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Overview of UMTS

Guoyou He

Tik-109.551

Helsinki University of Technology

1
Agenda
• Introduction

• Evolution from GSM to UMTS

• UMTS Architecture

• UMTS Protocols

• UMTS Services

• UMTS Venders

• Terminal Availability

• Summary

2
Introduction (1/4)

1G
– Introduced in late 1970s and early 1980s

– Typical Systems: AMPS, NMT and TACS

– Services: Aanalog voice and basic mobility

– Problems: incompatability, limited capacity

3
Introduction (2/4)
2G
– Development started in 1982

– First GSM network was opened in Finland in 1991

– Typical Systems: GSM, D-AMPS, PDC and CDMA

– Services: Speech transmission, data transmission and


supplementary services

– Problems: Incompatability, not fully globalized

4
Introduction (3/4)
3G
– Development:

• Research on the suitability of CDMA and TDMA for 3G started in 1991

• 3GPP was created in Denmark in 1998, it specifies UMTS standards

– Target: Globalization of mobile communicaitons

– Requirements:

• Worldwidely valid system having standardized open major interfaces

• Clearly added value to GSM and backward compatible at least with GSM and ISDN

• Must support multimedia

• Worldwidely available generic radio access providing wideband capacity

• Services must be independent from radio access technology

• Network infrastructure must not limit the services to be generated 5


Introduction (4/4)

3G (continued)
– UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System: The
European vision of 3G

• 3GPP R99 frozen in March 2000

• 3GPP R4 frozen in March 2001

• 3GPP R5 frozen in March 2002 or June 2002

• 3GPP R6 target time June 2003, estimated time December 2003

– UMTS is already a reality

6
Evolution from GSM to UMTS (1/12)

NMS

Um A

MS
BSS NSS
ISDN
BTS BSC TRAU MSC/VLR GMSC
PSTN PSPDN

X.25

V C
HLR/AuC/EIR I A
HW&SW Changes for HSCSD A M
GSM Phase 2+ N E
S L

GSM Networks
7
Evolution from GSM to UMTS (2/12)

• GSM offers 9.6 kb/s symmetric data connection

• To provide service, VAS platforms as service nodes and centers were


added to the GSM (e.g. SMSC, VMS)

• Basic GSM and VAS are intended for mass people, to provide more
individual services, IN were integrated with GSM (e.g. pre-paid, free-
phone, etc.)

• The capability limits support for data services

• HSCSD was introduced

– Bit rate increased from 9.6 kb/s to 14.4 kb/s for channel coding

– 8 channels can be used, theoretical max bit rate is 115.2 kb/s, in reality bit rate is
40-50kb/s

8
Evolution from GSM to UMTS (GPRS) (3/12)

NMS

Um A

MS
BSS NSS
ISDN
BTS BSC TRAU MSC/VLR GMSC
P STN PSPDN
X.25
C
HLR/AuC/EIR
V I A
HW&SW Changes A N M
for GPRS S E
Gb L
Other Data
Netwrok
GPRS Packet Core

SGSN GGSN Interent

Introduction of GPRS
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Evolution from GSM to UMTS (GPRS) (4/12)

• More data services were introduced, CS is not the best possible media for
data traffic

• GPRS was introduced and brought PS services into GSM

• HW & SW changes in MS and BSS

• New network elements, SGSN, GGSN, etc. introduced

• Theoretical max speed is 171.2 kb/s using all 8 tiemslots

• In reality 1 – 4 timeslots are used due to HW limitations

• QoS can not be guaranteed due to

– GPRS traffic is secondary traffic

– GPRS traffic uses unused network resources, which can not be known exactly in advance
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Evolution from GSM to UMTS (ED G E) (5/12)
NMS

Um A

MS
E-RAN NSS
ISDN
BTS BSC TRAU MSC/VLR GMSC
PSTN PSPDN

X.25
C
HLR/AuC/EIR
V I A
HW&SW Changes A N M
for EDGE S E
Gb L
Other Data
Netwrok
E-GPRS Packet Core

SGSN GGSN Interent

Introduction EDGE to GPRS system


11
Evolution from GSM to UMTS(ED G E) (6/12)

• EDGE uses 8-PSK modulation enhancing thtoughput


for both GPRS and HSCSD
• Phase 1:
– E-GPRS: data rate for PS traffic increased to 384 kb/s
– BSS changed as E-RAN

• Phase 2:
– E-HSCSD: same speed for CS traffic (384 kb/s)

• EDGE can deliver 3G mobile multimedia services using


existing frequencies, bandwidth and carrier structure

12
Evolution from GSM to UMTS
U MTS (3G PP R99) (7/12)
NMS

Um

MS A
E-RAN CN CS Domain
ISDN
BTS BSC 3G 3G
PSTN PSPDN
MSC/VLR GMSC
Iu X.25
C M
HLR/AuC/EIR
V A WE O
AMA x S
Uu SE P E A
Gb L

UE Other Data
UTRAN CN PS Domain Netwrok

BS RNC SGSN GGSN


Interent

Iu

3G network (3GPP R99)


13
Evolution from GSM to UMTS
U MTS (3G PP R99) (8/12)

• 3G introduces new radio access network UTRAN


• UTRAN uses WCDMA as radio access technology
• WCDMA is a global system for 3G mobile
communicaitons
• Interoperability of GSM/UMTS
– E-RAN is modified to broadcast system information of WCDMA

– Interworking functionality is introduced into 2G MSC/VLR for


handling WCDMA

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Evolution from GSM to UMTS
U MTS (Features after R99) (9/12)
• Separation of connection, its control and services

• Conversion to full IP 3G networks

• Provision of enhanced multimedia services

• Implementation of VHE

• GERAN enhancemant

• USAT enhancement

• IMS implementation

• End-to-end QoS

• Enhancement of existing services and introduciton of new services


15
Evolution from GSM to UMTS
U MTS (3G PP R4) (10/12)
NMS

Um
CN CS Domain
MS A
E-RAN VLR/MSC GMSC
Server Server
ISDN
BTS BSC
MGW MGW PSTN CSPDN

Iu
C M U
HLR/AuC/EIR
V A WE O S V
AMA x S AH
Uu SE P E A T E
Gb L

UE
UTRAN CN PS Domain

BS RNC SGSN GGSN


IP,
Multimedia
Iu

3G Network (3GPP R4)


16
Evolution from GSM to UMTS
U MTS (3G PP R5) (11/12)
NMS

Um
C N C S D o m a in
MS
G ERAN Iu V L R /M S C GMSC
S e rv e r S e rv e r
IS D N
BTS BSC
MGW MGW P STN CSPDN
IP /A T M

HSS
(H L R /A u C ) IM S
Uu IP /A T M & E IR

UE
U TR AN

BS RNC SGSN GG SN
IP ,
IP /A T M
M u ltim e d ia
C N P S D o m a in

C M U
V A W E O S V
A M A X S A H
S E P E A T E
L

3G Network (3GPP R5)


17
Evolution from GSM to UMTS
U MTS (3G PP R5/R6 AllIP) (12/12)
NMS

Um
ISDN
MS
GERAN PSTN CSPDN

BTS BSC
IP/ATM IMS
Iu

SGSN GGSN
IP,
Uu IP/ATM Multimedia
CN PS Domain
UE
UTRAN
C M U
HSS V A WE O S V
BS RNC (HLR/AuC) AMA x S A H
IP/ATM &EIR SE P E A T E
L

All IP Vision (3GPP R5/R6)


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U MTS Architecture (UTRAN) (1/11)

UTRAN

Iu b RNS
BS

RNC
BS

(U E ) Iu r C o re N e tw o rk
RNS
BS (C N )
RNC
BS
Iu b
Uu Iu

UTRAN architecture
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U MTS Architecture (RNC) (2/11)
Iub Iu

I I
N N
To/from T (W ideband) T To/from
the BSs E Sw itching E Core
Network
R R
F F
A A
C C Iur
E E
Radio
U U
UTR AN Resource O&M To/from
N N Other
Control M anagem ent Interface
I I RNCs
T Functions (RRM ) T
S S

To/from
NM S

RNC logical structure


20
U MTS Architecture (RNC) (3/11)

• RRM: Located in both UE and RNC


– Handover, power control, admission control, packet scheduling
and code management.

• UTRAN Control Functions


– System information broadcasting, Radio access and signaling
bearer set-up, RB management, security, mobility management,
database handling, positioning.

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U MTS Architecture (CN) (4/11)
PSTN Gi Gp
R99 CN

GMSC GGSN

AuC
Gc
C H

HLR Gn
PSTN PSTN

Gr
D EIR

F Gf
G
VLR VLR
Gs
B B SGSN
MSC MSC
E

A Gb IuCS IuPS

BSS RNS
Iur
BSC RNC RNC
Abis Iubis

BTS BTS Node B Node B


cell

Um Uu interfaces supporting user traffic


interfaces supporting signalling

CN architecture (3GPP R99)


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U MTS Architecture (CN) (5/11)
PSTN Gi Gp
PSTN PSTN

CS- Mc
GMSC GGSN
MGW server

C Mh
Gc

Nc HLR AuC
PSTN
H Gn
Nb
Gr
D EIR
G F Gf
VLR VLR
E B Gs
B
SGSN
MSC server Nc
MSC server
Mc
Mc
CN
CS-MGW CS-MGW
Nb
A
Gb
IuCS IuPS

BSS RNS
Iur
BSC RNC RNC
Abis Iub

BTS BTS Node B Node B


cell

Um Uu interfaces supporting user traffic


interfaces supporting signalling

CN architecture (3GPP R4)


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U MTS Architecture (CN) (6/11)
PSTN Go Gi Gp
PSTN PSTN

CS- Mc
GMSC GGSN
MGW server

C
Gc
HSS
Nc
PS TN
( HLR,AuC) Gn
Nb
Gr
D EIR
F Gf
G
VLR VLR
B Gs
B E SGSN
MSC server Nc MSC server
Mc
Mc
CN
CS-MGW CS-MGW
Nb
A Gb
IuCS IuCS IuPS
IuPS

BSS RNS
Iur
BSC RNC RNC
Abis Iub

BTS BTS Node B Node B


cell

Um Uu interfaces supporting user traffic


interfaces supporting signalling

Basic configuration CN (3GPP R5)


24
U MTS Architecture (IMS) (7/11)

Iinternet &
Corporate IP
PS CN

UTRAN
SGSN GGSN
RNC
BS

IMS CN
P-CSCF MGW

HSS
I-CSCF MGCF

S-CSCF BGCF
GERAN
BSC
CS CN
BTS
MSC GMSC
Server Server
PSTN/ISDN

MGW MGW

Introduction of IMS (3GPP R5)


25
U MTS Architecture (IMS) (8/11)
IP Multimedia Networks Legacy mobile
PSTN signalling Networks

Mb Mb PSTN
BGCF CSCF
PSTN Mm
Mk Mk

Mw
C, D,
Mj BGCF Gc, Gr
Mi
Cx
IMS- MGCF HSS
MGW Mg
CSCF
Mn

Mr Dx SLF
Mb Mw

P-CSCF
MRFP MRFC PDF UE
Mp Gm

Mb Mb Mb Go IM Subsystem

CSCF: Call Session Control Function M GCF: Media Gateway Control Function
P-CSCF: Proxy CSCF IM S-M GW: IMS Media Gateway Function
S-CSCF: Serving CSCF M RFC: Multimedia Resource Function Controller
I-CSCF: Interrogating CSCF M RFP: Multimedia Resource Function Processor
SLF: Subscription Locator Function BGCF: Breakout Gateway Control Function
PDF: Policy Decision Function

Configuration of IMS entities 26


U MTS Architecture (IMS) (9/11)

Service Home
Serving
Platform Network
CSCF

Mw External
Service
P-CSCF Platform
Gm Home/Visited
UE Network

IMS service (VHE)


27
U MTS Architecture (UE) (10/11)

E n d -to -e n d in te rfa c e A n o th e r
U s e r’s a p p lic a tio n U s e r’s
A p p lic a tio n

TE DTE

R
TA
Hom e
N e tw o rk
U S IM

Cu S e rv in g T ra n s it
NT N e tw o rk N e tw o rk
U IC C
MT Tu
Iu
RT
UTRAN

ME

UE

UE reference architecture
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U MTS Architecture (UE) (11/11)

Classification based on MT’s capability Classification based on subscribers and their needs

Can utilize only one type of Equivalent to the present sellular phone, able to
Single radiomode MT radio interface for user traffic. Classic terminal handle both GSM and WCDMA rado access but not
necessarily simultaneously
Can use several radio Contains both GSM and WCDMA radio access and
Multi-radiomode MT termiantions for user traffic. Dual mode can automatically select the access method based on
available coverage and requested service.
Can use only one type of core Combination of cellular phone and palm/laptop,
Single network MT network, PS, CS or PS/CS. Multimedia terminal contains plenty of applications to handle the
multimedia connections and services.
Support several core networks Serve special purposes such as positioning, etc. and
Multi-network MT such as both the UMTS core Special terminals will be integrated together with other equipment.
network and GSM. NSS

UMTS terminals classification


29
U MTS Protocols (1/4)

UE BS RNC M S C /V LR S G S N SM SC GGSN

U ser P la n e
C o n tro l P lan e
S ystem N etw o rk L a yer
U ser P la n e
C o n tro l P lan e

R ad io N etw o rk L a yer

U ser P la n e
C o n tro l P lan e
T ran sp ort N etw o rk L a yer

Uu Iub Iu E / Gn

UMTS protocol internetworking architecture


30
U MTS Protocols (Radio Interface) (2/4)

C -plane signalling U -plane inform ation

RRC control L3
control

control
control
control

R adio
B earers

PDCP
PDCP L 2/PD C P

BMC
L 2/B M C

R LC R LC L 2/R L C
R LC R LC
R LC R LC
R LC R LC

Logical
C hannels

M AC L 2/M A C
T ransport
C hannels
PHY L1

Radio Interface protocol architecture


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U MTS Protocols (Control Plane) (3/4)
Control Plane (Signaling Plane)
MSC
ATM _VLR
TE MT UTRAN switch SGSNGGSN GGSN ISP
/HLR

SM/ SM/ GTP-C BSSAP+/ GTP-C DHCP/ DHCP/


Replay
GMM GMM MAP RADIUS RADIUS
RANAP RANAP UDP TCAP UDP UDP UDP
RRC RRC
PPP PPP SCCP ATM SCCP IP SCCP IP IP IP
ARP
RLC RLC MTP3 server
server MTP3 IPOA MTP3 IPOA 802.3 L2(802.3)
MAC MAC AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 MTP2 AAL5

L1 L1 Radio Radio ATM ATM ATM ATM E1 ATM FE L1(FE)

SM: Session management SAAL: Siganaling ATM adaptation SGSNMSC_HLR SGSNHLR GGSNHLR
GMM: GPRS mobility management layer
RRC: Radio resource control AAL5: ATM adaptation layer 5
RLC: Radio Link Control GTP-C/U: GPRS Tunneling
MAC: Medium Access Control Protocol-Control/User BSSAP+ MAP MAP
RANAP: Radio Access Network IPoA: IP over ATM
Application Protocol UDP: User Datagram Protocol TCAP TCAP TCAP
SCCP: Signaling Connection BSSAP: Base Station System
Control Part GPRS Application Part SCCP SCCP SCCP
MTP3/2: Message Transfer Part 3/2 MAP: Mobile Application Part
PDCP: Packet Data Convergence TCAP: Transaction Capabilities MTP3 MTP3 MTP3
Protocol Application Part
PPP: Point to Point Protocol MTP2(SAAL) MTP2(SAAL) MTP2(SAAL)
E1(ATM) E1(ATM) E1(ATM)

UMTS control plane protocol stack


32
U MTS Protocols (User Plane) (4/4)

User Plane (Traffic Plane)


ATM
TE MT UTRAN switch SGSNGGSN GGSN ISP

Application Relay Application


IP Relay Relay Relay IP

GTP-U IPinIP IPinIP


GTP-U GTP-U GTP-U
PDCP PDCP UDP UDP UDP UDP
PPP ATM IP
PPP IP IP IP IP IP
ARP
RLC RLC IPOA server
server IPOA IPOA IPOA 802.3 L2

MAC MAC AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5


L1 L1 Radio Radio ATM ATM ATM ATM ATM L1
FE

UMTS user plane protocol stack


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U MTS Services (1/2)
S e rvice c ate g o ry A p p lic atio n s U s e rs R e ve n u e s (2 0 10 )
M o b ile In tran e t/ • M e s s ag ing (E -m a il), T rave l as s is ta n c e (W W W ) M o b ile 15%
E x tra n e t A cc e s s • M o b ile sales, T echnical services o ffic e ,
• T e le w o rk ing , A c ce s s to corp o rate data ba s e B u s in e ss
• V id e o te le p ho n y, C o nfe re n c in g u s er
• F le e t m a n ag em e nt, W are h a o u se
M o b ile In tern e t • M e s s ag ing (E -m a il, S M S , M M S ) B u s in e ss 3%
A c c e ss • D o w n lo a d vid e o , m u sic, s tre am in g u s er,
• V o IP , V id e o o ve r IP C o n su m er
• m -b a nk ing
• m -com m e rce (m -p urch asing ), trad ing
• w w w trave l
• w w w In fo s ervic e s
C u s to m iz e d • Inform atio n (p h oto, vid e o , m u sic d ow n loa d ) B u s in e ss 28%
In fo tainm e n t • w w w trave l u s er,
• E d u ca tio n (sc h o o ls , un iv e rsitie s ) C o n su m er
• M o b ile m e s sa g ing , C h attin g (S M S , M M S )
• G a m ing
• m -s h op p ing , b a nk ing , e -w a llet, m icro-p a ym en t
M u ltim e d ia • E xte n s io n o f S M S U ser 15%
M e s s a g in g • M M S : Im ag e, V id eo, U n ifie d m e ssag ing , M o b ile
p o stc ard, vid eo /au d io clip
• M S O ffice d o cum ent
• M o b ile c ha ttin g
• M a c h in e to m a c hin e c om m u n ic atio n s
• P h o to m es s ag ing
• M u s ic
• V id e o m es s ag ing
L o c atio n -b a s ed • N a vig a tio n (p e rso n c ar) U ser 3%
S e rv ic es • L o ca lized In fo (ye llo w p a g e s)
• L o ca tio n-b a se d m -c om m e rc e
• T e le m atic s
• T rad in g (ve hicle , g o o d s, p e rso n )
R ich V o ic e • T e le p h on y/C onfere n cing U ser 34%
• V id e o -te lep h o n y, c o nferen c in g , p res en c e
• T e le m e d ic in e
• T e le w o rk ing (b u ild in g in dus try e tc .)
• M u ltim e d ia co m m u nic atio n (IM S )
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U MTS Services (2/2)

M-Office E-Pay Broking Advertising

Instant Music Map based Health New


E-Mail
Messaging Video Info Care Applications
Provided by
Info- Personal 3rd parties,
Telematics Users,
provisio Info Management
Video Operators
Conferencing

Ticketing Banking Gambling Telemetry Dispatch

Service
Data Bearer /GPRS/MMS/xHTML/JAVA Download/IMS Platforms

Service
Categories
Internet Intranet Info- provided by
MMS LBS Rich Voice
Access Access tainment Operators

Service Provision
35
U MTS Vendors (1/2)

Vendors Market shares

Ericsson 33 %
Nokia 32 %
Siemens (NEC) 15 %
Nortel 8%
NEC (Siemens) 4%
Alcatel 4%
Lucent 3%
Motorola 1%

Estimation of UMTS (WCDMA) sales


volume market share (late 2001)
36
U MTS Vendors (2/2)
• Ericsson provides the whole range of 2G and 3G Mobile Systems and end-to-end system elements
including infrastructure, terminals, applications and expertise.

• Nokia provides the whole systems from terminals and base stations to core network solutions for
GSM, GPRS and UMTS. The products spread in a wide range with various models.

• Siemens in partnership with NEC provides UMTS radio solution (FDD and TDD), carrier-class
switching for UMTS and many kinds of enabling services for 3G systems.

• Nortel offers end-to-end UMTS network solution including terminals, radio access networks and
core networks for UMTS systems.

• NEC offers products in the fields of mobile communications and optical networks.

• Alcatel offers second 2G and 3G solutions from networks, applications and terminals to
implementation and operation.

• Lucent provides 3G solutions - CDMA and UMTS. Currently, Lucent delivers 3G networks.

• Motorola is developing UMTS systems based on its CDMA technology.

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Terminal Availability (1/5)
Nokia 6650 (Commercial deliveries in first half 2003)

• built-in camera for shooting video at over ten


frames per second

• 4096-color display

• MMS capability for sending and receiving


clips

• Work both in GSM 900/1800 networks and in


the new WCDMA networks.

• In the WCDMA network talk, snap, and send


pictures simultaneously.

• Bluetooth capability
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Terminal Availability (2/5)
LG UMTS Handset(available by 3Q.'02)

• High Speed Data Transmission,


Multimedia Player

• Built-in Camera, 2.2" TFD Color


LCD

• MPEG4 for Video


Streaming/Download

• Bluetooth, USB connectivity

• Postion Location

• Voice Recognition

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Terminal Availability (3/5)
FO M A Series (available in 2002/2003)

• High speed packet data transmission


(receiving speeds of up to 384Kbps)

• Circuit switched data transmission


speed up to 64kbps

• Multitask feature – performs up to 3


activities simultaneously; voice call,
use of i-mode and a terminal function
such as scheduler, calculator, address
book etc

• External connector USB interface

40
Terminal Availability (4/5)
Siemens U10 (October 2002)

• Color screen

• Work in both in both WCDMA networks and


in GSM/GPRS 900/1800/1900 frequency
bands

• Integrated camera.

• Data stream up to 384 kb/s

• Bluetooth, USB or infrared connectivity

• Wap 2.0, MMS, Video clip, e-mail and MP3

41
Terminal Availability (5/5)
Motorola A835 (Second half 2003)

• Support GPRS/EDGE/WCDMA

• Multi-functional voice/data

• Integrated video camera

• Multi-call, multi-task

• Bluetooth

• Embedded MP3 player

• 256 MB of memory

42
Su m m ary (1/2)
• Specifications Side

– 3GPP R99, R4, and R5 have been frozen. R6 is estimated to be finalized


in December 2003.

– 3G/UMTS reveals a splendid world to all kinds of consumers, it intends to


make everything available on moving, no matter when, where, who and
what.

• Vendors Side

– Many vendors and operators have involved in 3G ventures. Most of them


have already launched their 3G/UMTS products and push them to real
operation or put them under trial.

– It is estimated that only the key 3G vendors have been developing


corresponding to R4/R5 products or have already had R4/R5 products
partly.

43
Su m m ary (2/2)
• Users Side

– 3G/UMTS terminals are no longer just simple phones. Users have to


update their minds with new concepts for fully utilizing the functionalities
of their new UMTS terminals and avoiding waste money and resources.

• Markets Side

– The most prospective potential markets for 3G/UMTS are still Asia
Pacific Area, USA and Europe.

– Compared to PSDN and GSM, 3G/UMTS systems are luxury systems for
most of the ordinary users, especially at the beginning.

• Final Words

– To reach ”All IP”, the vendors have to overcome all the critical technical
problems such as delay and other QoS related issues, the operators have to
expand the coverage of 3G/UMTS systems with great financial support,
and the users have to refresh their mind for using it.
44
References
• 3GPP: <http://www.3gpp.org>

• 3GPP: 3GPP Specifications - Release contents and functionality, 2002-10-01 <http://www.3gpp.org/specs/releases-


contents.htm>

• 3GPP: TS 23.002 Network Architecture, Release 1999, V3.6.0 2002-09

• 3GPP: TS 23.002 Network Architecture, Release 4, V4.6.0 2002-12

• 3GPP: TS 23.002 Network Architecture, Release 5, V5.6.0 2002-12

• 3GPP: TS 23.228 IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS), Stage 2, Release 5, V5.7.0, 2002-12

• Holma Harri, Toskala Antti: WCDMA for UMTs: Radio Access for Third Generation Mobile Communications, 07 March,
2001, ISBN: 0471486876

• Halonen Timo, etc.: GSM, GPRS and EDGE Performance, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, England, 2002, ISBN 0470 84457 4

• Kaaranen Heikki, etc.: UMTS Networks Architecture, Mobility and Services, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, England, 2001,
ISBN 0471 48654 X

• UMTS Forum: <http://www.umts-forum.org/servlet/dycon/ztumts/umts/Live/en/umts/Home>

• UMTS World: <http://www.umtsworld.com/>

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Thank You!

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