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Introduction to HRM/HR Planning • Overstaffing is wasteful and • To identify potential, i.e.

Contrasting HRM and Personal Management expensive, if sustained, and it is costly to recognize existing talent and to use that to fill
HRM eliminate because of modern legislation in vacancies higher in the organization or to
1. INPUT INTO respect of redundancy payments, consultation, transfer individuals into jobs where better use
CORPORATE minimum periods of notice, etc. Very can be made of their abilities or developing
PLANING importantly, overstaffing reduces the skills.
INTEGRETED competitive efficiency of the business. • To provide an equitable method of
First it is argued that workforce management Future staffing needs will develop from: linking payment to performance where there are
considerations are fully INTEGRETED with • Sales and production forecasts no numerical criteria (often this salary
strategic decision making in the HRM model, • The effects of technological performance review takes place about three
while in change on task needs months later and is kept quite separate from 1.
ISSUE SPECIFIC • Variations in the efficiency, and 2. but is based on the same assessment).
TPM traditional personnel model the" productivity, flexibility of labor as a result of Function 5:Industrial relations
Personnel” input is less obvious and is only training, work study, organizational change, new Good industrial relations, while a recognizable
noticeable when it comes to issue – specific. motivations, etc. and legitimate objective for an organization, are
2.TIME AND • Changes in employment practices difficult to define since a good system of
PLANING (e.g. use of subcontractors or agency staffs, industrial relations involves complex
PROSPECTIVE hiving-off tasks, buying in, substitution, etc.) relationships between:
LONGTERM PROACTIVE • Variations, which respond to new (a) Workers (and their informal and formal
STRATEGIC legislation, e.g. payroll taxes or their abolition, groups, i. e. trade union, organizations and their
A second contrast is that HRM is seen as new health and safety requirements representatives);
essentiality proactive and long term, while • Changes in Government policies (b) Employers (and their managers and formal
SHORT TERM REACTIVE (investment incentives, regional or trade grants, organizations like trade and professional
MARGINAL etc associations);
traditional personal management is more Function 2: Recruitment and selection of (c) The government and legislation and
reactive and adopts short term perspective. employees government agencies l and 'independent'
3.PSYCHOLOGICAL Recruitment of staff should be preceded by: agencies like the Advisory Conciliation and
CONTRACT An analysis of the job to be done (i.e. an Arbitration Service.
COMITMENT analytical study of the tasks to be performed to Function 7: Employee education, training and
In Terms of desire mode Psychological contract, determine their essential factors) written into a development
HRM is seen as facilitating employee job description so that the selectors know what In general, education is 'mind preparation' and is
commitment. physical and mental characteristics applicants carried out remote from the actual work area,
COMPLIANCE must possess, what qualities and attitudes are training is the systematic development of the
While Traditional personnel management desirable and what characteristics are a decided attitude, knowledge, skill pattern required by a
model is more in terms of managerial control disadvantage; person to perform a given task or job adequately
over employees. • In the case of replacement staff a and development is 'the growth of the individual
4.EMPLOYEE critical questioning of the need to recruit at all in terms of ability, understanding and
RELATIONS (replacement should rarely be an automatic awareness'.
UNITARIST INDIVIDUAL process). Within an organization all three are necessary in
HIGH TRUST • Effectively, selection is 'buying' an order to:
In regard to employee relations HRM is viewed employee (the price being the wage or salary • Develop workers to undertake
as essentially in perspective seeing no conflict multiplied by probable years of service) hence higher-grade tasks;
between employees and employers trying to bad buys can be very expensive. For that reason • Provide the conventional training
improve a communication and trust between some firms (and some firms for particular jobs) of new and young workers (e.g. as apprentices,
employees and employers on daily basis. use external expert consultants for recruitment clerks, etc.);
PLURALIST COLLECTIVE LOW TRUST and selection. • Raise efficiency and standards of
In contrast “Traditional Personnel management • Equally some small organizations performance;
is grounded in pluralist traditions (controlling no exist to 'head hunt', i.e. to attract staff with high • Meet legislative requirements (e.g.
unions) involving acceptance that conflict of reputations from existing employers to the health and safety);
interest exists between employers and workers a recruiting employer. However, the 'cost' of poor • Inform people (induction training,
related factors or is that HRM is seen as selection is such that, even for the mundane day- pre-retirement courses, etc.);
focusing on relations between (line) to-day jobs, those who recruit and select should From time to time meet special needs arising
management and the individual worker while be well trained to judge the suitability of from technical, legislative, and knowledge need
traditional model is seen as operating primarily applicants. changes. Meeting these needs is achieved via the
through collectivist relations between Function 3: Employee motivation 'training loop’.
management and employee representatives To retain good staff and to encourage them to Describe the four main stages of the planning
normally trade unions. give of their best while at work requires process.
7.AIMS attention to the financial and psychological and a) Human Resource Planning
GOALs even physiological rewards offered by the Definition
MAXIMAISE HR UTILISATION organization as a continuous exercise.
The final perceived differences is that HRM is Basic financial rewards and conditions of •Meaning – Assessment of Human Resource
seen as essentiality focused on maximizing the service (e.g. working hours per week) are requirements and time and stages of
HR contribution to overall company determined externally (by national bargaining or requirement.
effectiveness government minimum wage legislation) in many •Right person ---At Right place ---At Right time.
MAXIMAISECOST- EFFECTIVNES occupations but as much as 50 per cent of the •Definition – HRP is defined as the process by
while personnel management focuses on the gross pay of manual workers is often the result which management determines how an
more limited goal of improving cost of local negotiations and details (e.g. which organization should move from its current
effectiveness. particular hours shall be worked) of conditions manpower position to its desired manpower
---------------------------------------------------------- of service are often more important than the position.
Despite all the arguing and listing the basics. Hence there is scope for financial and •HRP is also called manpower planning,
differences between HRM and personal other motivations to be used at local levels. personnel planning or employment planning.
management the true is that HRM is not As staffing needs will vary with the productivity
necessarily better then personal management of the workforce (and the industrial peace Objectives of HRP
its more likely either HRM or PM achieved) so good personnel policies are
approaches may be more suitable for desirable. The latter can depend upon other •To ensure maximum use of existing HR
particular organization context. factors (like environment, welfare, employee •To forecast future requirement for HR.
----------------------------------------------------- benefits, etc.) but unless the wage packet is •To provide control measures to ensure that
Functions of a Human Resource department accepted as 'fair and just' there will be no necessary HR are available as and when
in a modern organization. motivation. required.
HRM is an aspect of organizational management Function 4: Employee evaluation: •To asses the surplus and shortage of HR.
concerned with the management of an An organization needs constantly to take stock (Downsizing).
organization's workforce. of its workforce and to assess its performance in •To anticipate the impact of technology on jobs
It is one of the most difficult aspects of existing jobs for three reasons: and HR.
organizational management as it means dealing • To improve organizational •To determine the level of Recruitment and
with people who differ physically and performance via improving the performance of Training.
psychologically individual contributors (should be an automatic •To estimate the cost of HR and Housing needs
There are seven main functions of HRM . process in the case of good managers, but (about of employees.
Function 1: Manpower planning annually) two key questions should be posed: •To meet the needs of expansion and
The penalties for not being correctly staffed are • what has been done to improve the diversification programmers.
costly. performance of a person last year? •Creates a bridge mechanism that allows
• Understaffing loses the business and what can be done to improve his or her corporate plans to be translated into actionable
economies of scale and specialization, orders, performance in the year to come?). HR requirements
customers and profits.
•Involves forecasting HR needs (number of •Creation of an organisational age profile interview. Thus we may say that the aim of the
people & KSAs – Knowledge , skills, Abilities.) facilitates: interview is three fold:
for the organization & developing appropriate –Identification of imminent retirement patterns • To assess the candidates appropriateness for
plans to achieve those needs –Planning recruitment policies the position
•Should be linked to other organizational –Identifying career & succession paths • To give information to the candidate
functions e.g. strategic & operational, economic Planning • To present the company in a good light to the
& market forecasting & investment planning •On foot of forecasting, the organization can applicant
Arguments in favor of HR Planning estimate if it is faced with labour shortage or The Selection Interview
–Facilitating the reduction of HR costs surplus –Can be an accurate means of selection
–Basis for planning employee development •Labour Shortage: can plan for recruitment or –Structured interviews are more valid than
–Improving overall business planning process retraining as appropriate unstructured ones
–Providing equal opportunities for all categories •Labour Surplus: can plan for redundancies, –More accurate if based on detailed job analysis
of employees redeployment, retraining, lay-offs techniques
–Promoting greater awareness of the importance •Implications for employee relations, structuring –Appropriate & fairly reliable method for
of having well-integrated HR management of work, reward package offered, etc. assessing job-relevant social skills
policies & activities Implementation –Interviewer accuracy varies & recruitment
Human Resource Planning Process •Once HR plans are complete, the organisation decisions should always be validated
Stocktaking implements its decision & the cycle begins again Errors & Biases in Selection
•First stage involves the identification of a range •HR plans need to be regularly monitored & • Expectancy effect
of variables that impact upon organizational reviewed • Information-seeking bias
operations three factors that may impact on your planning • Primacy effect
•2 particular categories of influencers process and over which you are likely to have • Stereotyping
– The external environment little control. • Horns/halo effect
– The internal environment Factors affecting HR PLANING process • Contrast and quota effects
•Involves developing an accurate HR profile, job •Environment - : Questions are asked for a specific purpose and
analysis, skills audit & inventory, & a •Economic factors the questions you are asked will give you an
performance review •Technological Changes indication and an insight into the company itself.
Forecasting •Demographic changes Let's look at the types of questions common to
•Involves forecasting both the supply of labor •Political and legislative issues all interviews.
and demand for labor •Social concerns Types of interview questions
•Most difficult aspect of HR planning Major demographic changes are likely to affect 1. Open questions
•Demand forecasting can be improved by organizations in the near future? How are these These are questions to which it is impossible to
knowledge of: changes likely to affect organizations? How can give a 'yes' or 'no' answer. Candidates will often
–Changes in requirements for management HR planning help organizations successfully not only reply with the facts and issues but also
–New subsets of the organization that may be deal with these changes? with their feelings and attitudes. Thus, the
required or no longer required in the future Changes in social values and in the demographic interviewer can form a picture about the person
–Changes in the number of particular types of composition of the population can affect the sitting in front of him/her and can either explore
jobs type and availability of labour. This, in turn, can certain topics further or ask them to expand on
–KSAs ( knowledge skills abilities)& have an impact on an organization's their feelings. The only disadvantage about these
experiences required for types of jobs Factors Affecting HRP questions is that you could say too much or you
–Requirements for joint ventures & 1.The type of organization determines the could start to dominate the interview.
collaborative mgt production process, type of staff, (supervisor and Examples of open questions are given below.
Changes needed in career structures manager). And the strategy plan of the What
human resource manager needs to be able to organization defines its HR needs. What are your duties?
forecast the organisation’s future HR 2.Organizational growth cycle and planning – Why
requirements and start up, growth, maturity, decline Why was that a problem for you?
determine from where they will be obtained. 3.Environmental uncertainty – political, social When
Three sets of forecasts are required: and economical change affect all organizations. When did that happen?
•a forecast of the demand for human resources 4.Outsourcing – the process by which Where
•a forecast of the supply of external human employees transfer routine or peripheral work to Where do you expect your next move to be?
resources the another organizations. Similar open questions might start with
•a forecast of the supply of human resources 5.Nature of job – job vacancies, promotions and openings such as:
available within the organization expansion strategies. Please explain why that was important to you.
These forecasts are an attempt to predict 6.Type and quality of forecasting information - Some useful open-ended questions are given
changes in the organization's needs for human organizational structure, budgets, production. below.
resources. Sophisticated techniques have been 7.Time horizons – long term plans and short What prompted this decision?
developed, but HR forecasting is not an exact term plans, the greater the uncertainty the How much notice do you have to give your
science and organizations use extremely varied shorter the plan. current employer?
forecasting techniques. •Organizational objectives and policies-: What activities are you involved in just now?
Two approaches to HR planning can be •HR plans need to be based on organizational How would you respond if you were offered the
identified objectives. job?
Quantitative forecasting includes trend Looking back, what would you have done
•Specifics requirements in terms of numbers and
projection, econometric modeling and multiple differently?
predictive techniques. Such techniques require characteristics of employees must be derived What do you think the reason was for your
specialized know-how, so the HR manager may from organizational objectives. dismissal?
have to rely on staff experts or outside • HR need or demand forecast-: 2. Closed questions
consultants. •The process of estimating the future quantity At the other extreme are closed questions, which
Qualitative approach to HR planning uses expert and quality of people required. usually only produce a 'yes' or a 'no' answer.
opinion (usually a line manager) to predict the •The basis of forecast will be annual budget and These are useful for checking pure facts and
future (for example, the marketing manager will eliciting a direct response. They can also be used
long term corporate plans.
be asked to estimate the future personnel to stop the interviewee doing all the talking, or
requirements for the marketing department). •Demand forecasting must consider several they can be used to limit the relevant parts of the
Labor Turnover factors like interview.
•The survival curve – 3 distinct phases •Internal (Budget constraints, employee Examples of closed questions are given below.
–The Induction crisis (time wastage/turnover is separations, production level etc.) I see you worked for ...
very high) •External (Competition, laws, change in I see you have ...
–The differential transit (likelihood of employee technology). Do you like ...?
suddenly leaving is reduced as they settle in) 3. Probing questions
In response to these types of changes
–Settled Connection (employees tend to be Probing questions are the interviewer's most
organizations might choose to introduce
viewed as “quasi-permanent”& perceived sophisticated and useful tool. They are used to
different work practices such as flexible work
greater incentive to stay with the organization) clarify, to justify or to reveal strengths or
hours, job sharing, outsourcing, increased use of
Absenteeism weaknesses - areas that the interviewee may
part-time and casual workers, tele-working,
•Function of 2 variables: wish to hide. The questions tend to be quite
working from home. All of which will have an
–Ability to attend (concerned with illness or specific and predictable, and they are normally
impact on a range of HR practices.
incapacity…usually involuntary absence) used when the interviewee is being over-
Recruitment & Selection
–Motivation to attend (linked with the talkative or when the conversation is drifting a
What is a selection interview?
employee’s feelings about the organisation & bit.
It is a situation in which a personnel selector,
job itself & whether the employee feels pressure E.g. of probing questions are given below.
through personal contact provides himself with
to attend) What is your reason for saying that?
behavior to observe - in order to assess the
Correlation between absenteeism & labour Why does that concern you?
candidate's suitability for a position.
turnover Who else affected your decision?
It is important to remember, however, that there
Age Profile How did you resolve the situation?
are two additional objectives of the selection
How did you react to ...?
4. Hypothetical questions often subject to number of underlining biases most popular method for assessing candidates
Interviewers often ask the 'What if?' question. It and errors that adversely affect the selection for jobs. If it was abolished there would be
may be because this is an actual situation which decision. While it is untrue to suggest that all chaos: employers want the opportunity to meet
you will have to face in the job, or it could be interviews are biased or error-prone, based on potential recruits prior to making selection
asked just to test your ability to think on your existing research have classified some of the decisions and candidates expect to be
feet. Answer the question as best you can and be more common errors and biases, a number of interviewed, feeling cheated if they are not.
able to back up your answer. which are consider below. Hence it looks like the interview is here to stay,
|E.g.. •Expectancy effect – interviewers can form how can it be improved?
What would you do if you were short-staffed? either a positive or negative impression of Before the interview
What would you do if you had to deal with an candidate based on biographical information Analyzing the job - In order to conduct an
angry customer? from the application form /CV and this tends to interview effectively it is imperative to establish
What would you do if two important people have a bearing on all subsequent decision( often what the job involves and the specific skills and
demanded your attention at the same time? termed gut instinct or snap decision) attributes needed to perform successfully in the
5. Leading questions •Information-seeking bias( prejudge role. (Interviewers working from a good job
On the whole these questions suggest the answer information) – based on their initial expectations description are more likely to focus on key areas
to give. Interviewers may wish you to disagree , interviewers can actively seek information that and pay less attention to irrelevant information.)
with the suggestion in order to hear your point will confirm this initial expectation Structuring the interview - The more structured
of view, or the interviewer may be advising you the interview the better. Following a structure is
of the company's rules and expectations. You •Primacy effect – interviewers may form probably the single technique which is most
can either agree or disagree depending upon impression about candidates personality within likely to help in improving the reliability of a
7. Summarizing questions the first five minutes of meeting him/her and selection exercise. Adherence to a structure
These are used by the interviewer to clarify and tend to be more influenced by what is said early helps to ensure that for each candidate broadly
confirm what you have said. in the interview the same areas are covered. With a structure, the
So what you are saying is ... •Stereotyping – can often be ascribed to interviewer can more easily monitor the progress
I understand that what you have said is ... These particular groups of individuals may be based on of the interview, ensuring that the discussion
are often used in technical professions, but gender, race, family circumstances etc. and remains job-related. Moreover, adherence to a
remember the summarising question is a tool decision based on stereotypes may be breach of structure exposes gaps in the evidence collected,
that you too can use if you feel that a question the current Equality Legislation which might otherwise be overlooked.
needs further clarification. •Horns/halo effect – based on information Planning the interview - Careful consideration of
8. Reflecting what has been said received an interviewer may rate a candidate pre-interview information, application forms or
The interviewer may reflect back what has been either universally favorable or universally CV’s is critical in identifying relevant areas to
said in order to encourage less confident or more unfavorably. Furthermore, negative information explore further. Some standard questions for all
reticent interviewees to expand further. tends to be more influential than positive candidates can be prepared in advance where
What is a selection interview? information, and thus, even where there is a this is appropriate.
The selection interview takes many forms; it can balance between positive and negative Training the interviewer - Trained interviewers
be information, the overall impression will tend to will not only be more likely to demonstrate the
One to one be negative. appropriate skills of effective interviewing, but
Video conference interview •Contrast and quota effects – interviewer they will also be more aware of the potential
Situational interview- a structured series of decision can be naturally effected by decisions pitfalls of interviewing as a selection technique.
predetermined, hypothetical, job-related candidates have been selected for interview, Maintaining a healthy skepticism and an
questions Evaluated against a set of example those who are interviewed later are invariably alertness to the possibility of bias and
answers compared with those who went before stereotyping serves as an excellent defence
Biographical interview- this is the traditional them( rather than being assesses specifically against the subjectivity and personal
approach which either moves forward through a against pre- determined criteria) preferences, which can so easily undermine the
candidate’s education and career or backwards There has been a considerable amount of quality of evidence collected.
from the present or most recent job. The latter is research undertaken into the selection interview. Overcoming the problem
often preferred for more experienced candidates. Much of the early research was concerned with During the interview
The biographical interview is logical and easy to the overall outcome of the interview in terms of Obtaining evidence - The interview should be
conduct but it may not produce the information its reliability and validity. More recent research planned and conducted to collect relevant
required as effectively as a referenced or has focused on specific aspects of selection information about the candidates, in order to
structured approach. interviews such as non-verbal behaviour of the make an assessment against the selection
Selection boards (interviewing panel) interviewer and interviewee, and the influence criteria.
Telephone interview of personal perception on decision making in the Effective interviewing skills such as questioning
Competency Based Interview a also known as interview. techniques, developing rapport, controlling and
behaviorally based interview - A structured The following sections in this guide explore the summarising also contribute to ensuring that
series of questions aimed at eliciting behavioral reliability and validity of selection interviews sufficient and appropriate information is
information against specific job-related and outline factors which influence decision- collected.
competencies making Before, during and after the interview. Taking notes - It is difficult for an interviewer to
It is important to remember, however, that there Reliability remember accurately everything that an
are two additional objectives of the selection Reliability refers to the consistency of interviewee has said during the course of an
interview. Thus we may say that the aim of the judgments made by an interviewer if she/he interview. If the interviewer relies solely on his
interview is three fold: were to interview the candidate afresh on a or her memory, points will almost certainly be
• To assess the candidates appropriateness for second occasion or if someone else were to forgotten or distorted. In order to limit this risk,
the position interview the same candidate. In practice, note-taking during the interview is strongly
• To give information to the candidate greater emphasis is placed on inter-ratter recommended. This will enable interviewers to
• To present the company in a good light to the reliability; that is, the extent to which different check that they have elicited all the information
applicant interviewers make the same assessment of the they require against their predetermined
The Selection Interview candidate they have seen, either separately or interview plan, and to check their understanding
Interviews can be more accurate than many together at a panel interview. Studies usually with the interviewee. In addition, gaps in written
recruiters may believe if : show quite low levels of consistency between information are much more visible (and
Structured interviews are more valid than raters. Reasons for low inter-interviewer therefore difficult to ignore), than gaps in
unstructured ones. reliability could be that interviewers are not in information which is stored solely in the
–Interviews are more accurate if based upon fact basing their judgments on the same memory of the interviewer.
detailed job analysis techniques, where the information, or that they hold different An accurate record of the interview is useful
interview decision reached is based on the perceptions of the candidate requirements. Good evidence (of the objectiveness of decisions)
application of both job description and person job analysis, providing selection criteria and should a candidate challenge the selection
specification. interviewer training tend to increase reliability. process under Equal Opportunities Legislation at
–Appropriate & fairly reliable method for Many factors have been found to influence the an industrial tribunal.
assessing job-relevant social skills decisions made by interviewers. The basis for More than one interviewer? - In terms of
–Interviewer accuracy varies & recruitment many decisions, however, stems from factors perceived fairness, involving more than one
decisions should always be validated, that is outside the interview as well as those during it. interviewer, such as in a panel interview may,
interviewers should check their decisions against The following sections examine factors before, particularly in the eyes
subsequent job performance. during and after the interview which influence of the candidates, increase their confidence that
All well structured interview can provide very the resulting decision. the selection decision is not based on one face-
usefully information of the individuals job to-face encounter, which may be subject to
experience job knowledge, cognitive ability and Structured interview guides and note taking - interview bias.
social/behavioral skills that when combined can There is some evidence to suggest that Where no other selection techniques are
be used to determine person organization fit. interviewers who work to a structure and who involved this may be particularly important.
Errors & Biases in Selection takes notes during the interview have more However, facing more than one interviewer can
While the central question of whether accurate recall of applicants after the interview. be a rather intimidating experience for some
interviewers are born not made remains Considering all the potential problems candidates.
unanswered, there is considerable evidence to associated with selection interviews, it seems further interviews-An alternative to panel
suggest that the process of interviewing is all too rather surprising that the procedure remains the interviews is to conduct further interviews with
different interviewers, who may see the putting together a CV could in itself •The process of helping a new employee settles
candidates in a different light. In discussion after demonstrate a particular skill that might not be quickly into their job so that they soon become
the interview, the interviewers should be able to relevant to the job an efficient and productive employee.
compare evaluations and challenge each other’s Benefits of application forms •The process whereby people who are new to an
biases. application forms can provide a more accurate organization are assisted to integrate with the
After the interview basis for comparison of candidates and help by help of a carefully planned programmed
Recording the evidence - Note-taking during the asking candidates to provide appropriate and •May include, but not limited to a training event
interview should be supplemented by note- relevant information about their various skills •Starts before the person’s first day at work
taking after the interview. During the interview, Why use Induction activities?
it is of course not possible to fully cover all that using application forms rather than CVs can •Early days with new employer quite daunting -
is discussed, and therefore interviewers should be more appropriate for certain jobs sink or swim?
add to their notes immediately after the as with a CV, the applicant's style can give an •Require employees to learn about various
interview has finished Evaluating the findings insight to their suitability, for example their aspects of organisational life, to facilitate the
effectively – Clear descriptions of the selection presentation skills and writing style. However, development of useful employees
criteria, with Bench marks of either detailed be aware of the possibility of disability •Need to learn about the organisation’s values
behavioral description and/or numerical ratings, discrimination and culture
Therefore, organizations need to direct their •To help newcomers develop a commitment to
attention more closely to what they expect the applications provide information regarding their new employer
interview to achieve for them in the selection the applicant's experiences, capabilities, skills, Why use induction activities?
process. Other selection techniques may focus and qualifications (see ACAS website) •Need to avoid expensive mistakes
on assessing the candidate’s match with the Limitations of application forms •May need to minimise staff turnover- try to
skills and abilities required to do the job, but the •they can be used to extract too much maintain the staff we have cause more to retrain
interview can explore wider issues such as why information, which may not be relevant to the new staff training and cost of loosing new staff
the candidate wants this job in your job due to not effective induction.
organization. It also provides an opportunity for •applicants can be put off, due to: We have all started working at places that just
the candidate to meet people in the organization •application forms being too time-consuming expect us to "hit the ground running" and
and seek information from them to help in (one CV can be used to apply for many jobs); become productive extremely quickly. Many of
his/her decision making. thus, candidates find vacancies elsewhere more us will have worked at places that regard an
A professional, well conducted selection quickly induction as a waste of time, or think a quick
interview can have a significant impact on the •candidates do not like to fill in application tour of the building should be sufficient!
candidates’ perception of your organization and forms The benefits of induction training
whether they wish to work for you or even, in •application forms can be inadvertently The benefits of induction training are huge and
some circumstances, do business with you in the discriminatory as they require candidates to have include: increased retention of newly hire
future. well-developed literacy skills when that might employees, improved employee morale and
Reviewing selection interviewing not be relevant to the job. Also, candidates increased productivity. A properly crafted
Consideration of the following will help to whose first language is not English could induction plan will save you time and money in
ensure that your interviews are conducted struggle with completing application forms the long run that might have ended up being
effectively and that interviewers and candidates •experienced candidates may find the spent on covering absences and hiring
have confidence in them. application form inadequate, not allowing them replacements.
Do interviewers have? to express all their experience An induction is the first point of contact between
Up-to-date job descriptions, selection criteria •less experienced candidates could struggle you and your new employee, so why not spend
or competency frameworks available? completing an application form some time making sure you get it right?
•application forms can stifle creativity Ideally an induction should include:
A clear objective for their interview? Tips Make sure to create induction check list to
Whether a company uses CVs or application not omit anything.
Training in interviewing skills? forms as means of assessing its candidates, Prepare contract of the employment and explain
there are points to bear in mind in the slowly job duties.
Awareness of equal opportunities legislation? process: a) Introduction to important staff (not just a
quick hello but sufficient time to get acquainted
Adequate time to prepare: alone or with Only information relevant to the job (eg and identify their exact job role)
others? experience, knowledge, competencies) should be b) Tour of the building, pointing out fire exits,
asked for. bathrooms, meeting rooms, boardrooms, useful
An interview schedule which allows time to do not ask for information on CVs or offices such as IT support staff, administration
explore information thoroughly? application forms that could lead to staff etc. Don't forget to show them where to
Knowledge of other selection methods being discrimination by ethnicity, religion, gender find office stationery and the position of
used? (name or title), age, sexual orientation etc; photocopiers / faxes.
asking for marital status could suggest c) Health and safety training as necessary
Interview record forms for interview notes heterosexuality dependent on job role; may include items such
and final decisions? photographs of candidates should not be as manual handling and where to find the health
requested, unless relevant to the job (e.g. if the and safety notice board.
Feedback on the outcome of their decisions applicant is applying for a modelling job) d) How to complete day to day tasks and where
Comment on the reasons why an application Be aware of discrimination (eg asking for to find the necessary folders / files
form may be used in preference to a CV in years of experience in former employment or
the Recruitment Process. year of education, could be interpreted as The fourth task is the most important but often
There are different ways in which a company discrimination). Requiring such information the most likely to be overlooked. It should take
can sift through their applicants to determine if should be justifiable, for example if applicants place over a number of days dependent on the
they should go through to the next stage of the are working with children (Criminal Records availability of the staff carrying out the training.
recruitment process. The most common Bureau checks) Ideally each task should be explained, then the
approach is by requesting CVs from the Provide candidates with information trainee should be left for a short while to
applicants or to have a job-specific application regarding the application process and how it is practice. Following this, the trainer should then
form, which all applicants are required to related to the company's diversity policy. For return to check progress, check
complete example, how are religious requirements going misunderstandings and then start the next task.
Benefits of CVs to be accommodated? Induction Trainer Guidelines
CV provides a chance for the candidate to ensure the equal opportunities form and 1) Give the trainee your details to get hold of
promote and sell themselves in a creative and candidate's personal information are separated you by any method they choose - telephone,
unrestricted way, which is highly appropriate for and handled by those not involved in the email, face to face.
some fields where, for instance, creativity and selection process 2) Provide training materials, at least a quick
selling skills are essential it is advisable to acknowledge solicited and reference guide - ideally a full manual
a single CV can be used for many job preferably unsolicited applications explaining the task.
applications If application forms are used: 3) Call back regularly to check on progress. Just
Limitations of CVs they should be available in multiple formats because you haven't hear from them doesn't
although CVs allow for applicants to be e.g. electronic brochure, Braille, large print mean they are okay - they may just be the type
creative in promoting themselves, applicants are guidance regarding how to fill out the that doesn't like asking questions.
limited by the length of the CV application should be provided as well as 4) Ensure you ask your manager for sufficient
examples of how to address various parts of the time to carry out your role effectively - point out
applicants can include irrelevant and application form (eg person specification) you need to provide training materials and be
unnecessary information, which in turn makes it Be aware that the form could in itself suggest available to answer questions at short notice.
more difficult to assess all candidates on an personal preference by using gendered terms (eg
equal basis 'caring', 'frontline', 'competitive'). They could
also use other terminology which implies a Managing Performance
CVs can reveal group identities, for example cultural/age/class preference (eg 'energetic',
ethnicity age and so on, which can allow for 'like-minded' Managing Performance
discrimination Induction is : Employee Motivation/Job Design
Non-analytical Method •it relies on judgments which may be entirely – Physical requirements
The defining feature of non-analytical subjective and could be hard to justify – Responsibility
evaluation schemes is that whole jobs are •it is dependent on the identification of suitable – Working conditions
compared with each other without any attempt benchmarks which are properly graded and such • Each factor may then be broken
to break down and analyse jobs under their comparisons may only perpetuate existing down into sub-factors
various demands or components. These types of inequities Choosing a job evaluation scheme
job evaluation schemes are particularly prone to •it is not acceptable as a defence in equal value •Purpose ? Is it to meet equal pay legislation
sex discrimination because where whole jobs are cases requirements ?
being compared (rather than scores on Job classification is the process of slotting jobs •How many jobs to be evaluated ?
components of jobs) judgements made by the into grades by comparing the whole job with a •How complex is the pay structure?
evaluators can have little objective basis other scale in the form of a hierarchy of grade •What organisational factors should attract
than the traditional value of the job. definitions. It is based on an initial definition of monetary value?
Analytical Method the number and characteristics of the grades into • scheme intended for market comparison ?
Analytical evaluation schemes are schemes which jobs will be placed. The grade definitions •Advantage in using a computerised scheme?
where jobs are broken down into components may refer to such job characteristics as skill,
(known as factors) and scores for each decision making and responsibility. Job As well organizations and the Human Resource
component of the job are awarded with a final classification is the most used form of non- Management team need to carefully consider
total giving an overall rank order. analytical job evaluation because it is simple, which job evaluation approach to select before
Analytical job evaluation is a process for putting easily understood and at least, in contrast to embarking on the evaluative process.
a value on jobs and establishing a job whole-job ranking, it provides some standards Firstly, the organization needs to carefully
hierarchy through an objective system assessing for making judgements in the form of the grade consider if they are going to implement an
important elements of work definitions. But: existing commercial package, such as
Job evaluation is conducted to compare jobs in •it cannot cope with complex jobs which will • Cost
order to provide a basis for determining pay. not fit neatly into one grade • Effort
It may be part of a sophisticated pay system or it •the grade definitions tend to be so generalised • External comparison
may be an informal assessment to rank that they may not be much help in evaluating and more:
different positions in a small business in order to border-line cases • Hay Guide Chart Profile system – measures
decide how much to pay for a particular •it fails to deal with the problem of evaluating know-how, problem solving and accountability
job. The major difference between analytical job and grading jobs in dissimilar occupational or with each factor being scored on a two
evaluation and non-analytical job job families where the demands made on job dimensional matrix
evaluation is that the former measures jobs by holders are widely different • ‘What are the organisation’s objectives in
considering a range of factors with •rade definitions tend to be inflexible and introducing a job evaluation scheme? Will the
established yardsticks and the latter compares unresponsive to changes affecting roles and job expected benefits outweigh the time and costs
jobs as a whole based on some pre-set content involved?
criteria. In the context of equal pay, analytical •the grading system can perpetuate inappropriate • What is the size of the organization? As a
job evaluation is preferred as the hierarchies general rule the smaller the organization the
mechanism is more objective (despite the •it does not provide a defence in equal value easier it will be to implement a simple ranking
inherent subjectivity involved in making cases. system.
judgements). With non-analytical methods, TYPES OF ANALYTICAL JOB • Are the personnel and expertise available to
traditional views on jobs undertaken by men EVALUATION Methods develop an internal plan? How much can the
or women may affect the assessment when jobs Points Rating organization afford to spend on introducing and
are compared as a whole, sometimes This is the most commonly used method. The maintaining a plan?
resulting in undervaluation of female dominated key elements of each job, which are known as • What do similar organizations in the same
jobs. Well-defined criteria should be set 'factors', are identified by the organisation and industry do?
when using non-analytical methods. then broken down into components. Each factor • Is the selected job evaluation plan in harmony
Types of Non-Analytical Schemes is assessed separately and points allocated with the organization’s culture?’
There are 4 types of non-analytical job according to the level needed for the job. The Describe any two theories of motivation with
evaluation method more demanding the job, the higher the points which you are familiar.
Ranking is the process of comparing whole value. This scheme has the following Motivation is the set of forces that leads people
jobs with one another and arranging them in advantages: to behave in particular ways’
order of their perceived value to the •it provides a rationale why jobs are ranked People are motivated by many things in the
organisation. Job ranking is a simple process differently workplace. The most basic motivation is the
which reflects what people tend to do when •it may be entered as a defence to an equal value need for money. Many people find their work
comparing jobs, but: claim uninteresting or worse, but continue because
• there are no defined standards for •it will be seen generally as less subjective than they need the money. Receiving a raise or bonus
judging relative worth and there is therefore no non analytical techniques. can be a motivator, too.
rationale to defend the rank order - it is simply a However, it is time consuming to introduce and Additional motivations include co-workers with
matter of opinion can be complex and costly to undertake. In whom you have a good relationship, the general
• ranking is not acceptable as a addition it can be seen to be an inflexible form environment of the workplace, tasks that are
method of determining comparable worth in of job evaluation in times of rapid change and interesting or challenging, and recognition by
equal value cases can imply an arithmetical precision which is not co-workers or managers that you are
• it may be hard to justify slotting justified. contributing toward reaching a common goal
new jobs into the structure or to decide whether Factor Comparison A manager needs to motivate workers to behave
or not there is a case for moving a job up the Factor Comparison is similar to Points Rating in ways that are in the best interests of the
rank order, i.e. re-grading job evaluation scheme, being based on an organisation
Matching Comparisons assessment of factors, though no points are Maslow believed that:
This is also a relatively simple technique. Each allocated. Use of the Factor Comparison method •People have an innate desire to work their way
job is evaluated as a whole with each other job of job evaluation is not as widespread as the up the hierarchy
in turn, and points (0, 1 or 2) awarded according Points Rating systems, because the use of points •A need is not a motivator until those before it
to whether its overall importance is judged to be enables a large number of jobs to be ranked at are satisfied
less than, equal to, or more than the other jobs. one time. •A satisfied need is not a motivator
Points awarded for each job are then totalled and 'Tailor Made' or 'Off the peg' •Managers need to assess workers’ needs at each
a rank order produced. This method of job A prime consideration in deciding which level and then provide incentives that
evaluation has all the advantages of job ranking analytical job evaluation scheme to select lies in correspond to those needs
and is slightly more systematic. However, it is the choice of factors and weightings. The benefit
best limited to organisations with a maximum of of proprietary 'off the peg' evaluation schemes is Expectancy Theory (VIE)
30 jobs in a particular job population and, like that they normally have been well tried and Victor Vroom presented the Expectancy theory
job ranking; it does not involve any analysis of tested and there is therefore a saving in time. In in 1964 he proposed the idea that people are
jobs nor indicate the extent of difference addition, many schemes are linked to influence by expected results of their actions
between them. Paired comparisons is not mechanisms for checking salary levels. The Expectancy refers to the belief that effort will
acceptable as a method of determining benefit of 'tailor made' schemes is that the lead to performance
comparable worth in equal value cases factors and definitions more accurately reflect Do you believe that if you work hard enough
Internal Benchmarking or Job Matching the range of jobs to be evaluated and are arrived you will reach your sales target?
Job evaluation by internal benchmarking or job at through consensus; consequently they are Do you believe that if you study hard enough
matching simply means comparing the job under more likely to be acceptable to the workforce. you will be able to pass the exams?
review with any internal benchmark job which is The Hay Guide Chart-Profile Method is the Managers need to:
believed to be properly graded and paid and most widely used evaluation scheme. easy to •Understand what rewards employees value
slotting the job under consideration into the defend, equal value claim, •Ensure that employees trust that they will get a
same grade as the benchmark job. The 5 suggested factors would I consider promised reward if they perform well enough
comparison is usually made on a whole job basis choosing evaluation shame for Large •Ensure that employees see a link between their
without analyzing the jobs factor by factor. company effort and performance
Internal benchmarking is a simple and quick – Skill requirements •Ensure that targets are attainable
method of job evaluation, but: – Mental requirements
Herzberg's research proved that people will employees will overcome their problems and •Job enlargement makes one’s job bigger to
strive to achieve 'hygiene' needs because they return to an acceptable level of regular make jobs more varied & less repetitive
are unhappy without them, but once satisfied the attendance. •It refers to the combination of more than two
effect soon wears off - satisfaction is temporary. –Ability to attend (concerned with illness or tasks into one
Then as now, poorly managed organizations fail incapacity…usually involuntary absence) •Doesn’t deal with motivation issues
to understand that people are not 'motivated' by –Motivation to attend (linked with the •Job enlargement studies have ignored external
addressing 'hygiene' needs. People are only truly employee’s feelings about the organisation & variables & people’s differing attitudes to work
motivated by enabling them to reach for and job itself & whether the employee feels pressure Job enrichment
satisfy the factors that Herzberg identified as to attend) •Developed for the advancement of the dual-
real motivators, such as achievement, Correlation between absenteeism & labour factor theory of work motivation
advancement, development, etc., which turnover •Job enrichment adds something to the job to
represent a far deeper level of meaning and While some employees are absent for increase the employees’ psychological growth
fulfillment. unavoidable reasons, such as injury or sickness, •Suggests employees gain most satisfaction from
Examples of Herzberg's 'hygiene' needs (or many take time off when they could otherwise work itself
maintenance factors) in the workplace are: attend. Employees can do much to manage this •Vertical loading
 policy form of absenteeism •The Job Characteristics Model (Hackman &
 relationship with supervisor  Create an absence policy. These Oldham, 1980) is the basis of the expectancy
 work conditions are written guidelines ideally compiled with the theorists’ job enrichment strategy
 salary input of line managers, employee representatives Write a brief note explaining what is meant
 company car and possibly trade unions. Inform every by any two of the following approaches
 status employee about the need to comply with the (i) Quality of Working Life
 security policy by including it in the staff handbook or (ii) High Performance Work Systems
 relationship with subordinates their employment contract. The policy should (iii) Lean Production
 personal life include holiday entitlements, procedures for
Herzberg's research identified that true reporting absence and provision for sick pay. (i) Quality of Working Life - Focuses on the
motivators were other completely different Consider putting disciplinary measures in place overall quality of employees’ experiences in the
factors, notably: for frequent absentees. But be sure to act within workplace
 achievement the law and ethically. – Embraces job design
 recognition  Implement "return to work" – Embraces broader issues such as
 work itself interviews for employees who have been absent autonomy, participation, justice, working
 responsibility for a fixed number of days. This will provide a conditions, job security
 advancement platform for employers and employees to talk • Seeks to increase employees’
What are the motivation Factors? about the reasons for absence and uncover ways influence & involvement in work organisation &
HERZBERG'S MOTIVATION - HYGIENE to improve the situation. job design
THEORY  Reward excellent attendance. • Involves the change of role of
Frederick Herzberg studied He concluded that Some companies give bonuses to employees supervisor from controlling to advising &
there were two types of motivation: with 100 per cent attendance. Or you could let facilitating
Hygiene Factors that can demotivate if they are employees with great attendance leave work Quality of Working Life (QWL)
not present - such as supervision, interpersonal early one Friday of every month. Low QWL
relations, physical working conditions, and  Improve the physical working  Low levels of significance, variety,
salary. Hygiene Factors affect the level of environment. Nobody likes working in an old, identity & feedback
dissatisfaction, but are rarely quoted as creators smelly office or building that is too hot or too  Little involvement
of job satisfaction. cold. You might consider renovating the  Top-down communications
 Supervision environment so that it is bright, clean and  Inequitable rewards
 Working condition welcoming. Something as simple as buying an  Poor terms & conditions
 Interpersonal relationship employee a comfortable new chair might make  High WQL
 Pay and job security them feel valued. This will give them more  Fair rewards systems
 Company Polices incentive to attend. Consider updating old, slow  Good working conditions
Motivation Factors that will motivate if they are technology, which can be very frustrating for  Opportunities to use capabilities
present - such as achievement, advancement, employees.  Opportunities for personal growth
recognition and responsibility. Dissatisfaction  Improve your management's style. & development, Pride in work
isn't normally blamed on Motivation Factors, but Often absenteeism is due to stress caused by (ii) High Performance Work Systems
they are cited as the cause of job satisfaction. poor relations with management. Authoritarian • Motive behind HPWS is desire &
 Achievement bureaucratic management styles tend to foster need to improve overall competitive position of
 Recognition high levels of absenteeism. Employees under the organization
 The work it self these managers feel they are being ordered • Adopts a culture of continuous
 Responsibility around and that no one listens to them. Identify improvement and innovation
 Advancement & Growth the managers whose teams have high levels of • Main aim is to generate high levels
So, once you've satisfied the Hygiene factors, absenteeism. Send these managers for of commitment & involvement of employees &
providing more of them won't generate much management training or give them a job that managers
more motivation, but lack of the Motivation does not require people management. • Progressive HR systems to support
Factors won't of themselves demotivate. There Describe three main approaches that have • Involves new/different approaches
are clear relationships to Maslow here, but traditionally been used in the to management of employees & structure of jobs
Herzberg's ideas really shaped modern thinking area of job redesign and comment on the & systems
about reward and recognition in major potential limitations of adopting each • Organic and flexible structures
Absenteeism There are two types of  Task Specialization CHANGES
absenteeism, each of which requires a different  Job enlargement • bundles of work practices and
type of approach.  Job enrichment policies that are found more extensively in high
1. Innocent Absenteeism Task Specialisation performing organisations
Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who •Classical approach to job design (iii) Lean Production
are absent for reasons beyond their control; like •Reflects traditional approach to the organisation •Contemporary development associated with
sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not of work to maximise the efficiency of the HPWS
culpable which means that it is blameless. In a technical system •Rests on principle of eliminating anything that
labour relations context this means that it cannot •Scientific management or– does not add value to the end product
be remedied or treated by disciplinary measures. Bureaucratic work structure •Main characteristics of “Toyotism”:
2. Culpable Absenteeism – Top-down supervisory control –Teamwork with leader who undertakes
Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who – Task fragmentation assembly work & fills in for absent workers &
are absent without authorization for reasons – Clearly defined jobs does additional jobs e.g. simple machine
which are within their control. For instance, an – Payment-by-results maintenance, materials ordering, clean-up
employee who is on sick leave even though •Suggests employees must be coerced to work –Zero defect approach to production–Lean
he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the productively product development techniques reduce time &
employee was not sick, is guilty of culpable •Org. Advantages effort in manufacturing
absenteeism. To be culpable is to be – Improved efficiency– –Production in small batches
blameworthy. In a labour relations context this Promoted systematic approach to –Absence of vertical integration
means that progressive discipline can be applied. selection, training, work measurement & pay •Berggren (1990) suggests lean production
For the large majority of employees, systems simply represents another stage in the evolution
absenteeism is legitimate, innocent absenteeism •Org. Disadvantages of mass production
which occurs infrequently. Procedures for –Led to high turnover & absenteeism •Has many of the core characteristics of that
disciplinary action apply only to culpable – Low motivation system:
absenteeism. Many organizations take the view – Long-term reductions in –Pre-defined work processes
that through the process of individual absentee organization effectiveness –Short job cycles
counseling and treatment, the majority of Job enlargement –Repetitive tasks & intense supervision
–Intense demands on workers in areas such as Herzberg – too little money will demotivate • This provides an opportunity to view one’s
working time, flexibility, effort levels & but more money will not necessarily increase performance in the context of broader
attendance satisfaction or motivation organizational goals.
Reward Management – Role of money as a motivator – • To assess future promotion prospects and
Essential characteristics of an effective questionable after employee has joined potential
reward system by Lawlor (1977). organisation • To set objectives for the next period
• Reward level – Once basic needs are satisfied, 6. Job Standards
• Individuality more intrinsic factors become the prime This provides an opportunity for clearer
• Trust motivator articulation and definition of performance
• Internal Equity Herzberg's research proved that people will expectations.
• External Equity strive to achieve 'hygiene' needs because they 7. Documentation use of of Performance
Reward Level – The reward package must are unhappy without them, but once satisfied the appraisal
satisfying basic needs for surviwal, seciurity and effect soon wears off - satisfaction is temporary. • Documentation for HR decisions
self development. Then as now, poorly managed organisations fail • Helping to meet legal requirements
Trust –management and employees must to understand that people are not 'motivated' by •As much as possible, judgments and
believe in the reward system: employees addressing 'hygiene' needs. People are only truly discussions must be seen to be objective
accepting that certain rewards will be motivated by enabling them to reach for and •Performance appraisal is not for fault-finding
forthcoming when the relevant criteria are meet. satisfy the factors that Herzberg identified as but to find out how and why an employee
Individuality – a part from satisfying basic real motivators, such as achievement, performed and to help improve performance
needs the reward system must be flexible advancement, development, etc., which Why carry out a staff appraisal
enough to meet the varying individual needs of represent a far deeper level of meaning and •measure and judge performance
the organizations employees. fulfillment. •relate individual performance to organizational
• Internal Equity – Outline five factors that may influence pay goals
• Internal equity levels within an organization. •foster the increasing competence and growth of
– Rewards must be seen as fair when •Pay Equity: External & Internal a subordinate
compared to others in the organisation: •Competition e.g. •stimulate subordinate’s motivation •enhance
Criteria for the allocation of rewards should be –External comparisons – factors in business communication
equitable and clear these should be environment •serve as a device for organizational control and
communicated and accepted by all parties and •Economic climate integration
applied consistently throughout the organisation •Labour turnover •discover training needs
External Equity – External competitiveness •Labour market (labour unemployment •place staff in the right posts/positions
Package must be seen as fair when compared to recession no work) •Plan for manpower needs and succession.
those offered for comparable work outside the •Government policy ( legislation min wages) Functions of Performance Appraisal
organisation •Inflation rate National wage agreement •Performance evaluation and target setting
Outline five criteria that should be considered Managing and Appraising Performance •Establishment of work standards
when choosing a job evaluation scheme •Identification of skills gaps
•Purpose? Is it to meet equal pay legislation 1 Explain the purposes of Performance •Facilitation of communications and motivation
requirements? Appraisal. Performance of the employees has to be
•How many jobs to be evaluated? •Performance Appraisal is a systematic approach managed to enable the company to meet its
•How complex is the pay structure? to evaluating employee performance, goals and objectives
•What organisational factors should attract characteristics and/or potential, with a view to •Target setting and evaluation of employees
financial value? assisting decisions in a wide range of areas such performance is important in this regard.
•Is scheme intended for market comparison? as pay, promotion, employee development and •However, in setting performance target you
•Advantage in using a computerised scheme? motivation should:
Discuss the main purposes to be served by an Performance appraisal is a method used by set targets that are not too high or too low
effective reward system. management in ascertain that workers are Set specific ways to measure accomplishment
- Attract utilized in achieving corporate objectives Make sure that the employees have been trained,
- Maintain Purpose of performance appraisal coached and have supplies and equipment to
- Motivate 1. Career Development meet the targets
Objectives of Reward Package • This provides an opportunity for discussion of Give allowance for modifications
• It serve to Attract potential career objectives, and creation of a strategy Review and evaluate
employees: in conjunction with the designed to maximize career potential. •But ensure that you follow the target setting
organization's human resource plan and its • To provide an opportunity for career process already stated.
recruitment and selection efforts, the reward counseling •Lastly, carry out a staff appraisal based on the
package and its mix of pay incentives and • To help in succession planning. reasons already given.
benefits serves to attract suitable employees • To assess training needs Evaluate two methods of Performance
• It Assist in retaining good • To plan for career development Appraisal.
employees: unless the reward package is • To assess and develop individual abilities Performance appraisal methods
perceived as internally equitable and externally • To provide an objective basis on which to base 1. Critical incident method
competitive, good employees may potentially decisions about training and promotion The critical incidents for performance appraisal
leave. 2. Feedback is a method in which the manager writes down
• It should serve to Motivate • As well, feedback is encouraged in both positive and negative performance behavior of
employees: the reward package can assist in the directions: as such, employees are encouraged to employees throughout the performance period
quest for high performance by linking rewards prepare ratings of their supervisors. Strengths - Job related more objective
to performance i.e. having a incentive element • To provide constructive feedback to the Weaknesses – Needs good observational skills:
Contributes to human resources & strategic individual regarding how their performance is time-consuming
business plans: an organisation may want to seen. Rating method characteristics
create a rewarding and supportive climate, or • This provides a structured format for the Appraiser specifies on a scale to what degree
it may want to be an attractive place to work discussion of performance issues relevant characteristics (normally related to job
so that it can attract the best applicants. The • on a regular basis. related behavior or personality) are possessed by
reward package ca assist these plans and also • Feedback either reinforces performance appraise
further other organizational objectives such as strengths, or provides the opportunity to discuss Strength - Easy of comparison range in
rapid growth, survival or innovation resolution of performance deficiencies. complexity from very simple to very involved,
•Advance other organizational objectives e.g. 3. Administrative Uses of Performance appraisal using description of behavior or performance.
rapid growth, survival or innovation • Salary Weaknesses – Subjective: personality or
•Relevance for employees • Promotion behavioral traits difficult to measure.
–Provides means to satisfy basic needs • Retention/termination 3. Performance ranking method Ranking is a
–Allows them to satisfy less tangible desires • Recognition of performance performance appraisal method that is used to
pay acts as an effective motivator. • Layoffs evaluate employee performance from best to
Justify your opinion with reference to relevant • Identification of poor performers worst.
theory, where appropriate. 4. Performance History Manager will compare an employee to another
Pay as a motivator • This provides a performance history which is employee, rather than comparing each one to a
• 4 key issues not dependent upon human memory, and which standard measurement.
–Pay as an incentive will be influenced by may be useful in the full range of personnel Strength- Simple facilitates comparisons
existing pay scale & value placed on money decisions, including compensation decision- Weaknesses – Little basis for decisions degrees
–If money is valued, employees must believe making. of difference not specified: subjective
good performance will allow them to realize that • To review past and present performance, Self Assessment
reward identifying strengths and weaknesses. Appraises evaluate themselves using a particular
–Equity is important 5. Organizational Goals format or structure
–Employees must believe performance levels • To clarify, for the individual, organizational Strength- Participative, facilitate discussion
necessary to achieve reward are attainable expectations promotes self analysis
•Other issues
–May be a means for managerial manipulation
Weaknesses- Danger of lenient tendency: • Improved business profits It is true that a performance appraisal may
potential source of conflict between appraiser The bottom line of an organization improves identify problems with an employee’s
and appraise significantly by increasing employee performance. This should not be seen as a
Management By Objectives (MBO) method productivity and quality of work. negative thing nor should it be seen as a reason
MBO is a process in which managers / • Increased employee responsibility not to complete a performance appraisal.
employees set objectives for the employee, Communicating realistic but challenging job There should be very few things revealed during
periodically evaluate the performance, and expectations and making employees accountable the appraisal process that employees have not
reward according to the result. for their decisions and actions result in heard before. Things uncovered at the time of
MBO focuses attention on what must be noticeable improvements in employee tardiness, the appraisal should never be a surprise to the
accomplished (goals) rather than how it is to be absences, and organizational commitment. employee or to the employer. The performance
accomplished (methods) • Equitable treatment of employees management process itself should provide
Evaluate three methods of performance All employees are treated fairly by ongoing feedback throughout the year.
appraisal and comment on the types of job or implementing standardized procedures that Feedback and improvement opportunities exist
organisation they are most suitable for. promote consistency throughout an organization. at all times. These should be identified and
Different performance appraisal methods differ • Enhanced quality of work life utilized to ensure ongoing development and
in suitability and effectiveness. Adopt the right Employees experience greater job satisfaction improvement of employees.
methods for maximum results. because they become more successful. In It is important that issues with performance be
The methods stated here are some of the many addition, employee conflict is kept to a identified in a timely fashion. This allows for
methods used in employee performance minimum. both the employer and employee to determine
appraisal Effective performance management tools help what actions are required to address and mitigate
• Management by Objectives you get the job done right the problem. Lack of communication about
Management by Objectives (MBO) is one of the • Give employees what they need to organization expectations or misunderstandings
more popular performance appraisal methods be successful on the job. of the task assigned may be resulting in poor
among organizations. • Provide accurate performance performance. For this reason, continual
MBO requires you to establish the objectives of feedback to help employees succeed. feedback throughout the year helps identify and
the job. correct any behaviour not in line with the goals
The questions asked in performance appraisal is Performance Management and the Performance of the organization.
whether these objectives are achieved by Appraisal It is obvious that providing employees with a
employees and to what extent. Performance management is a critical clear understanding of what is expected of them
This method is suitable for assessing the component contributing to the success of an in the organization and how their actions are an
performance of managers on any level of the organization. It is a process that sets out to important factor contributing to the overall
organisation very suitable for Manufacturing establish a clear and common understanding of success. For this reason, the performance
supervisors ,line managers but also Retail an organization’s goals and how these goals will management process that utilizes performance
managers and financial institution like banks be achieved. The performance appraisal is a appraisals constructively will benefit all parties
credit unions etc. tool used by human resource (HR) departments involved.
Critical incident method allowing them to manage its employees. It is a Outline five characteristics of an effective
The critical incidents for performance appraisal mechanism that increases the likelihood of performance management
is a method in which the manager writes down achieving success. system.
positive and negative performance behavior of The performance appraisal should not be Characteristics of an Ideal Performance
employees throughout the performance period threatening or adversarial. It should not be seen Management System
Strengths - Job related more objective by employees as a mechanism for discipline. To Performance management is a vital part of
Weaknesses – Needs good observational skills: have an effective performance management ensuring efficiency and stability at the
time-consuming process, it is important this be clearly workplace
This is similar to essay appraisal method. It communicated to all employees prior to the Companies use performance management
requires the supervisor to keep a log on actual appraisal. Employees should view the systems to evaluate employees' efficiency at
employee’s performance. performance appraisal process as an opportunity work and ability to perform certain tasks, either
The assessor will submit an essay on the poor or to discuss and acknowledge their contributions by automated or human processes. These
outstanding performance of the employee. The to an organization and how these contributions systems come in many varieties, and every
problem is that he or she may come to one-sided have contributed to successes realized. It is an company will tailor its performance
conclusions. opportunity for individual employees to align management system to fit its specific needs.
The most suitable is a small to medium their goals closer to that of the organization and However, there are certain aspects common to
organizations like Hotels Staff convenience should be seen as an enabler of both career all effective performance management systems.
store or Retail chain where the manger have a advancement of the employee and success of the Characteristics of good Performance
chance to observe the employees performance organization. management system
the disadvantage is that the manager can be If used effectively in the performance • Tailor - made to fit the particular
prejudging and stereotyping employees when management process, the performance appraisal needs and circumstances of the organisation.
incident happen or poor performance are will empower employees. It will act as a • Matching with the existing culture
noticeable on one occasion. catalyst for success. People are motivated to insofar as they support the achievement of high
Self Assessment perform well when they believe the work they performance standards but will help to change or
Appraises evaluate themselves using a particular are performing is meaningful and worthwhile. reshape that culture if necessary.
format or structure Strength- Participative, Using performance appraisals to engage • Support the achievements of the
facilitate discussion promotes self analysis employees and establishing a direction for their organisation mission and the realisation of its
Weaknesses- Danger of lenient tendency: work in line with that of the organization values.
potential source of conflict between appraiser improves performance. • Define the critical success factors
and appraise Many organizations make the mistake which determine organisational and individual
This method is used in most big organization associating pay increases with their performance performance.
where is large number of staff and it safe time management process. Pay is not a motivator for • Provide an integrated approach to
for managers. My own experience in my work all employees. In fact, pay can be seen as a de- increasing motivation and commitment, which
for store assistant sales assistants with in a big motivator, especially if there is a perception pay combines the impact of the results - orientated
companies and organization like insurance levels are inequitable. In general, employees performance appraisal and PRP system with the
companies , retail, factories feel their contribution is as valuable to the action that management and individuals
9 Common Appraisal Errors organization as any ones. Conducting a managers can take, such as carrier development
• Contrast effect performance appraisal to evaluate worthiness for and succession planning programmes to develop
• First impression error pay increases will do nothing but contribute to attitudes and planning programmes to develop
• Halo/horns effect the stress of employees. If performance is the attitudes and behaviours which lead to better
• Similar-to-me-effect only mechanism to evaluate progress in an performance. relationship
• Central tendency organization, many employees will have a Describe the different approaches to the
• Negative and positive skew tendency to focus on what they perceive as appraisal interview. In your answer, outline
• Attribution bias being important, rather than what the the advantages and disadvantages of adopting
• Stereotyping organization has identified as being important. any of the three approaches.
Discuss the possible contributor to the Focusing on money during the appraisal process Appraisal Interview Styles
appraisal process. interferes with what the employees hear. Talks There are 3 main interviewing styles:
Managers of money lessen understanding of feedback •Tell-and-sell approach
Customers being given. –Directive and authoritative in nature, top-down
Suppliers The performance management process and the –Manager telling employee
Co workers performance appraisal should be kept simple. –Attempting to convince employee of the
Shareholders Avoid the many formalities traditionally fairness of the assessment
State holders e.g. students associated with performance appraisals. Focus –Little opportunity for the employee to
benefits of introducing a performance on being clear and concise. Identify objectives participate
management system within the company. that provide direction for the employee and –Little commitment to follow-up action
The benefits of using a structured approach for enables reaching attainable goals. This will –Not recommended as good HR practice
enhancing employee performance are as contribute to the success of the organization. •Tell-and-listen approach
–Similar to above but some attempt made to identify the organizational performance needs, –Reviewing & monitoring Industrial Relations
involve the employee gaps, and priorities Commissioners (IRQ) developments
–Manager communicates his/her evaluation of Stage 1 Assessing the need for training, –Prepare codes an practices & provide guidance
performance to employee & actively encourages Determine the type of training your staff needs on them
employee’s response and why. There are number of drivers of training –Advisory service
–Still ineffective •Customer satisfaction surveys –Appoints Rights Commissioners
•Problem-solving approach •Business performance statistics and reports, DESCRIBE FULLY EACH OF THE
–Appraisal process is jointly conducted by the financial reports, ratios PHASES INVOLVED IN THE
manager and the employee •Competitor analysis and comparison, e.g. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
–Manager asks the employee to discuss his/her SWOT NEGOTIATION PROCESS.
performance against agreed targets & to express •Management feedback on employee needs, Collective bargaining is a process of
any problems that may be affecting work including appraisals negotiations between employers and the
behaviour •Staff feedback on training needs representatives of a unit of employees aimed at
–Evaluation takes place at the end of the •Legislative purposes, qualification and reaching agreements which regulate working
interview & takes account of the employee’s certification. conditions. Collective agreements usually set out
contribution Stage 2 Planning the training wage scales, working hours, training, health and
–Most effective approach Here are things that every manager should do safety, overtime, grievance, mechanisms and
Ethical Dilemmas of the Appraisal Process before training. rights to participate in workplace or company
•Problematic use of trait-oriented and subjective •Set out goals that need to be achieved by the affairs. There ar 3levels of CB- national, sectoral
evaluation criteria training, do not set out unrealistic expectations or industry, company enterprise.
•Difficulties in the preparation and writing of •Develop a budget There are 3 phases in the negotiation process.
performance standards and measurement •Decide who will run the program Phase 1, PREPERATION
indicators • Give out people necessary information- be Great preparation is important to achieve great
•Deployment of different appraisal systems in open describe the training that your staff will success in employee relations negotiations. You
the same organisation undergo. Give them sufficient time to prepare. must be familiar with the details of the case and
•How results of appraisal will be used Stage 3. Carry out the Training have clear idea of the objectives (they should
•Who determines the “objective standards” Stage 4. Measure results. Without measurable include specific targets) before entering the
Learning, Training & Development results, it's almost impossible to view training as bargaining area. Flexible objectives are more
DESCRIBE, USING SUITABLE anything but an expense. Determine exactly how appropriate than rigid ones. A central issue in
EXAMPLES, FOUR STAGES OF you will assess and quantify the return on a agreeing negotiating objectives includes
TRAINING EVALUATION AS PROPOSED training investment establishing bargaining range, including the
BY KIRKPATRICK. (1959) EVALUATE 2METHODS OF TRAINING limits within each party. Its good idea to
Levels of Learning evaluation THAT CAN BE USED BY AN establish ideal settlement point, realistic
1. Reaction- seeks opinions of ORGANIZATION settlement point and fall back settlement point.
trainees , How do people feel? On-the-job training is delivered to employees Phase2 BARGAINING
2. Learning – seeks knowledge, while they perform their regular jobs. In this Opening Phase normally involves both parties
principles and facts learning by trainees before way, they do not lose time while they are articulating their respective positions. At this
training, What new things do people know? learning. After a plan is developed for what stage both parties normally attempt to find out
3. Behaviour – seeks to determine should be taught, employees should be informed more about each other’s positions and assess the
positive changes in behavior, how do people act of the details. A timetable should be established degree to which movement is possible.
differently? with periodic evaluations to inform employees Expectation Structuring
4. Results – seeks to determine about their progress. On-the-job techniques This is a stage where parties attempts the
contribution to organizational objectives, what is include orientations, job instruction training, convincing the other of the logic behind the
the effect on the business? apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, logic of their own position and the depth of it.
The model has 4 levels, each of which measures job rotation and coaching. And tries to convince to accept whatever is
different kind of feedback. Kirkpatrick claimed Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special offered.
that in order to properly evaluate the study, films, television conferences or The offers, concession, movement
effectiveness of training all four levels should be discussions, case studies, role playing, Generally follows the process of expectation
measured. simulation, programmed instruction and structuring, it involves some initial offers and
There are multiple ways of assessing each level. laboratory training. Most of these techniques can acknowledgments by their party. This is crucial
1Reactionevaluation is how the delegates felt be used by small businesses although, some may stage in the over all negotiating process. You
about the training or learning experience. 'Happy be too costly. must make the right offer at right time. After
sheets', feedback forms. Orientations are for new employees. The first some time both parties will be in a position to
Verbal reaction, post-training surveys or several days on the job are crucial in the success evaluate the likelihood of reaching agreement, or
questionnaires. Quick and very easy to obtain. of new employees. This point is illustrated by extent of implications of a breakdown in
Not expensive to gather or to analyze. the fact that 60 percent of all employees who negotiations’.
2Learningevaluation is the measurement of the quit do so in the first ten days. Outcome
increase in knowledge - before and after. Employee Relations There are two possible outcomes for bargaining
Typically assessments or tests before and after DESCRIBE 4 FUNCTIONS OF THE so far. One that the two sides agree on the best
the training. Interview or observation can also be LABOUR COURT. (LR) option for both. And the other is that the both
used. Relatively simple to set up; clear-cut for The Labor court provides a free, comprehensive sides walk away from the bargaining table with
quantifiable skills. Less easy for complex service for the resolution of industrial disputes some sort of agreement as to how
learning. and deals also with matters arising under communication will be started over and by
3Behavior evaluation is the extent of applied employment equality, organization of working whom. At this point both parties should be keen
learning back on the job - time, national minimum wage, part-time work, to avoid damaging conflict.
implementation.Observation and interview over fixed-term work and safety, health and welfare Closing Phase
time are required to assess change, relevance of at work legislation. Both parties normally would recognize and
change, and sustainability of Key Functions of LC: expect- anticipate the closing phase. Here the
change.Measurement of behavior change –Investigate trade disputes under the industrial agreement finalizing will happen, issues for
typically requires cooperation and skill of line- relations acts further negotiation. Agreement breakdown and
managers. –Registration & variation and interpretation of interpretation.
4Results evaluation is the effect on the business employment agreements Phase 3 POST-NAGOTIATION
or environment by the trainee.Measures are –Establishment & servicing of Joint Labour At the end of negotiations, the parties involved
already in place via normal management Commissioners ( JLC’s) and deciding on will usually report back on the outcome, the
systems and reporting questions concerning their operation employee or union side reporting back to the
DISCUSS THE PREPERATION THAT –Provision of secretaries for JICs workers they represent, and the management
SHOULD TAKE PLACE BEFORE A –Hearing appeals against RC’s recommendation team back to senior. This usually involves
TRAINING PROGRAMME IS CARRIED & appeals against equality officer’s decision reviewing the implementation of any agreement
Why the training should be carried out within LABOUR RELATIONS COMMISION. ADVANTAGES of CB
the workplace? Training is provided to (LRC) –Seen as more flexible than other methods
overcome change within the workplace. The The commission has an advisory role on –Helps redress the disparity in bargaining power
need for change could be due to decrease in industrial relations in general, and provides between the individual employee &his/hers
sales, increase in accidents at work, high conciliation service in the case of trade disputes. employer
turnover, new technology. Basically there could Most importantly is responsible for rights –Allows works an opportunity to participate in
be a any need for any type of changes within the commission service. LRC also offers the discussions on the conditions of employment
workplace and managers need to provide staff Workplace Mediation Service, which aims to under which they operate
with the necessary training, to help them to resolve disputes and disagreements, particularly –Provides mechanism for identifying &
overcome the changes needed. To plan between individuals or small groups. handling grievances & differences
traditional training of work skills and –Conciliation service, parties are encouraged to
capabilities that links to organizational cum up with settlement
performance improvement you must first –Commission research
Employment Law Employment Law The Organization Of Working Time Act, 1997 were made aware of the problem and that you
9grounds on which a case for discrimination provides statutory rights for employees in were warned as to the consequences for your
may be taken against employer. Support your respect of rest, maximum working time and continued employment.
answer with at least 3 examples of relevant holidays. Some of these include - Incompetence- Competence refers to your ability
case law. – Maximum average weekly to do your job. In the first place, you need to be
9grounds of discrimination working time can not exceed 48hrs. Generally made aware of the standards that are expected of
The Age Ground the average is calculated over minimum 4 you, and these must refer to the job you were
This applies to all ages above the maximum age months. hired to do.
at which a person is statutorily obliged to attend – Entitlements of 15min break after Secondly, if you fall short of the required
school (currently 16). more than 4hrs 30min and to a further break of standard, this must be clearly explained to you.
The Family Status Ground 15mins after more than 6hrs of work. Also the This should be done through a formal set
A parent of a person under 18 years or the employer doesn’t have to pay for such breaks procedure. Your employer should also specify
resident primary carer or a parent of a person – Employee is entitling 11 what improvements are necessary. These should
with a disability. consecutive hours of rest in any 24 hrs that you be achievable and a reasonable timeframe must
The Gender Ground work. Alternatively, instead of giving the 1*24- be allowed for the improvement. Ultimately,
A man, a woman or a transsexual person hr in the 1st rest period in the first 7days, an your employer should give you a final warning
(specific protection is provided for pregnant employer may grant 2*24hr rest periods setting out the likelihood of dismissal.
employees or in relation to maternity leave). following the seven day period. They don’t need Qualifications- Fair dismissal on grounds of
This works two ways for E.g. If in a store they to be combined. The rest day should include a qualifications can happen in two ways. One
want to employ a person that will work there, Sunday unless you’re your contract says situation is where you misled your employer
they can not employ a man, just for the reason otherwise. about qualifications you had when applying for
that he will be able lift to lift the heavy lifting – Maximum hours of work for night the job. The other is where your employer made
for all the women that work in the same store. workers engaged in work involving special continued employment conditional upon your
The other scenario is if it’s a hardware store they hazards or a heavy physical or mental strain – an obtaining further qualifications and you failed to
will preferably wish to employ a man because he absolute limit of 8 hours in any 24 hour period. achieve this, having been given a reasonable
would be better at the job because of he’s Night work is between midnight and 7a.m. opportunity to do so.
gender. – A employee is generally entitle to Breaking another statue- Your employer may
The Civil Status Ground a premium on a Sunday *reasonable allowance dismiss you if your continued employment
Single, married, separated, divorced or or *reasonable pay increase *reasonable paid would contravene the law. For example, you
widowed. time off. need a current driving license to work, but you
The Membership of the Traveller Community Outline the main provisions of the Unfair have lost your license on a drunk driving charge.
Ground Dismissals Act 1977 You cannot continue to work without breaking
The community of people who are commonly The Unfair Dismissals Acts were first the law and dismissal may be justified.
called Travellers and who are identified (both by introduced in 1977 to provide employees with However, your employer might be expected to
themselves and others) as people with shared statutory protection from being unfairly look at alternatives depending on all the
history, culture and traditions including, dismissed from their jobs, to lay down criteria Industrial Action- dismissal by lockout is
historically, a nomadic way of life on the island by which dismissals are to be judged unfair, and offered reinstatement or re-engagement from the
of Ireland. to provide an adjudication system and redress date of resumption of work. Must measure equal
The 'Race' Ground for any employee who is found to be unfairly treatment. You can only dismiss all employees;
A particular race, skin colour, nationality or dismissed. you can not rehire only one back if you do that
ethnic origin E.g. We say it is an Italian In action If you are dismissed from your you must rehire everyone back.
restaurant, and they are requiting for a waitress, employment in Ireland you may, under certain Other substantial grounds – This category is
they cannot employ her because she’s not conditions, bring a claim for unfair dismissal designed to include any situations not covered
Italian. against your employer. Apart from a case above. Your employer will be required to
The Religion Ground involving constructive dismissal a dismissal is establish that there were other substantial
Different religious belief, background, outlook presumed to be unfair unless your employer can grounds and that they justify your dismissal.
or none. show substantial grounds to justify it. Redundancy- dismissal caused by either
The Sexual Orientation Ground If you are dismissed from your job you are employer has ceased business, or they no longer
Gay, lesbian, bisexual or heterosexual. E.g. If an entitled to a statutory minimum period of notice require to work carried out by a particular
employer finds out that one ore more of he’s/her if you have worked at least 13 weeks for your employee or are reducing the scope of their
employees has a different sexual orientation than employer. Your written contract of employment workforce. In this case you get one paid week
being straight, they can not discriminate them at may provide for a longer period of notice. for each year you have worked for the employer,
work bully them into leaving, because they don’t Under the unfair dismissals legislation you may but that only works after 2years of employment.
accept their sexual orientation. Also you can not ask your employer for a written statement of the Conduct- As a ground for fair dismissal the term
let them go based on this reason. reasons for your dismissal. Your employer conduct covers a very large area of behavior.
Write a brief note on the role of Equality should provide this within 14 days of your Gross misconduct- may give rise to instant
Tribunal. request. (summary) dismissal without notice or pay in
The Equality Tribunal is the independent state Your Employer: In order to justify the dismissal lieu of notice. Examples of gross misconduct
body in Ireland set up to investigate or mediate your employer: include assault, drunkenness, stealing, bullying
complaints of discrimination. The Equality • Must show that your dismissal was or serious breach of your employer's policies
Tribunal deals with all complaints of connected with one or more of the potentially and practices. Your contract of employment may
discrimination in employment and access to fair grounds set out in the legislation contain further information concerning gross
goods and services which come under the • Must show that fair procedures misconduct.
following equality legislation: were followed and must have acted fairly
•The Employment Equality Acts 1998 to 2008 • Will have to disprove any
outlaw discrimination at work including allegation by you that your case involves any of Explain what is meant by “unfair dismissal”
recruitment and promotion; equal pay; working the automatically unfair reasons for dismissal under the following headings:
conditions; training or experience; dismissal and • The main provisions: A) Provisions under the unfair dismissal
harassment including sexual harassment. It outlines procedures employer must adhere to Reasons considered for Unfair Dismissal. These
•The Equal Status Acts 2000 to 2008 outlaw if dismissing an employee include:
discrimination outside the workplace, in Outlines fair reasons and unfair reasons for •membership or proposed membership of a trade
particular in the provision of goods and services, dismissals union or engaging in trade union activities,
selling renting or leasing property and certain Offers redress to unfairly dismissed employees whether within permitted times during work or
aspects of education. Not all categories of employees are covered by outside of working hours
Discrimination occurs when you are treated less the act •religious or political opinions
favorably than another person is, has been or You must have 12months continuous service to •legal proceedings against an employer where an
would be treated because of your: 9grounds take a claim, exceptions TU, pregnancy etc employee is a party or a witness
Outline the main provisions of the Claim to a Rights commissioner within 6months •race, colour, sexual orientation, age or
organizations of Working Time Act 1997 of the date of the dismissal, exceptions TU, membership of the Traveller community
The Organization Of Working Time Act, 1997 pregnancy. •pregnancy, giving birth or breastfeeding or any
transposed the European Council Directive on Give two examples of circumstances in which matters connected with pregnancy or birth
certain aspects of working time into Irish law. the dismissal of an employee under the act is •availing of rights under legislation such as
The Act is thus to be viewed, primarily, as a deemed to be fair. maternity leave, adoptive leave, carer's leave,
piece of safety, health and welfare at work Capability dismissals - parental or force majeure leave
legislation, designed to protect and maintain This includes issues such as lateness, •unfair selection for redundancy
employees’ health and safety against excessive absenteeism and persistent absence through B) The importance of fair procedures.
hours and to provide for breaks, rest periods and illness or injury, either short-term or long-term. When dismissal is being considered your
holidays to allow for rest and recovery. The If lateness or absenteeism is at issue, your employer is expected to have disciplinary
majority of organized workers already enjoyed employer will be expected to have documentary procedures in place and to follow them.
hours, breaks and rest periods in line with or proof of this allegation, such as clocking-in Disciplinary procedures set out the stages and
better than the Act. The impact has been most records or documented absences on file that are process the employer will follow in relation to
acute, however, in the area of hour’s reductions not medically certified. In addition, your alleged shortcomings of an employee. Generally,
and overtime. employer will also be expected to show that you the procedure allows for informal warnings
leading to written warnings and ultimately to Investigation – The employer must carry out a employment of under 18s on late night work.
dismissal. The Labour Relations Commission proper investigation without unreasonable delay Employers must keep
has published a Code of Practice on grievance to establish the facts of the case. This may specified records for their workers who are
and disciplinary procedures involve an investigatory meeting with the under 18.
Your employer must follow fair procedures and employee. Who Is Covered By The Act?
is required to give you appropriate warnings, Information – the employer must notify the The Act applies generally to young employees
make you fully aware of the allegations against employee in writing of the case against him or under 18 years of age.
you and give you an opportunity to present your her. This notification must contain sufficient Under the Act (as amended by Section 31 of the
side. You must also be allowed the right to be information about the alleged misconduct or Education Welfare Act
represented in any disciplinary procedures by, poor performance and its possible consequences 2000)
for example, your trade union official. to enable the employee to prepare to answer the – a “child” means a person who has not reached
In deciding a case, the body hearing it must take case at a disciplinary meeting. the age of 16
into account the reasonableness or otherwise of Meeting - A meeting with the employee should years.
your employer's conduct. In addition, the be held without unreasonable delay whilst – a “young person” means a person who has
question as to whether or not your employer had allowing the employee reasonable time to reached 16 years but
a dismissal procedure in place will also be taken prepare his or her case. The employer should has not reached the age of 18 years.
into account. explain the complaint and go through the To make it simpler, this Guide refers to these as
In order to justify the dismissal your employer: evidence. The employee should be given a “under 16s and “16 and
•Must show that your dismissal was connected reasonable opportunity to ask questions, present 17 year olds”.
with one or more of the potentially fair grounds evidence, call witnesses and raise points about The Minimum Age For Employment
set out in the legislation about any evidence provided by witnesses. Employers may not employ those aged under 16
•Must show that fair procedures were followed Where either party wishes to call witnesses they in a regular full-time
and must have acted fairly must give the other party advance notice of this. job. Employers may take on 14 and 15 year olds
•Will have to disprove any allegation by you The employee is entitled to be accompanied by a on light work -
that your case involves any of the automatically work colleague or trade union representative. • during the school holidays
unfair reasons for dismissal. Decision – This can be the taking of no action, • part-time during the school term (over 15 years
Outline any circumstances in which an giving a written warning, a final written warning only) or
employee with six months continuous service or dismissing the employee. The decision should • as part of an approved work experience or
with an organization would be eligible to seek be given to the employee in writing who should educational program
protection under the Unfair Dismissals Act also be notified of the reason for the dismissal, where the work is not harmful to their safety,
1977. the date on which the employment contract will health, or development.
Normally you must have at least 12 months' end, the appropriate period of notice (if any) and Rules on maximum working hours, early
continuous service with your employer in order that he or she may appeal against that decision. morning and night work, and
to bring a claim for unfair dismissal. However Appeal – This will take the form of a further rest periods for this age group are set out in
there are important exceptions to this general meeting and should be conducted by a manager Section 2 below.
rule. If you have less than 12 months' continuous who was not previously involved in the case. Children under 16 may be employed in film,
service you may bring a claim for unfair The person conducting the appeal should do so cultural, sport or
dismissal if you are dismissed for: conscientiously and should look at all of the advertising work under licences issued by the
• Trade union membership or evidence and if necessary make further Minister for Enterprise,
activity enquiries. The employee should be notified of Trade and Employment which set out specific
• Pregnancy, giving birth or the result of the appeal in writing. protection for this age
breastfeeding or any matters connected with This may lead to:- group.
pregnancy or birth • No action; CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT, HOURS
• Availing of rights granted by the • Verbal warning; OF WORK AND
Maternity Protection Acts 1994 and 2004, the • First written warning; REST PERIODS
Adoptive Leave Acts 1995 and 2005, the • Final written warning; Maximum Weekly Working Hours For Under
National Minimum Wage Act 2000, the Parental • Dismissal. 16s14 15
Leave Acts 1998 and 2006 and the Career’s It is not always necessary to follow all of these  Term-time Nil 8 hours
Leave Act 2001 stages. Serious misconduct may lead directly to  Work experience 40 hours 40
If you wish to make a claim for unfair dismissal a final written warning while gross misconduct hours
you should do so within six months of the date could lead to dismissal without notice.  Where the maximum week is 35
of dismissal. This time limit may be extended to Any employer considering disciplinary action hours, the maximum day is 7hours. A maximum
12 months in cases where exceptional should take legal advice at the outset. 40 hours week means a maximum 8 hour day.
circumstances have prevented the lodgment of It is important to keep written records of all  During the summer holidays,
the claim within six months. investigations and all disciplinary interviews. under 16s must have at least 21 days
DISCIPLINE AND GRIEVANCE Briefly outline the rights of the employee free from work.
PROCEDURE which should be observed Time off and rest breaks for under 16s
As a HR manager it is our responsibility to have by the employer during any disciplinary Half hour rest bread after 4 hours work
first friendly chat with a employee and find out process. Daily rest break 14 consecutive hours off
the reason why he/she was late on 4 different If the misconduct where more serious such as Weekly rest break 2 days off, as far as
occasion sometimes its genuine reason behind fighting breaking a work rules or sleeping on practicable to
e.g. childcare problems or travel to work duty - going through every stage of the be consecutive
circumstances change or family circumstances procedure might be unnecessary.
change we have to give the employee a chance However the employer would need to observe which premises is used in whole or in part to sell
to explain himself so I say the very first stage the rules of natural justice, which are: food or
will be disciplinary meeting and based on The Employee has a right to be told the facts intoxicating liquor or both for consumption on
findings then make decision to fallow the of the case against him/her: those
disciplinary actions or try to resolve problem by The employee has the right to a hearing (to premises. For the purposes of these Regulations,
changing employee hours and if there reason tell his/her side of story): "general
behind is not genuine or he/she just decide to be The employee has the right to representative duties" does not include supplying intoxicating
late couldn't be better to be on time try to find of his/ her choice: liquor from
out why his her motivation to work in The employee has the right to appeal to higher behind the bar counter in a licensed premises or
organization is affected try to solve the issues level of his/her choice within the company supplying it
carry out investigation issue friendly warning for comsumption off those premises.
first and if that not going to help introduce Outline the main provisions of the Protection -8-
proper disciplinary action listed below. of Young Persons
DISCIPLINE AND GRIEVANCE Employment Act 1996 These Regulations provide that the young person
Employers must include within the written Purpose Of The Act may be
statement of employment particulars details of:- This Act consolidates the law on young workers required to work up until 11p.m. in such
•Any disciplinary rules; and gives effect to premises on a day,
•The name or description of the person to whom international rules on protecting young workers which is not immediately preceding a school
the employee may apply if dissatisfied with any drawn up by the day, during a
disciplinary decision and the name of any person International Labour Organisation (I.L.O.) and school term where the young person is attending
to whom a grievance may be taken. the European Union school.
•The way in which any grievance will be (E.U.). The law is designed to protect the health The regulations also require the young person
proceeded with. of young workers and to not to
Disciplinary Action ensure that work during the school years does re-commence work before 7a.m. on the
It is important that any disciplinary action taken not put a young person’s following day.
against an employee can be demonstrated to education at risk. The law sets minimum age These Regulations also provide that the
have been carried out fairly. The procedure limits for employment, sets employer of a young
used should therefore contain the following rest intervals and maximum working hours, and person employed on general duties in a licesed
elements prohibits the premises
should have regard to the terms of the Code of contraventions can attract a fine of up to Euro
Practice 317.43 (Euro250)
concerning the Employment of Young Persons
in Licensed
Premises. The terms of the Code of Practice are
set out in a
Schedule to the Regulations and are available on
from the Department
Write a brief note explaining the
requirements for record keeping
under the two Acts above.
Organization of Working Time Act, [1997.]
An employer shall keep, at the premises or place
his or her employee works or, if the employee
works at two or more
premises or places, the premises or place from
which the activities
that the employee is employed to carry on are
principally directed
or controlled, such records, in such form, if any,
as may be prescribed,
as will show whether the provisions of this Act
are being
complied with in relation to the employee and
those records shall be
retained by the employer for at least 3 years
from the date of their
Refusal by an employee to cooperate with
employer in breaching Act.
Complaints to rights commissioner.
(2) The Minister may by regulations exempt
from the application
(3) An employer who, without reasonable cause,
fails to comply
with subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence.
(EMPLOYMENT) ACT 1996 Records
5.1 Evidence Of Age And Written Permission
Of Parents
Before employing a young person or child, an
employer must see a
copy of the birth certificate or other evidence of
age and, before
employing under 16s, an employer must get the
written permission
of a parent (or guardian)
Records To Be Kept By Employer
An employer must keep a register of similar
record, with the following details in relation to
every employee aged under 18;
1. full name,
2. date of birth,
3. starting and finishing times for
4. wage rate and total wages paid to
each employee.
To show the Act is being complied with, an
employer must keep records for at least three
years at the place of employment.
Summary of Act To Be Given To Workers
Under 18
Regulations made under the Terms of
Employment (Information)
Act, 1994 require employers to give to their
workers aged under 18
a copy of the official summary of the Protection
of Young Persons
(Employment) Act together with the other
details of their terms of
employment within one month of taking up a
Summary Of Act To Be Displayed
Every employer who has employees aged under
18 must display
the official summary (abstract) of the Act at the
work place where
it can easily be read. Copies of the abstract in
both leaflet and
poster format are available from the Information
A person guilty of an offence under the Act is
liable on summary
conviction to a fine of up to Euro 1,904.61 (Euro
1,500). Continuing