Exercises and practice
• Drill

We learn by trial and error


The tasks provide by teacher as a process of learning. There is number of error
in the process of learning. Those situations of learning the consequence behavior
change through;
• Effect
• Reward
• Punishment

What is the effective teaching?

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Research on student’s academic success and intellectual development has
demonstrated the effectiveness of mode of instructions that emphasize active
learning and collaborative activities and engage students in intellectual discovery.
According to this view, the instructions that emphasize active learning and
collaborative activities are engaged students in intellectual discovery.

According to this view, the instructor’s task is to interact with students in ways
that enable them to acquire new information, practice new skills, and reconfigure
and expand on what they already know. One implication is that there is no one
best instructional method – what constitutes effective teaching depends on the
students, the context, the topic and the discipline. Nonetheless, from the studies
and reports on good teaching and research on student achievement and
academic success, it is possible to identify four clusters of instructional skills,
strategies, and attitudes that promote students’ academic achievement.
1. Organizing and explaining material in ways appropriate to students’
abilities.
• Teachers understanding of the material.
• Teachers understanding of the student background.
• Teachers can select appropriate teaching methods and materials.

2. Creating an environment for learning.


• Teachers are established and maintain rapport with students.
• Teachers are attentive and responsive to students’ needs
• Teachers are giving appropriate feedback on students’ work.
• Teachers are respect diverse talents and ways of learning.
• Teachers instructional methods emphasize cooperation, and
collaboration.

3. Helping students become autonomous self-regulated learners.


• Teacher is communicating their goals and expectation to students.

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• Teacher always believes students can learn.
• Teacher is directing students in establishing and developing their
own connections to the course content.
• Teacher viewing the learning process as a joint venture
• Teachers stimulate students’ intellectual interests and enthusiasm.

4. Reflecting on and evaluating their teaching.


• Teachers take time to critically examine why they are doing what
they do and the effects of what they do on their students.
• Teachers can imagine ways to improve their teaching and help their
students resolve whatever problems they may be encountering.

Cangelosi, J. S. (2004). Classroom Management Strategies 5th ed. NJ:John


Wiley & Sons.

Cruickshank, D. R., Jenkins, D. B. & Metcalf, K. K. (2006). The Act of Teaching


4th ed. NY: Mc-Graw-Hill.

Fielstein, L. & Phelps, P. (2001). Introduction to Teaching: Rewards and


Realities. CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.

Kauchak, D & Eggen, P. (2008). Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a


Professional, 3rd ed. NJ: Pearson Education.

Activities
1. What is your experience in learning based on the three types of
learning characters?
2. Explain how if you as a teacher are applying the learning
characteristic in teaching?
3. Explain how to become an effective teacher?