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Verified Emission Reductions from Bundled Methane Avoidance Projects by

MSW Processing in Maharashtra and Gujarat, India

Project Owner:
M/s Hanjer Biotech Energies Pvt. Ltd.

PROJECT INFORMATION AND PICUTRES


Project locations
Village Urli Dewanci, Pune City, (state of Maharashtra)
Villages Uttan and Pali, Mira Bhayander City, (state of Maharashtra)
Sachin Surat Village, Surat City, (state of Gujarat)
Village Gokhivare, Vasai City, (state of Maharashtra)
Village Alsava, Junagadh City (state of Gujarat)

Authorized person for report preparation, and report preparation:

Mr Kishore Butani
Carbonyatra
52 Escada, Rebello Road,
Bandra (W), Mumbai
400050 Maharashtra India
www.carbonyatra.com

Mr. Vihar Pancholi,


Maverik Incorporation
2 - Giribaug, Behind Center Point, Alkapuri,
R.C. Dutt Road, Vadodara
390005. Gujarat. India

Subscription to ISO:14064-II
Executive Summary
M/S Hanjer Biotech Energies (P) Ltd. (HBEPL), the project proponent, has commissioned five municipal solid
waste (MSW) treatment facilities to produce Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) which are supplied to local industries
to replace fossil fuels for thermal applications.

The five project activities thus result in GHG emission reductions by avoiding methane emissions which would
otherwise have been released due to anaerobic decomposition of the MSW in uncontrolled landfill sites and
the use of an equivalent amount of fossil fuels displaced by RDF pellets used for thermal energy generation in
the industries supplied. The present project document is description is assertion for GHG mitigation from
project proponent as per requirements as identified in ISO 14064-II.

“Municipal SolidMunicipal Solid “Municipal Solid Municipal Solid Municipal Solid


Waste processing Waste processing Waste Waste processing Waste processing
(MSW) in the city (MSW) in the city processing in (MSW) in the city in the city of
of Pune, India” at of Mira Bhayander, the city of Surat, of Vasai, India” at Junagadh, India”
Name of
Urli Dewanci, Pune India” at Uttan and India” at Paiki, Gokhivare village, at Alsava village,
facility
in the state of Pali, Mira Khajod Final Vasai Taluka, Junagadh city in
Maharashtra Bhayander of Disposal Site, Thane District in the state of
Thane District, Sachin Surat, the state of Gujarat.
Maharashtra. Surat, Gujarat Maharashtra
Location Urli Dewanci, Pune Uttan and Pali, Paiki, Khajod Gokhivare village, Alsava village,
in the state of Mira Bhayander of Final Disposal Vasai Taluka, Junagadh city in
Maharashtra Thane District, Site, Sachin Thane District in the state of
Maharashtra Surat, Surat, the state of Gujarat
Gujarat Maharashtra
Project
Commissioning September 2008 April 2008 September 2008 September 2008 September 2008
Date

Project Participant: M/s Hanjer Biotech Energies Pvt. Ltd.


Monitoring Period: September 2008-December 2010

TYPE: Large Scale Project Activities

“Avoided emissions from organic waste through alternative waste treatment process”

Approved baseline and monitoring methodology AM0025


Sustainability:
Economic and Social
Well Being
The project’s contribution to
sustainable development is
assessed on the following basis:

1. The project activity generates


employment in the plant during
construction stage and later on in
operation & maintenance of
plant/ machinery.
3. Reserves of fossil fuels are depleting with increasing demand
for energy in the country, the project activity helps in
conservation of fossil fuels and in enhancing nation’s energy
security.

2. The project activity helps in


emission reduction of methane, a
potent GHG otherwise generated
due to anaerobic decomposition
of waste in unsecured landfill site.
4. Ground water contamination
due to leakage of leachate is
avoided by the project activity.
Also, current practice of MSW
dumping attracts animals, flies
and birds over the landfill area. By
avoiding open dumping, the
aesthetics of the city would be
enhanced and overall hygiene of
the area in and around the landfill
sites would be appreciably
improved.

7. Encourages more industries to adopt this technology not only


in the region but also on the national level. Helps to encourage
more and more municipal corporations to go ahead with similar
type of MSW management systems.

5. The project activity helps in


enhanced life of landfill site as
only inert material would be
dumped in landfill site in the
project activity. This helps
municipal corporations in India in
implementing MSW Rules 2000 as
such project activities face a
number of barriers to their
implementation.
8. Adoption of the HEBL MSW
processing technology would
encourage technology providers
to further their efforts in
upgrading technology and bring in
more investments in this
direction.
Sources of emissions and gases included in the project
Overview on emissions sources included in or excluded from the project boundary.

Source Gas Included? Justification /


Explanation
CO2 Yes Fossil fuel which would have
been used for thermal energy
generation in the absence of the
project activity.
Municipal Solid Waste Yes CH4 emissions from the waste
CH4 which would be left for decay in
the absence of project activity.
N2O No Excluded for Simplification and
for Being Conservative

Description of how the anthropogenic emissions of GHG by sources are reduced below those that would
have occurred in the absence of the registered project activity (assessment and demonstration of
additionality)
The project activity shall result in CH4 emission reduction, a potent GHG by avoiding anaerobic
decomposition of untreated MSW in unsecured landfill sites, which is the current practice of disposal of
municipal solid waste in the cities of Thane, Pune, Surat and Junagadh..

In the absence of proposed project activity from HBEPL, dumping of MSW in open / unsecured landfill
site in the cities of Thane, Pune, Surat and Junagadh would have continued at present level and there
would be no reduction in GHG emissions. Also the project activity reduces the anthropogenic emissions
of CO2 by displacing the fossil fuel (lignite) by RDF.

Common Practice Analysis


“Most of the waste disposal sites in the country are uncontrolled dumps1.” In India cities are
categorized as Class I to VI on the basis of population. The MSW generation in cities varies between
~170 gm/c/day and ~700 gm/c/day. As per estimations from Ministry of Urban Development, India, the
total generation of MSW in India is at approx. 100,000 TPD. In India, municipal solid waste is generally
dumped outside houses or at common collection site, and is left for municipal authorities for taking it to
a designated dumping site. It is common to find solid waste dumps near towns and cities. These dumps
are mostly either in depression or in open grounds. Wide spread land, air and water pollution is caused
from these dumps. The dumping sites are not properly managed nor have been planted with suitable
plant species to help in quick degradation of solid waste by way of creating conducive for the growth of
micro- organism besides providing greenery. Appropriate post dumping practices are also seldom
performed causing perpetual problem of air and water pollution. The MSW effect specific environment

1 http://www.cpcb.nic.in/Local_Bodies.php
and health impacts including spread of epidemics and so these required to be properly managed and
disposed of following precise procedures, arrangements and measures to prevent environment
degradation and health hazards. MSW is, however, not being appropriately managed due to inadequate
finances, inadequate training of personnel, lack of performance, monitoring, inadequate emphasis on
preventive maintenance, etc. At present most of the solid waste is being disposed off in an unscientific
manner.

The technology of converting MSW into RDF is still in nascent state in India. There are only few such kind
of project in India, which also need to prove a history of long, untroubled and uninterrupted operation.

So, the project activities are not a business-as-usual case and is additional. It faces barriers against its
implementation. This is also supported by the fact that there are only a few such projects in place in
India and these are yet to establish a long term unhindered operational track record.
List of MSW processing plants in operation on commercial basis in India based on pelletisation
technology and have been developed to generate carbon offsets are:
• MSW processing plant, Jaiprakash Associates Limited, Chandigarh (Punjab)
• Grasim Industries Limited – Tamil Nadu
• Selco International (P) Ltd – Andhra Pradesh
• Shriram Energy Systems Limited – Andhra Pradesh

Technological barrier:
Processing of municipal solid waste is an emerging technology which incorporates a wide variety of
diversity of systems designed both for processing of solid waste as well the combustion of the same. It is
also established that a number of problems need to be resolved and technical developments to be
carried out in this sector.

However, the fact remains that countries like India still have limited experience with the processing
systems meant for MSW processing and have to cope up with lack of long term experimental data for
these processes for making a fool proof & established cost indices. Unlike European countries, the
Indian MSW has lower calorific value and mass combustion of MSW as received is not suitable in Indian
context.

There is no mechanical facility provided other than screening machine which cannot separate wet and
dry waste for segregation of MSW. Because of the very high cost of facilities for the sorting, separation
and recycling of waste, it is uneconomical for the project participants.

RDF firing energy plant facilities are complex and regardless of size, call for specialized design, automatic
control sophistication and construction. Materials handling, fuel feeding, ash removal, air pollution
control and overall operating procedures are far more complicated than those of a similarly sized
biomass based power plant. In RDF firing, the garbage / MSW received is separated, classified and
reclaimed in various ways to yield high calorific value fuel. The combustion of RDF poses its own set of
unique problems to a boiler designer in the areas like fuel handling system, combustion, staging/fouling
and corrosion/erosion, which can be quite different from those, encountered in a mass burn boiler
system.

In India management of Municipal Solid Waste is governed in accordance with “Municipal Solid Wastes
(Management and Handling) Rules 2000” formulated by Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF). It
makes mandatory for the municipal corporations to implement a scientific solid waste management
system. The rules give guidelines on collection, segregation, storage, transportation, processing and
disposal of municipal solid wastes in a scientific sanitary landfill site.

Though the dateline for compliance was December 31, 2003 by all the municipal authorities for setting
up of waste processing and disposal facilities, however due to a number of constraints only few of them
could comply with it. These constraints primarily are lack of infrastructure and poor financial status of
municipal authorities, lack of awareness, unavailability of technology, poor enforcement of rules &
regulations and the multiplicities of agencies involved etc.

HBEPL has no experience in waste handling and processing systems. From the above, it is clear that the
project faces many technological barriers which leads to the frequent shut down of the plant and hence
the significant revenue loss of the company. Additional revenue from carbon offsets would help the
plant in maintaining the sustainability of the project to a great extent.
Project Locations:

The following map shows the exact location of the project activity.

5 Municipal Solid Waste


processing sites in India
Municipal Solid Waste
processing in the city of
Junagadh, India

Municipal Solid Waste


processing in the city of
Surat, India
Municipal Solid Waste
processing (MSW) in the
city of Pune, India

Municipal Solid
Waste processing
(MSW) in the city of
Vasai, India Municipal Solid
Waste processing
(MSW) in the city of
Mira Bhayander,
India