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APRIL 2007 / IRON MAN MAGAZINE—WE KNOW TRAINING

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Mind/Muscle Explosion, page 88

Delt Detonation,

page 198

Growth Zone,

page 106

BEFORE AFTER Partials, Burns and X Reps, page 114
BEFORE
AFTER
Partials, Burns and
X Reps, page 114

April 2007

Vol. 66, No. 4

Burns and X Reps, page 114 April 2007 Vol. 66, No. 4 We Know Training ™

We Know Training

FEATURES

FEATURES

58 TRAIN, EAT, GROW 90

More Power/Rep Range/Shock tweaks for bigger, stron- ger physiques.

88 MIND/MUSCLE EXPLOSION

Peter Siegel teaches you how to push your belief thresh- old higher for mega gains.

106 GROWTH ZONE

Dwayne Hines II revs you up to push to the limit and beyond for mind-numbing size.

114 PARTIALS, BURNS AND X REPS

William Litz’s take on extending time under tension for extreme growth—and he’s got before and after photos to

prove his point.

132 REP-RANGE RELOAD

Chris Pennington plays the numbers game for a bigger bench and massive pecs. X-Files is here too.

142 MAGNESIUM

Jerry Brainum explores the research on the so-called muscle mineral. (Can it help pump you up big time?)

158 A BODYBUILDER IS

BORN 21

Rise of the machines. Ron Harris

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Muscle Size
•Rep-Range Reload
•X Reps and Burns
•Rest/Pause
•Power/Rep Range/Shock
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Reclaim Your Size and Power!
Deltoid Detonation
Shoulder-Blasting Workout
The Muscle Mineral
Are You Getting Enough?
APRIL 2007
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HardBody Hotness!
Please display until 4/6/07
Nancy Di Nino
Jay Cutler and Nancy
Di
Nino (inset) appear
on
this month’s cover.
Photos by Michael
Neveux

explains why free weights aren’t always the answer.

166 CARDIO AND CARBS

From Bodybuilding.com: Shannon Clark explains why bodybuilders need both, whether massing or ripping.

180 HEAVY DUTY

Part 1 of a lost Mike Mentzer interview from 1986.

198 DELT DETONATION

Eric Broser takes you through a shocking shoulder workout that’ll swell ’em like melons!

216 CHAD MARTIN

The ’06 Junior USA winner talks bodybuilding, life and leg training.

230 ANABOLIC FIRESTARTERS

Certain vitamins, minerals and compounds can create a hypertrophic firestorm. So says George Redmon, Ph.D.

268 HARDBODY

Nancy Di Nino shows the bod that weight training built.

282 ONLY THE STRONG SHALL SURVIVE

Bill Starr on how to get your body back after a layoff.

DEPARTMENTS

28 TRAIN TO GAIN

Knee-wrecking wrap-up and drop-set solutions. Joe Horrigan’s Sportsmedicine covers a new grip aid.

42 SMART TRAINING

Charles Poliquin discusses eating out and ripping up.

Anabolic Firestarters, page 230

eating out and ripping up. Anabolic Firestarters, page 230 Hard Body, page 268 Train to Gain,

Hard Body,

page 268

Train to Gain, page 28
Train to Gain,
page 28

48 EAT TO GROW

Protein and muscle resizing, glycemic-index insights and more beta-alanine benefits (that stuff works!).

74 CRITICAL MASS

Steve Holman on the adaptation-confusion theory. Plus, creatine dosing and eating tips for leaning out.

78 NATURALLY HUGE

John Hansen cranks on the competition ignition—advice for the newbie bodybuilding competitor.

246 NEWS & VIEWS

Lonnie Teper’s got a fever, and the cure is the pro-sea- son openers. Plus, Jerry Fredricks’ Hot Shots are back. Let the gargoyle games begin.

252 MUSCLE “IN” SITES

Eric Broser takes a look at bodybuilding Web sites from legends Ed Corney and Lee Labrada. And his always popular Net Results Q&A has answers on supersets.

258 BODYBUILDING PHARMACOLOGY

Does testosterone kill brain cells? Jerry Brainum explores the newest research and also checks out whether ana- bolic steroids help endurance athletes.

262 PUMP & CIRCUMSTANCE

Ruth Silverman’s review of ’06 continues with a look at what went on in the amateur femme-physique ranks.

A Bodybuilder is Born, page 158

News & Views, page 246

292 MIND/BODY CONNECTION

Randall Strossen, Ph.D., explains why progress is your responsibility. Dave Draper chimes in with muscle-building attitude, and a couple of hot Graphic Muscle Stars will inspire you to hit the gym.

304 READERS WRITE

Jenny is worth every penny—Timea too. But Great Scott

didn’t get a shot.

In the next IRON MAN Next month we’ll have an in-depth look at stretch overload that will change the way you train for- ever—if you want to get huge! Contraction is great, but progressive-resistance stretch may be the real key to growth. We’ll present part 2 of the lost Mike Mentzer interview, in which he discusses his body’s response to steroids and the 45-minute training program he used to become Mr. America. We’ll also switch on the recorder with Flex Wheeler, who has some eye-opening views on bodybuilding and the too-huge crew. Watch for the mind-bending May IRON MAN on newsstands the first week of April.

WEB ALERT!

latest happenings from the world

For the

of bodybuilding and fitness, set your

browser for www.IronManMagazine.com

and www.GraphicMuscle.com.

John Balik’s

Publisher’s Letter

Big Dreams
Big Dreams

26

Dreams, in the sense of visualizing the future, are as personal and unique as the dreams we experience while we sleep. Ev- erything starts with the dream. Whether it’s a home at the beach, the physique you aspire to or anything else, it all starts with a dream. I love the quote from computer scientist Alan Kay that Ferrari has been using in its ads:

“The best way to predict the future is to in- vent it.” Only a few words but they have life- changing power. I just reread a book I first came across in the late 1960s, The Magic of Thinking Big.

Don’t be put off by the hokey title. Life’s ac- complishments—be they family-, business- or bodybuilding-related— are all about being able to see yourself as you want to become rather than the way you are. As a testament to the book’s power and truth, it has been in print for more than 40 years. Buy it, read it, and then reread it. It will be time well spent. When James Cameron won the Academy Award for Best Picture for “Titanic” in 1997, the presenter—I believe it was Kathy Bates—asked him in wonderment, “Who gave you permission to create a project of such impossible proportions?” Cameron’s simple but profound answer was that he gave himself the permission. The fact is, we all give ourselves permission to become who we are and what we do. It is the irrevocable law of accountability. In January my daughter, Lilli, and I had the honor of attending Arnold Schwarzenegger’s second inauguration. His vision for the state of Cali- fornia, as projected in his inaugural speech, was a masterful example of thinking big. (You can hear the speech at IronManMagazine.com.) I was struck by the elegance and power of his vision and got to thinking about the way his vision propelled him from Graz, Austria, to the center of the

bodybuilding stage and beyond to become one of the most recognized celebrities in the world. None of that happened by accident. Now he has moved to the world stage in politics as the leader of the world’s sixth largest economy. He calls California a “nation state.” It was interesting the way people reacted to Arnold’s vision. On the radio the next day three Sacramento pundits were commenting on his speech, and two of them did what negative people always do—they started to go through the litany of why Arnold’s ideas were riddled with obstacles and why the speech was overly optimistic. The third person observed that while the speech might have been very optimistic, he believed that anything Arnold puts his mind to, Arnold believes he can do. As Arnold used to joke in the gym many years ago, “It’s mind over matter—if you don’t have the mind, nothing matters.” Arnold has had a lifetime of impossible dreams that he made possible because he never gives up until the impossible has been obtained. There is only one Arnold, but the same rules apply to all of our dreams. IM

Arnold, but the same rules apply to all of our dreams. IM APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

Founders

1936-1986:

Peary & Mabel Rader

Publisher/Editorial Director: John Balik Associate Publisher: Warren Wanderer Design Director: Michael Neveux Editor in Chief: Stephen Holman John Balik Associate Publisher: Warren Wanderer Design Director: Michael Neveux Editor in Chief: Stephen Holman Art Director: T. S. Bratcher Senior Editor: Ruth Silverman Editor at Large: Lonnie Teper Articles Editors: L.A. Perry, Caryne Brown Assistant Art Director: Aldrich Bonifacio Designer: Emerson Miranda IRON MAN Staff:

Vuthy Keo, Mervin Petralba, R. Anthony Toscano

Contributing Authors:

Jerry Brainum, Eric Broser, David Chapman, Teagan Clive, Lorenzo Cornacchia, Daniel Curtis, Dave Draper, Michael Gündill, Rosemary Hallum, Ph.D., John Hansen, Ron Harris, Ori Hofmekler, Rod Labbe, Skip La Cour, Jack LaLanne, Butch Lebowitz, John Little, Stuart McRobert, Gene Mozée, Charles Poliquin, Larry Scott, Jim Shiebler, Roger Schwab, Pete Siegel, C.S. Sloan, Bill Starr, Bradley Steiner, Eric Sternlicht, Ph.D., Randall Strossen, Ph.D., Richard Winett, Ph.D., and David Young

Contributing Artists:

Steve Cepello, Larry Eklund, Ron Dunn, Jake Jones Contributing Photographers:

Jim Amentler, Ron Avidan, Reg Bradford, Jimmy Caruso, Bill Dobbins, Jerry Fredrick, Irvin Gelb, Isaac Hinds, Dave Liberman, J.M. Manion, Gene Mozée, Mitsuru Okabe, Rob Sims, Leo Stern

Director of Marketing:

Helen Yu, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1 Accounting: Dolores Waterman Subscriptions Manager:

Sonia Melendez, 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 2 E-mail: soniazm@aol.com Advertising Director: Warren Wanderer 1-800-570-IRON, ext. 1 (518) 743-1696; FAX: (518) 743-1697 Advertising Coordinator:

Jonathan Lawson, (805) 385-3500, ext. 320 Newsstand Consultant:

Angelo Gandino, (516) 796-9848

We reserve the right to reject any advertising at our discretion without explanation. All manuscripts, art or other submissions must be accompanied by a self- addressed, stamped envelope. Send submissions to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033. We are not responsible for unsolicited material. Writers and photographers should send for our Guidelines outlining specifications for submissions. IRON MAN is an open forum. We also reserve the right to edit any letter or manuscript as we see fit, and photos submitted have an implied waiver of copyright. Please consult a physician before beginning any diet or exercise program. Use the information published in IRON MAN at your own risk.

IRON MAN Internet Addresses:

Web Site: www.ironmanmagazine.com John Balik, Publisher: ironleader@aol.com Steve Holman, Editor in Chief: ironchief@aol.com Ruth Silverman, Senior Editor: ironwman@aol.com T.S. Bratcher, Art Director: ironartz@aol.com Helen Yu, Director of Marketing: irongrrrl@aol.com

Jonathan Lawson, Ad Coordinator: ironjdl@aol.com

Sonia Melendez, Subscriptions: soniazm@aol.com

28

SIZE MATTERS, SO…
SIZE MATTERS, SO…
28 SIZE MATTERS, SO… Wrapping Wrapping your your knees knees for for singles singles or or

WrappingWrapping youryour kneesknees forfor singlessingles oror doublesdoubles maymay bebe fine,fine, butbut forfor higher-higher- reprep setssets itit couldcould dodo damage.damage.

APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

Comstock

Neveux

Peter Putnam. TRAIN TO GAIN
Peter Putnam.
TRAIN TO GAIN

BIGGER

BODYPARTS

The Red-Headed Stepchild of Muscle Groups

What is it about the back muscles that makes them so neglected? Much of the blame has to go to sheer ignorance. In my high school lifting years, not only did I not train my back, I had no idea I could. Occasionally I’d jump on the chinup bar to challenge myself, but I didn’t realize the exercise was anything more than a means of testing strength or getting in general condition for sports or military boot camp. I was far from alone in my naiveté. Recently I was speaking with USA light-heavyweight runner-up Peter Putnam, who’s currently playing catch-up with his own back as he strives to bring its de- velopment in line with the rest of his thickly muscled physique. “My early years of weight training were as a high school football player,” he said. “The main goal was to improve our explosive power so we could keep driving forward down the line. We did a lot of bench-pressing, military presses and squats but not a single row, chin or deadlift.” Even when his emphasis shifted to bodybuilding a few years later, he failed to give his back the work it needed. “I had no guidance and wasn’t even reading the magazines yet, so I just put all my effort into the muscles that I could see in

the mirror.” Putnam believes he’s been training his back as hard and heavy as he should for only the past three years and that the improvements he’s making are satisfactory. “It’s only a matter of time now before it’s a very good bodypart for me.” Back neglect is so common in gyms and health clubs that there ought to be a hotline to report it—800-LAT-LESS. Few gym rats have any desire to develop their lats, traps, spinal erectors and the smaller upper-back muscles like the rhomboids and teres major and minor. Even many who identify themselves as bodybuilders give short shrift to back training, knocking out a few unenthusiastic sets of cable pulldowns and cable rows every once in a while when the mood strikes. They may have no desire to compete—yet. But many a competitive bodybuilder recalls a time when he or she could never imagine getting onstage and flexing in a skimpy little posing suit. So there may come a day when you start to wonder how the phy- sique you’ve built would fare against others. You don’t want to realize at that point that you have a huge area like the back to develop to match everything else. Work your back just as hard as the rest of your body, with productive move- ments like chins, deadlifts and barbell and dumbbell rows. You’ll be glad you did, whether it’s when you’re in a lineup of bodybuilders onstage and are asked to turn around, or walking away from a group of girls and hearing the gasps of apprecia-

tion at the powerful back in their view.

—Ron Harris RonHarrisMuscle.com

back in their view. —Ron Harris RonHarrisMuscle.com 30 APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com WHEELS The Leg

30

APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

WHEELS The Leg Press and Back Stress Lower-back injuries are about as common among bodybuilders
WHEELS
The Leg Press
and Back Stress
Lower-back injuries are about as
common among bodybuilders as tribal
tattoos. As a result, many in the iron
crowd shun squats in favor of the leg
press, in which the back is fully sup-
ported. Overall that’s a good thing,
as the leg press enables you to train
heavy without putting your lower back
at risk, especially if you have a his-
tory of injury to the area. The trouble
begins when you’re lulled into a false
sense of security, mistakenly believing
that it’s impossible to injure the lumbar
spine on leg presses.
IFBB Pro Chris Cormier discovered
just how wrong that assumption is.
Chris was just beginning his prepara-
tions for the ’06 Mr. Olympia, a contest
he desperately wanted to do well at
in order to redeem himself after his
13th-place finish in ’05, the only time
he’d missed the top 10 in as many
appearances at the O. The Real Deal
has a history of
lower-back prob-
lems going back
15 years, so he
often uses the leg
press as a tool to
craft his phenom-
enal legs. On that
particular occasion
he was using the
vertical leg press,
feeling fantastic
and going heavy.
His training partner noted that he was
going deeper than usual on reps.
Though Chris felt no pain then, by the
next afternoon he was lying on his
back on the floor, unable to move. He
spent two weeks in the hospital.
Looking back, Cormier realizes that
lowering the weight too far was the
culprit. “With any leg press, but even
more so the vertical type, you can’t
ever let your tailbone curl up toward
your torso, which is what happens if
you lower too far.” Chris had herniated
two disks in the past, and now he’d
compressed another two. If someone
with Cormier’s training experience and
savvy can make a mistake like that, so
can any of us. All it takes is one rep—
taken too deep with enough weight
loaded up—to bring about lower-back
disaster. So go ahead and use the leg
press, but always keep safety in mind,
and descend only to parallel or just a
bit below.
—Ron Harris
www.RonHarrisMuscle.com
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TRAIN TO GAIN

Neveux

TRAIN TO GAIN Neveux MATURE MUSCLE S t r e t c h t o G

MATURE

MUSCLE

Stretch to Grow

And prevent injuries as well

Q: Can you explain why I should stretch after working out with weights? A: It is very important, especially as you age. First, if you do everything correctly from a stimulation standpoint with weights—from refueling to getting proper rest and recovery— the result should be some muscle growth. Now, when mus- cles are growing, they’re actually shortening to a degree. So as they hypertrophy, they’re also getting shorter and tighter. If you weight-train for years on end and then attempt a very fast motion, such as throwing a baseball hard, the tendon at the lower biceps insertion can rupture. That’s because you’ve trained the muscles and tendons at a slow speed and with heavy resistance. Once they encounter a fast, lighter form of movement, the unique stress can cause a rupture. You should incorporate other types of exercise so that your muscle won’t develop one dimensionally—and that includes stretching. Stretching can also positively affect the myofascia, which encases the muscles. Think of the skin on a chicken. Beneath the skin but on top of the meat is a thin, whitish layer. That’s the myofascia. It can become tight and thick when the body is under too much stress or at rest too often. Stretching can help loosen the tissue, but a more aggressive remedy is myo- fascia trigger point therapy. If you’re feeling tightness in odd places, like the neck, lower back or top of the pecs, you may have fibromyalgia. It was once thought only people who were

INTENSITY
INTENSITY

INTENSITY

INTENSITY

Drop-Set Solution

Q: The drop-set concept you rec- ommend works! I’ve already put on about 10 pounds of muscle in two months. My question is, How do I do drop sets on dips and chins? I only use 20 pounds on those exer- cises, and that’s not a big enough poundage reduction to enable me to get more reps on a subsequent drop set. A: Try using a similar exercise for your drop set. In other words, make it a superset instead. For example, after you fail on dips, do pushups—that is, if you’re working chest. If you’re using dips for triceps, go to bench dips when you hit failure. For bench dips you set two flat benches parallel to each other a few feet apart. Position yourself face up, hands on the edge of one—behind your back—and heels on the edge of the other. Now dip. Bench dips are much easier than bar dips, so you should be able to knock out at least eight to 10 immediately after your weighted dips. As for chins, go to pulldowns when you hit failure. If you don’t have a pulldown machine, you can do undergrip barbell rows. Those actually work very well with chins because the

undergrip rows train the lats in their contracted position, while chinning with an overhand grip is midrange work for the lats. You’ll feel a searing burn in your lats during undergrip rows,

guaranteed.

—Steve Holman 3D Muscle Building

3DMuscleBuilding.com

Neveux \ Model: George Farah
Neveux \ Model: George Farah

inactive got fibromyalgia, but it’s now known to hit anyone at anytime (provided a certain predisposition gene is exacerbated by stress and some other immune factors). The likelihood of this disease happening to a bodybuilder is slim; however, having myofascial problems is common for those who use

their muscles daily. If stretching and some recovery time don’t relieve the problem, take a trip to a good physical therapist. One last point on injuries: Near-max attempts can cause problems. I have seen bodybuilders rupture the pectoral- deltoid tie-in and the vastus lateralis, the outer part of the quadriceps, where the muscle attaches near the knee. The ruptures are usually due to steroid use, which can result in lifting weights that are far too heavy for the body’s frame and tendons and ligaments. Smart bodybuilders never use weights that can’t be pushed (or pulled) for a minimum of five to six perfectly smooth reps for the upper body and eight to 12 for the lower body. Staying with moderate, low-end rep counts will almost ensure a rupture-free bodybuilding career. How to stretch will be the topic next month—and you’ll be

—Paul Burke

surprised at my recommendations.

Editor’s note: You can contact Paul Burke via e-mail at

pbptb@aol.com. Burke has a master’s degree in Integrated Studies from Cambridge College in Cambridge, Massachu- setts. He’s been a champion bodybuilder and

arm wrestler, and he’s considered the leader in the field of over-40 fitness training. You can purchase his book Burke’s Law—a New Fitness Paradigm for the Mature Male, from Home Gym Warehouse. Call (800) 447-0008, or visit www.Home-Gym.com. His “Burke’s Law” training DVD is also now available.

His “Burke’s Law” training DVD is also now available. 32 APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com Free Free
His “Burke’s Law” training DVD is also now available. 32 APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com Free Free

32

APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

SPORTSMEDICINE Get a Grip For better training and gaining Foam rubber grips have been used
SPORTSMEDICINE
Get a Grip
For better training and gaining
Foam rubber grips
have been used in heavy
bench press training by
bodybuilders for ages. The
idea is that extra padding
protects the nerves in your
hands. Some trainees re-
port numbness after many
sets of heavy regular- or
reverse-grip bench press-
es. The foam pads seem
to help somewhat. Some
trainees have used gloves
in training to prevent cal-
luses. Sports performance
catalogs carry denser,
thicker grips to use when
bench pressing. They also
carry “fat” bars to spread
out the force on your hand.
There may be other
reasons that having some-
thing to grip or squeeze
can improve the perfor-
mance of a lift like the
bench press. There are
theories in kinesiology and
in neurology that activating
the gripping muscles can
improve the strength in the kinetic chain. Kinesiologists refer to
that as the transfer of strength from one bodypart to another.
I recently came across a new product simply called Grips.
E.J. “Doc” Kreis, D.A., head speed-strength and conditioning
coach at UCLA, gave me a pair to try. The grips caught my
attention immediately.
Dave Pearson, Ph.D., director of the strength research
laboratory at Ball State University in Indiana, had quite a bit
to say about the purpose of the grips. “The grips do not re-
place gloves. The grips are a performance aid. The flexors of
the hand and wrist isometrically contract around the Olympic
bar. I have gripped the bar since I was 19 years old. It’s never
changed in 40 years. I noticed when I used the grips, I began
to knock out one more rep in the pullups and pulldowns. The
best explanation we have thus far is the fact that the grip di-
ameter was changed, and this produced new joint angles. This
would change the strength and recruitment of the muscles of
the hand and wrist.”
Kreis added, “The grips won’t work as well with other mate-
rials. The material is durable and will not unbalance the hand.
People have tried using other materials, such as leather and
canvas, without as much success.”
From what athletes are reporting, it appears that lifts in
which two arms are used are most affected. That includes
pressing, pulling and rowing.
Kreis added, “Female and smaller male athletes can’t use
fat bars effectively, due to the diameter of the bar. Fat bars
also can’t be used for power cleans, which are a key exercise.
Female athletes in water polo and softball started using the
grips and liked them.” Athletes reported improved throwing
velocities.
Pearson chimed in, “These are anecdotal reports and re-
sults. These types of reports always precede research.”
Why do the grips ap-
pear to help trainees get at
least one more rep out of
each set? There are sev-
eral ideas. Pearson noted,
“There is enough data on
muscle recruitment and
activation with isometric
exercise to support the
idea that changes can
occur with a change in the
diameter of the bar with
the grips. That may have
a
significant impact on the
racquet sports—baseball,
hockey and tennis. The
baseball bat is bigger than
an Olympic bar. The added
grip diameter is a good
idea for performance.”
If the grips only prevent-
ed calluses, no one would
be excited, but these grips
fall into the performance-
enhancement category.
“We can see the change
in
a single use of the
grips,” he continued. “That implies a neurologic effect be-
cause the muscle isn’t stronger yet. Rather, more fibers were
recruited. Female athletes gain strength through recruitment
rather than through hypertrophy. Therefore, the female athletes
respond faster than male athletes to the use of the grips.”
On the other hand, he said, “We don’t believe the grips are
useful in a ballistic exercise like power cleans because the bar
must rotate just right, and too much grip force is not useful in
that lift.”
Pearson concluded, “I spoke with one of our biomecha-
nists, and he stated that each person’s hand has an ideal grip
diameter. For example, gripping a pencil is overkill, but grip-
ping the thick end of the baseball bat is too much. The range
is somewhere in between. If a trainee has used the Olympic
bar for years and now uses the grip, he or she will have the
feeling that his or her grip sinking in. I think coaches who are
looking for subtle change will be interested in the grips. I also
think tennis is a great choice too. There’s so much overreach-
ing and overuse in tennis, leading to the development of ten-
nis elbow. The grips may turn out to be a great training aid.
Perhaps the best part is there isn’t any real downside to the
grips.”
For more information or to order, visit www.lynxpt.com.
—Joseph M. Horrigan
Editor’s note: Visit www.softtissuecenter.com for reprints
of Horrigan’s past Sportsmedicine columns that have ap-
peared in IRON MAN. You can order the books Strength, Con-
ditioning and Injury Prevention for Hockey by Joseph Horrigan,
D.C., and E.J. “Doc” Kreis, D.A., and the 7-Minute Rotator
Cuff Solution by Horrigan and Jerry Robinson from Home Gym
Warehouse, (800) 447-0008, or at www.home-gym.com.
TRAIN TO GAIN

34

APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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HARDGAINER How to Avoid Injury Part 2 In the last issue I gave you the
HARDGAINER
How to Avoid Injury
Part 2
In the last issue I gave you the first 10 recommendations
for how to avoid injuries. You simply can’t make bodybuilding
progress if you keep getting injured. Many bodybuilders seem
to constantly struggle with injuries—one injury after another.
Follow the recommendations in this series, and you won’t get
injured.
11) Use the right weight for you. Use weights you
can handle with correct technique. Most bodybuilders use
more weight than they can handle correctly. That leads to
cheating and a loss of control.
12) Choose safe exercises.
able benches and seats are
secure, and benches are stable
and strong. Never use dumbbells
without checking that the collars
are securely fixed. A dumbbell
coming apart while you’re using
it,
especially overhead, could be
disastrous.
Remember, just one accident could stop you from training
for a long time. Be careful.
An exercise that’s safe for some
bodybuilders may not be for others. If
you’re a beginner, your intensity and
poundage will be low, so you’ll be able
to maintain correct technique. But be-
cause of physical anomalies, accidents
Sore muscles are
more prone to injury.
18) Avoid singles and low
reps. Any exercise performed in
any rep range will hurt you if you use
poor technique. If you always use
or other injuries, specific exercises may
be problematic, especially if you’re not
a
beginner. Don’t use exercises that
aren’t suited to you. If an exercise irri-
tates a joint or causes sharp, stabbing
or sudden pain, don’t persist with it.
13) Avoid high-risk lifting. All
types of weightlifting can be dangerous
if
not done correctly, but some forms
carry a higher risk than others. For
example, rock lifting and handling other
awkwardly shaped objects carry a far
higher risk of injury than barbell, dumb-
bell and machine training.
14) Don’t follow the examples of the genetic
elite. A few bodybuilders can withstand training abuse that
would cripple most bodybuilders. But eventually even they pay
correct technique, all rep counts
can be comparatively safe, at least
in theory. Your body must, however,
be accustomed to the rep count
you’re using before you start to push
yourself hard. That especially applies
to singles (one-rep sets) and low
reps (sets of two to four reps). If you
get out of the ideal groove during a
maximum single, you’re more likely
to hurt yourself than if you get out of
the groove during a set of medium
or high reps. That doesn’t mean
high reps with reduced weights are
guaranteed safe. If you use poor
technique, you’re asking for injury
no matter what rep range or pound-
age you’re using. Beginners should avoid singles and low-rep
work. Stick with medium or higher reps.
19) Don’t train when you’re very sore. Sore and
a
heavy price. Don’t take liberties in the gym—you’ll pay for
abuse.
15) When using machines, follow the manufac-
turers’ instructions. For some exercises you may have to
line up a specific joint with the pivot point of the machine. The
right setup is critical. Changing the seat’s position (and thus
your position) by just one peg, for example, can make a differ-
ence in the comfort of a given exercise.
To accurately line up a given point on a machine with a
given point on your body, your eyes need to be at the same
level as the points being lined up. That usually isn’t practical,
so ask someone to help line you up. Once you have the right
setup for a specific exercise, make a note in your training log
of future settings you require, for reference.
If you’ve used a machine as the manufacturer advises (often
through instructions fixed to the equipment) and have tweaked
the setup to suit you and have used smooth rep speed, and
yet the exercise still irritates a joint, substitute an alternative
exercise.
16) Don’t squeeze machine handles more than
necessary. On some machine exercises, such as the leg
curl and the leg press, you need to stabilize yourself by hold-
ing onto handles or other grip supports. Don’t squeeze the
handles more than necessary to stabilize yourself. Intensive
squeezing increases blood pressure.
17) Be safety conscious. Never begin an exercise
without having first checked safety considerations. Check
that bolts are tight, cables aren’t frayed, cable connections
are secure, rack pins are securely in position, adjustable
weight saddles are fixed in place, locking pin(s) for adjust-
tight muscles are easily injured, although a little local soreness,
especially for beginners, shouldn’t prohibit training. When
you’re training following severe soreness, reduce your effort
level a little and build on it over several workouts to prevent
a
repeat of the excessive soreness. Keep in mind that when
you’re sore, you may be more prone to injury. Give yourself
extra rest before you train the sore area hard again. Low-inten-
sity aerobic work gets blood flowing and can ease soreness
somewhat. Massage may help, as may a hot bath. Paradoxi-
cally, another bout of the exercises that made you very sore—
but done very light and easy—may help relieve the soreness.
20) Don’t train when you’re fatigued from a pre-
vious workout. If you’re systemically wiped out—which
may or may not be accompanied by muscular soreness—rest
for an extra day or two. Then when you’re back in the gym,
reduce your training volume or intensity and build it back over
several workouts to give your body a chance to adapt. If you
get wiped out again and the components of recuperation are
in
order, there’s something amiss with your training. Modify it;
abbreviate it.
—Stuart McRobert
www.Hardgainer.com
Editor’s note: Stuart McRobert’s first
byline in IRON MAN appeared in 1981.
He’s the author of the new 638-page opus
on bodybuilding Build Muscle, Lose Fat,
Look Great, available from Home Gym
Warehouse, (800) 447-0008, or www
.Home-Gym.com.
36
APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com
TRAIN TO GAIN
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TRAIN TO GAIN

38

EXERCISE

SCIENCE

EXERCISE SCIENCE
Fast Mass Or is it just nervous system coordination? A recent study, which I discussed
Fast Mass
Or is it just nervous
system coordination?
A
recent study, which I discussed in a previous issue,
showed that muscle gains come quickly when a person
starts weight training. Most exercise physiology texts say
that initial gains are usually in strength rather than muscle
size. Your brain develops more efficient communication with
your muscles, or, to put it in scientific terms, you develop
neuromuscular efficiency. As the brain and muscles work
in tandem to recruit muscle fibers, changes occur, such as
increased muscle protein synthesis, that result in muscle size
38 percent by
the end of the
training period.
Since the cross-
sectional area of
the front thighs
(an indicator of
muscle increase)
increased by
7 percent, the
strength gain
largely came
from neuromus-
Neveux \ Model: Nathan Detracy

Neveux \ Model: Michael Turcotte

gains. According to the texts, though, that doesn’t occur until after an average of two to three months of regular training. Recently, however, researchers found that college stu- dents who did leg extensions were able to add muscle to their front thighs in as little as two to four weeks, far faster than previously believed. The authors cite the rapid response of anabolic hormones induced by the training.

A new study expands and confirms those findings and

suggests that exercise intensity is the major factor respon- sible for rapid initial muscle gains. Seven healthy young men trained for 35 days doing leg extensions on a special flywheel-based machine. The design of the machine made it gravity-independent, which maximizes both the raising (concentric) and lowering of the weight (eccentric) during the exercise. Maximum stress was applied to the exercised muscles. Past studies may have overlooked early signs of muscle growth because the equipment used was incapable of exam- ining the muscle changes occurring at a molecular level. For example, more recent investigations of muscle growth show that satellite cells, or progenitor muscle stem cells involved in the hypertrophy and repair processes after exercise or trauma, begin to proliferate within four days of a single weight workout. Muscle protein synthesis increases 60 percent within 4 1/2 hours of a workout featuring both concentric and eccentric muscle contractions—the usual style of bodybuild- ing training. The men training on the leg extension–flywheel apparatus showed a rate of front-thigh muscle growth of 3.5 to 5.2 percent after only 20 days. That translates to a 0.2 per- cent increase per day. Maximum muscle strength rose by

Stretch lines up the muscle sarcomeres for a number of mass-building effects.

cular changes, confirming long-held findings. On the other hand, the gains in muscle size surpassed previous expectations of the time required to acquire gains. The maximum voluntary muscle contraction improved signifi- cantly in only 10 days, detectable before any size increase. That points to increased muscle efficiency. At the molecular level the training rapidly led to produc- tion of intramuscular growth factors, mainly insulinlike growth factor 1 and its cleavage form, mechano-growth factor. The upgraded production of IGF-1 signals a biochemical cascade resulting in increased muscle protein synthesis, which in turn leads to muscle hypertrophy, or growth. The authors think that the flywheel design of the machine maximized every rep done by the subjects, and it was the maximal effort that promoted the IGF-1 response. Another interesting finding was that a muscle’s internal architecture changes with the onset of exercise. The purpose of the change is to prepare the muscle for growth. Structures in muscle called sarcomeres are lined up in an orderly pattern conducive to muscle growth. As it happened, the flywheel apparatus provided more stretch—which facilitates the lineup of sarcomeres within muscle—than usual machines. While the authors suggest that some of these changes occurred because of the unusual design of the machine, the principles could be applied to any type of resistance train- ing. For example, since the machine imparts more muscle damage due to a potent emphasis on both raising and lowering the weight, that aspect should also be emphasized in any exercise. The stretch aspect can be duplicated by using a full range of exercise motion, including a prestretch at the start of every rep. Again, that lines up the muscle sarcomeres, not only lead- ing to a stronger muscle contraction but also acting as a precursor of the muscle

architectural changes that precede actual muscle growth.

—Jerry Brainum

Seynnes, O.R., et al. (2007). Early skeletal muscle hypertrophy and archi- tectural changes in response to high-in- tensity resistance training. J Appl Physiol.

102:368-373.

APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

Charles Poliquin’s

Smart Training

but it’s about making the smart or the best or, in some cases, the least worst choice. I haven’t met you, so I can’t prescribe a specific diet. Generally, though, I suggest low- carb choices. If you can, always book the restaurant yourself. That way you know there will be something appropriate to eat. If you let the others reserve the spot, you don’t know where you’ll end up—it could be at an all-you-can-eat Chinese buffet or the VIP table next to Rosie O’Donnell. Here are some tips for eating out:

1) Have water with lemon or lime. That helps alkalize your system. The more alkaline you are, the easier it is to combat stress.

2) There’s always steak, chicken or other meats on the menu. The problems arise with the preparation and/or the toppings that come with the meat. Ask the waiter about any sauces or topping to check for hidden carbs.

3) Order a salad with your meat, and get balsamic vin-

egar and oil to make sure there are no hidden carbs again. It’s quite common for restaurants to add sugar to salad dressings for taste. The balsamic vinegar actually lowers the glycemic index of your meal by up to 20 percent. Ask for your salad to

be served with the main meal. If it comes early, put it aside and eat it after your meat.

4) When you order, ask for vegetables, and make sure they’re steamed or raw. You don’t want the side of potato or rice. Order veggies—or extra veggies—instead, and you won’t be tempted to eat it while you wheel and deal mil-

Eating Out and Ripping Up
Eating Out and
Ripping Up

Q: I’m presently reducing my fat percentage for beach season. I’m tired of going to the beach and being uncomfortable with my shirt off. Everything is going well except when I have to eat out. My job requires me to “do” lunch with coworkers and meet with advisers from other companies. I can’t take my lunch with me because I look like a weenie or some cheap freak, and I can’t ever decide what to eat. Any tips? A: No problem at all. Actually, your worrying about it is probably pushing your cortisol level up and doing more harm than anything else. Rarely do I find a restaurant that doesn’t have anything suitable to eat. It may not be perfect,

lion-dollar deals. Neveux \ Model: Markus Reinhardt
lion-dollar deals.
Neveux \ Model: Markus Reinhardt

5) Tell the waiter that you won’t be having dessert, so he or she won’t ask you at the end of meal. That way you’ll be less tempted when coworkers order it.

Q: I train first thing in the morning, an hour after I get up at 4 a.m. That’s the only time I can fit in workouts. My brother-in-law is a personal trainer and says I should eat before my workouts, but I feel sick if I do and usually have to stop my workout. Any sugges- tions?

A: Even though I find that people’s gains acceler- ate when they have two meals before they work out, that approach may not be realistic for many individuals—particularly for people who operate in the corporate world and have children. I suggest a protein-only shake as soon as your feet hit the floor

Eating out at restaurants frequently doesn’t have to smooth out your muscularity—if you make smart choices.

42

APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

Charles Poliquin’s

Smart Training

On reverse curls and hammer curls keep your wrists in a neutral position, but on
On reverse curls and hammer
curls keep your wrists in
a neutral position, but on
supinated, or palms-up,
curls cock your wrists so
your hands are back. That
will give you better biceps
activation.
read or suggest for trainees.
A: I just finished reading the
The Brain Diet by Alan C. Logan,
an excellent book that explains the
connection between diet, mental
health and realizing the full poten-
tial of our intelligence. It shows how
poor nutrition adversely affects our
mental health and success and what
can be done to achieve optimum
intellectual capacity. It’s a book that
should be required reading for all of
our political leaders, not to mention
bodybuilders.
Another great book that I rec-
ommend strongly is The Greatness
Guide by Robin Sharma. He’s a great
self-help author who’s lectured to
many Fortune 500 companies. He
gives you 101 success formulas of
the über-successful. Each chapter
is short and to the point. I’ve given
this book to all of my top clients this
year.
in the morning. Use a whey protein concen-
trate instead of an isolate, as it enhances your
immune system. Muscle growth is correlated
with the strength of your immune system—as
the survival of so many longtime AIDS patients
can attest.
Then drink a mixture of branched-chain
amino acids and glutamine while you train.
I suggest one gram of BCAAs for every five
pounds of bodyweight. Make sure that leucine
is the most abundant amino acid in the stack.
As soon as your workout is over, down
your postworkout shake. As close as you can
to one hour after your shake have your first
solid meal of the day. Meanwhile, remember
what Thomas Jefferson said: “The sun has not
caught me in bed in 50 years.”
Q: Why
do you rec-
ommend
cocking the
wrists down
and back on
supinated
curls?
Q: I want to thank you for your help
over the years; I have all of your books
and love studying to be a better trainer. I
was wondering what good books you’ve
A: That
trick was
shown to me
by bodybuild-
ing trainer
and nutrition-
ist Bill Mac-
Donald of
Fresno 24
years ago. Bill
had trained
a host of
Mr. America
contestants,
including
Gary Leonard,
who later
turned IFBB
pro. MacDon-
Neveux \ Model: Nathan Detracy
Neveux \ Model: Jose Raymond

44

APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

Neveux

Bradford

46

Charles Poliquin’s

Smart Training

Franco Columbu, Mr. Olympia and one of Arnold’s training partners, believed in establishing a strong
Franco Columbu, Mr.
Olympia and one of Arnold’s
training partners, believed in
establishing a strong mind/
muscle connection.

negative-accentuated rep. Don’t worry if your curling poundages go down. The levels of growth in your elbow flexors will compensate for the diminished loads. Because of the better over- load, you should be handling your previous loads in the new style of curling in no time.

Q: What is your opinion on selecting exercises based on “feel”?

A: I first learned this one from Franco Columbu, D.C., who was a world-class bodybuilder and train- ing partner of the Governator at his bodybuilding peak. Multiple Mr. Olympia Dorian Yates confirmed that concept with me. The premise is that if there’s no mind/muscle connection, you’re wasting your time. Having talked to a number of high-caliber bodybuilders, I find that they tend to use exercises that they could feel well. For example, Columbu told me he felt nothing from decline barbell presses, so he scrapped them. My good friend IFBB pro Milos Sarcev is also of that opinion. He reports that he may start every arm workout with very light concentra-

ald was way ahead of his time in terms of nutrition and training. Too bad the bodybuilding media never discovered him. He showed it to me as we were discussing the effect of tempo on muscle hypertrophy. Most people unconsciously initiate the action by curling the wrist in, or they curl it in when approaching fatigue. That reduces the resistance, thus improving your leverage. Since some of the load is being taken by the forearm flexors, the burden on the elbow flexors diminishes. The rationale is that you prevent the use of the fore- arms during curls by extending the wrists down and back. The consequence is that you increase the overload on the elbow flexors, which is what you really want when you do a curling exercise. You may well ask if that increases the stress on the wrists: No. In the past 24 years, none of the trainees with whom I’ve shared that tip have ever reported wrist pain or forearm strain from it. However, you should extend the wrists down and back only in supinated (palms-up) curls. When doing reverse curls or hammer-style curls, your wrists should stay in a neutral position. Another way to use the technique is to extend the dura- tion of a set. When you can’t get any more reps with your wrists cocked back, curl your hands forward during the concentric action, and then lower the weight with your wrist cocked back. Since you’re about 15 to 20 percent stronger with your wrist curled up than curled down, that can substitute for having a partner apply upward pressure for a forced rep or two. In other words, it would be like a

APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

tion curls and focus his mind on the shortening/lengthening cycle to the point where he can feel the mind/muscle connec- tion, then proceed with his planned workout. The mind is an often neglected element of training. I always encourage athletes to make that mind/body con- nection as early as possible in their training careers.

Editor’s note: Charles Poliquin is recognized as one of the world’s most successful strength coaches, having

coached Olympic medalists in 12 different sports, includ- ing the U.S. women’s

track-and-field team for the 2000 Olympics. He’s spent years re- searching European journals (he’s fluent in English, French and German) and speak- ing with other coach- es and scientists in his quest to optimize training methods. For more on his books, seminars and meth- ods, visit www .CharlesPoliquin .net. Also, see his ad on page 183. IM

Charles Poliquin www.CharlesPoliquin.net
Charles Poliquin
www.CharlesPoliquin.net

EAT TO

NUTRITION

SCIENCE

Protein and Muscle Resizing

New protein studies show mixed results

Milk contains two primary proteins:

that can last up to seven hours. The rapid release of amino acids promotes protein synthesis after exer- cise. It also promotes the breakdown of those amino acids in the liver, explaining why they disappear after 90 minutes. While rapid amino acid appearance fa-

vors increased muscle protein synthesis following exercise, that’s only part of the muscle-building equation. The

Many protein

catabolic effects. A number of studies both dispute and support those findings. One study found that both proteins produced an equal amount of protein synthesis after exercise. Another found that providing more frequent whey feedings had an anticatabolic effect similar to that of casein. Still another found that with a constant infusion of amino acids into

the blood, all muscle protein synthesis

whey and casein. Several studies have examined their uptake. Whey is rapidly absorbed, reaching peak values of amino acid entry into the blood within 90 minutes, after which amino acid blood levels return to normal. In con- trast, casein curdles in the stomach, leading to a slow release of amino acids

supplements

other aspect involves an anti- catabolic effect, also controlled by the presence of amino acids in the blood. Since muscle pro- tein synthesis occurs for 36 hours follow- ing a weight workout, an optimal nu- tritional envi- ronment will constantly supply amino acids during that time. Casein fills the bill here, since its amino acids are released over seven hours. As a result, studies show that casein is superior to whey for anti-

ceases after four hours. Adding to the confusion are two recently published studies that exam- ined the anabolic effects of milk protein metabolism. The first study looked at precisely how different milk proteins affect the body’s anabolic processes. It compared the metabolic fates of three types of protein formulations: 1) micel- lar casein (MC); 2) milk-soluble protein isolate (MSPI); and 3) total milk protein (TMP), which contains both casein and whey. The proteins were labeled with radioactive tracers to map their metab- olism in 23 healthy subjects divided into three groups. Each group got one of the three protein formulations. Prior to the study, they were all on a standard- ized diet containing the same amount of protein in each meal for one week. The fate of the proteins was mea- sured over an eight-hour period. The MSPI, which had the most rapid diges- tion rate, also produced the highest rate of amino acid breakdown into urea, the liver’s major metabolic protein waste product. The rapid release of the amino acids from MSPI promoted the liver breakdown of its amino acids, despite the high amino acid content of MSPI, including leucine, a branched- chain amino acid largely responsible for

designed for

bodybuilders

now contain

whey and

casein.

 

Neveux \ Model: Omar Deckard

APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

48

GROW

Nutrition With a Get-Big Mission

GROW Nutrition With a Get-Big Mission inducing muscle protein synthesis. The breakdown occurred within two hours

inducing muscle protein synthesis. The breakdown occurred within two hours and produced levels of urea twice as high as occurred with the other two protein forms. After eight hours MSPI showed an amino acid breakdown 7 percent higher than that of casein. While the high branched-chain- amino-acid content of MSPI, which is similar to that of whey, should have led to a sustained muscle protein synthesis effect, the BCAAs in the blood returned to baseline after four hours, in contrast to the sustained BCAA levels produced by the other two protein sources. The rapid breakdown of amino acids from MSPI makes it unlikely to have anabolic effects in muscle, according to the authors. The total milk protein pro- duced the highest nitrogen retention of the three, which would point to a greater ana- bolic effect in muscle. That was thought to be related to an early meta- bolic and hormonal effect of the whey protein fraction, followed by a sustained effect from the casein portion. Another study came to a different conclusion. It compared hydrolyzed whey isolate—similar to the MSPI used in the previous study—to casein on strength, body composition and plasma glutamine levels during a supervised 10-week bodybuilding program. Thir- teen noncompetitive male bodybuilders took either whey isolate (WI) or casein (C) in amounts of 1.5 grams per kilo- gram of bodyweight per day throughout the study. Thus, a 200-pound body- builder would get 135 grams of protein supplement daily. The study used a double-blind design, so neither group knew who got the whey or the casein. While the primary focus of the study compared the effects of the two major

milk protein supplements, a secondary focus was on their effect on plasma glutamine levels. Some studies show that higher-protein diets have an in- verse effect on glutamine levels. Other studies show that weightlifters have lower blood levels of glutamine than other athletes. High-intensity anaerobic training, such as bodybuilding, is also known to lower plasma glutamine. Since whey is rich in BCAAs, which are the precursors of glutamine synthesis, the authors wanted to see how a whey or casein supplement would affect glu- tamine in the trained bodybuilders. After 10 weeks neither group showed any changes in glutamine levels. The whey group, however, had significantly greater lean mass gain, greater fat loss and greater strength gain. On the other hand, the whey group got an average of 250 more calo-

ries daily than the casein group. That’s significant because past studies show

a direct relationship between calorie

intake and protein requirements, in that

a higher protein intake is supported

by the intake of additional calories for purposes of increasing muscle. Interestingly, the authors suggest that whey’s higher content of the amino acid cysteine led to a reduced produc- tion of urea. That’s in direct opposi- tion to the findings of the study that showed greater urea production from a wheylike protein source because of its rapid amino acid uptake. The cysteine content of whey isolate is also thought to account for the fat loss. The casein group experienced no change in fat loss during the study. Those in the whey group also tended to reduce their intake of food protein

in favor of the whey. That could relate

to the satiety effect of concentrated protein, which can have a marked effect

on ap-

petite. On

the other

hand, as

mentioned

above,

the whey

group

consumed

slightly

more calo-

ries than

the casein

group.

So

which

protein is

better for

Total milk protein, that contains casein and whey, produced the

muscle- highest nitrogen retention.

building purposes, whey or casein? It’s probably best to play it safe by getting both forms, such as with a total-milk-protein supplement.

That provides the best of both worlds, with the rapid uptake

and increased muscle protein synthesis provided by whey, along with the sustained, anticata- bolic effect produced by casein. That equation equals more muscle growth. —Jerry Brainum

References

Lacroix, M., et al. (2006). Compared with casein or total milk protein, diges- tion of milk-soluble proteins is too rapid to sustain the anabolic postprandial amino acid requirement. Am J Clin Nutr.

84:1070-1079.

Cribb, P., et al. (2006). The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on

strength, body composition, and plas- ma glutamine. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metabol. 16:494-509.

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ APRIL 2007

49

Eat to Grow
Eat to Grow
NUTRITION NOTES Food Facts That can affect your workouts, weight and wellness Mixing foods changes
NUTRITION
NOTES
Food Facts
That can affect your
workouts, weight and wellness
Mixing foods changes the glycemic index of the meal, as
compared to eating a lone carbohydrate.
WARRIOR
NUTRITION
AND
EXERCISE
Glycemic Index Insights
GI for carb
selection?
The glycemic index shows how much insulin your body secretes when a nutrient
is introduced into your blood. Although it sounds simple, it’s actually quite confus-
ing. The same food can have a different GI depending on how it’s cooked. Pasta
al dente (pasta that’s cooked for a shorter time and so remains slightly hard) has a
lower glycemic index than well-cooked, soft pasta. Baked potatoes have a higher
glycemic index than mashed potatoes because of a difference in the
macrostructure of the carbohydrate.
When you add butter, milk, monunsaturated oil or essential fatty
acids to food, it usually lowers the GI. So if you eat a baked potato
with oil, for instance, it has a lower glycemic index than a plain baked
potato. Fiber slows carbohydrate absorption and therefore may help
reduce the glycemic index of the carbs. Whole grains have a lower
glycemic index than refined grains.
Even though many people consider
the glycemic index as the
key to selecting carbs,
I don’t believe that
the GI is always as
critical a factor as
it’s believed to
be. Fructose,
for example, has a lower GI
than white rice. In my opinion,
though, high-fructose corn
syrup, which appears in many
commercial foods, processed foods
and health bars, is one of the most
dangerous and destructive sources of
carbs. White rice, with
its higher GI, is the far superior
Sun exposure
early in life may
ward off multiple
sclerosis. Accord-
ing to Bottom Line
Health, a study
of more than 700
pairs of twins
found that those born in northeastern
states were almost twice as likely to
get MS as those born farther south.
Researchers link less risk with early
sun exposure.
Amino acids reduce
muscle soreness. Japa-
nese researchers gave
30 subjects a mixture of
amino acids isoleucine,
leucine and valine before
squat workouts. The sub-
jects experienced signifi-
cantly less soreness and
fatigue than those who
took a sugar pill, which would indicate
that taking amino
acid supplements
before training is a
good idea.
Coffee cranks
up your workout
energy, but it can
also help prevent
type 2 diabetes by
more than 40 per-
cent. That’s what
a Harvard study
found—and it only
takes two to three
cups of coffee a
day.
choice.
—Ori Hofmekler
Editor’s note: Ori Hofmekler is the author of the books
The Warrior Diet and Maximum Muscle & Minimum Fat,
published by Dragon Door Publications (www.dragondoor
.com). For more information or for a consultation, contact
him at ori@warriordiet.com, www.warriordiet.com or by
phone at (866) WAR-DIET.
A high-fiber
breakfast can
help keep your ap-
petite in check. You
should get about 30
grams of fiber a day,
but try to get a big
dose in the morning.
Pomegranate
juice appears to re-
duce the growth rate
of prostate cancer, says a
new study. It looks as though it also
promotes blood flow to the sexual
organs and to the heart.
—Becky Holman
www.X-tremeLean.com

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www.X-tremeLean.com 50 APRIL 2007 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com Free Free download download from from

Eat to Grow

SUPPLEMENT

SAFETY

Teen Toxicity?

Is creatine safe for young athletes?

FAT FLUX Calorie Counterattack Conjugated linoleic acid is a fatty acid found in dairy foods
FAT
FLUX
Calorie Counterattack
Conjugated linoleic
acid is a fatty acid
found in dairy foods
and beef—and it may
help you control your
weight. Scientists
at the Univerisity of
Wisconsin had 40
overweight subjects
take four grams of
CLA or a placebo with
breakfast. After six
months the CLA users
had lost 1.3 pounds,
while those who took
the placebo gained
2.4 pounds. Although
CLA isn’t a miracle
fat-loss compound, it does appear to be helpful in curbing
fat gain.
—Becky Holman
www.X-tremeLean.com

Many parents and coaches wonder if creatine supple- ments are safe for teenage athletes. Some suggest that as teens are still growing, creatine may somehow adversely affect their health. They suggest that despite having no evidence whatsoever to support such ideas. A study presented at the American College of Sports Medicine Conference on Integra- tive Physiology of Exercise in 2006 examined the effects of creatine use on teen athletes. Twenty 16-year-old male football players from Spokane, Washington, were divided into two main groups. One group ate large amounts of protein and carbohydrate and supple- mented their diets with a daily intake of 10 grams of creatine. The others ate whatever they wanted but also took 10 grams of creatine daily. Two subgroups, one of which ate a high- protein and high-carb diet, while the other group ate whatever they wanted, didn’t take creatine. All groups followed a four- day workout program, training two days on and one day off. After 26 weeks those on the creatine who ate a lot of pro- tein and carbs showed a 20 percent improvement in various measures of physical performance, including speed, strength and agility. They also had more muscle mass and less bodyfat. None showed any signs of side effects from the creatine. This study demonstrates that creatine use, combined with good nutrition, offers teenagers significant benefits for sports perfor- mance and body composition without any side effects. —Jerry Brainum

Dami, D. (2006). The effects of oral creatine in combination with specific nutrition to enhance adolescent sports perfor- mance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 38: Supp 1:S30.

WEIGHT LOSS Stay Warm, Lose Weight Did you know that cold temperatures tend to stimulate
WEIGHT
LOSS
Stay Warm, Lose Weight
Did you know that cold temperatures tend to stimulate
appetite? Folks with naturally low body temperatures are
more prone to weight gain because of that. In fact, every
degree increase in
body temperature
increases metabo-
lism by 14 percent.
One reason may
be that higher
temperatures are
more conducive to
growth hormone re-
lease. If you’re train-
ing in a cold gym,
bundle up to keep
your muscles warm,
your metabolism
stoked and the GH
flowing.
—Becky Holman
www.X-tremeLean
.com
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Neveux \ Model: Justin Balik
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Eat to Grow

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ANABOLIC

DRIVE

The Dimension of Time and Hypertrophy

When I was an undergrad wa-a-a-y back in the 1980s, my nutrition professor told me that it didn’t matter when you ate as long as the total calories throughout the day balanced your energy needs. Of course, she was the same professor who said too much protein was bad for your kidneys and that it was a waste of money to take multivita- mins. Hmm, I hope she’s still not saying that stuff today. Times have changed. We definitely know that when you eat matters. Nutrient timing is one of the most intriguing new subfields of sports nutrition, and the research that is pumped out each year is amazing. Ask yourself this: Rather than taking my supplements pre- and postworkout, why not just take the stuff when I wake up and then again in the evening? It’s certainly more convenient. Well, buckle your chinstraps, my friend, and take heed with the latest research showing that timing does indeed matter. A recent study looked at the effects of supplement timing on muscle-fiber hypertrophy, strength and body composition during a 10-week weight-training program. In a single-blind (meaning the investigators knew what they were giving the subjects but the subjects didn’t know what they were getting), randomized protocol, resistance-trained males were matched for strength and placed into one of two groups. One group got a supplement (one gram of the supplement per kilogram of bodyweight) containing protein, creatine and glucose immediately before and after weight training. The other group consumed the same dose of the same supplement in the morning and late evening. For a 176-

same supplement in the morning and late evening. For a 176- pound person, that translates into

pound person, that translates into 32 grams of protein, 34.4 grams of carb, less than 0.4 grams of fat and 5.6 grams of creatine monohydrate. Guess what? The group that took the supplement before and after training had better adaptations. They demonstrated a significantly greater increase in lean body mass and one- repetition-maximum strength on the squat and bench press. That group also had a greater increase in the size of their type 2, or fast-twitch, fibers and contractile protein content. Last but not least, preworkout and postworkout supplementation also resulted in higher muscle creatine and glycogen levels after the training program. The take-home message: Take a com- bination of carbs and protein immediately before and after training. Your strength, lean body mass, fast-twitch fibers, intramuscular creatine and intramuscular glycogen levels will improve to a significantly greater extent. —Jose Antonio, Ph.D.

Editor’s note: You can listen to Dr. Jose Antonio and Carla Sanchez on their radio show Performance Nutrition, Web and pod- cast at www.PerformanceNutritionShow .com. Dr. Antonio is the CEO of the Interna- tional Society of Sports Nutrition (www .TheISSN.org). His other Web sites include www.SupplementCoach.com, www.Javafit. com, www.PerformanceNutritionShow.com and www.JoseAntonioPhD.com.

Cribb, P.J., and Hayes, A. (2006). Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 38(11):1918-1925.

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