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1.

0 INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEM

1.1 What is control system?

1. Can be defined as a designed system that can produce desired output.

2. Is a group of properly arranged devices and components that maintain a


certain process at a desired level

1.2 Terms in control system

i. Input

a. Flows of energy and / or material that cause the process to react or


respond

b. Manipulated inputs (subject to our control)

c. Disturbance inputs ( undesirable and unavoidable effect beyond our


control , generated from outside process-environment, and from
within)

d. The presence of the disturbance is one of the main reason of using


control

ii. Control system / process – consists of subsystems or plants that are


assembled together for the purpose of controlling the desired output of the
system

iii. Output - Response variables which we require to behave in some specified


fashion.

iv. Controller – maintains the process variable within acceptable limit of set point

v. Disturbance signal

a. An unwanted input or signal, that can effect the output of a system

b. Is an uncontrollable signal that tends to affect the value of the output


of the system
vi. Feedback signal – is a measure of the output of the system used as feedback
to control the system.

vii. Measurement – device(s) that use to measure the output signal

viii. Error signal – the difference between input signal and output / feedback
signal.

1.3 Block diagram

Error
Output
signal
signal
Input signal
Controller Process

Feedback
signal
Measureme
nt

- Control system is represented by block diagram

- System / component is represented by block and variable by arrow


- Arrow heading towards block shows input variable

- Arrow heading out from block shows the output variable

1.4 System configuration

1.4.1 Open loop system

- A system where the control system is independent of the output. For an open
loop system, the system’s output has no effect on the control action. The
output is not measured and no feedback is provided

- Since there is no feedback, open loop system cannot compensate for


disturbance. The element of an open loop control system is shown below

Output
signal
Input signal Controller Process

- In the figure above, the controller receives information about the desired
value of the controlled output and uses this information as a means of control
manipulated variables.

- Examples

o Electric kettle

o Toaster

o Electric iron

o Lamp

1.4.2 Closed loop system


- In closed loop control system, the output is measured and the difference
between the output and the reference input is used as a means of control.
Therefore, the system can compensate for any disturbance.

- Characteristics of closed loop control system:

o The output of the system is measured

o The output of the system has an effect on the control action.

o The system has feedback

o The system can compensate for disturbance

Error
Outp
sign
ut
Input al
signal
signal Controller Process

Feedback
signal
Measureme
nt
- From the figure above, the control system utilized measurement of the
controlled output in order to compare the actual output with the desired
response.

- The controller then uses this difference as a means of control manipulated


variables.

Example: bathroom toilet tank Inflowing water


stream

Floa
t Valv
e
A
B C

Linkage / out
flowing water
stream
- It is a regulator system that maintains the water level h at a preset height H.

- Water level is thus the controlled variable of interest and is clearly affected
by the main disturbance input – the out flowing water stream.

- The task of the controller can be defined as the automatic cancelling of the
error (H - h) due to disturbance.

- The principle of operation of the system involves making the manipulated


variable dependent on the error, and hence on the feedback of the controlled
variable.

- If because of disturbance, the water level H has decreased, then the float and
the point A and B of the lever move down

- The inlet valve allows the inflow of water, thus bringing about a gradual
growth in the water level h

- The inflow of water is stopped automatically whenever the water level


reaches the preset height H

- The float and linkage perform the function of error detection and generation
of correcting signal

- Although a toilet tank is very simple mechanism, it has all the ingredients of
closed loop system.

1.4.3 Comparison between open loop and closed loop system

Open loop Closed loop

Output is not measured Output is measured

There is no feedback There is feedback

Cannot compensate for disturbance. No Can compensate for disturbance. Highly


longer accurate when the system is accurate due to corrective actions
disturbed

Simple Complicated

- Since there is no feedback, the - More complicated to build as


system is easier to built there is feedback

- Cheaper - Expensive

- Less reliable - Highly reliable

- Easier to maintain - Hard to maintain

Stability is not a major problem Stability is a major problem (happen


when the system demand more
accuracy)

Generally, open loop system is good for system where the relationship between the
input and output of the system is known and there are no internal and external
disturbances. System that operates on time basis is open loop system; e.g. traffic
light. Critical systems mostly use the closed loop system configuration as it is
important to compensate for disturbances.

1.5 Quality of control system

1.5.1 Quality of control system is determined by:

i. Stability

- A system is said stable if the system is being able to follow the input
command.

- A system is said to be unstable if its output is out of control or increase


without bound / limit.

ii. Minimum error

- The value of minimum error after a disturbance applied

iii. Minimum duration

- The minimum duration taken by the parameter to reach its’ reference


value after disturbance applied.
1.5.2 Unstable system

- Based on system response

- 3 types of system response

Ø(t) angular
displacement
Underdamped 0 < ξ <1

K
System
Critical damped ξ =1
gain

Overdamped ξ >1

Ø(t) angular
displacement