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MTH 309E LINEAR ALGEBRA

2010.03.17

Lecture 23:

• eigenvalues and eigenvectors


Recall:

1) If V � W are vector spaces then a linear transformation is a


function
T : V −→ W
such that
• T (u + v) = T (u) + T (v)

• T (�v) = �T (v)

2) Linear transformations T : R� → R� are given by matrix


multiplication:
T (v) = Av

3) If V is vector space with basis B = {v1� � � � � v�}


W is vector space with basis C = {w1� � � � � w�}
then a linear transformation T : V −→ W is represented by a
matrix M such that
� � � �
T (u) C = M u B

Problem: How can we understand what a linear transformation


T does with vectors by looking at the matrix of T ?

Example.
� �
2 0 T : R2 −→ R2
A=
0 3 u �−→ Au
Problem: How can we understand what a linear transformation
T does with vectors by looking at the matrix of T ?

Example.
� �
2 0 The
T : transformation
R2 −→ R2 T stretches R2
A=
0 3 • by u the
�−→factor
Au 2 in the direction of e1;
• by the factor 3 in the direction of e2.
The transformation T stretches R2
• by the factor 2 in the direction of e1;
The transformation
• by the factor 3 in the direction of e . R2 transformation
T stretches T stretches R2
e1 e2 T (e1) 2 T (eThe 2) T R2
• by the factor 2 in the direction •ofbye1;the factor 2 in the direction of e1
• by the factor 3 in the direction •ofbye2.the factor 3 in the direction of e2
2
e1 e2 T (e1) T (e2) T R

2
e1 e2 T (e1) T (e2) T R
e1 e2 T (e1) T (e2) T R2

The transformation T stretches R2


• by the factor 2 in the direction of e1;
• by the factor 3 in the direction of e2.

e1 e2 T (e1) T (e2) T R2
The transformation S stretches R2
• by the factor 4 in the direction
• by the factor 2 in the direction
Example.
2
� The
� transformation S stretches R
3 1 • by the factor
S: R 2
4 in−→
2
theRdirection of v1e; 1
B= e2 S(e1) S(e2) S R
1 3 • by the factor u
2 in�−→
the Bu
direction of v2.

The transformation S stretches R2


v1 v2 S(v1) S(v )
• by
e1 theefactor 4 in
S(e ) the direction
S(e ) The
S of v12;
transformation
R S stretches R2 2
2 1 2
• by the factor 2 in the direction of vthe
• by 2 . factor 4 in the direction of v1 ;
• by the factor 2 in the direction of v2.
v1 v2 S(v1) S(v2)
e1 e2 S(e1) S(e2) S R2
e1 e2 S(e1) S(e2) S R2

v1 v2 S(v1) S(v2)
v1 v2 S(v1) S(v2)

The transformation S stretches R2


• by the factor 4 in the direction of v1;
• by the factor 2 in the direction of v2.

e1 e2 S(e1) S(e2) S R2

v1 v2 S(v1) S(v2)
Definition. Let A be an � × � matrix. If v ∈ R� is a non-zero
vector and λ ∈ R is a scalar such that

Av = λv
then we say that
• λ is an eigenvalue of A
• v is an eigenvector of A corresponding to λ.

Example.
� �
2 0
A=
0 3
Example.
� �
3 1
B=
1 3
Note. For any eigenvalue λ of a matrix A there are infinitely
many eigenvectors corresponding to λ.

Example.
 
2 0 0
A=0 2 0
0 0 3

Proposition. Let A be an �×� matrix and let λ be an eigenvalue


of A.
1) If u� v ∈ R� are eigenvectors corresponding to λ then so is
the vector u + v.
2) If v ∈ R� is an eigenvector corresponding to λ then so is
the vector �v for every scalar �.

Corollary/Definition.
If A is an � × � matrix and λ is an eigenvalue of A then the set
of all eigenvectors of A corresponding to λ is a subspace of R�.
This subspace is called the eigenspace of A corresponding to λ.

Next time:
Given a square matrix A
• how to compute eigenvalues of A ?
• if λ is an eigenvalue of A how to find the corresponding
eigenspace?
2) If v ∈ R� is an eigenvector corresponding to λ then so is
the vector �v for every scalar �.

Corollary/Definition.
If A is an � × � matrix and λ is an eigenvalue of A then the set
of all eigenvectors of A corresponding to λ is a subspace of R�.
This subspace is called the eigenspace of A corresponding to λ.

Next time:
Given a square matrix A
• how to compute eigenvalues of A ?
• if λ is an eigenvalue of A how to find the corresponding
eigenspace?