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Федеральное агентство по образованию

Омский государственный университет им. Ф.М. Достоевского

Рекомендовано к изданию
редакционно-издательским советом ОмГУ

О.В. Гоголь, О.К. Сургутская

Э.В. Акаева. О.Н. Глазер, С.Н. Голерова, Т.Н. Дорофеева,
Ю.Б. Дроботенко, Р.Р. Мавлиева, Б.А. Мартынов, И.Г. Оконешникова,
С.Д. Оськина, М.Х. Рахимбергенова, Э.К. Сопелева

СБОРНИК С23 Сборник грамматических упражнений по английскому язы-

ку: для студентов I и II курсов дневного и заочного отделений юри-
ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИХ УПРАЖНЕНИЙ дического факультета / сост: Э.В. Акаева. О.Н. Глазер, С.Н. Голерова
ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ и др. / под ред. С.Д. Оськиной. – Омск: Изд-во ОмГУ, 2005. – 276 с.
ISBN 5-7779-0595-1
для студентов I и II курсов В краткой и доступной форме изложены основные структуры
дневного и заочного отделений английской грамматики с целью развития у студентов умений и на-
юридического факультета выков чтения, перевода, письма и говорения на основе юридической
лексики. Сборник может быть использован для аудиторных и внеау-
диторных занятий.
Для студентов и аспирантов юридических факультетов, изучаю-
щих английский язык.

ISBN 5-7779-0595-1 © Омский госуниверситет, 2005

Изд-во ОмГУ Омск 2005

Сборник упражнений представляет собой практикум по основ- The Article
ным формам и структурам грамматики английского языка и включает
в себя разнообразные упражнения и задания аналитического, трени- The article is a structural part of speech used with nouns.
ровочного и коммуникативного характера. Упражнения помогают не There are two articles in Modern English:
только закрепить и активизировать полученные знания по грамматике - the indefinite a/an used only with nouns in the singular (a person, an
английского языка, но и овладеть определенной юридической лекси- outstanding detective), and the definite the used with nouns both in the singular
кой. and in the plural (the right, the words).
Сборник состоит из двух частей.
The Indefinite article is used:
В I часть включены упражнения и задания по следующим раз-
1. with countable nouns in the singular
Have you got a car?
♦ Артикли 2. with a countable nouns mentioned for the first time
♦ Имя существительное He was a witness at that trial
♦ Прилагательные и наречия 3. to talk about someone’s job
♦ Глагол He works as a solicitor
ƒ Действительный залог 4. with a noun in general case (has the meaning of every, any)
ƒ Страдательный залог A drawing man catches at a straw
♦ Модальные глаголы 5. in the meaning of one
♦ Косвенная речь Wait a minute!
II часть содержит: 6. after the construction: there is…/ was; it is… This is…
There is a letter on the table
♦ Неличные формы глагола
It is a problem
ƒ Инфинитив This is a document
ƒ Герундий 7. after the words: such, rather, quite
ƒ Причастия What…..! (exclamations)
♦ Условные предложения This is such a dangerous case
♦ Относительные предложения What a strange person!
В начале каждого раздела даются объяснения на английском 8. with a noun modified by the adjective in the positive degree
языке, а для студентов с базовым уровнем знания языка в конце посо- Are you a good barrister?
бия даются объяснения грамматических форм и структур на русском 9. a/an + ordinal numeral has the meaning “еще один”
языке. There was a second part of a legal problem
Каждый раздел заканчивается итоговым тестом для осуществ- 10. also with a dozen, a hundred, a thousand, a million, a pound, a
ления контроля за освоением данного лексико-грамматического мате- week, an hour, a mile – in the meaning “one”
риала. We have trials twice a week.
При составлении сборника учтены уровни знания учащихся. За- 11. in some expressions:
дания отличаются по степени трудности. a lot of, as a result, as a matter of fact, as a rule, it’s a pity, it’s a pleas-
ure, in a hurry, to go for a walk, to have a good time/rest, to take a shower, to
have a smoke, to give a call, for a while, to tell a lie, what a shame, in a week,
a knife and fork, to catch (a) cold.
3 4
The definite article is used: ♦ in the original
1. with a noun when it is clear in the situation which thing or person is ♦ on the whole
meant, or with the noun mentioned before. ♦ the other day (refers to the past)
Will you pass me the paper, please? ♦ the day after tomorrow
The policeman stopped at a village. ♦ the day before yesterday
The village was old but nice. ♦ in the morning/ afternoon, evening
2. also the police, the army, the fire brigade, the bank, the post office,
♦ at the seaside
the doctor, the dentist.
♦ on the train
The police are looking for the thief.
♦ in the rain
3. when the noun denotes a thing unique (the sun, the earth, the moon).
The earth goes round the sun. ♦ at the weekend
4. with the adjectives: following, next, last, same, very. ♦ in the 1990s
Where is the next witness? ♦ at the end of
5. also: the sky, the sea, the ground, the world, the government, the ra- ♦ in the singular/ plural
dio (but television) ♦ in the past / future
I’ve heard this news on the radio. ♦ by the way
6. the + adjective: the rich = rich people in general. These expressions ♦ just the same
are always plural! ♦ to tell the truth
The unemployed, the young, the blind ♦ out of the question
7. the + nationality words: the French = the French people, the English, ♦ in the dark
the Irish. ♦ in the sun
8. with the names of the oceans, seas, rivers, canals, mountains, deserts.
The Atlantic Ocean, The British Isles, The Ontario. There is no article:
9. We say the with the names of the countries which include words like 1. before the nouns modified by the pronoun:
republic, union, state, kingdom. = possessive: my, his, her, our…
The United Kingdom, = demonstrative: this, that, these…
The United States = interrogative: what, which, whose and indefinite: some, any, each, every.
10. also: the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Congo; The Hague, the High My friend, our holidays, this book.
Street. What question have you discussed?
11. We say the before the names of the hotels, theatres, museums, cine-
mas, newspaper, ships, also before the names with of: 2. before the names of a person, streets, towns, sciences, subjects, sta-
The Hilton (Hotel), the British Museum, the Washington Post, ships: tions, planets, etc.
Queen Elizabeth, the Houses of Parliament. Oxford Street, Hyde Park.
– with the names denoting the whole family: The Simons, The Smiths. He is fond of criminalistics.
– With the date (in speech):
On the fifth of May 3. with the names of countries and continents:
On May the fifth Europe, Asia, Poland
– with the organizations, official title, documents
4. with the names of meals:
The United Nations, The President, The Constitution
breakfast, lunch, dinner, supper.
– in some expressions:
I have breakfast at 8.
♦ at the same time
5 6
5. with the nouns – school, college, bed, joil, prison, church. II. Put a/an/the in each space, or leave the space blank.
To be in prison = to be a prisoner Trial by Jury
……. jury is …… selected group of laymen that hears …….. witnesses
6. in some expressions: in …….. legal disputes and decides ………. facts. ………. courtroom trial in
• for ages, at first which ……… jury decides ………. facts is called ……… trial by jury.
• at home, to go home Before each court term, ……… jury commissioner or another public of-
• at school ficer prepares ………… panel, or large initial list, of qualified jurors. For each
• at table trial, jurors are selected by ………… lot from this panel.
• by chance Before ………… trial begins, ………. Jurors swear to decide
• by heart …………facts fairly. They hear ………… testimony given by ……….. wit-
• by name nesses for both sides, including cross-examinations. Then counsel for each side
• by mistake sum up, or summarize case, and …………. judge explains ………….. applica-
• to go to bed ble law in his instructions to ……….. jury.
• to go by bus/ train etc. In civil suits for financial damages, ………… jury must decide who is
at …………. fault and must determine …………. amount of money to be paid.
• to ask permission
In criminal cases, …………... jury must decide whether or not …………. ac-
• at night
cused is guilty “beyond a reasonable doubt”, and then either return ………….
• by day verdict of guilty, or acquit ………….. defendant by ………….. verdict of not
• early morning guilty. If verdict is guilty, …………. judge imposes …………. sentence, or
• from morning till night punishment, within limits that have been fixed by ………….. legislature.
• at Christmas
• at Easter. III. Translate the sentences from Russian into English paying atten-
tion to the usage of articles.
TASKS 1. Если вы являетесь подозреваемым, то давать показания – это
I. Match the words on the left with the correct definition on the ваше право, но не обязанность.
right: Explain the articles usage in the definitions. 2. Свидетель имеет право на защитника.
Jurisprudence law dealing with private rights of citizens, not with crime 3. Апелляционный суд оставил в силе решение суда присяжных.
4. Ежегодно в Москве десятки водителей штрафуют за вождение в
Criminal law punishment for wrongdoing
нетрезвом виде. Часто это заканчивается лишением прав.
Civil law the branch of law dealing with crimes and their punishment
5. Свидетелю вменили в вину, что он лгал под присягой.
Felony recognized and permitted by the law
6. Чтение обвинительного заключения заняло несколько часов.
Misdemeanor accuse 7. В случаях правонарушений, не столь опасных для общества,
Murder violent and sudden attack применяется условный приговор.
Penalty the study of law and legal philosophy 8. Малолетние преступники обычно предстают перед специальны-
Assault major serious crime, e.g. murder, armed robbery, arson ми судами по делам несовершеннолетних.
Responsibility legal offence less serious than a felony 9. В результате удачной операции полиции был задержан опасный
Charge prosecution of a claim in a law court рецидивист.
Lawsuit unlawful killing of a human being on purpose 10. Если у подозреваемого нет средств на оплату услуг защитника,
Legal duty они могут быть предоставлены государством.
11. Апелляционный суд оставил в силе решение суда присяжных.

7 8
IV. Supply the articles where necessary. of one year or more in state of federal prison. Person who commits misde-
1. Accused was sentenced to five years in prison. meanour may be punished by fine or jail term of less than one year.
2. Prosecution will be opposing bail.
3. Best lawyer in country won case for her.
VII. Correct the erros in these sentences by adding or removing
4. Jury found him innocent.
5. Vandalism is problem of society throughout Europe.
1. Military jury was created according to a Resolution
6. Ignorance of law is no excuse.
2. New law comes into the force on May 15
7. Court ordered him to pay fine of £100.
3. At an end of trial he was convicted of murder
8. Victim had been killed with bread knife.
4. All prospective barristers are expected to study at Inns of Court
5. Judge will hear next case after lunch
V. Translate the sentences explaining the usage of the definite arti-
6. A driver admitted that accident was partly his own the fault
7. A judge sentenced an accused to 15 year in the prison
1. The gang were chasing him again.
8. To protect the victims of the blackmail their names are often not
2. The police received a bomb-threat at 6.15 p.m., and arrived at the
given in a court
scene six minutes later. The cinema had already been evacuated and the adjoin-
9. A judge was very hard on the pickpockets
ing streets cordoned off.
10. If you break law, you will be in the trouble
3. The factory was closed because of staff strike.
11. High court judge will pass sentence the next week
4. The police caught the thief red-handed.
12. Youth involved in disturbance at a demonstration made statement to
5. The detective stood motionless behind the door waiting for the assail-
6. The politician didn’t answer the reporter’s question as it was too per-
VIII. Translate from Russian into English.
Вопрос “Что такое право?” волновал людей издавна. Ответить на
7. There have been two main theories in the study of international law:
него помогает юриспруденция (исследование закона права и философии
the natural law approach and the positivist movement.
права). Существует много определений понятия права. Всякое общество,
8. The witness claimed he hadn’t seen the accused before.
которое когда-либо существовало, признавало необходимость законов. На
9. At the very moment the suspect is being interviewed by the police.
формирование системы законов влияют традиционные взгляды общества
на добро и зло. Законы опираются на моральные, экономические, полити-
VI. Articles have been removed from the following text. Supply the
ческие и социальные ценности. Многие законы отражают одновременно
articles where necessary.
различные ценности общества. При составлении законов необходимо со-
блюдать равновесие между правами и обязанностями, волей большинства
Crime violates laws of community, state or nation. It is punishable in
и правами меньшинства, необходимостью порядка и соблюдением основ-
accordance with these laws. Definition of crime varies according to time and
ных свобод. С течением времени социальные ценности могут меняться,
place, but laws of most countries consider as crimes such offences as arson,
вслед за этим происходит и смена законов.
bigamy, burglary, forgery, murder and treason.
Not all offences against law are crimes, laws that set down punishment
for crimes form criminal law. This law defines as crimes those offences con- Test yourself
sidered most harmful to community. On other hand, person may wrong some- IX. Fill in the blanks with articles where necessary:
one else in some other way that offends civil law. 1. They fitted ….….. security locks to make it more difficult for ………
Common law recognizes three classes of crime: treason, felony, and burglar to break in.
misdemeanour. Death or life imprisonment is usual penalty for treason. Laws 2. She was caught trying to buy ……….. video recorder with forged
in United States, for example, define felony as crime that is punishable by term money.
9 10
3. If more offenders did ……….. community service, this would benefit Nouns of material and abstract nouns: gold, water, courage, fear, etc.
…….. local people and reduce overcrowding in prisons.
4. He was put on …………. probation as it was his first offence. Nouns can be countable and uncountable.
5. ………..phone box had been vandalized so I looked for another one. Countable nouns (that can be counted) have two numbers: the singular
6. One witness was able to give ………….. good description of thief and the plural:
7. In area of high unemployment, ………… shoplifting can be ……… a girl – girls, a river – rivers, a son – sons, etc.
problem, especially from ………… supermarkets. Before countable nouns we can say a / an / the / some / any / a lot of /
8. He was fined £400 and banned from driving for …………… year. few / a few / this / my / his, etc.
9. If you plead guilty, …………. judge might give you ……… lighter He decided to take his way to Paris for their anniversary.
sentence. He get on a train and found a seat and stared out of the window.
10. They finally got her to admit that she had forged her ……… em- Uncountable nouns (that, we, cannot count) are always singular and are
ployer’s signature on ………. form. not used with a / an (music, blood). Before uncountable nouns we can say:
11. This is ………… complex case so ………. jury may take ……… some / any / no / much / a lot of / little / a little / this / his, etc. Also: a bit of / a
time to reach ………… verdict. slice of / a piece of, etc.
12. In some countries you can be executed for smuggling ……… drugs A bit of news A piece of advice
like ……… cocaine. A cake of soap A sheet of paper
13. There isn’t enough ………… evidence to prove that he committed A bar of chocolate A slice of bread
………. crime although we’re sure it must have been him I don’t want (any) advice or help.
14. …………. Police appeared and started to arrest …………. demon- Music enriches our life.
strators. Many nouns can be used as countable or uncountable nouns.
15. There’s no …………. death penalty in this country so he’ll probably She had beautiful hair. There is a hair in my soup.
be sentenced to ………. life imprisonment. I bought some paper. I bought a paper.
16. He may be ……….. terrorist to you but to ……… other people he’s We drink wine. But: We enjoy a good wine.
……… freedom fighter.
The Singular and the Plural
The general rule for forming the plural is by adding the ending -s (es) to
the singular.
The Noun a flower – flowers [z], a hat – hats [s], a bridge – bridges [iz]
The noun is a word expressing substance in the widest sense of the If the noun ends in -s, -ss, -x, -sh, -ch, -tch, the plural is formed by add-
word. ing -es to the singular.
Nouns fall under two classes: bus – buses box – boxes bench – benches
1. Proper nouns: Mary, London, Nelson, France, Mr. Manson, Mrs. glass – glasses brush – brushes match – matches
2. Common nouns: dog, woman, man, wind, table, snow, beauty, etc. If the noun ends in -o preceded by a consonant, the plural is generally
formed by adding -es.
There are three groups of common nouns: hero – heroes pino – pianos
Class nouns: a shop – shops, a forest – forests, a house – houses, a boy – potato – potatoes But: photo – photos
boys. volcano – volcanoes stereo – stereos
Collective nouns: money, police, crowd, linen, furniture, team, staff, tomato – tomatoes kilo – kilos
etc. echo – echoes radio - radios

11 12
If the noun ands in -y preceded by a consonant, -y is changed into i be- Some uncountable are used only in the singular:
fore -es. linen money progress Food chaos
army – armies but: day – days in proper names: furniture business traffic Sugar machinery
lady – ladies boy – boys Mary – Marys knowledge information hair feet behavior
advice trouble scenery Music failure
The noun ending in -f (in some cases followed by a mute e) change it luggage accommodation wood Bread fear
into -ves. permission luck weather Spaghetti
thief – thieves wife – wives roof – roofs Serf – serfs death equipment sand Macaroni
leaf – leaves shelf - shelves but: belief – beliefs Safe – safes
knife – knives wolf – wolves chief – chiefs handkerchief – The following nouns ending in –s are usually treated as singular:
handkerchief the word: news;
life – lives half – halves proof - proofs the subjects: economics, mathematics / maths, physics, statistics;
the games: billiards, dominoes, darts, bowls;
NOTE: The noun scarf, hoof, wharf take either -s or -ves in the plural. the activities: gymnastics, athletics;
Some words borrowed from Latin or Greek keep their original plural the words: politics, tactics, optics;
forms: the illness: measles, mumps, rickets, shingles.
datum – data Phenomenon – phenomena Mathematics is an exact science.
basis – bases formula – formulae – formulas The news is interesting.
crisis – crises Memorandum – memoranda – memorandums Words for drinks are usually uncountable. This means we use no article
thesis – theses or we use some / any.
criterion – criteria Is there any coffee? Will you have some tea?

There are seven nouns which form the plural by changing the root However, when we are ordering or offering drinks we normally treat
vowel and two nouns in the plural end in -en. them as countable nouns.
man – men goose – geese ox – oxen I’d like a coffee, please. or I’d like a cup of coffee.
woman – women mouse – mice child – children Two teas, please. Two teas and a glass of milk, please.
foot – feet louse – lice
tooth – teeth Some nouns are uncountable when they refer to single items or to an ob-
ject made from that material.
In some nouns the plural form does not differ from the singular. Would you like some chicken? We ate a whole chicken?
deer - deer fruit – fruit (fruits = kinds of fruit) Glass is made from sand and lime. I’ve broken a glass.
sheep - sheep fish – fish (fishes – kinds of fish) The following collective nouns are usually singular:
swine - swine salmon – salmon family crowd congress Majority*
aircraft - aircraft cod – cod team jury government Minority
group public committee Audience
Other nouns add -s: crabs, herrings, sardines, sharks, lobsters, eels. staff army media Company
We can say: one fish, two fish; one deer, two deer. But in some cases these nouns are plural if the sentence indicates that
Also: All the fishes in the sea. (= the different varieties of fish). the individual members are acting separetly (when we think of them as mem-
This is a fine cheese. (= a fine variety or type). bers of a group (“they”), not as a single unit (“it”). = The government wants
These cheeses are produced in Italy. (= these types) (want is also possible) to reduce taxes.

13 14
*If the word majority is used alone it is usually singular. If it is followed Case
by a plural noun, it is plural. Nouns denoting living beings: people and animals (and some nouns de-
Majority believes that we are in no danger. The majority of the students noting lifeless things), have two cases: an uninflected form called the common
have passed the exams well. case (pen, student, etc.) and the possessive case … ‘s (apostrophe ’s).
Some nouns are used only in plural: the singular the plural
sights contents spectacles man’s dream the children’s toys
goods customs opera-glasses Congratulations the girl’s name the girls’ names
sweet savings binoculars Surroundings the butcher’s (shop) The eagles’ nests
arms outskirts lodgings Clothes Dickens’s novels or Dickens’ novels
holidays shims poultry Trousers After a singular noun we use ‘s. After a plural noun we use only an
riches wages gentry Jeans apostrophe (‘).
people stairs cattle Shorts The possessive case expresses possession and answers the question
police scissors Tights whose? The syntactic function of the nouns used in the possessive case is that
of an attribute.
These clothes are expensive. Besides nouns denoting living beings we can use ‘s when a first noun is:
Where are the seisors? – They are on the table. 1) an organization (=a group of people), ships and boats names of peo-
NOTE: We cannot use a/an or a number with a pair noun (a thing made ple to mean’ house:
of two parts). We use some or a pair of …
I need some jeans. or I need a pair of jeans. the government’s decision the ship’s captain
She bought a pair of jeans and two pairs of tights. the company’s success we met at Bill’s
In the expression a pair of + a pair noun the verb is singular if it is in the
same clause; and plural if it is in a relative clause. 2) the place: town, city, country, river, ocean, world, names of the
This pair of trousers is expensive. countries:
I’ll buy a pair of trousers which are cheaper? the city’s new center the world’s population
As singular and plural may be used the nouns: Britain’s government Russia’s exports
means a means of transport – various means of transport 3) time and distance:
series a television series – many television series an hour’s rest month’s holiday
species a species of birds – different species of birds two hours’ drive night’s sleep
works / factory The steel works has / have closed down. five minutes’ walk in two years’ time
Sometime we use a plural noun with a singular verb. We often do it
when we talk about a sum of money, a period of time, a distance, etc. 4) time words:
Five thousand pounds form their plural in different ways. As a rule a tomorrow’s meeting yesterday’s talks
compound noun forms the plural by adding -s to the headword. If there is no today’s newspaper sunday’s dinner
noun-stem in the compound, -s is added to the last element.
brother – in – law brothers – in – law We can say: ten minutes’ break or
forget – me – not forget – me – nots a ten-minute break.
merry – go – round merry – go – rounds Also with the nouns: the sun, the moon, the earth, the ship; and ‘s can be
But: man (woman) – driver men (women) – drivers used after more than one noun. The possessive sign is put to the latter.
Jack and Jill’s wedding.
William and Mary’s reign.

15 16
Proper names are generally used in the possessive case: NOTES:
Jane’s hobby is drawing. a) However, we often prefer to use a compound noun instead of of-
This is Tim’s car. phrase: the river bank, the car keys, the town parks, etc.
NOTE: You can use ‘s without the following noun: a / the baker’s / b) British nouns render the meaning of Russian cases by means of
butcher’s / chemist’s, etc. It means a / the baker’s shop, etc. the prepositions of, to, for, by, with, about with the nouns in the
Tom’s report is much more interesting than Ann’s. common case and the word order in the sentence:
It can also be used after the initials and the names of the owners of some busi- What caused the explosion at the station?
ness: the PM’s secretary, the MP’s briefcase, selfridge’s, Claridge’s, Sotheby’s What was the cause of the explosion?
(some names drop the apostrophe: Harrods, Foybes). Live these papers to the secretary, please.
In compounds and names consisting of several words the last word Mrs. Green often makes cakes for her children.
takes apostrophe ‘s: The program was watched by millions of people.
My sister-in-law’s guitar The door was opened with a key.
Henry the Eight’s wives We talked about the entrance examination.
My father-in-law’s son
The Prince of Wale’s plane Gender
NOTE: When the possessive case is used the article before the person In Modern English there is no grammatical category of gender. But ac-
or thing “possessed” disappears: the question of the teacher = the teacher’s cording to their lexical meaning all nouns denoting living beings are of either
question. the male or female sex: man – woman, poet – poetess, etc.
of + noun is used for: The nouns that denote female beings are considered of the masculine
1) things, ideas etc.: gender.
the roof of the house, the title of the book, the owner of the cafe. The nouns that denote male beings are considered to be of neuter gen-
We can say the daughter of the politician or the politician’s daughter, der.
the plays of Shakespeare or Shakespeare’s plays. Names of lifeless things and abstract notions are of the neuter gender: a
We normally use of with the beginning / end / top / bottom / front / book, a pen, a room, kidness, friendship.
back, etc. A ship is always spoken as she.
The back of the car Collective nouns are also considered to be of neuter gender.
The beginning of the year There are three ways of forming the feminine of nouns:
In the middle of the room. 1) by using an entirely different words, as father – mother, sister –
2) We can use of or ‘s after an organization: brother, bull – cow, king – queen, etc.
the decision of the government 2) by ending the syllable (-ess, -ine, -a, etc.): actor – actress, hero –
or government’s decision heroine, heir – heiress, signor – signora, tzar – tzarina, etc.
3) of is used: when the possessor noun is followed by 3) by placing a word before or after, a: man – servant – maid – ser-
a) phrase or clause vant; land lord – lady.
I took the advice of the policemen I met at the station Functions:
b) with the words denoting quantity: part, piece, slice, bit, etc. The main syntactical functions of the noun in the sentence are those of
a piece of cake the subject and the object: they may be also used in the functions of a predica-
a slice of bread tive, an attribute and a adverbial modifier.
a pound of butter Grammar is the art of putting the right words in the right places.
a bit of news King George VI was the ruler of Great Britain before Queen Elizabeth II.
According to the morphological composition we distinguish simple
(room, house), derivative nouns (which have prefixes or suffixes: misunder-
17 18
standing, inexperience) and compound nouns (built from one or more stems or TASKS
words: noun + noun: sunglasses, time – table, bus – stop).
adjective + noun: fast food, first aid, youth hostel I. Form nouns from the following words:
verb + preposition: checkout, breakup to forge (подделывать) + er → forger
three words: ready – made meal, air traffic control useful (полезный) + ness → usefulness
gerund + noun: swimming pool, driving license action (действие) in + → inaction (бездействие)
noun + gerund: coal mining, weight lifting polite (вежливый)
NOTE: There are no exact rules about whether we join the words or not to dispute (оспорить)
(if you are not sure, it is usually safe to write two separate words). to arrest (арестовать)
Noun-forming suffixes and prefixes: to challenge (бросать вызов)
a) -er, -or teacher, actor to hear (слышать)
-ist scientist, artist compliance (соблюдение)
-ess actress, hostess representation (представление)
-ment movement hearing (слушание)
-ance importance, distance
-(t)ion translation II. Match the English and Russian equivalents:
-ity majority, complexity 1. justification 1. справедливость
-y difficulty, energy 2. just 2. обоснование
-ian musician, politician 3. legality 3. признание законной силы
-hood childhood 4. legalization 4. незаконность
-ship friendship, leadership 5. illegality 5. законность
-age marriage, passage III. Translate into Russian:
-ism heroism lawyer
-ant assistant legatee
-ence conference legislator
-ty cruelty legislation
-ing building
-dom freedom IV. Translate into English:
-ion discussion закон
-sion revision законодаельсво
-ness happiness законодатель
-ure pressure законник
-ness backwardness законность

b) re- reconstruction V. Form abstract nouns from the following:

co- coexistence a) adjectives: b) verbs: c) common nouns:
dis- disarmament true live author
mis- misunderstanding free know hero
in- information young hate agent
im- impossibility poor punish patriot
un- unemployment just protect man
il- illiteracy advise
19 20
VI. Write down with what suffixes how the following English nouns 3. offence
are formed: 4. killer – killing
opposition (противодействие) to oppose + tion 5. murder – murderer – murderess
accusation (обвинение) _____________ 6. burglar – burglary
infringement (нарушение) _____________ 7. thief – theft
persecutor (преследователь) _____________ 8. prison – prisoner – imprisonment
employer (работодатель) _____________ 9. suspect – suspicion
employee (работник) _____________ 10. robber – robbery
complaintant (истец, жалобщик) _____________ 11. shoplifter – shoplifting
12. kidnapper
VII. State the number of the following nouns and write down the 13. hacker
corresponding singular or plural, if any: 14. pickpocket
money man editor in chief 15. hijacker
news woman phenomenon 16. blackmail
advice child evidence
police foot proof TEST YOURSELF
riches family
X. Use the nouns in singular or plural form:
VIII. Choose the correct form, singular or plural: (Thief) have been around for (century), probably for as long as (human),
- The police want/wants to interview me about robbery. but armed (robbery) is a more recent (phenomenon).
- Fortunately the news wasn’t/weren’t as bad as we had expected. Unfortunately (woman) always have been (victim) of rape and domestic
- Does/do the police know about the stolen money? violence. (Forgery) has been around ever since printing has been used to make
- The fear of the murder and robbery has/have caused many people to (money) or produce (document). Rich people or their (child) are sometimes
leave big cities. kidnapped and are not set free until a ransom has been paid.
- The barrister accompanied by his wife and daughter is/are arriving The twentieth (century) saw the appearance of many organized (crime)
tonight. such as hijacking and drug-smuggling or drug-trafficking. Statistics show an
- The solicitor and his assistant have/has already finished their work allowing rise in the rate of violent (crime) and (crime) to do with the illegal
today. sale of arms across the world. Perhaps the most recent Crime of all is hacking
- The majority of the people believe/believes him to be innocent. (computer) to access (information) that helps (competitor) in industry. This
- The mass media, TV and the press have/has enormous power in any increase the international (crime) makes one wonder whether it is still true to
society. say “(Crime) doesn’t pay!”
- The police have/has weighed all the evidence and have/has found
the accused guilty. XI. Live Russian equivalents to the following English proverbs.
- The Bill of Rights contains much/many useful informa- - No news is good news.
tion/informations. - Caesar’s wife must be above suspicion.
- Statistics is/are an easy subject, but economics give/gives me prob- - Time is money.
lems. - Business is business.
- Business is first, pleasure afterwards.
IX. Explain the meaning of the following nouns: - Misfortunes never come singly.
1. Crime – criminal – criminalist
2. fine
21 22
XII. Translate the following words: Adjectives and adverbs
- самозащита
- наказание Adjectives describe nouns.
- законная, правомерная деятельность Adjectives have the same form for singular and plural. They do not
- вор change for male and female. Most adjectives are used in front of nouns.
- гражданское дело A difficult case, a guilty person.
- брак Adjectives can be used on their own after these verbs: be, become, feel,
- законодатель look, appear, seem, taste, smell, sound.
- юридическое лицо I feel terrible!
She has become happy.
XIII. Find the meanings of the following words in the dictionary. Our wants are very complex.
Fill in the blanks with the proper words:
- judge
Adverbs describe actions.
- justice
Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding -ly: slow – slowly,
- witness
quick – quickly, careful – carefully.
- plaintiff
- accomplice Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives.
- prosecutor The trial was very fast (adj.)
- criminal The judge decided the case fast (adv.)
- victim Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives and a different meaning
- the accused for the -ly form.
- suspect hard – hardly
- fury near – nearly
- dependent late – lately
- prisoner free – freely
- smuggler We worked hard (adv.)
- robber I could hardly stand up (= almost not)
- killer She gave her time free (= for no money)
She gave her time freely (= willingly)
A person who I arrived late for the trial.
= conducts a trial and passes the sentence is called … I haven’t seen John lately (= recently)
= has a first-hand knowledge of the event and gives evidence under oath He was standing near the court (= next to)
in court … It is not nearly as late as I thought (= almost)
= brings a suit against another person …
= helps in a crime or who keeps a crime secret …
= acts for the state in prosecuting criminals …
= breaks laws …

23 24
The Degrees of Comparison Types of Comparisons
Special Points
The Positive The Comparative The Superlative • as …(positive degree) …as
Degree Degree Degree She’s as clever as her sister
long longer longest • Not so /as … (positive degree) … as
fine finer finest She is not as patient as Beth
busy busier busiest
• twice /three times etc. /half as …(positive degree) …as
serious more serious most serious She’s got twice as much money as I have
good better best
• the + comparative …, the + comparative
well better best
The sooner, the better
little less least
• very + adj /adv of positive degree
much more most
He is very practical.
many more most
It is very early.
bad worse worst
• (very) much, a lot, a little, rather, even, far, a bit + adj /adv of comparative
badly worse worst
far further, farther furthest, farthest
It is even /much /far /a bit hotter than it was on Monday.
late later last (final), latest (most recent)
• Most + adj /adv of positive degree = very
old older, elder oldest, eldest
She is most helpful with the customers
• Any + adj /adv of comparative degree (used in negations and questions).
We usually add the ending -er to one syllable adjectives and adverbs to Is he working any harder?
make their comparative forms and -est to make their superlative form: hard –
• comparative + and + comparative
harder – hardest.
Computers are becoming more and more important in our lives.
For adjectives with three or more syllables we usually add more /less
• By far, easily + adj /adv of superlative degree
and most /least. Two-syllable adjectives some adding in -er, -y, -ly, -w, -ple,
By far the cheapest, easily the most attractive.
-tle. add -er or -est to the base form: clever – cleverer - cleverest. Two syllable
= Note that further (but not farther) can mean “more” or “in” addition.
or compound adverbs take more /most: effectively – more effectively – most Stop doing it if you have any further complaints (= any more complaints)
effectively. = We use older /oldest but not elder /eldest in comparisons.
We use the comparative to compare one person or thing with another. My sister is older than me.
She is taller than me. We use elder /eldest (often before a noun, e.g. sister, son … etc.) mostly
to talk about members of a family.
After a comparative we often use than. In an informal style we use ob-
my elder sister
ject pronouns: me, him, after.
You are a wiser consumer than me. • Before a superlative we use the
the most reasonable act.
In a more formal style we use a subject pronoun: I, he + verb. The superlative is used in the following structures:
You are a wiser consumer than I am. - With prepositions.
This act is the most reasonable of all
If we compare two objects we use the + comparative. He is the best lawyer in our city.
He is the cleverer of the two lawyers. - With clauses.
This agency is the best I’m likely to find.
Note: most of all, best of all, least of all, etc.
- Without the.
25 26
TASKS 11. You’re not a safe driver! You should drive (more /most) slowly.
I. Answer the questions using the list of punishments for crimes:
IV. Complete these sentence in any appropriate way using the pat-
1. What are the least serious punishment?
tern the more … the better. Translate these sentences:
2. What are the most serious punishment?
1. The later the general election, … the … (good) it will be for the Gov-
(capital punishment – life imprisonment – community service order –
probation – fine – suspended sentence – corporal punishment – imprisonment)
2. The … (well) we study, the better we know laws.
3. What are the most serious crimes?
3. The … (long) I listened to the speech of the barrister, the … (much) I
4. What are, the least serious crimes?
liked it.
(murder, theft, burglary, drunk-driving, hijacking, drug dealing, battery,
4. The general rule is that the … (high) is the status of the judge, the …
robbery, bribery, smuggling)
(much) serious cases he tries.
5. What is the highest judicial organ in Great Britain?
5. The … (hard) we study, the … (successfully) we take exams.
6. Does the Supreme Court consider the most serious cases?
6. The … (much) important the purpose of the activity complained
about, the … (great) the tendency to grant effective authorization of the nui-
II. Choose an adjective or an adverb:
sance by legislative fiat.
1. He seems to be (honest /honestly).
7. The … (much) we discuss this case , the … (little) I understand it.
2. Tell me all (honest /honestly).
8. The … (long) I sit here, the … (little) I feel like leaving the court-
3. The question is quite (simple /simply).
4. She explained it quite (simple /simply).
9. The … (many) he did, the … (much) was expected of him by the vil-
5. Do you (seriously /serious) want to go the trial as a witness?
lage community.
6. It is a very (serious /seriously) thing.
10. The … (long) I study English, the … (much) I realise what an inter-
7. His answer was quite (clear /clearly).
esting language it is.
8. These figures (clear /clearly) show the development of our country.
11. The … (soon) he comes to the lawyer … the … (quick) he gets the
9. I don’t know (exact /exactly) where a police station is.
necessary information.
10. I don’t know the (exact /exactly) time of the trial.
12. The … (long) the lawyer made his speech, the … (difficult) was to
11. The audience was (happy /happily) to hear a fair sentence.
understand him.
12. He had an accident because he was driving too (fast /fastly).
V. Define the degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs and
III. Choose the correct word:
translate the following words and word combinations:
1. Of the four articles I like the first one (better /best).
high crimes, worse, less archaic laws, civil officers, badly, more com-
2. Does the judge feel (weller /better) today than he did yesterday?
plicated, the least serious crime, criminal proceedings, a corrupt President, eas-
3. Jane is the (less /least) careful of all the drivers.
ier, the latest report, constitutional duties; the most dangerous criminal statu-
4. Your heritage is (different from /different than) mine.
tory crime, better, most essential, more attentive.
5. The more evidence we have, (easier /the easier) we win a case.
6. This juror is (far /more) friendly than that one, but that juror is (much
/very) more patient than the former. VI. Fill in the comparative and superlative form of each adjective as
7. Taxi fares are (far /very) expensive in Rome, but they are (any /even in the example:
more) expensive in London. High – higher – the highest
8. As she gets older, she becomes (the /more) experienced. Legal – more legal – the most legal
9. Nothing is (worse /worst) than being stuck in a traffic jam.
10. That test wasn’t (as hard as /hard as) I thought.

27 28
Positive Comparative Superlative VIII. Match the English and Russian equivelents:
most powerful печально известный
most famously самый сильный
safely возможный
notorious наиболее изветно
putative спокойно
worse в начальной стадии
mutual самый сильный
unsuspecting ничего не подозревающий
more prudent недавно
lately более благоразумный
the latest самый подготовленный
the most efficient недавний
badly самый справедливый
further плохо
the justest дальнейший
initially хуже
IX. Put the words in brackets in the right forms. Alternatives are
VII. Fill in the gaps:
as … as; not as … as; (not) so … as; the same (as); as; than THE CHAMP
The two men were sitting at the bar. The one (near) … to me was the
1. He is … clever … he seems. (big) … and (strong) … man I have ever seen. The one (far) … from me was
2. It’s rather more complicated case …that. the (small /little) … and (weak) … . They were having the (violent) … argu-
3. This witness looked … he did yesterday. ment I had ever heard. Suddenly the little man said, “It’s a case of the (small)
4. Tom works … a slave. He is regarded … the hardest-working em- … brain in the world fitted into the (big) … head!” They were his (last /latest)
ployee in the company. … words. The little man didn’t know what hit him as he fell to the floor.
5. Ben’s car is faster … mine. “When Shortie wakes up, tell him that was my (better /best) … Karate chop,”
6. My brother spent half … much on his trial … I did. the big man told the barman as he left. The next evening, King Karate was at
7. Her CV was more impressive … the other applicant’s. the bar as usual when Shortie crept quietly, swung his arm and the champ fell
8. This criminal case is not … serious … that one. to the floor. “When Karate wakes up,” Shortie said, “tell him it was my (oldest
9. Probation is not … severe … imprisonment. /eldest) … Land Rover starting handle.”
10. This investigator is more experienced … that one.
11. The speech of his barrister was not … long … I expected it to be. X. Read the sentences, find adjectives and adverbs and define their
12. This lawyer is not … old … he looks. degrees of comparison:
13. Yes, don’t worry about a thing. I’ve got a lawyer who’s …… clever 1. The evidence of the witness should be examined carefully.
……. a fox. 2. We should have less delinquency if people married more wisely, if
parents knew better how to deal with their children’s personal problems.
3. The judge said that the witness would be interviewed as soon as pos-

29 30
4. This article is directly related to the information we are looking for. 15. Чем больше он изучал доказательства, тем лучше он понимал
5. The more correct information is stored in a computer, the more pre- обстоятельства дела.
cise data we get. 16. Это дело не такое серьезное, как то.
6. I bought the latest edition of today’s paper and read about these most 17. Показания свидетеля обвинения были не такими важными, как
terrible crimes. показания свидетеля защиты.
7. Her illness was more serious than we at first thought. 18. Думаю, что это наиболее подходящее для нас предложение.
8. He is the cleverest lawyer I know.
9. Here it is, the latest news from the middle East. The situation there XII. Translate these sentences into Russian, paying attention to the
hasn’t got much better, has it? comparative constructions:
10. The day that Christopher Roberts entered prison for a crime he had 1. Let’s take this way, it’s a mile shorter than that one.
never committed was the worst day of his long and eventful life. Fortunately, 2. Now the road seemed many times as long, which always happens
he was eventually found innocent and set free. when you are dead tired.
11. The pollution in our town isn’t bad as it used to be, and crime and 3. Jane was as nervous as I once had been before the interview.
corruption have become less serious problems; things are getting better. 4. Kate works reasonably hard but she used to work much harder.
12. People are not always so good as they appear – isn’t that true, Mr. 5. The more we know about law the more control we get over it.
Nero? 6. This code costs twice as much as the other one.
13. The police are not always the most honest people in town, are they? 7. The biggest Cali bosses appear to be safely behind bars.
14. With taxes the way they are these days, it seems the more money I 8. The agents were further charged with conspiracy to commit arson.
make, the less I have. 9. A very large majority recognized the need for an effective punish-
ment, called for the return of corporal punishment and asked for firmer disci-
XI. Translate the following sentences into English: pline in schools.
1. Ее голос становился все громче и громче. 10. It is now clear that, since the 1970s, drugs trafficking has become
2. Эта проблема не такая серьезная, как вы думаете. the most organized, most professional and most profitable of all illegal activi-
3. Покажите мне, пожалуйста, кратчайший путь к полицейскому ties.
участку. 11. We were dealing with a larger number of criminals and prisoners
4. Он совершил аварию, потому что ехал слишком быстро. were very often violent.
5. Жизнь становится тяжелее и сложнее с каждым днем. 12. Although Mr. Pickering received a retirement pension based on his
6. Это был самый печальный опыт в моей жизни. contributions over more than 20 years, it was considerably less than the enti-
7. Чем больше я читаю о налоговой реформе, тем меньше я ее по- tlement of an officer disabled at work.
нимаю. 13. The decisions will lead to higher pension.
8. Они принялись за работу без дальнейших комментариев. 14. Prosecutors were certain they had more than enough witnesses to
9. Он считает, что чем старше он становится, тем меньше он в чем- back up the charge.
либо уверен. 15. One of the most effective ways of tracing missing people is publicity.
10. Свидетель, говорите немного тише и менее агрессивно. 16. Jane was as nervous as I once had been before the interview.
11. Если эти средства будут признаны незаконными, они будут 17. The solution of this problem is twice as simple as they think.
конфискованы. 18. The longer I listened to the speech of the barrister, the more I liked it.
12. Этот человек незаконно прошел в здание.
13. Приговор магистратского суда не такой суровый, как приговор XIII. Use an adjective or an adverb in an appropriate degree of
уголовного суда. comparison. Translate these sentences into Russian:
14. Защитник обвиняемого был менее опытным, чем судья. 1. John is a good lawyer, but I don’t know a (good) lawyer than Nick.
2. She is the (clever) person in our family.
31 32
3. I have (little /few) interest in politics. 11. The damage to the car could be ____________ than we expected.
4. Jim isn’t as (good) advocate as Mark. a) the worst b) bad c) worse
5. The (difficult) thing about learning English is grammar.
12. That was _____________ case in his practice.
6. She is much (good) at civil law than her friend.
a) the least difficult b) the less difficult c) the difficulter
7. This is a (difficult) problem than we have seen.
8. Your reporter must be as (short) as possible. 13. Is there _____________ work for you to do every day?
9. He works the (hard) but earns the (little). a) many b) little c) few
10. I’ve never come across a (annoying) person than James.
11. What is the (late) news? 14. Sometimes _____________ gain is to be a loser.
12. He finds it (easy) to talk about work than to do it? a) the greater b) the greatest c) the most greatest
13. Where is (near) police station? 15. Don’t worry, he is ____________ on the danger list.
14. His job is (important) than his friend’s. a) no more b) not longer c) no longer
15. The Browns felt (bad) than the Smiths about losing the case.
16. There is not a passion ____________ strongly rooted in the human
XIV. Choose a correct variant: heart __________ envy.
1. You must be ___________ when crossing the street. a) so … as b) not so … as c) as … than
a) careful b) late c) careless d) latest 17. The witness gave the _____________ answer.
2. He should spend as ___________ time as possible to study this case. a) brief b) briefer c) briefest
a) more b) most c) much d) the most 18. This trial is twice as ___________ .
3. Honesty is ____________ policy. a) long b) longer c) longest
a) the best b) better с) more better 19. The people needed business skills so that they could manage them-
4. Of two evils choose the ___________ . selves _____________ .
a) less b) little c) least a) more efficiently b) most efficiently c) much efficiently.

5. We must act ____________ in critical situations. 20. The Parliament is ______________ influential than the President.
a) quicker b) quickest c) quickly d) the quickest a) less b) least c) more

6. What’s ____________ news of today? 21. A lawyer waited enough, ______________ than he had promised.
a) later b) the latest c) last a) longest b) long c) longer

7. If you require ____________ information or assistance, ask at your 22. “ The ______________ you go, the better!” – he shouted in a rage.
local police. a) soon b) sooner c) soonest.
a) further b) farther c) furthest
8. You must be ___________ if you don’t want to lose your things.
a) careful b) most careful c) more careful
9. Actions speak ____________ than words.
a) more louder b) the loudest c) louder
10. The court costs are becoming ____________ nowdays.
a) more expensive b) the most expensive c) expensiver
33 34
The Verb 3. to express a fact which is true for a long time (permanent situation).
The Active She works in a bank.
I live in Oxford.
Present Simple
4. to express an action with a future meaning (timetables, pro-
I Tomorrow is Wednesday.
We live The plane for Glasgow leaves at 10.05 on Tuesday morning.
You do not live
They near here
“- “ Indicators of time:
He Never; rarely; not often; sometimes; often; usually; always; every
She night/ week/ month/etc.
does not live
It e.g. Burglars usually break in so-called “burglar-friendly” houses.
Do you
they near here? I. Complete the sentences with the verbs given, using the Present
he Simple:
Does she live a. The police … (to investigate) crimes.
“?” It b. The judge … (to sentence) people.
I c. Prisoners … (to live) in cells.
we d. The jury … (to decide) if someone is innocent or guilty.
Where do live? e. Barristers … (to defend) people and … (to present) evidence.
they f. Criminals … (to commit) crimes.
Where she g. When someone … (to break) the law the police … (to try) to find
live? out who is responsible.
does it
h. The defendant … (to provide) facts to show something is true.
Short answer: i. Shoplifters … (to steal) things from shops.
“Do you like Peter?” – “Yes, I do.”/ “No, I don’t.” j. The manslaughter is that who … (to kill) somebody by accident.
“Does she speak Spanish?” – “Yes, she does.”/”No, she doesn’t.” k. Policemen … (to carry) guns.
l. People … (to install) a burglar alarm so that to protect their
Use: property.
The Present Simple is used
1. to express a habit or when we talk about things that happen on a II. Make up questions to the following sentences and answer them
regular basis. correcting the statements:
I leave work at 5.30 most days. a. An arsonist steals from shops while acting as an ordinary cus-
Usually muggers attack people in the streets. tomer.
2. to express a fact which is always true. b. Offenders always break the law.
Poverty drives people to crime. c. A shoplifter sets fire to property illegally.
Burglars think that the bigger the house, the richer the owners. d. Stowaways buy and sell drugs illegally.
Criminals don’t obey laws.

35 36
e. A bigamist takes control of a plane by force and makes the pilot n. When Parliament … (to pass) a new law, it has to be examined
change course. very carefully to make sure that it … (not to contradict) previous
f. A traitor gets secret information from another country, organiza- law unless there is full and clear intention to do so.
tion or person. o. The law … (to set out) the arrangements for marriage, divorce
g. A drug – dealer hides on a ship or plane to get a free journey. and custody of the children of divorced couples.
h. Hijackers marry illegally, being married already. p. Often we … (to feel) irritated or embittered by obvious stupidi-
i. Accomplices help a criminal in a criminal act. ties in the law which … (not to take) proper account of a modern
j. A forger runs away from the army. situation.
k. Spies betray his or her country to another state.
l. A deserter makes counterfeit money or signatures. IV. Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate verbs in the Present
Simple (each verb should be used only once) and translate the text from
III. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple and translate English into Russian:
the sentences from English into Russian: The instance in which speech may be punished 1)… where the speech
a. Unlike the police in most of the world, British police … (not to 2)… the ability of the judicial system to operate. The administration of law
carry) guns. 3)… the ability of a court system to operate impartially. The publisher of a
b. The ordinary policemen still … (to wear) helmets though officers newspaper which 4)… to influence the judge or jury in a particular case may be
… (to have) caps, but the popularity of the police with general punished for contempt of court. This 5)… that a judge is free from criticism.
public has declined. Newspapers in the United States 6)… great freedom to comment on a pending
c. Surveys … (to show) that people … (to prefer) this kind of polic- trial. A majority of the Supreme Court 7)… the view that a newspaper is free to
ing, even if it … (not to catch) so many serious criminals. attack a court so long as that attack 8)… an “imminent threat to the administra-
d. This problem … (to concern) the conduct of all our courts. tion of justice”. A court’s decision may be called “outrageous”. And a newspa-
e. Magistrates are volunteers who … (to work) at other jobs and … per which 9)… an unfair report of a pending case and 10)… a judge with being
(to sit) in the courts for, say, two days. “high handed” and committing a “travesty on justice” was unanimously held
f. Nevertheless more thefts, more violence, more vandalism, more by the Supreme Court to be immune from punishment for having said so.
fraud … (to exist) than did the years ago.
g. Also some crime … (to become) suddenly fashionable. to be to have to support not to constitute
h. Not anybody … (to know) whether it really happened rarely or to depend upon to seek not to mean
whether people who had been robbed hesitated to come to the to make to injure to charge
police station.
i. It is generally considered to be an activity which … (to make) V. Translate from Russian into English, using the Present Simple
money for lawyers rather than anything else. and its indicators:
j. On the other hand, the British unlike the Americans … (not to a. Он старается никогда не нарушать правила при управлении
spend) their time suing each other. автомобилем: пользуется ремнём безопасности (to wear seat
k. It … (to decide) how you may distribute your goods when you belt) и не превышает скорость.
die, … (to impose) limits on how fast you may drive your car, … b. Карманники крадут деньги и вещи из карманов и сумок лю-
(to say) what breeds of dogs you may own. дей, как правило, в переполненных общественных местах.
l. Ministers … (to change) their minds, of course, about emergency Следите за своими вещами.
regulations. It … (not to affect) law. c. Контрабандисты переправляют через границу запрещённые
m. Secondly, it … (to stop) “law by decree” in which someone with товары, наркотики и оружие. Они постоянно придумывают
power, either political or administrative … (to claim) that this or самые изощрённые (bewildering) способы перевозки. Тамо-
that is a good idea and should therefore be enacted. женной службе не всегда удаётся помешать им.
37 38
d. Люди устанавливают сигнализацию в своих домах, кварти- Present Continuous
рах и машинах для того, чтобы уберечь их от взломов и
краж. По статистике существуют так называемые “привле- Form:
кательные для воров” дома и машины. В них воры проника- am
ют до пяти раз. Часто люди жалуются на своих шумливых am not
соседей, но нет лучшего способа остановить “домушника” He
“+” is
как иметь внимательных и хорошо расположенных к вам со- She
is not working
седей. “-“ It
e. Детективы расследуют преступления и ловят преступников. We
Они редко отдыхают и поэтому не всегда удачны в личной are
are not
жизни. Они полностью посвящают себя работе. They
f. Закон пронизывает все сферы нашей жизни. Парламентарии Am I
стараются совершенствовать законы. Согласно имеющимся he
данным, британцы считают себя очень законопослушными Is she
гражданами. it
g. Кроме адвоката обвиняемый имеет ещё одного защитника – we
суд присяжных. Суд присяжных состоит обычно из 12 чело- Are you
век, и только он решает, виновен обвиняемый или нет. Хотя, they
конечно, иногда суд присяжных допускает ошибки. “?” working now?
am I
VI. Find out the mistakes and correct them: is she
Ian Stephen, who work with the Scottish prison service, believe that Where it
you’re more at risk if your house look nice. “Window – boxes, nice curtains
and beautifully painted walls all tells the burglar that you is proud of your
are you
home and cares about your possessions and is more likely to have nice things they
in your house,” he say. He advise people to try to make their homes looks as
plain as possible and not to draw attention to any new things they buys by leav-
Short answer:
ing the empty boxes next to the dustbin.
“Are you reading now?” – “Yes, I am. // No, I’m not.”
“Are we/ they reading now?” – “Yes, we/ they are. // No, we/ they
“Is he/ she / it reading now?” – “Yes, he/ she/ it is. // No, he/ she/ it
Note: I’m reading now, am I?
I’m reading now, aren’t I? (= am I not)

The Present Continuous is used
1. to express an activity happening now.
They are following the criminal now.
She can’t answer the phone because she is interrogating the criminal.

39 40
2. to express an activity happening around now, but perhaps not at the j. However, in most industrialized countries, the legal differences
moment of speaking. between the married and unmarried … (to decrease).
He is studying Law at the University. k. More and more criminals … (to become) high – proficient.
I’m reading a good book by Sidney Sheldon “Rage of Angels”. l. He … (to divorce) his wife next month.
m. She … (not to plan) to live in this house.
3. to express a temporary or repeated activity.
n. At this moment the investigator … (to inspect) the scene of the
Peter White is a student, but he’s working as a barman during the holidays.
I’m living with friends until I find a place of my own.
o. They … (to discuss) the information they have just received.
4. to express a changing situation (verbs describing change and devel- p. He … (to participate) in elections and may be elected deputy of
opment). the State Duma.
Things are getting worse.
More and more people are giving up smoking. II. Expand one of the sets of notes below to complete each dialogue:
The population of the world is rising very fast. * constantly / to increase * always / to miss / him
* forever / to criticize/ driving * continually / to change mind
5. to express complaints about bad habits or to criticize smb. * apparently / to get worse and worse * more and more people / to own
(usually with: constantly, always, continually, forever)
She is constantly finding fault with me. e.g. A: I can’t read this!
Please be quite! You are continually interrupting. B: You’re always complaining about my reports.
6. to express a planned future arrangement.
We’re meeting at 1.00 outside the restaurant. a. A: Have you heard that the criminal escaped from the prison?
They are seeing tomorrow to discuss the further steps of the operation. B: They’re …
b. A: What can you say about the crime rate for the last three months?
Indicators of time: B: It’s …
Now; at the moment; at this period; etc. c. A: That was a dangerous thing to do!
e.g. I’m learning to drive a car now. B: You’re…
d. A: He doubts about their didactic abilities!
TASKS B: He’s …
I. Complete the sentences with the verbs given, using the Present e. A: John is so rude!
Continuous: B: His behaviour’s …
a. It’s 5.00 already. Now they … (to enter) the bank. f. A: Don’t you think that there’s a lot of traffic at this time of day?
b. Don’t you know? At the moment she … (to testify) against her B: Yes, it’s because …
husband in court.
c. Now they … (to consult) with other jurors. III. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Continuous and
d. The judge … (to instruct) the members of the jury. translate the sentences from English into Russian:
e. As a juror, you should never go to the scene of any event that is a. They … (to resort) to Cold War espionage techniques and sci-
part of the case you … (to hear). ence to fight drug and alcohol abuse, which many turned into a
f. The foreman … (to conduct) the deliberations on the verdict now. way of life during their hippy days a generation ago.
g. At the moment the lawyers … (to give) closing arguments. b. Terrorism … (to become) more menacing than ever before.
h. The lawyer … (to try) to convince the jury in her guiltiness. c. I … (to write) to you to report the loss of my sun – glasses and
i. Tom Watson, himself, … (to investigate) this case. case.

41 42
d. The black Canadian, born in Jamaica, Ben Johnson … (to try) to или делать какие-либо заявления относительно этого про-
have a life ban overturned in the courts. He … (to sue) the Ca- исшествия.
nadian Centre for Ethics in Sport. c. Мы слышим, как пресс-секретарь делает заявление. По
e. Over the past 10 years, the number of arrests of girls for vio- только что полученной информации, угонщики удерживают
lence has more than doubled and juvenile crime … (to increase) заложников внутри самолёта и угрожают взорвать его, если
at a faster rate among girls than boys. не будут выполнены их требования.
f. Girls … (to turn) to violent crime. d. Согласно статистическим данным, все больше и больше де-
g. American parents … (to bug) their children’s telephones, … (to вушек становятся соучастницами жестоких преступлений. В
install) secret cameras in clock radios and … (to send) strands of целом растёт и число преступлений среди несовершенно-
hair retrieved from pillows for analysis at drug laboratories. летних. В момент совершения преступлений почти 2/3 из
h. Parents … (to hire) companies with sniffer dogs to track down них находятся под действием алкоголя или наркотиков.
traces of dope in their homes. e. Сейчас адвокат пытается убедить суд присяжных в виновно-
i. The District Attorney … (to attempt) to lead the witness. сти обвиняемого и намеривается подвергнуть перекрёстному
j. He … (to claim) that Mr. Irvine threw acid on Mr. Taska’s допросу главного свидетеля. Мы знаем, что подсудимый не
truck. признаёт себя виновным.
k. “All students know we are an anti – smoking establishment and f. Мы планируем встретиться завтра и обсудить показания
what we … (to say) is that when we say something we mean it. очевидцев. Все они очень противоречивые, более того, неко-
So, anybody has to face the consequences”, added Mr. Brown. торые свидетели постоянно их меняют.
l. Mr. Milosevic … (to conduct) his own defence. g. Я сам защищаю себя в суде, т.к. не нашёл подходящего ад-
IV. Fill in the gaps with the verbs below, using them in the Present h. Террористы становятся всё более “профессиональными” и
Continuous and translate the text from English into Russian: используют последние достижения техники.
Terrorism can take many different forms and terrorists i. Полиция всегда упускает этого преступника. Вот и сейчас он
1) … new ways to terrorize people. The most common methods have сбежал из тюрьмы.
been bombing, assassination, kidnapping and hijacking, but terrorists 2) … j. В данный момент он даёт показания против своей жены.
along with technology. They 3) … more sophisticated and 4) … use of techno- k. Его родители находятся сейчас в полном отчаянии! Они
logical advances. Even the most common methods, such as bombing, 5) … due следят за ним и прослушивают телефон!
to the latest developments like remote control and undetectable plastic explo-
sives. The growth in the use of poisonous substances and gases, and the possi- VI. Correct the mistakes in the usage of the Present Continuous if it
bility of terrorists obtaining a nuclear bomb are horrifying. is necessary and explain them:
Alistair: Have you ever done any jury service?
to become to make to think of (constantly) Elena: No, I haven’t. Why do you asking?
to evolve to change Alistair: Oh, nothing … just that I am make a report about how more
and more people trying to get out of it if they can.
V. Translate from Russian into English: Elena: Really? I’d have thought it’d be quite interesting.
a. Сейчас Майкл знакомится с материалами дела, которое ве- Alistair: Yes, so would I, but it seems that there’s a problem when you
дёт Том. Том считает, что Майкл постоянно к нему придира- is taking time off work.
ется. Их отношения становятся всё хуже и хуже. Elena: Yes? What, like their bosses won’t give them time off?
b. В данный момент криминалисты осматривают место пре- Alistair: No, no, that’s not the problem, I mean your employer has to let
ступления и делают необходимые замеры. Следователь оп- you off, but they don’t actually have to pay your wages when you are partici-
рашивает свидетелей и пока отказывается комментировать pate in jury service …
43 44
Stative Verbs to feel – * “понимать; чувствовать”
I feel that something goes wrong.
Classification: * “ощущать; чувствовать себя …”
Stative verbs express a permanent state rather than an action and don’t “What’s the matter with you? Are you feeling well?”
have continuous forms. to look – * “выглядеть”
These are: The policeman has worked all the night long. He looks
So, it is necessary to make a conclusion: when the verbs express a very tired.
state, they are used in the form of Present Simple; when they express an event, * “смотреть”
they are used in Present Continuous. The investigator is looking at the suspects’ photos.
to smell – * “иметь запах”
Verbs Verbs
It smells of burnt paper here.
of of feelings and Verbs of opinion Other verbs
* “нюхать”
senses emotions
“Why is he smelling the bottle of perfume?
appear; hear; adore; detest; agree; believe; belong; depend; fit;
Is it the same scent we felt at the place of crime?”
see; dislike; enjoy; understand; doubt; include; need;
to taste – * “иметь вкус”
look(=seem); forgive; hate; guess; know; own; possess; re-
The meal tastes wonderful.
seem; smell; like; love; pre- mean; realize; quire; concern;
* “пробовать”
sound; taste; fer; remember; sup- consist; contain;
They are tasting the meal.
resemble; etc. want; wish; etc. pose; recognize; depend on; de-
imagine; etc. serve; involve;
lack; matter; owe;
have; etc. I. Examine the other examples of stative verbs and the differences
in their meaning depending on their use in Present Simple or Present Con-
Peculiarities: tinuous. Classify the sentences into two groups and explain your choice:
Some stative verbs can have continuous forms but there is a difference State Event
in meaning. Compare the following sets of sentences:
to think – * “думать; полагать” …… ……
I think it is a serious crime.
* “обдумывать”
What are you thinking about?
to see – * “видеть; понимать” a. I really admire Mary. She’s an excellent police officer.
I see what you mean. b. “What are you doing here?” – “I am just admiring this unusual
I see there is a problem in representing facts. graffiti. I can’t call it a mess.”
* “встречаться” c. This bag weighs a ton!
We’re seeing Jenny tonight to decide the case in an d. We are weighing this bag.
impartial way. e. “What’s that terrible noise? I’m going to call the police!” – “It’s
to hear – * “слышать” not necessary! Our neighbours are only having a party!”
They hear him giving evidence in the courtroom. f. The suspect has a cottage in Brighton and it is a fifteen - minute
* “получать известие” ride from that place.
The witness is hearing from anyone who might have
seen the accident.
45 46
II. Choose the most appropriate variant from the given choice and “electronic monitoring”. The experts … that it will yield some benefits to the
translate the sentences from English into Russian: society. It … a sensation. The overriding rationale in favour of electronic moni-
a. The UK Government thinks / is thinking about a proposal to al- toring … to centre on its potential to alleviate both prison overcrowding and
low thousands of prisoners to have televisions in their cells. the financial burden of incarceration.
b. The woman who has been badly hurt in the accident is feeling /
feels worse and worse. IV. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the cor-
c. In England and Wales there is a jurisdiction system where defen- rect form of the stative verbs:
dants have / are having the rights to choose their courts. o. Алан обдумывает перспективы защиты обвиняемого в суде.
d. Mr. Straw is hearing / hears the jurors discussing the verdict. Он полагает, что его подзащитный невиновен. Сейчас он
e. The prosecuting attorney feels / is feeling that the witness for the просматривает материалы дела, а вечером встречается со
defence is telling a lie. следователем, чтобы уточнить детали.
f. So that to identify this person the officers look through / are p. Все с нетерпением ждут результатов экспертизы, т.к. увере-
looking through the files of the criminals caught for the last two ны, что отпечатки пальцев принадлежат подозреваемому.
months. Хотя у полицейских мало улик, они, кажется, не сомневают-
g. The dog is smelling / smells out drugs in the container. ся в личности преступника.
h. The man walking south along the street is looking / looks like a q. Офицер выглядит усталым после ночного дежурства. Опе-
wanted gangster. рация по задержанию налетчика закончилась удачно и поли-
i. It is smelling / smells danger. цейские заслуживают награды.
j. This drink tastes / is tasting like sherry we had in the evening of r. Поджигателем оказался несовершеннолетний. Он полностью
murder. зависит от своих родителей, и они будут возмещать ущерб.
k. Most of juveniles are feeling / feel depressed because they de- s. Сейчас эксперты обследуют место пожара. Здесь пахнет га-
pend / are depending on their parents. рью.
l. They are seeing / see what the detective is driving at. t. Детектив пробует вино. Оно той же марки, что было обна-
m. The experts see / are seeing in some days to decide whether it is ружено на месте преступления.
an important amendment to the Rules or not.
n. The judge is thinking / thinks that violent crimes committed by V. Correct the mistakes in the usage of the stative verbs if it is nec-
electronically monitored offenders are rare. essary and explain them.
III. Fill in the blanks in the text using the verbs from the table in … Hello, I’m Jane Utterson with some breaking news for you. I’m
the most appropriate form: standing in front of the Midwest bank and as far as I’m hear two men are de-
manding a cashier to open the safe and put all money in a bag. The policemen
to see to feel
is consider them to be quite nervous because three hostages have been already
to smell to appear
wounded by them. One of the wounded woman feel worse and worse. The of-
to hear from to think about
ficers is think about the further steps. They are looking very tired after some
to have to look
hours of unbearable tension. Stick around and follow our forthcoming news! …

Many countries with very high prison populations … very high crime
rates. So, the Governments … the alternatives to prison. The public is looking
forward to … the group of experts who … in three weeks at a four-day confer-
ence on “The Problem of Alternative Ways to Imprisonment” in Glasgow. It …
like an attempt to present the newest community – based sanctions such as
47 48
TEST YOURSELF 15. … believe he is involved in smuggling.
a) He don’t b) I don’t c) They aren’t d) She isn’t
I. Check your knowledge and decide which answer a, b, c or d best
fits each blank: 16. I … Mr. Guntry. He is a hard-working and dedicated policeman.
a) am admiring b) am admire c) admire d) am not admiring
1. I’m sure the police … the suspects at the moment.
a) is questioning b) are questioning c) questions d) question 17. She … the state in court.
a) is represent b) don’t represent c) represent d) doesn’t represent
2. Dave … his further promotion.
a) are thinking about b) thinks of c) is thinking about d) think over 18. Unemployment … many people to crime as an easy way of getting
3. We … to punish an innocent person. a) turns b) is turning c) turn d) doesn’t turns
a) wants b) don’t want c) are want d) aren’t want
19. He … a special talent to solve complicated cases.
4. She always … walking along the dark streets. a) is having b) has having c) has d) have
a) avoid b) is avoiding c) to avoid d) avoids
20. The clothes … the perfume found in the suitcase of the suspect.
5. Tom … trouble at work! It is so disturbing! a) is smelling b) smell of c) smells of d) are smelling of
a) always causes b) is always causing
c) don’t cause d) doesn’t always causes II. Give at least one example from the test to illustrate the following
6. They … the scene of the crime for clues. points:
a) are searching b) search c) doesn’t search d) isn’t searching 1. temporary situation;
7. We … a “Law Rights” seminar on Monday. 2. permanent state;
a) attends b) attend c) are attending d) don’t attends 3. repeated / habitual actions;
8. The criminals have been announced to drive in the direction of the 4. timetables / programmes with future meaning;
airport. We must be in a hurry, their flight to Paris … at 8.10, as I know. 5. truths or laws of natures;
a) is taking off b) takes off c) take off d) taking off 6. changing or developing situation;
7. complaints about bad habits;
9. “… within the speed limit?” – “As far as I can judge, oh…” 8. planned future arrangement(s);
a) Do you driving b) Does he drives 9. action(s) happening now;
c) Is he driving d) Are they drive 10. action(s) happening around the time of speaking.
10. The crime rate … steadily.
a) growes b) are growing c) is growing d) begin to grow
11. The officer of the Scotland Yard … this case.
a) investigates b) has investigating c) is investigating d) investi-
12. The suspect … staying in prison until the facts about his innocence
are found.
a) is keeping b) keeps c) are kept d) are keeping
13. Mary and Jack … in police.
a) are working b) work c) decides to work d) are worked
14. … they wear seat belts while driving?
a) Does b) Are c) Have d) Do

49 50
Present Perfect TASKS

Form: I. Complete the sentences with the verbs given in the brackets and
translate them from English into Russian:
a. During the past few years, I … (to see) legal medicine grow consid-
We have (‘ve)
erably in stature, and there …(to be) an increasing understanding of
You have not (haven’t)
“+” recognized the criminal. its importance on the part of the public.
“-“ caught the criminal. b. Collins, best known for playing the sceming alexis Carrington in the
He television series Dynasty, … (to countersue) Random House for $3.6
has (‘s)
She million she claims the publishing house still owes her.
has not (hasn’t)
It c. The defendant … (to plead) not guilty and you should presume the
I defendant’s innocence throughout the entire court.
We d. So many times I … (to find) it to be true that the wife and family of
Have You a forensic pathologist forego social life, become accustomed to tele-
recognized the criminal.
“?” They phones ringing at all hours of night, and can only “look forward” to
caught the criminal.
He Saturdays and Sundays as no different from any other day except
Has She that the death toll is heavier on those days.
It e. But getting back to Dr. Jachimczyk, perhaps of the cases he … (to
handle) would serve as a better illustration of what I mean than any
Short answer: amount of general discussion.
“Has she ever worked in police?” – “Yes, she has. / No, she hasn’t.” f. The court initially heavily criticised for incompetence, … now … (to
“Have you ever been to Egypt?” – “Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t.” pass) three jail sentences against genocide convicts.
g. Embassies in Moscow … (to receive) ominous emails from a skin-
Use: head group, warning non-Russians to leave the country or face the
The Present Perfect is used consequences.
1. to express an action in the past. We are interested in the experience h. Mr. Steele … (to commit) no crime and poses no danger to the pub-
as part of someone’s life. lic.
They have lived all over the world. i. The bomber … (to breach) security by hurling his dynamite from a
She has travelled a lot in America. roof overlooking the building.
2. to express an action or state which began in the past and continues to j. The Board … (to ban) the film on the ground that it contravenes
the present. criminal libel laws.
I have known Mike for six years.
How long have you worked as a policeman? II. Fill in the gaps with the most appropriate verbs in the Present
3. to express a past action with a result in the present. Perfect (each verb should be used only once):
I have lost my wallet.
have made have ended has made
She has just passed her driving test.
have gone has ransacked
have picked up has hurt
Indicators of time:
For; since; already; so far; yet (“-“, “?”); just; etc. a. It is difficult for people to forgive someone who … them.
They have already caught the criminal. b. Some people who are not guilty … to prison by mistake.
He hasn’t got any information yet. c. The victims of murder are gone forever. Their hopes and plans … .

51 52
d. Sometimes people kill because of anger, misunderstanding, or fear. fle?” “Yes. Things were all pretty much of a whirl in my mind, but
All people … mistakes because of such feelings. I’m quite certain I picked it up.”
e. Police … a suspect, at least for questioning, in connection with a
murder which took place last night. V. Translate from Russian into English, using the Present Perfect
f. Somebody … her apartment over the weekend. and its indicators:
g. He is such a kind of men who … big money out of gambling, book- a. Французкие учёные приступили к разработке детектора запаха
making, numbers, and perhaps a little smuggling. – прибора, который позволит обнаруживать преступников с
такой же точностью, как по отпечаткам пальцев. Криминали-
III. Look at the diaries and ask Fiona what she has managed to do сты выразили мнение, что это “подпись”, которую невозмож-
today and what she has not: но подделать, она уникальна для каждого человека.
b. Мистер Брейк явился свидетелем аварии, в результате кото-
Monday 19 January Tuesday 20 January рой пострадали люди. Сейчас он даёт показания полицейским.
c. Полиция задержала давно разыскиваемого преступника. Он
ƒ Go shopping with Helen at ƒ Pick up car from garage (+) побывал во многих странах, скрываясь от преследования. Он
12.00 (+) ƒ Take dog to vet (-)
только что признался в ограблении нескольких банков.
ƒ Go to dentist at 15.00 (+) ƒ Take the children to the
d. В мире существует много нелепых законов. Так, например,
ƒ Have dinner with Whites at ƒ zoo (+) киргизкие законотворцы приняли закон, по которому все до-
18.00 (+) ƒ Phone to the tour agency (+)
рожные полицейские обязаны сообщать начальству о полу-
ƒ Go to the theatre with May (-)
ченных за день взятках.
e. Детектив Ирвинг раскрыл преступление и установил убийцу.
IV. Find out the mistakes in the use of the Present Perfect and cor- Чарльз Ирвинг провёл много часов в полицейских архивах,
rect them: просматривая похожие случаи.
1. “Did you seen the morning papers?”
“There’s a photograph of the victim in the morning paper,” Mason
said. ‘They has photographed the features and retouch the eyes so
as to give the corpse a lifelike appearance. They feel that someone
is certain to recognize him.”

2. “Have you meet him before?”

“Have you thinks of anything, any clue which would enable us to
locate him?”
“No. I have been trying. There was nothing I could put my finger
on. I can’t remember anything except what I has told you already.”

3. Mason nodded. “I’m inclined to think they do. However, the police
haven’t announce it. They’re acting on the assumption that the
identity of the murder victim is a mystery. Now, there’s another
thing. They has found the murder weapon was the .22 rifle that
was lying on the floor of the bedroom. Have you pick up that ri-
53 54
Past Simple Mason pressed the mother-of-pearl button and heard chimes on the inside of
the apartment. …
The form of the Past Simple is the same for all persons 3. for a past habit or state.
I Susan spent holidays in these parts when her grandmother lived here.
He He felt happy when his wife was alive.
went away.
“+” It 4. In news reports and conversations you will often read or hear events
We introduced with the Present Perfect, and then the Past Simple is used to give
You the details:
They …Switzerland and Russia have signalled their readiness to co-operate in the
I money-laundering investigations.
He The Russian mafia said to have illegally channelled billions of dollars through
She escape. accounts at Bank of New York…
“-“ It go away.
(did not) Indicators of time:
We disappear.
You Last year, last month, etc.; five years ago; yesterday; in 1975; al-
They ways; etc.
I She always went there alone without fear.
He They graduated from the University in 2001.
She escape?
When did TASKS
“?” It go away?
How did
We disappear? I. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple and translate the
You sentences from English into Russian:
They a. Suddenly and without notice she … (to have) a convulsive seizure
Short answer: and … (to die) shortly afterward.
“Did it disappear yesterday?” – “Yes, it did.” b. Still he … (to give) the impression of a man who could handle most
“Did he escape a week ago?” – “No, he didn’t.” issues in life.
c. “ I … (to discover) detective stories in the Seventies,” suddenly his
Use: voice (to break down) and I … (to see) him cradle his face in his
Past Simple is used: hands.
1. to express a finished action in the past. d. Even the murderers … (to have) a sense of honor those days. There
I worked in London police from 1984 to 1997. (to be) no mindless psychopaths killing people for just a few dollars.
Eric left two minutes ago. e. Caryl Chessman is an example of someone who … (to become) a
better person in prison. He … (to teach) other prisoners to read, and
2.to express actions which follow each other in a story. he … (to write) several books.
… The elevator eased to a crawl for the last few feet of its climb, then came to f. The three-judge panel at the tribunal in Tanzania … (to rule) that
a stop. The door slid back, Mason entered a small vestibule. On one side was a they … (to have) no power to hand the man over for trial.
door bearing the sign “Roof”. On the other side a door had the number 46A.

55 56
g. Commenting on the decision, the judge … (to be) instrumental in purses over one by one to him. At that moment the bank alarm began ringing
setting the tribunal, … (to deny) that the outcome of the proceedings due to the security guard who had pushed the button and the robbers fled the
suggested inefficiency. scene of the crime…
h. The ordeal … (to persist) throughout history. In those cases, the or-
deal … (not to be) a contest but rather a test of the guilt or innocence
Police Officer: - Have you heard about robbery last Sat-
of the accused.
i. In some areas the kings or lesser rulers … (to decide) disputes them-
Customer: - Yes, of course, I was there.
selves. A Grievance Day was sometimes established, when anyone
Police Officer: …
interested … (to apply to) the king with a petition or complaint, but
Customer: …
this system rarely … (to function) on a regular basis.
j. The men and women who … (to skyjack) the planes to the Middle
IV. Make up your own short report about any criminal case you
East … (to be) professionals. Airline pilots who … (to be) through a
know using the Past Simple.
hijacking … (to say) it was easier to deal with professionals rather
than amateurs.
V. Make up the autobiography of the criminal from the report us-
ing the Past Simple.
II. Fill in the gaps with the verbs from the box, using them in the
Past Simple:
VI. Complete the sentences with appropriate verb forms in the Past
a) to sound Della Street 1) … through the call and after a moment said,
Simple or in the Present Perfect:
b) to let “Drake is on his way down.” 1. to burgle
c) to remain The drake Detective Agency, with offices on the same floor - Jack Simple … 10 houses and now he is in prison.
d) to manage as Mason”s offices, 2) … open twenty-four hours a day. Paul
e) to put - Lee Shyan … 25 houses and offices but was killed during his last
Drake, who 3) … all of Mason”s investigative work, some- attempt.
f) to sound times 4) … back and forth between his office and Mason’s as
g) to contrive 2. to investigate
many as a dozen times a day.
h) to do - Roger is known to be the best detective in our town. He … so
Within the matter of seconds after Della Street had hung up
the telephone, Drake’s code knock 5) … on the door of Perry many difficult cases.
Mason”s private office and Della Street 6) … him in. - Bill … one of the most famous bank robbery known as “a rob-
Paul Drake, tall, loose-jointed, easy-moving, 7) … some- bery of the century” and then retired from the police.
how to give the impression of being indifferent to his sur- 3. to belong to
roundings, yet 8) … to see everything. - We … one and the same police station since we were released
from the prison.
III. Read a short report about the bank robbery given below and - We … one and the same police station when we lived in that
complete the interrogation of a bank customer using the Past Simple: house.
…Police has caught two suspects who are supposed to be bank robbers. 4. to advance
The bank robbery was in Manchester last Saturday. It was a quarter past seven - Since the 18-th century, different scientists … theories trying to
when two men dressed in all black, entered the bank and drew the pistols. explain crime.
There were only a few customers in the bank at the time. They made the cus- - The French philosopher Montesquieu … a theory tending to
tomers lie on the floor and forced the cashier to put the money in a sack. Then show a correlation between criminal behaviuor and natural envi-
one of the robbers pulled a knife from his jacket and said to the customers lying ronment.
on the floor: “Give me your purses or you’re stuck!” and they handed the

57 58
5. to receive арестовала его за драку на улице, и он признался во всех пре-
- Her father … so many complaints about the noise that he de- ступлениях.
cided not to allow his daughter to organize any party at all.
VIII. a) Find out the mistakes in the use of the Past Simple and cor-
- The police … 60 complaints about silence breaks in the last 15
rect them:
…There was two lawyers, Alfred and Bertram. Alfred once borrow a
6. to ask great deal of money from Bertram. He promises to pay him back on the day he
- A police officer … me several questions about my stolen car and wins his first case in court. But Alfred were lazy and never took on a case.
now he is looking through the police files.
At first Bertram don’t mind, but after five years he got tired of waiting
- The police … me several questions about my car and they let me
for his money. He decide to take Alfred to court to get the money back.
7. to steal On the day of the trial they both come to the court feeling happy and
- Somebody … my umbrella at the cinema yesterday. confident. They shake each other’s hand as if nothing were wrong. Alfred were
- It turns out that a shoplifter … a handbag, a lipstick and a block sure that whether he wins or loses in court he wouldn’t need to pay Bertram the
of cigarettes. money back. Bertram, on the other hand, was sure he’d get his money back…
b) Complete the story above using the Past Simple.
VII. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the
Past Simple:
1. Ричард Мичан, 36-летний компьютерный эксперт, обвинил
Марка Симсона в убийстве своего брата. Суд присяжных при-
говорил Симсона к 15 годам тюрьмы. Но Симсон зарекомен-
довал себя как примерный арестант и освободился из тюрьмы
на 5 лет раньше. Мичан подал протест в Апелляционный Суд,
но он его отклонил.
2. В 2000 году московский суд слушал дело о шпионаже. Аме-
риканский гражданин Эдмуд Поуп отрицал свою вину и гово-
рил, что он не имеет к этому отношения.
3. Три дня назад полиция арестовала двух мужчин по подозре-
нию в подготовке террористического акта. На месте обыска
они нашли чертежи аэропорта и фальшивые документы.
4. Неделю назад Джейн прибыла в аэропорт Кеннеди. Она ре-
шила дождаться подругу, обещавшую встретить её, но вскоре
поняла, что та не приедет. Она позвонила к ней на работу и
узнала, что та находиться в больнице, куда попала в результа-
те аварии. Джейн отправилась прямо в больницу.
5. Том Кард находился в тюрьме с 1995 по 1998 год. В 1998 году
он вышел на свободу. В 2000 году он совершил 20 краж из ма-
газина и участвовал в ограблении банка. Месяц назад полиция

59 60
Used to TASKS

Form: I. Make negative and interrogative sentences to the given state-

“Used to” is the same in all persons. ments:
a. Jack used to be a member of a jury.
b. This gang used to terrorize the entire community.
c. The thought of war used to frighten me when I was young.
She smoke a lot.
d. Her farther used to warn her about not going out late at night.
“+” It used to discuss criminal cases with the
e. Police used to announce all women in this area to be on their
We teacher.
f. Travel agents used to tell tourists about the dangers of crime at
holiday resorts.
I g. Muggers used to attack people in this park before a police station
He was established nearby.
smoke a lot.
She did not h. Mary and Dick used to break into the houses to steal valuable
discuss criminal cases with the
“-“ It use to things so that not to die from poverty.
We (didn’t)
You II. a) Make up your own sentences with “used to+Infinitive” and
They translate them:
I b) Write down a situation with “used to” and expressions below:
Did He a. to deal with difficult matters whereas …
When She smoke a lot? b. to make decisions quickly because …
“?” did It use to discuss criminal cases with the c. to be patient with people due to the fact that …
How did We teacher? d. to do a lot of paperwork when …
Etc. You e. to work late during …
They f. to speak on the phone so that to …
g. to take care of … and…
Short answer: h. to smoke marijuana and it turns out …
“Did you use to smoke a lot?” – “Yes, I did./ No, I didn’t.” i. to fine offenders to avoid …
j. to be a splendid detective but now …
“Used to” is used III. Rewrite the following sentences with “used to”:
1. to express a past habit. a. In those times, I was always present at the trials.
e.g. He used to blackmail people with counterfeit documents but now b. We investigated assaults and batteries while working in the de-
he is in prison. partment.
e.g. Being an in-house lawyer of this firm, Jane used to deal with very c. Susan witnessed many accidents living in that district.
complicated problems. d. Police officers found a huge of proofs at the scene of crimes and
2. to express a past state. now criminals have become cleverer and changed their manners.
e.g. They used to be happy together before their official divorce. e. She got secret information about new weapons of mass destruc-
e.g. She used to like taking care of other people. tion during the war.

61 62
f. Hooligans caused damage and disturbance during their demon- V. Which of the verb forms can complete the sentences below? Tick
strations. all possible answers and explain them:
g. Punishments were very severe and painful in ancient times.
h. The police officers tried different methods to identify the crimi- a. The man now known as Mr. Brown … called “Grey” in the crimi-
nal but failed. nal circles.
i. Scotland Yard had no trust of the London public and encountered 1. used to be 2. would be 3. was 4. have to be
little cooperation from it.
j. Governments denied prisoners’ rights. b. The burglar is identified now. She has blonde wavy hair but she …
dark-haired when she was first detained and remanded in police
IV. Complete the sentences: custody.
a. When I was young, I used to … 1. would have 2. had 3. used to have 4. was having
b. Being a schoolboy, he used to …
c. While studying at the University my mother used to … c. He … armed robberies but then he was seized by the police.
d. I remember our school teacher used to … 1. used to assist 2. would assist 3. was assisting 4. assisted
e. Mary never used to …
f. My friend didn’t use to … d. When I was a newly-trained officer, I … till late every night look-
g. Jack is in prison now but he used to … ing through the police archives.
h. Mr. Manly is a detective in the local Detective Agency whereas 1. worked 2. used to work 3. was worked 4. would work
earlier he used to …
e. According to his previous criminal record, he … other people.
Would can express typical behaviour. Whereas “used to” is quite fac- 1. used to blackmailing 2. used to blackmail
tual, “would” looks at past habits rather nostalgically. “Would” cannot be used 3. would blackmail 4. blackmailed
to express past states. (We cannot say: They would be happy together.) We
don’t use either “used to” and “would” when we say exactly how many times f. Police … measures against antiglobalists’ demonstrations and then
something happened, how long something took, or that something happened at began using tear gas to disperse the demonstrators.
a particular time. Therefore, the Past Simple must be used. “Would” cannot be 1. would undertake 2. used to undertake
matched with “to be”. We can represent it in a form of a table: 3. undertook 4. were undertaking

Options Past Used to Would g. She never … mace spray in her handbag before.
Simple 1. brought 2. would bring 3. used to bring 4. was bringing
expressing a habit + + +
expressing a state + + - h. … act as one gang?
matching with “to be” + + - 1. Did they use to 2. Did they 3. Would they 4. Were they
expressing critical attitude - - +
Saying exactly how many i. Steven … smoke pot and hash and now he is a hash addict.
times, at what particular time + - - 1. would not 2. didn’t use to 3. didn’t 4. was not used to
and how long smth. happened
j. French President Jacques Chirac … Holland for its drug troubles.
1. blamed 2. used to blame 3. was to blame 4. would blame

63 64
k. Julia … people upon legal affairs and then she became an advo- Past Continuous
1. consulted 2. used to consult 3. would consult 4. consults Form:
l. “You know, it … an old police trick”- said George Harrison. He was
1. would be 2. was 3. used to be 4. was being She was not (wasn’t)
“+” looking at him as if trying to remem-
“-“ ber something.
VI. Use “would”, “used to” or Past Simple in the gapped text and We
explain your choice (variations are acceptable). were
In 1976, Holland … (to decide) that the crime around selling drugs … were not (weren’t)
(to be) a greater threat than the health problem caused to the drug user. The I
journalists of the leading newspapers … (to ask) the mayor of Amsterdam how He
much a gram of marijuana costs in his city. He … (to answer) without any Was
doubts, because the man shaping an intelligent drug policy knows the facts. looking at him as if trying to remem-
“?” It
Earlier, Holland … (to have) drug troubles but nowadays it has fewer ber something?
addicts per thousand than France and supplies fewer drugs to France than Were You
Spain, Pakistan and Morocco. They
VII. Translate the text from Russian into English, using “would”, Short answer:
“used to” and Past Simple. “Were you working yesterday?” – “Yes, I was. / No, I wasn’t.”
…Когда-то Фламбо (Flambeau) был известен как гений воровства, “Was she talking to her friend when you arrived?” – “Yes, she was. /
и полиции трёх стран выслеживали его. Бывало, о его великаньих шутках No, she wasn’t.”
рассказывали легенды: однажды он поставил на голову следователя, что-
бы “прочистить ему мозги”, другой раз пробежал по Рю де Риволи (the Use:
Rue de Rivoli) с двумя полицейскими под мышкой (under each arm). К его The Past Continuous is used
чести (It is due to him), он пользовался своей силой только для таких бес- 1. to express an action, event or situation that was in progress at a
кровных, хотя и унижающих жертву дел. Он никогда не убивал – он толь- specified time in the past:
ко крал, изобретательно и с размахом (wholesale). Каждую из его краж “What were you doing at 9.00 last night?”
можно было счесть новым грехом и сделать темой рассказа. Это он осно- 2. in sentences together with the Past Simple. When this happens,
вал в Лондоне знаменитую фирму “Тирольское молоко” (Tyrolean Dairy the Past Continuous refers to longer, “background” activities,
Company), у которой не было ни коров, ни молочных (dairies), ни молока, whilst the Past Simple refers to shorter actions that happened in
зато были тысячи клиентов. Обслуживал Фламбо их очень просто – пере- the middle of the longer ones.
ставлял к их дверям чужие бидоны. Большей частью афёры его были As soon as Jack woke up last night, he heard somebody was knocking
обезоруживающе просты. Чуть не каждое утро газеты сообщали, что он at the door.
избежал расплаты за преступление, совершив новое, ещё похлеще … 3. to express two actions or events that went on over the same pe-
(G.K. Chesterton “The Blue Cross”) riod of time, we use the Past Continuous for both.
Sally was interrogating the alleged man while John was looking carefully
through all his documents.

65 66
Indicators of time: n. The police car … (to appear) at the moment when Ben … (to ig-
at the time; at that period of time; while; adverbials beginning with nore) a “no right turn” sign.
all e.g all night, all morning, all day (to show an action in progress) o. Police … (to liaise) with their counterparts during the operation
I didn’t go out yesterday evening, I was watching television all evening. organized to arrest American-born David Francis Bieber, 35. He
My husband was cooking the dinner while I was talking with our neighbours. … (to murder) a British policeman and … (to attempt) to kill two
II. Fill in the gaps with the verbs from the box using them in the
I. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Continuous or Past Simple
Past Continuous or Past Simple:
and translate them:
a. Gregory … (to follow) the suspects, while Mary … (to try) to to lock to leave to blindfold to see to deserve
find any information about the gang. to open to talk to shout to wait to mean
b. He … (to search the desk-drawers for something) when Mrs. to get back to tie to go on to come not to tell
Smith … (to come in). to be to say to happen to gag
c. The passengers … (to be going) to fasten the belts when they
suddenly … (to hear) the voice of hijacker. When Davey … the stage, he … exhausted but exhilarated. But when he
d. “Can you remember the events happened last night?” – “Of … to the dressing room, he … the door and … that two men … for him. They
course, I … (to watch) TV all the evening and … (not to go out) … the door behind Davey. He … for his bodyguard Bernard, but no-one … .
even for a while.” The two men … his hands behind his back, … and … him. Davey could hear
e. When my husband … (to switch on) the lights, he saw the bur- Bernard in the next room. Bernard … to someone and he … terrible things
glar who … (to break into) the house through the window. about Davey. He said that Davey … it. What … ? Why nobody … him what
f. It … (to happen) in October when a policeman … (to spot) one …?
of the culprits who … (to wear) a flack jacket that … (to match)
the description of outfits used during the post office hold-up. III. Correct the mistakes in the use of the Past Continuous if it is
g. Former Detective Sergeant Tom Lewis, who … (to lead) the in- necessary and explain them:
vestigation, … (to interview) the would-be assassin and … (to a. Then we entered the smoking-room. Muller and Flannigan were
explain) how it had been done. there. They was both drinking, and a pile of cards were lay on the table. They
h. During all that year, he … (to live) in Christ-church and … (to playing cards as we entered. The conspirators paid no attention to us at all. We
lead) a full and busy life: he … (to run) an arts school and … (to sat down and watched them.
rob) banks in his spare time. b. As I turned my head, I saw two figures, now well known to me, at
i. It was reported that car hijackings ... (to run) at a rate of nearly the other side of the deck. They were talk, but I could not hear a word. I de-
50 a day. cided to hide in one of the lifeboats. It was dark now, so dark that I could
j. The sky was clear and the stars … (to blaze) steadily down hardly see the figures of Muller and Flannigan. A few passengers was still
through the pure mountain air. Jack … (to notice) a woman, who sitting on deck, but many had gone below.
… (to hide) behind the tree. c. It was a little square box. I looked over again. Flannigan were shak-
k. Mr. Blair … (to say) that he … (to plan) his visit in great se- ing something out of a paper into his hand. I saw the white granules – the same
crecy. I had seen in the morning. I was sure they was going to use them as a fuse…
l. A charter plane carrying 148 people … (to crash) into the Red Next moment I struggling with Flannigan. It was useless… I was a child in his
Sea close to where the Prime Minister and his family … (to stay). hands.
m. Officials from MI 5 … (to believe) that two Islamist terrorists … (A. Conan Doyle “That Little Square Box”)
(to intend) to detonate a bomb in an aircraft.

67 68
TEST YOURSELF 10. They … to find any extra evidence concerning the case.
(PAST SIMPLE, USED TO, WOULD, PAST CONTINUOUS) a) managed b) didn’t manage c) didn’t use d) was managing
Check your knowledge and decide which answer a, b, c or d best fits 11. They … ; I could hear them down the road.
each blank: a) were still arguing b) didn’t argue
c) used to argue d) was still arguing
1. The Government … a controversial law under which it could take any
land it wanted. 12. She … the manager, and the manager … things over and then … the
a) were brining b) used to bring c) brought d) was brought police a ring.
a) notified, thinks, gave c) would notify, think, give
2. At that time he … jury trial in a military court on charges of plotting b) notifies, thought, gave d) notified, thought, gave
against the state.
a) awaited b) was awaiting c) were awaiting d) awaits 13. When Sally … , he … evidence against his mother-in-law.
a) arrives, was still giving c) arrived, was already giving
3. When I lived in New York, I remember police cars … after the of- b) arrived, gave d) used to arrive, were giv-
fenders with their siren blaring. ing
a) sped b) speeded c) used to speed d) was speeding 14. My grandmother … the police department every time she saw some-
4. The driver of the car that killed Brown … a $ 500 fine and five pen- thing suspicious in the street.
alty points on his licence. a) used to telephone b) telephones
a) got b) would get c) used to get d) was getting c) would telephone d) was telephoning
5. Earlier he … people by using strong swearwords. 15. The number … with the other cleaning marks; she might have bor-
a) was used to offend b) offends rowed some clothes from someone on account of bloodstains on her garments.
c) would offend d) was offending a) used to agree b) didn’t agree c) was agree d) would agree
6. I didn’t know whether she … or telling the truth.
a) would bluffing b) used to bluff c) bluffs d) was bluffing

7. Detectives … with Derbyshire police following the bomb explosion.

a) were liaising b) were liaised c) would liaise d) used to liaise

8. He was so desperate for money to pay off his debts that he … to em-
a) resorts b) resorted c) was used to resort d) would to resort

9. … Jill a lot of information when she worked in police?

a) Did she gave b) Did she use to give
c)Was she give d) Would she gave

69 70
Present Perfect Continuous Indicators of time:
Since; for; already; recently; lately.
Form: Police have already been investigating the case for three months already.
I Helen has been working really hard lately.
We have (‘ve)
You have not (haven’t) 1. Sometimes there 2. The verbs that have the 3. The Present Per-
“+” been questioning the alleged
They is a little or no dif- idea of a long time can be fect looks at the
“-“ man for two hours already.
He ference in meaning found in the Present Perfect completed action.
has (‘s) between the Present Continuous: This is why if a sen-
has not (hasn’t) Perfect and Present (wait, work, study, travel, tence gives a number
Perfect Continuous. play, etc.) or a quantity, the
I – How long have - I have been studying law Present Perfect is
We you worked here? for many years. used.
You - How long have The verbs that contain the – I’ve written three
They been questioning the alleged you been working idea of a completed action letters today.
“?” here? can be found in the Present
man for two hours already?
He Perfect:
Has She (find, start, buy, die, lose,
It break, stop, etc.)
- I’ve bought a new dress.
– My cat has died.
Short answer: - My radio has broken.
“Has she been working in police?” - “Yes, she has. / No, she hasn’t.”
“Have you been pursuing the criminal?” – “Yes, I have. / TASKS
- No, I haven’t.” I. Complete the sentences with the verbs given in the brackets;
mind the word order and the place of the adverbs; translate the sentences
Use: from English into Russian:
The Present Perfect Continuous is used a. “How long she … (to go on) like this?” – “Since the time she was
1. to express an activity which continues to the present. badly hurt in the car accident.”
We have been waiting for a police officer since 11 o’clock. b. “I want you to understand that everything he … just (to say) to
The car-thefts rate has been running at about 20 a week. you is purely a kind of disinformation.
c. The inspection has shown that you … (to embezzle) money pretty
2. to refer to an activity with a result in the present. freely.
I’m hot because I have been running. d. I … (to think of) the things found on the place of the crime. I’m
He looks so tired. He has been patrolling the district all the night. sure it is the evidence of the connection to bombing.
e. “Our neighbours … (to argue) for some days. Don’t you think I
3. to express an incomplete activity: should call the police?”
He has been searching for the facts of the crime but he still hasn’t found. f. “She … (to pretend) not to know the suspect, but I saw them to-
gether last Sunday.”

71 72
g. They … (to hire) lawyers in hope for the best and in attempt to h. “She looks almost breathless.” – “Has she run/ Has she been
improve their business affairs. running?”
h. According to the police, someone has rented the cabin, but no one i. He has been refusing/ has refused to discuss either his divorce
… really (to live) here. or the convictions for drug abuse.
i. “He tells rather an interesting story which may have some bearing j. After thorough inspection, auditors have uncovered/ have been
on an investigation I … (to conduct).” uncovering evidence of fraud.
j. “That clerk at the desk … (to watch) police go by all afternoon
and evening. You know the policy of the police from our own en- III. Look through the “News In Brief” column and fill in the gaps
counters with our friend Lieutenant Tragg.” with the most appropriate form of the Present Perfect or Present Perfect
k. “Good heavens, the stuff is evidence and we‘ve taken it into our Continuous:
possessions. We … (to conceal) it from the police.”
l. And I think that’s why she … (to talk) about it on publicity inter- … The Government … (to con- … Detectives … (to try) to an-
views. She is afraid to betray a true character. sider about) the relaxation of swer many questions about the
m. Someone … (to try) too hard to frame Miss Meade. Someone is penalties for hundreds of thou- man named as Nick Duffer
too eager to drag her into it. The person is too persistent. sands of drivers caught speeding since they discovered his rented
n. “We … (to drive) for three hours and now it’s time to have a on camera. The camera-led up- flat in Leeds unattended. Noth-
rest.” – “We can’t stop even for a while because those guys may surge in speeding convictions ing previously … (to draw) po-
overtake us any moment.” … (to raise) concern that motor- lice attention to him but now
o. Jill … (to try) in vain to appeal to the courts of higher jurisdiction ists with unblemished accident they need to know not only
for the last two years. could be banned for infringing where he is but also precisely
the speed limit four times in 36 why … he (to come) to Britain
II. Use the Present Perfect or Present Perfect Continuous (some- months. More and more people from the United States. At this
times both forms are acceptable) and explain your choice: … (to receive) $60 fines. Cam- time the officers … also (to
a. A number of companies, such as Ford, Firestone and Beech-Nut eras … (to endorse) 4.500 of- examine) possible links between
have hired/ have been hiring lawyers in hope for the best and in fenders, only those speeding him and other alleged people ...
attempt to improve their business affairs. with the highest fatality risk …
b. “You have been itching for/ have itched for the boot of rejection
since you were involved in this investigation. She does not have … Iran … (to reject) American “earthquake diplomacy” turning down
an alibi, though.” Washington’s offer of a high-level humanitarian mission to the devastated
c. “Have you found out/ Have you been finding out anything more city of Bam. Iranian leaders … (to denounce) America as a “warmongering
about the murder of the young man?” oppressor” and they … (to dismiss) US aid offers as a diplomatic ploy…
d. During all this evening he has demonstrated/ he has been dem-
onstrating a curiosity talking to a high ranking policeman. IV. Find out the mistakes in the use of the Present Perfect Continu-
e. The passengers have been waiting for/ have waited for two ous and correct them:
hours already under armed guard at Heathrow because of fears of
a terrorist plot to stage another September 11-style attack. … Russian men anxious to avoid compulsory national service in the un-
f. “Has anybody seen/ Has anybody been seeing a woman in the der-funded and sometimes brutally disciplined military forces. Human-rights
area that night who acted suspicious?” organizations has been campaigning for many years to allow pacifists and oth-
g. “We believe from reliable foreign intelligence sources that there ers wishing to avoid the army a way of doing so. The Government has being
are terrorists in Britain who have prepared/ have been preparing considering about the rules, under which conscripts can apply for alternative
to board planes and set off shoe bombs.” service such as working in a state-run orphanage or a hospital.

73 74
Poor organization, a lack of funds and a culture of violence have 8. People … reluctant to make formal complaints to the police and now
been resulted in hundreds of suicides every year. Among the better-off we try to overcome the consequences.
families in Moscow, it is rare to find a young man who have been serving a) have been b) has been c) have being d) has being
in the military forces. The Russian leadership has be struggling to reform
9. The detectives 1) … in ambush for an hour but nobody 2) … .
the army since the fall of communism in 1991…
1. a) has lied b) have been lying
c) has been lying d) have laid
TEST YOURSELF 2. a) have been coming b) has been coming
Check your knowledge and decide which answer a, b, c or d best fits 10. The judge … the physical exhibits offered by the lawyers.
each blank: a) has disregarded b) have been disregarding
1. Our leaders … to prevent a major cut in numbers of conscripts trying c) have disregarded d) has disregard
to make the forces fully professional. 11. The lawyer … his closing arguments but they don’t sound very con-
a) has fought b) have been fighting vincing.
c) have been fought d) has being fought a) has been presented b) has presented
2. Tensions … since the election campaign began. c) has presenting d) have presented
a) have been rising b) has risen 12. “She looks pale and tired!” – “Yes, she … the man who stole that
c) have been risen d) has been rising car.”
3. They … extra security measures to avoid the wave of letter bombs a) have been pursuing b) has been pursuing
delivery. c) have pursued d) pursues
a) has taken b) have been taken 13. The percentage of recidivists … high lately due to the offenders
c) has been taking d) have been taking convicted of such minor charges as vagrancy, drunkenness and peace distur-
4. China and the European Union … their first joint satellite, a symbol bance.
of growing closeness. a) has been running b) have run
a) has launched b) have launched c) have been running d) has ran
c) has been launching d) have been launched 14. InVagrancy and begging … common place in London.
5. The judge … the lawyers and the people involved in the case. a) have become b) has become
a) have been introducing b) has been introduced c) have been became d) has became
c) has introducing d) has introduced 15. In England, in absence of a written constitution, prisoners resorting
6. A witness for the defence ... testimony against the alleged woman. to the courts … the general principles of administrative law.
a) has given b) have been giving a) have relied on b) has relied
c) has giving d) have been given c) has been relying d) have relying
7. The jurors 1) … the evidence for three hours already and 2) … yet.
1. a) has discussed b) have discussed
c) have been discussing d) discussed
2. a) hasn’t decided b) have’t decided
c) haven’t been deciding d) have decided

75 76
The Past Perfect Tense I knew who had murdered Charlie Fuller.

Form. The definite moment need not necessarily be expressed in the same sen-
1) The indefinite form of the auxiliary verb to have and Participle II of tence as the action expressed by the Past Perfect.
the notional verb. Everybody noticed how sad she was the whole evening.
2) In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb is placed before the subject. She had got an unpleasant letter.
In the negative form the negative particle “not” is placed after the auxil-
iary verb. The definite moment can be understood from the situation.
The Squire had laid down his knife, and was staring at his son in amazement.
The Past Perfect is frequently used with the adverbs just, already, yet,
“+” She
had worked never, ever.
You The idea of human rights secured more opportunities than humanity had ever
They had before.
I 2. The Past Perfect is used to denote an action which began before a
definite moment in the past, continued up to that moment and was still
“-“ had not worked going on at that moment. It is used:
a) with verbs not admitting of the Continuous form.
They Examination convicted him that the deacon was
dead – had been dead for some time.
b) with non-terminative verbs such as to work, to live, to study, to
teach, to travel, to last etc. (In this case the Past Perfect
“?” Had worked? Continuous is possible).
You The ride had lasted about ten minutes, when
They the truck suddenly swerved into a halt.

3) The contracted affirmative forms are: 1) Sometimes the Past Perfect does not denote priority but only the
I’d written completion of action.
We’d written He waited until she had found the latch-key and opened the door.
The contracted negative forms are:
I hadn’t written 2) The Past Perfect (I had done) is the past of the Present Perfect (I
We hadn’t written have done). Compare these situations:
Present Past
Use: I am sorry for being late. I was sorry for being late.
1. The Past Perfect denotes an action completed before a certain The car has broken down on my way The car had broken down on my way
moment in the past. The moment may be indicated by another past action here. there.
expressed by a verb in the Past Indefinite or by an adverbial phrase.
The police had arrived by 6 o’clock yesterday.
The police could not arrest him unless they had evidence that
he had committed a crime.
77 78
TASKS III. Change the following sentences as indicated:
Example: A shot rang out and then there was silence. After a shot had
I. Complete the sentences with the words in brackets. Use the Pre-
rang out, there was silence.
sent Perfect or the Past Perfect.
1) The judge passed the sentence and then left the courtroom.
1) It is eleven o’clock. Police (not to arrive, yet).
2) John graduated from the University and then worked as a prosecutor.
2) It was eleven o’clock. Police (not to arrive, yet).
3) We discussed the suit and then tried to do something about it.
3) By the time I went to bed last night, I (finish, already) my homework
4) The constable arrested her without a warrant and then was himself
in Criminalistics.
sent to prison.
4) I was late. The trial (start, already) by the time I got there.
5) All laws went through the process of initiation and passage, then
5) We’re late. The trial (start, already).
they were subjected to the process of enforcement or interpretation.
6) The trial is over. The court reporter (put down, already) every spo-
6) They chose the appropriate court and jurisdiction, then found the
ken word.
best judge to hear the case.
7) The trial was over. The court reporter (put down, already) every
7) They didn’t find her guilty of murder and then gave six years im-
spoken word.
prisonment for manslaughter.
8) The Police were looking for witnesses, who (see) anything suspi-
8) The prisoner killed the guard and then quickly dragged him into the
9) Coke swore he ……… (see, never) them before.
9) He called the ambulance and then confessed in his action.
10) The government abolished capital punishment and then crime rate
II. Put the verbs into the correct form, the Past Perfect or the Past
was increased.
11) They poured whisky all over him and down his throat and then hit
1) Was she in the courtroom when you came? No, she ………. (go)
him over the head.
12) The defence lawyer cross-examined the witness and then asked a
2) She felt very depressed when she came home, so she ………. (go)
straight to bed.
3) We were driving along the road when we ………. (see) a car which
IV. Complete the following sentences using the Past Perfect.
………. (break) down, so we ……….. (stop) to see if we could help.
Example: The burglar broke into a Hong Kong factory and found noth-
4) Jane thought that Bill ……… (graduate, already) from the Univer-
ing worth stealing there. They said that the burglar had broken into a Hong
Kong factory and had found nothing worth stealing there.
5) He wrote in his letter, that he ………. (know) who ………… (mur-
1) She bought the pistol with the intention of committing suicide. The
der) Charlie Fuller.
defence said that ………….. .
6) The Police could not arrest him unless they ……….. (have) evi-
2) The agents obeyed orders. France acknowledged that ………. .
dence that he ………… (commit) a crime.
3) Tom planned the robbery. Tom explained how ………… .
7) I went out into the garden to fetch my bike, but ………. (find) that
4) The thief used a special key. The inspector suspected that …………. .
someone ……….. (steal) it.
5) The police didn’t disclose any sightings. They said …………. .
8) Bently who ………. (touch, never) the gun, was over 18.
6) Coke deposited more than 2,000 in his bank account a few weeks
9) The higher court ………. (change, already) the judgement given by
before. The police also found that ……….. .
the lower court.
7) I didn’t hear a word. I exclaimed ………... .
10) He opened his eyes, ……… (look) around and ………. (try) to
8) Tom didn’t commit the crime. Tom confessed ………… .
remember what ………… (happen) to him.
9) He sold secrets for money. It appeared ………… .
11) It was very dark in the room. They ………. (switch on) the light.
10) The foreman presented the verdict. Mr. Hamby told me that
……… .
79 80
11) Prisoners forfeited all of the rights enjoyed by free citizens. Early The Past Perfect Continuous Tense
U.S. court decisions ruled that ………. .
V. Use the proper form: 1) The Past Perfect Continuous is formed by means of the Past Perfect
1) Bob tried to find a job after he (served, had served) a five-year sen- of the auxiliary verb to be and Participle I of the notional verb.
tence. 2) In the interrogative form the first auxiliary verb is placed before the
2) We were late. The trial (started, had started) an hour before. subject.
3) He was the smartest lawyer I (ever met, had ever met). In the negative form the negative particle “not” is placed after the first
4) That morning she (dressed, had dressed), (phoned, had phoned) auxiliary verb.
somebody, and went out.
5) The Hills were in a hurry, but they (took, had taken) a taxi and man-
aged to arrive exactly on time.
“+” She
6) The Hills managed to arrive exactly on time because they (took, had had been writing
taken) a taxi. You
7) We asked Peter to come with us, but he refused. He (already prom- They
ised, had already promised) to act as counsel for the defence.
8) She (hardly finished, had hardly finished) speaking over the phone I
when the telephone rang again.
9) Why are you looking so unhappy? – I (have lost, had lost) my purse. “-“ had not been writing
10) I’m so happy to see you again. I (haven’t seen, hadn’t seen) you
since I graduated from the University. They
11) She said she (hasn’t seen, hadn’t seen) him since she graduated
from the University.
12) She (didn’t take, hasn’t taken) a lot of drugs since she joined the
health club. “?” Had been writing?
13) Edward (made, has made) up his mind to escape from prison. You
3) The contracted affirmative forms are:
I’d been writing
She’d been writing
The contracted negative forms are:
I hadn’t been writing
We hadn’t been writing

4) The Past Perfect Continuous (had been watching) is the past of the
Present Perfect Continuous (have been watching). Compare these situations:
Present Past
I’m afraid of this man. I was afraid of that man.
He’s been watching me for half He had been watching me for half
an hour. an hour.
81 82
Use. 4) When I came in the library everybody was sitting round the table
1) The Past Perfect Continuous denotes an action which began before a and talking. They didn’t crave for reading. They /читали/ and
definite moment in the past, continued up to that moment and was still going /прочитали/ all the material they needed for that case.
on at that moment. Either the starting point of the action is indicated or the 5) They were very tired. They /расследовали/ the accident for more
whole period of duration. The preposition for is used to denote the whole pe- than 20 hours.
riod of duration. Since is used to indicate the starting point of the action. 6) He said that he /читает/ stories of Agatha Christie for two weeks al-
ready and /прочел/ 7 stories already. Yesterday he /прочел/ only
He said he had been working as a lawyer for two years.
one story.
He said he had been working as a lawyer since 1998.
II. Put the verbs into the correct form, Past Perfect Continuous or
2) With certain non-terminative verbs both the Past Perfect and the Past
Past Continuous.
Perfect Continuous are used.
1) The investigator observed the crimescene very carefully. He
He said he had worked for twenty years (The fact is emphasized). ………… (examine) marks, fingerprints, footprints, tyremarks, ciga-
He said he had been working for a long time without achieving rette stubs, bloodstains.
final results. (The process is emphasized). 2) When I arrived, Ann ………….. (wait) for me. She was rather an-
noyed with me because I was late and she ………….. (wait) for a
3) The Past Perfect Continuous denotes an action which was no longer very long time.
going on at a definite moment in the past, but which had been in progress not 3) I came into the courtroom and saw Alice. She ………….. (stand) at
long before. the witness stand. It seemed to me the barrister …………. (question)
her for a long time. When I saw her eyes I understood, she
I sobbed a little still, but that was because
………….. (cry).
I had been crying (not because I was crying then).
4) They ………… (discuss) the evidence for half an hour.
5) They charged him that he …………. (excite) the men to violence for
The Past Perfect Continuous should not be confused with the Past Con-
all his life.
tinuous. The Past Continuous is used to denote an action going on at a definite
6) He ………….. (serve) his sentence in the Bastille for ten years.
moment in the past, no previous duration is expressed. The Past Perfect Con-
7) I …………. (ponder) over catching a shop-lifter red-handed for sev-
tinuous is used when the previous duration of the action is expressed.
eral days already.
The magnificent motor-car was waiting at the kerb. 8) The judge ………….. (announce) the sentence on the accused when
It had been waiting for two hours. you came in.
9) One evening Alf …………. (watch) the television and ………….
TASKS (eat) his supper when the door suddenly opened and a burglar came
I. Complete the sentences, translating words given in brackets.
10) I …………. (recollect) the information about jury, offences, pre-
1) We were to meet with the solicitor at 5. He hadn’t come. We /ждали
liminary investigations, indictments for half an hour at my exami-
его/ for forty minutes.
nation but I only …………. (delay) my answer. I knew nothing.
2) At last Danny had his own notary’s office. How long he /мечтал/ to
have the notary’s office of his own! Now his dream /сбылась/.
III. Use the proper form:
3) Peter woke up late at night. He was frightened and couldn’t under-
1) A man (was, had been, had being) unconscious for a few minutes
stand what /случилось/. He /увидел во сне/ that he /скрывался/
when an ambulance arrived.
from somebody for a long time as if he /совершил преступление/.
2) He quickly forgot everything he / learnt, had learnt, had been learn-
ing, was learning) in a law faculty.
83 84
3) I’ll call for an ambulance. She (gets, is getting, has been getting, got) In fifteen minutes Juggins (return) 25___________ holding a litte piece
weaker and weaker since she had breakfast. of paper with Mary’s address. After Meeks (pay) 26___________ his bill, he
4) The ammount of crime (increased, was increasing, had been increas- (ask) 27__________ the detective to explain what he (do) 28____________.
ing, had increased) for the last ten years and we couldn’t stop this
process. V. Translate from English into Russian:
5) Alice promised to come, but she’s absent. Something (has been hap- Since 1972 Americans have been very conscious of women’s determi-
pening, has happened) to her. nation to achieve equality with men. It was in that year that Congress proposed
6) Tom said that Jerry (was, had been, had being) his best friend since the ERAA – the Equal Rights Amendment. For five years each of the states
their early childhood. debated the issue, and by 1977 thirty-five states had passed the amendment.
7) We (sat, had sat, had been sitting, were sitting) in the room for half Then the drive for passage slowed down. Times gradually changed and by the
an hour when police arrived. constitutional deadline of March 1979 no other states had passed the ERA
8) The police found out that Bob Slant (lives, lived, had been living) since the term of President Ford. In fact, four states that had already approved
for a year in London’s suburbs. the amendment later voted to change their vote! Although the time for passage
9) The policeman asked why he (didn’t lock, hadn’t locked, hasn’t was extended three years, the ERA proposal was still three votes short of the
locked, hadn’t been locking) the car door. necessary thirty-eight of the fifty states by the 1982 deadline; consequently, the
10) Where was Dad? I (waited, had been waiting, was waiting) for him amendment failed to become part of the constitution.
since 6 p. m. We had to go to the Bar. Since this defeat many women have been discouraged. However other
women have been working for so many years for women’s rights that they
IV. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form: cannot give up so easily. They have already said that they will reintroduce the
One summer morning Meeks (come) 1_____________ from the West to ERA proposal at the next session of Congress. The country hasn’t seen the end
New York to find his sister. She (be) 2______________ Mrs. Mary Snyder, a of the battle yet.
widow, aged 52, who (live) 3_______________ for a year in a tenement house
VI. Translate from Russian into English:
in a crowded district.
1. Она проработала клерком-стажером 2 года перед тем, как стала
At her address somebody (tell) 4_____________ him that Mary (move)
5______________ away longer than a month before. No one (can/tell)
2. Был 1990 год. Саймон уже 5 лет работал следователем.
6____________ him her new address.
3. Он открыл глаза, огляделся и попытался вспомнить, что с ним
On coming out of the house Mr. Meeks (address) 7____________ a po- случилось.
liceman who (stand) 8______________ on the corner, and (explain) 4. Лэнни не знал, кто напал на него в темноте.
9_____________ his difficulty to him. 5. Когда я повторила свой вопрос, подозреваемый сказал, что не
“I (recently / make) 10____________ a lot of money and I’d like to help слышал меня в первый раз, но я ясно видела, что он хорошо слышал меня
Mary as soon as possible”, he (add) 11______________. The policeman (pull) оба раза.
12____________ his moustache and (tell) 13____________ Meeks about Jug- 6. Она была крайне напугана. Было ясно, что она стала жертвой
gins. He (say) 14___________ that Jugins (be) 15 ____________ the leader of преступления.
a new school of detectives. “Juggins (solve) 16___________ some very diffi- 7. Вчера к 8 вечера он уже уехал в Лондон.
cult cases. I (take) 17 _____________ you to him”, the policeman said. 8. Мистер Браун ускользнул за несколько минут до того, как поя-
“If I (find) 18____________ your sister, you (pay) 19____________ me вилась полиция.
two hundred dollars. I (try) 20____________ to solve your case. The disap- 9. Джек убежал перед тем, как начался обыск.
pearance of people in the city is the most interesting problem I (ever, work at) 10. Полиция подозревала, что Сэм разбил окно в своем доме, так
21_____________”, (say) 22____________ the famous detective, (rise) как хотел, чтобы они думали, что грабитель украл его ценную коллекцию.
23__________ and (put on) 24____________ his hat.

85 86
11. Они думали, что она сделала это, потому что ей нужны были a. found a. stole
деньги. b. had found b. had stolen
11. When George met Diane for the first time, he (know) that he (meet)
TEST YOURSELF her somewhere before.
Choose the right answer. a. knew a. had met
1. Bob tried to find a job after he (serve) a five-year sentence. b. was knowing b. met
a. served b. had served 12. While I (wait) at the bus stop, I (notice) a new chamber which (not
2. We asked Peter to come with us but he refused. He (already/promise) be) in the street the day before.
to play rugby with his fellow students. a. was waiting a. had noticed a. was not
a. already promised b. had already promised b. had waited b. noticed b. had not been
3. He (worked) there some time when that dreadful accident (happen). 13. They didn’t know that he (be) abroad for two months.
a. had worked a. happened a. had been b. has been being
b. had been working b. had happened 14. By that time the twins (already/sleep) for two hours.
4. When we came home, we found that someone (break) into the garage a. already slept b. had been already sleeping
and (steal) the car. 15. It was clear that he (brood) over it day and night – he was that sort.
a. broken a. stole a. had been brooding b. has been brooding
b. had broken b. had stolen
5. When they opened the safe, they found that someone (already/take)
the documents.
a. had already taken b. already took
6. The poor woman complained she (have) trouble with her eldest son
for a long time.
a. had been having b. had had
7. The young girl who (look) at me ever since I had come into the room,
suddenly rose and left.
a. looked b. had been looking
8. He told us they (live) in this district since they (leave) Paris.
a. had been living a. had been leaving
b. had lived b. had left
9. I (wait) for permission to go abroad for three weeks already, but I
(not receive) the visa yet.
a. have been waiting a. don’t receive
b. waited b. haven’t receive.
10. I went out into the garden to fetch my bike, but (find) that someone
(steal) it.

87 88
The Future Tenses Form.
Affirmative form Interrogative form Negative form
The Future Simple (Indefinite)Tense
I shall* be working Shall I be walking? I shall not (I shan’t) be
Use. working
It may be used to express: He (she, it) will be Will he (she, it) be He (she, it) will not
1. a single point action that will be completed in the future: working working? (won’t) be working
We shall meet and discuss this problem. You (they) will be Will you (they) be work- You (they) will not
2. an action occupying a whole period of time in the future: working ing? (won’t) be working
I hope that they will live happily for many years. * It’s possible to use WILL instead of SHALL with the first person, sin-
3. some recurrent actions in the future: gular and plural.
We shall meet and talk and make plans from time to time.
The Future Perfect Tense
Typical adverbs are: tomorrow, next week (year, month, day.etc), in
2 days (weeks, etc). Use.
It may be used to express an action accomplished before a given future
Form. moment which is usually indicated by an adverbial modifier:
Affirmative form Interrogative form Negative form She will have got my telegram by morning. She will have learned the news be-
I shall* work Shall I walk? I shall not (I shan’t) work fore this letter reaches her.
He (she, it) will Will he (she, it) He (she, it) will not (won’t)
work work? work Usual expressions are: by that time, by summer, by the end of the
You (they) will Will you (they) You (they) will not (won’t) year, etc.
work work? work
* It’s possible to use WILL instead of SHALL with the first person, sin- Form.
gular and plural. Affirmative form Interrogative form Negative form
I shall* have worked Shall I have walked? I shall not (I shan’t)
The Future Continuous (Progressive) Tense have worked
Use. He (she, it) will have Will he (she, it) have He (she, it) will (won’t)
It may be used to express: worked walked have worked
1. an action in progress at a definite future moment: In an hour we will You (they) will have Will you (they) have You (they) will not
be flying over the ocean. worked walked (won’t) have worked
2. an action which the speaker expects to take place in the future in the * It’s possible to use WILL instead of SHALL with the first person, sin-
natural course of events: I must go now or m y mother will be telling her about gular and plural.
his life again.
The Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Typical phrases are: now, at the time, at the moment, all day long Use.
(tomorrow), from 5 till 7 next day, etc. It may be used to express an action which will begin before the moment
of speaking and continue in future up to it : By the end of June we’ll have been
working at the Bar for 2 years.
The typical preposition is for.
89 90
Form. The main sentence/clause: Conjunction: Subordinate
Affirmative form Interrogative form Negative form
Future Simple if Present Simple
I shall* have been Shall I have been I shall not (shan’t) have
Future Continuous when Present Continuous
working walking? been working
Future Perfect as soon as Present Perfect
He (she, it) will have Will he (she, it) have He will not (won’t)
Future Perfect Continuous till Present Perfect Continuous
been working been working? have been working
You (they) will have Will you (they) l have You (they) will not
been working been working (won’t) have been
* It’s possible to use WILL instead of SHALL with the first person, sin-
in case
gular and plural.
I will and I’m going to: future actions.
We use will when we decide to do something at the time of speaking. I’ll phone you when I get home from the police station.
The speaker has not decided before. As soon as she has read this criminal news she will wash-up.
We use (be) going to when we have already decided to do something. Hurry up if we don’t hurry we’ll be late.
Compare 2 situations:
Summing up: Future Actions:
John is in hospital. He was robbed last week.
I didn’t know. I’ll go and visit him. Present Simple: My train leaves at 9.30.
His wife has already told me. I’m going to visit him. Present Simple: I’m leaving tomorrow.
To be going to: I’m going to leave.
Future happenings and situations (predicting the future): sometimes To be to: I’m to leave at once.
there is no much difference between will and going to: Future Simple: I’ll leave tomorrow.
I think the weather will be nice later. Future Continuous: I’ll be leaving tomorrow.
I think the weather is going to be nice later. Future Perfect: I’ll have left by this time tomorrow.
But: When we say ’something is going to happen’ we know (or think) Future Perfect Continuous: I’ll have been packing my things to leave
this because of the situation now. for an hour when you come.
Look at those black clouds. It’s going to be rain.
(not ‘it will rain’- we can see the clouds now) TASKS
I feel terrible. I think I’m going to be sick.
I. Complete the sentences using will (‘ll) or going to:
(not ‘I think I’ll be sick’- I feel terrible now)
E.g. A: Why are you turning the television?
When-sentences: B: I’m going to watch the criminal news.
Note: In subordinate clauses of time and condition after conjunctions if, 1. A: Has George decided what to do when he leaves school?
when, as soon as, etc. the Future tense substitutes for the Present one of the B: Oh, yes. Everything is planned … the university at the law Fac-
same group. ulty. (He/enter).
2. A: Have you had a talk to the barrister?
B: Oh, I completely forgot. … him just now (I/phone).
3. A: I’ve decided to become a notary.
B: Oh, have you? What University… (You/enter)?
91 92
4. A: He needs somebody to take him to the court-room. 13. I wonder where I will be 20 years from now.
B: That’s no problem … him. (I/take). 14. They will invite her to the party.
5. A: Jack phoned while you were out. 15. The police will find the murderer of the child.
B: Yes, I know … him back. (I/phone).
6. A: The jury has just rendered the verdict. III. Open the brackets and use the Future Simple Tense in the sen-
B: … it (The judge/introduce) tences:
7. A: Somebody kidnapped my sister’s son. She is in hospital now with E.g. The policeman (ask) you some questions about the theft.
a heart attack. The policeman will ask you some questions about the theft.
B: Oh, I’m sorry. … her flowers. (I/send) 1.The judge (instruct) the jury before giving the verdict.
8. A: Have you heard about the murder in Baker Street? I’m a witness 2. “I (not/ tell) the truth”, cried the suspect.
on the case. 3. You (help) me with the investigation?
B. Really? … at the trial (You/be present). 4. The audience thinks that the court (acquit) the juvenile.
A: Yes, certainly. 5. We are sure it (rain).
9. A: I don/t know how to use this camera. 6. The thief (spend) 3 years in imprisonment.
B: It’s quite easy … you (I/show). 7. I never (break) the law.
10. A: My brother wants to be a lawyer. 8. Wait a little he (phone) the taxi.
B: What legal profession …. exactly (He/choose). 9. I suppose we (complete) this case in a week.
11. A: I’ve got a headache. 10. What time the trial on your case (begin)?
B: Have you? Wait there and ….. an aspirin for you. (I/get) 11. They (not/translate) the article soon.
12. Don’t make so much noise or …… the police (we/call). 12. The Browns (arrive) the next week.
13. …testimony at the trial (you/give)? 13. Tomorrow it (not/be) cold and wet.
14. Look at the defendant! He is nervous. I think ….all the truth ( he 14. We hope the police (find out) the witness for the prosecution
/tell). 15. How you (explain) your being at the scene crime?
15. … really the police (you/call)? )I don’t think it is all necessary.
IV. Open the brackets and use the Future Continuous tense in the
II. Make the sentences interrogative and negative: sentences:
E.g. The detective will ask you some questions. E.g. I (translate) the article about the robbery at 5 o’clock tomorrow.
Will the detective ask you any question? I’ll be translating the article about the robbery.
The detective will not (won’t) ask you any questions. 1. At the time tomorrow we (take) our exam on Civil Law.
1. The Magistrates will hear this case in 2 days. 2. In a week at the time the court (hear) his case in the Crown Court.
2. The judge will give the instructions to the jurors in a minute. 3. I’ve bought “Criminal News”. I (read) it.
3. The policemen will come in several minutes. 4. In a few days at that moment the main witness (give) his testimony.
4. The jury will render the verdict only tomorrow. 5. The inspector (interrogate) the suspect from 9 till 12 o’clock.
5. He’ll enter the law faculty only next year. 6. Don’t wait for me I (have) a chat with the Dean.
6. The prosecutor will accuse him of a shoplifting. 7. How long the prisoner (stay) in the cell?
7. My sister will become an investigator in 3 years. 8. He (not/wait) for the verdict.
8. The defendant will know about his punishment in a week. 9. (Use) you your car this evening?
9. I think it will be rain. 10. Tomorrow from the very morning Mr. Black (examine) the scene
10. After the trial we’ll find out all the details of the case. crime.
11. A witness will give an oath before giving evidence. 11. When we come the counsel for the defence (give) his speech.
12. The accused will spend 10 years in jail. 12. At10 o’clock. She’ll be in her office. She (work).
93 94
13. I (not/talk) to the barrister at the time tomorrow. 7. I’ll have been studying at the College of law for 3 months when my
14. He (pass) the post office when you’re out. parents come to see me.
15. How long the police (investigate) the robbery of the bank? 8. We’ll have been livin in this village for 10 years next April.
9. By the end of the process the thief will have been staying in the de-
V. Open the brackets and use the Future Perfect tense in the sen- tention room for 2 months.
tences: 10. By 12 o’clock we will have been listening to the case about fraud for
E.g. The detective (investigate) this case by the next week. 3 hours.
The investigator will have investigated this case by the next year. 11. The thieves are sure that they will have been driving for 6 hours
1. By the end of the hour the jurors render the verdict. when the police discover the robbery in the morning.
2. My brother (graduate) from the Law Faculty by the end of the year. 12. By next year he will have been writing the novel for 3 months.
3. By the end of the term we (study) many legal terms in English. 13. Tomorrow it will be a year as the police will have been searching for
4. We’re late. The detective already (start) by the time we get to the the criminals who robbed the bank.
cinema. 14. Before becoming a Queen’s Counsel he’ll have been working as a
5. By next Monday the solicitor (prepare) all the necessary documents. barrister for 15 years.
6. The state Courts of last resort (hear) 100 cases by the end of the 15. By the end of the month the students of law faculty will have been
year. studying Roman law for 3 weeks.
7. Next year they (be) married for 25 years.
8. By the fixed time the investigation of the burglary (finish). VII. Open the brackets using the verbs into Future Indefinite (Sim-
9. Before jury deliberation the judge (give) the instruction. ple) or Future Continuous (Progressive):
10. The trial (finish) by then? E.g. The judge (enter) the court-room in a minute.
11. By the end of the year the term of imprisonment (complete). The judge will enter the court-room in a minute.
12. The barrister (win) 2 criminal and 3 civil cases. 1. At this time tomorrow the detective (ask) us his questions.
13. Do you think he (finish) his work by the time? 2. My sister (become) a notary in the future.
14. After 7 years of his professional career my father (not/become) a 3. He (be) busy tomorrow. He (take) his exam on Criminology.
Queen’s Counsel. 4. I (be) a judge after graduating from the Law College.
15. They (read) the half of the article by the end of the lesson? 5. At 9 o’clock next Monday the investigator (interrogate) the suspect.
6. First, the lawyers of both sides (give) open statements.
VI. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the Fu- 7. The weather is warm today. We (have) a walk out in the garden.
ture Perfect Continuous tense: 8. How long the accused (stay) in prison?
1. By the end of the week the police will have been keeping the man 9. The big stores (have) their summer sales soon.
under detention for 48 hours. 10. Next year I (try) to enter the Law faculty again.
2. By next July she will have been working in the Crown Court as a 11. At 10 o’clock the day after tomorrow the magistrates (hear) the case
judge for 5 years. of the larceny.
3. When you call I will have been telling the inspector everything I 12. I’m tired today I think I (go) to bed earlier.
know about this case. 13. The accused (not/have) a talk to the advocate all the morning tomor-
4. Detective Brown will have been investigating the offence for a row.
month soon. 14. The inspector (talk) to the witnesses all day long.
5. They will have been rehearsing for an hour when we come. 15. After passing the exams we (have) a practical work in the investi-
6. By the end of this hour the jury will have been discussing the verdict gating departments, Prosecutor’s offices and other places.
for 20 minutes.

95 96
VIII. Open the brackets and use the verbs into Future Indefinite 9. He (work) at the Bar for 12 months next May.
(Simple) or Future Perfect: 10. A: You (use) your car in the evening? Can I take it? B: No, I’m
E.g.: By the end of the week the jury (return) the verdict. afraid, somebody stole it.
By the end of the week the jury will have returned the verdict. 11. How long she (sleep) when we come?
1. The police (arrive) soon. 12. Before discussing of the verdict the jurors (choose) a chairman.
2. After studying The Law faculty we (become) legal specialists. 13. It’s awful to think I (work) at this time next week.
3. By the end of the day he (finish reading Bill of rights in the original. 14. Before the jury deliberation the judge (give) the instruction to the
4. Before you come I (do) all the work. jurors during several minutes.
5. Next year my father (work) as an inspector for 10 years and he (re- 15. By the next month the police (look) for the criminals committed the
tire). burglary for 10 days.
6. Next time we (find) out how to protect ourselves from any assault.
7. He passes Labour Law after he (learn) everything. X. Open the brackets and use all possible Future and Present
8. Before testifying witnesses (give) an oath. Forms and translate the sentences:
9. On Friday they (finish) their translation of a foreign article. E.g. If the jurors (find) her guilty she (spend) 5 years imprisonment.
10. When the jury deliberation begins the jury (get) the judge’s instruc- If the jurors find her guilty she’ll spend 5 years imprisonment.
tions. 1. The court (decide) this case all day long tomorrow.
11. By this time next year I (graduate) from the University and (be- 2. If a person (plead) his or her guilty the jury (bring) in a verdict of
come) an investigator. guilty.
12. I (not/have) breakfast tomorrow because I (not/have) got any time. 3. In a year I (work) at the Bar for 10 years.
13. “They (bring) an accusation against you”, she cried. 4. After the presentation of evidence the judge (summarize) everything
14. He (stay) here till doesn’t do everything. up soon.
15. The police (examine) the crime scene when the ambulance comes? 5. Unless he (come) from the Notary Office we (have) dinner.
6. The judge (interfere) if he (think) any of the questions are unfair.
IX. Open the brackets and use the verbs into Future Continuous or 7. If you (become) a citizen of the USA you (have) a chance to be a ju-
Future Perfect or Future Perfect Continuous: ror and (decide) the facts in the court.
E.g: By the end of the trial the foreman (inform) the bailiff about the 8. The judge (tell) you about the case and (introduce) the lawyers and
verdict. people involved in the case after he (choose) you a member of a “jury panel”.
By the end of the trial the foreman will have informed the bail- 9. It’s hard to say if she (find) out the lost. She is so inattentive.
iff about the verdict. 10. When you (be) a student of Law you (study) Civil and Criminal
1. Don’t disturb me between 7 and 9. I’ll have an exam next Monday. Laws, Criminalistics and other subjects.
So I (study) Civil Law. 11. By the end of the term of imprisonment he (spend) 8 years in jail.
2. Phone me after 9 o’clock. We (finish) the test on Criminal Law. 12. They (become) barristers as soon as they (receive) their legal edu-
3. A: Can we meet tomorrow morning? B: Not in the morning. I (lis- cation at Universities or Colleges of Law.
ten) to the case of the murder in Magistrates’ Court. 13. Before the judge (give) instructions to the jurors the counsels for the
4. A: You (be) free at 4 p.m.? B: Yes, the trial (finish) by the time. prosecution and defence (present) their evidence.
5. I think the felony (escape) by the time the police arrives. 14. After you (graduate) from the University you (work) as a legal ex-
6. At 8 o’clock our group (have) an English lesson. pert
7. My mother has worked as a counsel for the prosecution for 19 years. 15. He (not/catch) the train unless he (leave) immediately.
Next year she (work) as a prosecutor for 20 years. 16. When the ambulance (come) the witnesses still wait for the police.
8. Do you think you still (do) the same job of the investigator in 5 17. If somebody (commit) an offence the police (take) him to the deten-
year’s time? tion room to clear everything up.
97 98
18. After they (call) the police they (wait) for the doctor’s coming. 5. Если это будет гражданское дело, то истец подаст иск в суд
19. If it (be) cross-examination the barrister (ask) you some questions против частного лица.
concerning the case. 6. К концу семестра наш преподаватель по семейному праву бу-
20. If a person (betray) his or her country to another state the court (sen- дет читать нам лекции уже в течение 4 месяцев.
tence) him or her to life imprisonment or death penalty. 7. Не звоните мне завтра с трех до пяти, я буду работать над док-
ладом по трудовому праву.
XI. Correct the mistakes if any: 8. Они будут смотреть детектив, как только дети лягут спать.
E.g: If I will become a lawyer I’ll help people to decide their problem. 9. После того как моя сестра закончит обучение в Университете,
If I ____ become a lawyer I’ll help people to decide their problem. она будет работать юридическим консультантом в фирме отца.
1. By the end of the studying we’ll become lawyers. 10. Полиция не обнаружит вора, если население не окажет ей по-
2. At this time tomorrow I’ll have learnt all the necessary legal terms. сильную помощь.
3. Next five years I’ll be studying at the University to become an at- 11. К этому времени прокуратура уже расследует дело о заказном
torney. убийстве судьи Р.
4. The jurors will be discussing the verdict after they will have got the 12. Если обвиняемый признает свою вину в совершении непреду-
instruction. мышленного убийства, то судья назначит ему наказание сроком 12 лет
5. If a defendant is guilty the police will take him to prison. лишения свободы.
6. From 3 till 4 o’clock tomorrow we’ll have been having a meeting 13. Судебный пристав вызовет свидетеля для дачи показаний после
with our barrister. того как стороны представят вещественные доказательства.
7. My train will left by the time you come to the station. 14. Завтра с самого утра суд присяжных будет слушать дело о кра-
8. If somebody will commit a felony or misdemeanor a victim can suit же автомобиля.
in the court. 15. Преступника не отправят в тюрьму, если за время условного
9. The policemen will take away the convicted in some minutes. наказания он не совершит новых деяний.
10. After he has finished the picture he will invite his friends to look at it.
11. He will work at his research paper on Criminology during his holiday.
12. At this time next Friday the solicitor will have presented the civil TEST YUORSELF
case of conveyance of land. Choose the right answer:
13. When a prisoner won’t plead his guilty and if the court will acquit 1. Jack is in hospital; a robber wounded him while Jack was following
him the policemen will release him. the criminals. – Oh, I didn’t know. I … him tomorrow.
14. I will be working as a legal advisor in the enterprise for 12 years a. visit b. am going to visit c. will visit
next month.
15. By 12 o’clock we’ll have been hearing to the case for 3 hours. 2. We’re late. The trial … by the time we get to the court-room.
a. will already start b. is going to start c. will already have started
XII. Translate the sentences using all the necessary forms of the Fu- 3. How can we recognize the person? He … a uniform of policemen.
ture and Present Forms: a. will be wearing b. is going to wear c. will wear
1. Полицейские арестуют вора, если они его поймают.
2. К концу моего обучения на юридическом факультете я уже 4. I suppose somebody … the murdered soon.
пройду практику в качестве помощника следователя в прокуратуре. a. is going to identify b. will identify c. will be identifying
3. Если присяжные признают подростка виновным, то он прове- 5. I’ve decided to try and enter the Law Faculty. – Have you? What pro-
дет в тюрьме 2 года. fession … get?
4. Мы станем судьями, прокурорами, следователями, нотариуса- a. are you going to b. will you c. you are going to
ми, адвокатами и другими специалистами по юриспруденции.
99 100
6. From 9 till about 10 the counsel for defence … his evidence to the ju- The Passive
a. will present b. will be presenting c. will have been presenting We use a passive verb to say what happens to the subject:
7. By the end of the session examination I … to pass Labour Law twice. Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving.
a. will try b. will be trying c. will have tried
We form the passive using BE in appropriate tense or form + the past
8. In 3 years the graduators from our University … legal specialists. participle of a transitive verb:
a. will have become b. will become c. will be becoming A small sum of money was stolen from the cash box.
9. Before the police … the doctors … the suffered. They ought to have been punished more severely.
a. a. arrives, will have helped b. will arrive, has helped In spoken English, we sometimes use GET instead of BE in the passive:
c. will arrive, will have helped They got told off for making so much noise.
However GOT + ed is more common with an active meaning similar to
10. When … anything tomorrow evening, Helen?- Yes, I … Criminol- “become “ in phrases like get married, get dressed, etc.
ogy all day long.
a. will you do, will study Form.
b. are you doing, will be studying THE PASSIVE FORMS OF THE VERB
c. will you be doing, will be studying Perfect
Indefinite Continuous Perfect
11. When the guard … the convicted away the judge … the sentence. continuous
a. will take, will have announced Present am asked am being asked have been asked
b. takes, will have announced is asked is being asked has been asked ______
c. will take, has announced an asked an being asked
Past was asked was being asked had been asked ______
12. In 5 months our teacher of Criminal Law … at University for 25 were asked were being asked
years. But he won’t retire. Future shall be asked ____ shall have ______
a. will be working b. will have been working will be asked will been asked
c. will have worked
13. If you … your car, somebody … it. We avoid passive constructions with be being or been being, although
a. don’t lock, will steal b. won’t lock, steals they sometimes occur in spoken English:
c. not lock, will steal Avoid: The road will have been being repairing for months.
– They will have been repairing the road for months, or:
14. What profession have you chosen?- I didn’t think exactly. Perhaps, The road will have been under repair for months.
I… at the Bar as an advocate. The word order in the passive sentence:
a. will be working b. am going to work c. will work
a) affirmative sentence: Many accidents are caused by careless driv-
15. If you … committing the crime they … you much severe. ing.
a. don’t admit, will be interrogating b) negative sentence: Many accidents are not (aren’t) caused by
b. won’t admit, will be interrogating careless driving.
c. don’t admit, will interrogate. c) interrogative sentence: Are many accidents caused by careless

101 102
Use. The Passive Voice is often used to talk about what other people say, be-
The Passive is used: lieve, etc.
People say that Derek is a promising student. (The Active Voice)
1. to describe an action when we don’t know or don’t know exactly
It is said that Derek is a promising student. (The Passive Voice)
who does, did or will do the action.
Derek is said to be a promising student. (The Complex Subject Construction)
My bicycle was stolen last night. (I don’t know who stole it).
Sometimes you can use get instead of be in the passive:
2. to describe an action when it is not important to know who does, did
There was a fight at the party but nobody got hurt (= nobody was hurt ).
or will do the action.
These computers are made in the USA. (It isn’t important who makes them).
You can use get to say that something happens to somebody or some-
3. to describe what happens to people or things, often as a result of ac-
thing, especially if this is unplanned or unexpected:
tion of other people or things.
Our dog got run over by a car.
Several people were hurt in an accident last night.
We use get mainly in informal spoken English, but be is used in all
4. when we are more interested in the action than the person who does it.
The house next door has been broken into.
We also use get in the following expressions which are not passive in
Note: Verbs that don’t take an object (intransitive verbs ) cannot go into
get married, get dressed, get changed, get divorced.
the passive e.g.: die, arrive, come, sit down, snow, ring, faint, etc.
We can use Infinitive Passive if modal or auxiliaries verbs are followed
Some verbs can have two objects, e.g.: ask, give, offer, pay, promise, by passive forms of the verb.
send, show, teach, tell, etc. The situation is serious. Something must be done before it’s too late.
Someone sent me a telegram. I was sent a telegram. If you hadn’t left the car unlocked, it wouldn’t have been stolen.
A telegram was sent to me.
It is possible to end a sentence with a preposition in a sentence where a
The police were given the information. The information was given to the police.
prepositional verb is made passive.
Note: It is more useful for passive sentences to begin with the person.
Someone broke into our house.
My father was offered an interesting, well-paid job as a lawyer.
Our house was broken into.
We use by + doer ( agent ) of the action when it is important to say who
or what does, did, or will do the action. TASKS
Mary was arrested by the police. I. Change the following sentences from active to passive. Keep the
same tense with each change:
We use with + instrument or material. 1. The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the
I was hit with an umbrella (instrument). crine
The room was filled with smoke (material). 2. No one can do anything unless someone gives us move information
3. They will say nothing more about the matter if someone returns the
If a verb is followed by a preposition + object , the preposition stays stolen gun
with the verb in a passive sentence. 4. A thief stole my dog and brought him back only when I offered $ 20
reward for him
People shouted at the chairman during his speech.
5. The judge gave him two weeks to pay the fine
The chairman was shouted at during his speech.
6. An uneasy silence succeeded the shot
7. The lawyer gave him the details of his uncles will
103 104
8. The suspect will give his evidence next week 1. The driver had to be fined for excess speed
9. The detective is investigating this serious criminal case now, he is 2. Nothing could be done about that
still collecting evidence against criminals 3. The executive director was killed last night
10. I think the judge will pass the sentence tomorrow 4. The thieves were being followed by a private detective
11. I cannot meet you tomorrow morning. I shall be representing Jack 5. The criminal can be sentenced to death
Green before the Court 6. The windows had been broken when they arrived home
12. The jury is still discussing the verdict 7. All the documents will be signed till Wednesday
13. The investigator has collected evidence on the case 8. The kidnapped child is being looked for all over the world
14. The state and public organizations had discussed the Draft of the 9. Many accidents are caused by careless driving
new Constitution before it became the law 10. A lot of money was stolen in the robbery
15. If you come to the court late in the afternoon the judge will have de- 11. I have been accused of stealing money
clared his decision 12. The judge will have been appointed by the beginning of the trial
16. The night court has dismissed the prisoner’s appeal
17. The court was still examining all the details of the murder at the time IV. Make these sentences into general questions. Give short an-
18. Somebody might have stolen your car if you had left the keys swers.
Example: The car is being repaired at the moment .
II. Rewrite the following newspaper report using passive forms of Is the car being repaired at the moment ? – Yes , it is .
the verbs underlined. 1. The driver had to be fined for excess speed.
Daring Raid at Local Hotel 2. Nothing could be done about that.
Thieves (1) held the manager of the Ridgeway Hotel at guanpoint last 3. The executive director was killed last night.
night during a daring raid in which they (2) took nearly 50,000 from the hotel 4. The thieves were being followed by a private detective.
safe. They also (3) broke into several of the bedroom and (4) removed articles 5. The criminal can be sentenced to death.
of value. 6. The windows hadn’t been broken when they arrived home.
The thieves made their escape through the kitchen, where they (5) dam- 7. All the documents won’t be signed till Wednesday.
aged several pieces of equipment. They (6) injured the chef when he tried to 8. The kidnapped child is being looked for all over the world.
stop them and (7) left him lying unconscious on the floor. Police (8) arrested 9. Many accidents are caused by careless driving.
the thieves early this morning. 10. A lot of money was stolen in the robbery.
11. I have been accused of stealing money.
1. The manager of the Ridgeway Hotel was held at gunpoint last night.
2. ______________ V. Make up sentences using a passive form of the verb in brackets.
3. ______________ 1. Last night someone broke into our house. Oh, dear (anything/take)?
4. ______________ 2. Where’s my bicycle? It’s gone. (It/steal).
5. ______________ 3. The people next door disappeared 6 months ago. (They (not/see/since
6. and 7. _______________ then).
8. ______________ 4. The police have found the people they were looking for. (Two people
/arrest/ last night).
III. Make these sentences into negative form and general questions. 5. I was mugged on my way home a few nights ago. (you/ever/mug?).
Give short answers to the questions. 6. Have you received your salary yet? No. (I/pay/yet).
Example: The car is being repaired at the moment. 7. The police are drilling Harry down at the station. (Harry/question/po-
The car isn’t (is not) being repaired at the moment. lice station).
Is the car being repaired at the moment? – Yes, it is.
105 106
8. They took Chris to court for dangerous driving. (Chris/prosecu- 5. The case was being prepared for trial when the investigator was given
te/dangerous driving). some new important evidence
9. The police believe that a professional thief stole the statue. (The 6. The Constitution has been repeatedly amended to meet the changing
statue/believe/steal/professional thief). needs of the nation but it is still the “supreme law of the land”
10. They’ve stopped traffic from using the centre. (Traffic/ban/centre). 7. Adams was acquitted for the lack of evidence
11. You had robbed several persons before we arrested you. 8. The agreement is likely to be reached at this year
(You/bring/in a month/to the court). 9. Sentences up to a maximum of 12 months may be imposed when it is
12. In the last few months newspapers have published many articles and decided that the sentences for more than one offence should run consecutively
news reports about corruption in troops. (They/discuss/should/at the lessons). rather than concurrently
10. They say that capital punishment will have been abolished by the
VI. Read the following sentences. Then make two new sentences in beginning of December
the passive. Begin with the words in brackets. 11. According to English law, people are innocent until they are proved
Example: Newspaper reported that two prisoners had escaped. (It/Two quilty
prisoners) 12. If he breaks the rules he will be fined
It was reported that two prisoners had escaped.
Two prisoners were reported to have escaped. VIII. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. A person may be arrested and kept in prison either if he is caught in
1. Journalists reported that six people had been injured in the accident the act of committing a crime or if the police officer reasonably suspects that
(It/Six people) he has committed a crime.
2. They believe that the thieves got in through the kitchen window 2. The expert supposes that both crimes might have been committed by
3. A policeman thought that the prisoner escaped by climbing over the the same person.
wall 3. The advice of your solicitor should not be ignored.
4. A friend of mine alleges that he kicked a policeman (It/he) 4. Such documents mustn’t be sent by post.
5. A newspaper reports that two people were injured in the explosion 5. The Parliament had been dissolved before the general election.
(It/two people) 6. The judge will have been appointed by the beginning of the trial.
6. People believe that someone murdered Jenkins (It/someone) 7. Today his appeal has been rejected by the higher court.
7. People say that Nick started the fire deliberately (It/Nick) 8. All marks of identification had not been destroyed, the investigation
8. I assume that they have been murdered (It/they) was in progress.
9. People think that train-robber Dave Briggs has escaped (It/train- 9. When the policemen were in the room, an envelope was brought to
robber Dave Briggs) the owner of the room.
10. People say that the Mafia murdered Marilyn Monroe (It/Marilyn 10. If a crime is committed in the presence of a person son, whether a
Monroe) police officer, or not, he will be guilty of a misdemeanor if he fails to arrest the
11. Police said, that Grook had 57 previous convictions (It/Grook) criminal.
11. The identity of the criminal may have been discovered by eyewit-
VII. Find the passive form in the following sentences define the nesses testimony.
tense and translate these sentences into Russian. 12. All the evidence at the crime scene must be found, collected and
1. A Court is a place where legal matters are decided by a judge and preserved.
jury or by a magistrate. 13. The jury brought in a verdict of guilty against these parts, which
2. They will be selected from the community were sentenced to 2 years imprisonment with hard labour in the state prison.
3. The senior judges are referred to as “My Lord” 14. I’ve been robbed twice already and I’m afraid to leave my flat when
4. The case of murder is being investigated now it becomes dark.
107 108
15. Any person under 18 who commits an offence will usually be tried For over half this time Israel’s statehood has been supported by the ter-
at a Youth Court, unless the offence is very serious. ror of occupation, which has been used to keep in submission the population of
16. The term “Summary offences” is used to describe an offence which Arabs in territories that have been seized and are being held.
can only be tried by Magistrates’Court. On these territories, universally recognized human rights have con-
17. Any person in this country is assumed to know the law, even a for- stantly been infringed on, and the political rights and freedoms of Israeli citi-
eign visitor. zens of these territories – Jews as well as Arabs being encroached upon.
18. The indictment is a document which is read to the accused telling Human rights violations can be characterized as consisting of political
him what he is charged with. killings, imprisonment without trial, encroachment upon economic rights, that
is forcibly changing forms of running the economy.
IX. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Опытный юрист был приглашен защищать дело в суде. XI. Read about one of the cases reported in the press below, make a
2. Что происходит в Парламенте? Там сейчас обсуждается новый one-sentence introduction describing the case and invite your class-
закон. mates’questions.
3. В тот момент, когда он увидел присяжных, он понял, что они 1. A “Potentially Flawless” $ 600,000, pink diamond was stolen from
вынесли вердикт о виновности и он будет казнен. Sotheby Parke Bernet’s New York galleries shortly before auction and replaced
4. В суде ее представлял адвокат. by one worth about $ 5,000 and coated with pink hail polish, it was learned
5. Это дело об ограблении было раскрыто в августе. yesterday.
6. Я думаю, что вердикт будет вынесен завтра.
The “big switch” was being investigated by police and FBI agents.
7. Вчера обвиняемый был арестован полицией. Он содержится в
It appeared that despite tight security, the 9,58-carat diamond was stolen
during a series of presale examinations in a specially – lighted viewing booth.
8. Вердикт все еще обсуждается присяжными. Я думаю, он будет
Carefully screened clients were allowed to examine the diamond and
вынесен к 5 часам.
other jewels in a 300-piece jewellery collection that was up for auction. The
9. Полицией предоставлены некоторые важные улики.
room was filled with Sotheby’s employees and armed guards and monitored by
10. Свидетелей обвинения ждут в зале суда.
videotape cameras. The theft was discovered after a potential bidder had asked
11. Эти законопроекты обсуждались вчера в парламенте.
to examine a diamond ring that was being exhibited in the case holding the
12. На этой неделе дело было передано из магистратского суда в
diamond. As a Sotheby’s employee reached for the ring, she noticed a flaw in
the diamond and that its pink colour appeared to be painted on.
13. Вина обвиняемого была доказана магистратским судом на
прошлой неделе.
2. Scotland Yard was last night investigating the removal of A-level ex-
14. Специальным предметам нас будут обучать на втором курсе.
amination papers from the University of London Exam Centre, and allegations
15. Большинство мелких уголовных преступлений могут рассмат-
that stolen papers were being sold for $100 each.
риваться в магистратском суде заочно.
About 3,500 pupils who sat A-level French yesterday in London and at
16. В основном приказ “хабеас корпус” следует применять по уго-
schools in the South-east may be asked to re-sit the examination with a new
ловным делам .
paper, and a history A-level test scheduled for next Thursday may be cancelled,
depending on the outcome of police investigations.
X. Read the following text, paying attention to the use of the Passive
Police were called in by “The Standard” the London evening newspa-
Voice. Prepare a brief statement supporting first the Palestinian side and
per, after it had been handed the papers by a man who said he worked in the
then the Israeli side.
It is more than forty years since the state of Israel was formed.
The newspaper said its informant, whose name has not been given to the
police or university authorities, did not ask for any payment for the documents.

109 110
He was “sething with indignation” about the lax security, which made it so Arthur just smiled. He had spent most of his life in prison and
easy for him to remove them. so he ___________ to it. USE

XII. Choose the most suitable tense. XIV. Choose the correct tense form.
1. The robbers were arrested / have been arrested as soon as the left the 1. My car has been stolen / was stolen.
bank. 2. The robbers were arrested / have been arrested as soon as they left the
2. If there is not enough evidence, the trial has been cancelled / will be bank.
cancelled. 3. When were you told / have you been told about the new rules?
3. When were you told / have you been told about the new rules? 4. I don’t think that you will be asked / are being asked to show your
4. I looked again for the old man, but he was vanished / had vanished. passport.
5. I don’t think that you will be asked / are being asked to show your 5. Police confirmed that the murder weapon had been discovered / was
passport. discovered in a nearly lake.
6. Police confirmed that the murder weapon had since been discovered / 6. It was announced / was being announced yesterday that the govern-
has since been discovered. ment has decided not to raise income tax.
7. It was announced / had been announced yesterday that the govern- 7. The suspect were being followed / was followed by the police at the
ment has decided not to raise income tax. time.
8. The suspects were being followed / were followed by the police. 8. Parking in this street has been banned / was banned by the police.
9. The anti-pollution laws have been broken / are broken by many facto- 9. Carlos was arrested / is arrested because he had entered.
ries. 10. The two men were arrested / are arrested before they could commit
10. I’m glad I missed my plane! I’ve just heard that it was hijacked / has any more crimes.
been hijacked. 11. She had been accused / was accused murdering her husband in the
11. After police found drugs there, the disco was closed down / has been eighteenth century.
closed down. 12. Pat was caught / is caught by the police, but Martin got away.
12. The two men are arrested / will be arrested before they can commit 13. – Why did you worry about me? I didn’t take any risks.
one more crime. You could have been injured / be injured.
14. Jones could be president / could have been if Smith has to resign.
XIII. Use the world in capitals in each line making it passive in the 15. Of course, some people are involved / will be involved in more ac-
correct tense form. cidents than others.
Arthur’s life of crime 16. The bag in which the robbers put the money was found / is put out-
At his last trial, nobody believed in Arthur’s innencence. side the bank.
He ___________ of the theft of a valuable Chinese vase, ACCUSE 17. A woman’s jewels were stolen / has been stolen a police officer was
and ___________ also with ten other offences. CHARGE staying in the same hotel. The woman was interviewed / was being inter-
The value of the stolen good __________ to be over 10,000. SAY viewed by him.
Arthur said in his own defence that the vase __________ into PUT 18. My wallet contained over 100. It was found / will be found in the
his car accidentally. street by a schoolboy.
It __________ by him that the Chinese vase was a fake, and POINT OUT 19. The kidnappers have been caught / had been caught and the child is
was almost worthless. no longer in danger.
The judge didn’t belive Arthur’s story. Arthur __________ he TELL 20. Tony was caught / is caught by a policeman who was off duty and
was a hardened criminal and that he deserved a severe punishment. cycling to work.
Then Arthur _________ by the judge to five years imprisonment. SENTENCE

111 112
XV. Decide which answer A, B, C, D best fits each space. 3. Can you come to the police station ? The man who ____(suspect) of
The stolen bike stealing your wallet ____(arrest), and ____(question) at the moment. The po-
One morning last week I realized that my bike 1)______ stolen from my lice hope he ____(identify), either by you or another witness.
garden. I phoned the police and two officers called at my house the next day. 4. Perhaps they ____(throw) out at the next election.
They 2)_____ me if I had seen or heard anything. I told 3)_____ I had been 5. Nothing ____(see) of Pauline since her car ____(find) abandoned
out that evening, and hadn’t noticed anything suspicious when I came home. near Newbury last week.
“If I had seen anything, I 4)____you,” I replied. “It was raining hard too. If the 6. Helen ____(hurt) in an accident and a passer-by called an ambu-
weather 5)____ so bad, I would have ridden my bike.” The officers told me lance.
that lots of people 6)_____ their bikes stolen lately. “The thieves 7)____ to 7. The robbers ____(arrest) as soon as they left the bank?
have put the bikes in a van,” said one of the officers.” “I 8)____ I had known 8. When ____(tell) about the new rules?
about that,” I said. “I saw a black van that evening. In fact, it 9)____ opposite 9. Police confirmed that the murder weapon _____(since discover) in a
my house.” The officers asked me what the van’s number 10)____, but I nearby lake.
couldn’t remember.”11)____ you saw the van again, 12)____you recognize it 10. The reporter says that prisoners of conscience ____(hold) in at least
?” one of them asked. “It 13)____ painting. I remember that,” I replied. 70 countries.
However, there was a happy ending to this story. After the officers had 11. A police car came when the injured man ____(carry) off the road.
left, I 14)____by a friend of mine. “By the way,” she said, “15)____ you want 12. The witness (question) by the police-inspector now.
your bike, I’ll bring it back this afternoon, I borrowed it a couple of days ago.” 13. The bill must ____(sign) by the president, who has the right to veto
1. A) had B) had been C) had had itself D) had not 14. – Don’t worry! The burglars ____(catch) by the police. – Hm, but
2. A) reminded B) questioned C) told D) asked they are sure they ____(not/catch).
3. A) them B) that C) if D) later 15. Our luggage ____(examine) at the Customs now, any luggage going
4. A) called B) would C) had called D)would abroad ____(check) usually here.
5. A) wasn’t B) wouldn’t be C) hadn’t been D) wouldn’t have been 16. The policeman noticed that the suitcase ____(carry) by the porter in
6. A) had B) had had C)had to have D) hadn’t a most strange way.
7. A) think B) are thought C) have thought D) are thinking 17. Don’t leave your bicycle outside. It ____(may/steal).
8. A) would B) realize C) wish D) thought 18. The whole nation hoped he____(elect) Prime Minister.
9. A) was parked B) had parking C) is parked D) has parked
10. A) is B) was C) had D) wrote XVII. Change the following sentences from active to passive. Keep
11. A) if B) when C) remember D) suppose the same tense with each change.
12. A) do B) can C) would D) if 1. The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the
13. A) needed B) had been C) looked like D) seemed crine
14. A) called up B) was phoned C) had a phone call D)heard some 2. No one can do anything unless someone gives us move information
news 3. They will say nothing move about the matter if someone returns the
15. A) unless B) if only C) if D) as long as stolen gun
4. A thief stole my dog and brought him back only when i offered $ 20
XVI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of passive in an reward for him
appropriate tense 5. The judge gave him two weeks to pay the fine.
1. I’ve collected all the documents that ____(need) for the house sale. 6. An uneasy silence succeeded the shot
Can you take them to the lawyer’s office to ____(sign)? 7. The lawyer gave him the details of his uncles will
2. Look, this is a secret. Come into the garden where we 8. He was delivering the documents to the department .
____(not/overhear). 9. The suspect will give his evidence next week
113 114
10. The detective is investigating this serious criminal case mow , the is
still collecting evidence against criminals. XIX. These sentences contain one mistake. Correct it.
11. I think the judge will pass the sentence tomorrow . 1. I’m sorry I’m late. I got held up in the traffic.
12. I cannot meet you tomorrow morning. I shall be representing jack 2. When did you discover that the money had been disappeared?
Green gefore the Count. 3. My neighbour is very proud of her new grandson who born last
13. The jury still discussing the verdict . week.
14. The count was still examining all the details of the merrder at the 4. A lot of homes in the area have been being broken into by burglars.
hime. 5. As I drove south, I could see that the old road was rebuilding.
15. The investigator has collected evidence on the case. 6. Jim was been given the sack from his new job.
16. The state and public organizations had discussed the Draft of the 7. Somehow without my noticing my wallet had been disappeared.
new Constitution before it became the law. 8. Harry is been questioned by the police about the accident.
17. If you come to the count late in the afternoon the judge will have 9. The robber unlocked the door by a false key.
declared his dectsion . 10. My car has being stolen.
18. The night count has dismissing the prisoner’s appeal . 11. The outgoing chairman was call a liar and a thief by the newspapers.
12. That window has been breaking again.
XVIII. Change the following sentences from passive into active 13. They ought to been punished more severely.
form. Keep the same tense with each change. 14. He failed to elected for the third time in a row.
1. The police were called by the watch man and the man was arrested. 15. The only reason the child hasn’t been prosecute is the fact that he’s
2. All sorts of things are left in buses . They are collected and sent to the only twelve.
Lost Property Office. 16. The silver was alleged to have been stealed from the palace.
3. The warehouse is guarded by dogs . A thief who fried to get in was 17. The bank was robbed with three men in masks.
seen by a dog and chased. 18. After ten years in prison, Stephen was pardon and set free.
4. The man was tried, found guilty and sent to prison. 19. The justice is administered with the courts of different instances.
5. Trespassers will be prosecuted.
6. My car has been stolen and abandoned . XX. Rewrite these sentences. Begin with the words provided, so that
7. My house was searched and a number of stolen articles were found . the meaning stays the same.
8. His house was broken into and a lot of things were stolen. 1. The police aren’t questioning James.
9. Hurry up ! We are being followed. James __________.
10. These problems were being discussed by lawyers for many months. 2. I can’t give you a lift to work. Somebody damaged my car last night.
11. A lot of young lawyers are trained at our University every year. My car __________.
12. Such criminal cases are usually tried by district courts. 3. When I got back to the car park, my car wasn’t there. Somebody had
13. Appeals and protests against sentences and decisions of Courts of stolen it.
First Instance are examined by Counts of Second Instance. It _______________.
14. The criminal case was decided according to the laws of the state. 4. They are going to announce the news tomorrow.
15. The accused is guaranteed the right to defence. The news _________.
16. The hearing of the case will be postponed. 5. Somebody broke into the museum this morning.
17. The verdict must be passed by the jury and the sentence must be The museum _______.
passed by the judge. 6. Someone used a knife to open this window.
18. The unlawful decision was appealed against by the procurator last This window __________ a knife.
week. 7. A burglar broke into our house last week.
19. Penalties are imposed on guilty persons according to the law. Our house _________.
115 116
8. Lots of people had parked their cars on the pavement. 10. Last night I got stopped ____ the police as I was driving home.
The cars __________. 11. Marion was the young girl kidnapped ____ aliens in 2002.
9. The government agreed with the report and so they changed the law. 12. Harry is being questioned ____ the police about the committed
The law __________. crime.
10. The police have issued a description of the wanted man. 13. The identity of the criminal may have been discovered ____
A description ______.I have ________. eyewitnesses testimony.
11. Someone stole Mary’s motorbike last week. 14. The term “Summary offence” is used to describe an offence
Mary’s motorbike _______. which can only be tried by Magistrates’ Court.
12. People think the jewels were stolen by one of the guests. 15. Somebody might have stolen your car ____ the keys you had
One of the guests _______. left.
13. There is a rumour that the escaped prisoner is living in Spain.
The escaped prisoner ________. XXII. Read these newspaper reports and put the verbs into the
14. My legal advisers have told me not to say any more at this time. most suitable form.
I have ______.
Shop Robbery
15. It is thought that the two injured men were repairing high-tension
In Paxham yesterday a shop assistant (1) ________ (force) to hand over
500 after (2) ____________ (threaten) by a man with a knife. The man escaped
The two injured men ______.
in a car which (3) ________ (steal) earlier in the day. The car (4) ________
16. The Police in New York have arrested three terrorists.
(later/find) in a car park with it (5) __________ (abandon) by the thief. A man
Three terrorists _____.
(6) _________ (arrest) in connection with the robbery and (7) ____________
17. The falling roof tiles injured several passers-by, though not seri-
(still/question) by the police.
Several passers-by ______.
18. Nobody informed the police that there had been a mistake.
A woman (1) ________ (take) to hospital after her car collided with a
The police ______.
lorry near Norstock yesterday. She (2) ________ (allow) home later after
19. All visitors must wear identity badges.
treatment. The road (3) _________ (block) for an hour after the accident and
Identity badges _____.
traffic had to (4) _________ (divert). A police inspector said afterwards: “The
20. The children shouldn’t have opened that parcel.
woman was lucky. She could (5) _________ (kill).
That parcel _______.
XXIII. Fill of the gaps in the following sentences with one of the
XXI. Complete the sentences with BY or WITH.
passive verb phrases below.
Example: Three climbers were killed by an avalanche.
is deemed could soon befitted were charged has been held has finally been
1. The safe was blown open _____ the robbers.
elected is expected being caused to be printed is auctioned being consid-
2. He was killed _____ a falling stone.
3. The policeman was attacked ____ a gang of criminals.
1. High-tech 'leg-irons'............on violent suspects arrested by the po-
4. The safe was blown open ____ dynamite.
lice, under plans............by chief constables.
5. The bank was quickly surrounded ____ armed police.
2. Last week, police in Scotland called for the introduction of leg-
6. The victim was struck from behind ____ a heavy object.
restraints following concerns about the number of injuries............ dur-
7. When the accident happened, Sue was struck ____ flying glass.
ing struggles in the back of police cars and vans.
8. He has been attacked ____ a knife.
3. Four people............last night with public disorder offences after of-
9. This woman was adducted ____ a youth and her gold ring was
ficers mounted dawn raids on suspected football hooligans.
taken off.
117 118
4. Hugh Hefner, founder of Playboy,............to the American Society of XXVI. Fill each of the numbered blanks in the following passage
Magazine Editors' Hall of Fame. with one suitable word.
5. A first-edition copy of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, the first book Twenty-four hours after arriving in the country, I............ (1) told to
............in England,............to raise at least £500,000 when it............ in leave. The security police, the country's largest employer, came to my hotel,
July. politely asked me what I thought of the city and then recommended that I leave
6. A British woman released early from an attempted murder sentence on the morning plane. I asked them why I was............ (2) expelled and they
in the Unites States - a charge which she has always denied -............ said it was not a question of my being '............(3) out', they were simply rec-
in prison because she............an illegal immigrant. ommending that I leave. I refused and the problems started. My passport and
plane ticket ............(4) stolen from my room after my key 'disappeared'. The
XXIV. Add the appropriate extra information (a-e) to the passive police shrugged their shoulders and decided not to interview the leather-
sentences (1-5). jacketed youth who I............(5) been pressed up against in the lift. For three
1. The news was leaked to the press by the minister ... days I was............ (6) by two not very secret policemen ! everywhere I went. I
2. The minister was attacked by protesters, ... visited a I fellow-journalist whose address I had............ (7) given. He lived in a
3. I remember being sent a letter by a man in America ... beautiful old house which would I ............(8) demolished the I following
4. The winning goal was scored by Fausto Ferrini ... year by the Government to 4 make way for a block of 'modern' I flats. Every-
5. A man was run over by a car, ... body would be I ............ (9) in it as soon as it was ready but where they would
a. in his first appearance for the club. live in the meantime had not been ............ (10) out. Massive taxation
b. who had waited outside the building all day to voice their oppo- was............(11) imposed on the people to pay for these supposed improve-
sition to the policies. ments. I went back to the hotel, still............(12) followed by the two police-
c. in a deliberate attempt to boost his popularity. men, and felt very depressed.
d. who complained my article was prejudiced against his country.
e. which witnesses said was being driven at very high speed. XXVII. Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word.
Example: New measures to combat crime are to be introduced at the
end of the year.
XXV. Where possible, rewrite each of the following sentences in two 1. We ............ strongly advised ............ reconsider our position.
different ways, using a different subject each time. Some sentences may be 2. He is known ........................ hidden large sums of money in his or-
rewritten only one way. chard.
1. The police showed the victim a picture of the suspect. 3. They are understood ............ have ............ offered over £5,000 for
2. People used to sell the tourists fake antiques. their story.
3. Why didn't they offer the customers a refund? 4. I ............ always made ............ apologise to my little sister after an
4. They didn't guarantee every participant a free lunch. argument.
5. They reported the incident to the police. 5. It's too late now: there's nothing more ............ be.
6. People suggested to us that the Internet would be a good source of 6. I left with the distinct feeling of ............ been ............ for granted.
information. 7. I used to steal walnuts from my grandfather's garden and never wor-
7. They promised us full compensation if the scheme fell through, ried about ...................... out.
8. The referee declared the boxing match a draw. 8. There are ............. ............. ........... ........... any survivors from yester-
9. We'll give the new members of staff all the help they need. day's aircrash.
10. The incident earned him the reputation of being unreliable.

119 120
XXVIII. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it 6. When I was a child, I was never allowed to play with the children
is as similar as possible to the sentence before it. next door.
Example: Many people believe that Stonehenge was built as some kind let......................................................................................
of time-keeping device. Stonehenge is believed by many people to have been
built as some kind of time-keeping device. XXX. Finish each of the following sentences in such a way that it is
1. They made me tell them everything I knew. as similar as possible to the sentence before it.
I ......................................................................................... Example: He didn't remember that he had been ordered to appear be-
2. Nobody ever let me study the piano at school. fore the judge.
I .......................................................................................... He had no recollection of being ordered to appear before the judge.
3. It is often said that Shakespeare never revised anything he wrote. 1. She vaguely remembers that she was knocked down by a motorbike.
Shakespeare..................................................................... She has vague memories of........................................
4. There were once thought to be canals on Mars. 2. It's never very nice when people laugh at you.
It ........................................................................................ Being.................................................................................
5. From what we understand, there was an attack last night in the vicin- 3. Stewart was criticised for his extravagance and was more careful af-
ity of the beach. ter that.
There is ............................................................................ Having..............................................................................
6. It's a widespread assumption that George was wrongly accused. 4. I really wish I hadn't been pushed into giving a speech.
George.............................................................................. I really regret ..................................................................
7. You have to clean these football boots until they shine. 5. Because I was told it was quicker, I naturally took the mountain
These football boots are............................................... road.
8. Under no circumstances should you cross this line. Having..............................................................................
This line is....................................................................... 6. I can't tell you what it feels like because nobody's ever given me
XXIX. For each of the sentences, write a new sentence as similar as Never................................................................................
possible in meaning to the original sentence, but using the word given.
Example: A lot of people are saying that he's working undercover. ru- XXXI. Rule study. Read the text and then do the rest of the exer-
moured cise.
It's rumoured that he's working undercover. A DRIVER has been sent to jail for 90 days for driving with excess al-
He's rumoured to be working undercover. cohol.
1. She wants it to be clear to people that she's fair. Graham Smith, 29, of North Street, Barton, was stopped by police offi-
seen .................................................................................. cers near his home last November and was found to have drunk almost twice
2. He often says to people how much of his success is down to you. the legal limit for drivers, Didcot magistrates heard on Thursday.
heard ................................................................................ Twelve months earlier Smith had been disqualified from driving for
3. The theory is that she fell overboard at night and drowned. three years for drink-driving.
fallen ................................................................................ He was disqualified for twelve months in 1986 for a similar offence.
4. We certainly don't want any repetition of such a ridiculous spectacle Mr Peter Jones, defending, said Smith had used the car to visit a sick
ever again. friend.
repeated .......................................................................... He said Smith was depressed after the visit, and went to a pub and drank
5. The plan was originally to complete the building by June. five or six pints before driving home.
due.................................................................................... He was caught by police during a routine speed check in Wantage Road,
121 122
The following expressions in the text have passive verbs. Would it 2. a. Each sheet contains the text of a number of pages (e.g. 32).
be easy to rewrite the text with active verbs (e.g.... sent a disqualified driver b.The text of a number of pages (e.g. 32) is contained in each sheet.
to jail; police officers stopped Graham Smith)? 3. a. People fold and cut the sheets to produce sections of the book.
A disqualified driver has been sent to jail b. The sheets are folded and cut to produce sections of the book.
Graham Smith... was stopped by police officers 4. a. These sections are called signatures.
... was found to have drunk almost twice the legal limit b. We call these sections signatures.
Smith had been disqualified from driving 5. a. The printers put all the signatures together in the correct order.
He was banned for twelve months b. All the signatures are put together in the correct order.
He was caught by police 6. a. Then they are bound together and their edges are trimmed.
b. Then they bind the signatures together and trim the edges.
Which two rules are best? 7. a. Finally, the cover – which has been printed separately – is attached.
1. We use passives when we are interested in what happens, not who it
b. Finally, they attach the cover – which they have printed separately.
happens to.
8. a. Now the publishers can publish the book.
2. Passives are common when we are thinking about what is done to the
b. Now the book can be published.
person or thing that we are interested in, not about what he/she/it does.
3. Passives can help us to go on talking about the same thing, in cases
XXXIV. Change these sentences as in the example. Then think
where an active verb would need an unwanted new subject.
4. Passives are best in a formal style. Actives are more informal. about why this makes them better.
1. That she had not written to her parents for over two years surprised
XXXII. Choose the best way of continuing after each sentence. me.
1. He lives in a small house. I was surprised that she had not written to her parents ...
a. Somebody built it about forty years ago. 2. That nobody was prepared to take him to hospital shocked us.
b. It was built about forty years ago. 3. That Mary wanted to tell everybody what to do annoyed me.
2. English is worth learning. 4. That George rang me up at three o'clock in the morning to tell me he
a. People speak it in a lot of countries. was in love again didn't please me.
b. b. It is spoken in a lot of countries. 5. The fact that he looked completely different from the last time I had
3. He got a sports car, but he didn't like it. met him confused me. (I was confused by ...)
a. So he sold it again.
b. So it was sold again. TEST YOURSELF
4. My nephew is an artist.
a. He has just painted another picture. Choose the correct answer.
b. Another picture has just been painted by him. 1. The event ________ before they arrived home.
5. The new Virginia Meyer film is marvellous. a) reported c) was being reported
a. They are showing it at our local cinema. b) had been reported d) has been reported
b. It is being shown at our local cinema. 2. I ___________ a letter by an unknown person yesterday.
a) gave c) was given
XXXIII. Choose the best sentence from each pair to build up a con-
b) have been given d) have given
tinuous text.
E.g. a. How books are msde 3. Robert Gibbs, the great plane robber __________ the police yesterday.
b. How people make books a) was arrested by c) has arrested
1. a. First of all, the printers print big sheets of paper. b) arrested d) arrested by
b. First of all, big sheets of paper are printed.

123 124
4. My suitcase __________ from the hotel room. 15. Your brother ___________ unless he pays his fine.
a) stole c) was stolen a) will release c) is released
b) has stolen d) was being stolen b) will be released d) will not be released
5. Last night I __________ by the police as I was driving home. 16. The police are watching a house in London; they think the house
a) stopped c) was stopped __________ by people who sell drugs.
b) have been stopped d) have stopped a) is used c) is being used
6. We hope that an agreement ___________ . b) was used d) has used
a) was arrived c) will be arrived at 17. She returned home to find her house _______________.
b) arrived d) will arrive a) has been burgled c) had been burgled
7. Your key must __________ before 11:30 a.m. b) was burgled d) is burgled
a) return c) be returned 18. Accidents ____________ often by carelessness.
b) be returning d) have returned a) cause c) are causing
8. Because of an extremely high accident rate, restrictions on teenagers’ b) are caused d) have been caused
driving ___________ at the next City Council meeting. 19. The juvenile problems ___________ still __________.
a) will discuss c) will be discussing a) have discussed c) were discussed
b) are discussed d) will be discussed b) are being discussed d) discussed
9. Many of the early British settlers in Australia were criminals who 20. The criminal code ____________ by the end of the month.
were able not ___________ by agreeing to live on and develop the land there. a) will have been published c) are publishing
a) be imprisoned c) to be imprisoned
b) will publish d) is published
b) to imprison d) being imprisoned
21. Criminal actions __________________ by the state.
10. The government has announced that taxes ___________.
a) are nearly always started
a) are raised c) will be raised
b) are nearly always being started
b) will raise d) had been raised
c) are nearly always start
11. I was announced that the international treaty against weather war- d) are nearly always been started
fare ___________ and had gone into effect.
a) would have been ratified c) had been ratified 22. A decision of the Supreme Court cannot ____________ to any other
b) is ratified d) was ratified court.
a) appeal c) be appealed
12. The house where the dead man was found ____________ by the po- b) be appealing d) be appeal
lice to prevent it from being antered and the evidence interfered with.
a) is guarded c) is been guarded 23. There’s somebody walking behind us. I think ____________.
b) will guard d) is being guarded a) we are following c) we are followed
b) we are being following d) we are being folowing
13. A police car came when the injured man ___________ the road.
a) was being carried off c) has been carried off 24. Linda _____________ by the police.
b) was been carrying off d) was carried off a) arrested c) has arrested
b) has been arrested d) had arrested
14. The notorious spy ___________ from the country.
a) was being deported c) deported
b) was deported d) has deported
125 126
1. Must and have to. Have to describes obligations made by someone
There are the following modal verbs in English: else, while must is used to describe a personal obligation. There may be no
MUST HAVE TO; BE TO You must start working harder!
You have to turn left here.
Sorry, I must leave \have to leave now.
2. Mustn’t and don’t have to. Mustn’t describes something which is not
OUGHT TO allowed. Don’t have to describes something which is not necessary.
NEED You mustn’t leave any bags here. (It’s against the rule)
You don’t have to apply yet. (It’s not necessary)
Modals have the following peculiarities:
1. can express ability, obligation, permission, request; also the idea of 3. Should and ought to. These have the same meaning. They describe
probability, or how certain a situation is, but not the action; “what is a good idea” and can be used to give advice, or polite instructions.
2. modals unlike their equivalents lack the tense forms; I think you should see a doctor.
3. their interrogative and negative forms are built up without the auxil- You should send in your aplication by July 18th.
iary; You ought not to continue.
4. different meanings may be associated with different forms of the in-
finitive – simple and perfect (both in the active and passive forms), continuous 4. Had better. This refers to present or future time, and gives advice
and perfect continuous; about how to stop something going wrong..
5. modals unlike their equivalents and except ought are followed by I think you’d better leave now. (Before it is too late)
the infinitive without the particle to. You’d better not drive. (It might be dangerous)
The meaning of modals depends on the context. One modal verb can
have several meanings depending on their function, or purpose. 5. Is\Are to (Was\ were to). This is used in formal instruction, refers to a
previously arranged plan or obligation. Not is stressed.
• ABILITY No-one is to leave the room.
Can and be able to. Be able to is used in situations where can does not He was to meet her yesterday.
have the necessary grammatical form.
I’d like to be able to swim. Not being able to swim is annoying. TASKS

• CERTAINTY AND UNCERTAINTY Don’t need to /needn’t, needn’t have/ didn’t need to, should/
1. Must and can’t. These are used to make deductions, when we are shouldn’t
more or less certain about something, especially with the verb to be. I. Write sentences saying what you needn’t/don’t need to do in your
You must be tired after your journey. (I suppose you are) country.
That can’t be Sue. She is in Brazil. (I’m sure it’s impossible) - carry an ID card at all times
- have a work permit
2. May, might and could. These all express uncertainty or possibility. - be 21 before you can marry
They are usually stressed in speech. Might is less likely than may. Could is not - be 21 before you can drive
used with not in this context. - call a police officer sir or madam
It may not rain. I might go out, I don’t know. I could get wet! - have a licence to own a gun

127 128
II. Make sentences using should have and shouldn’t have and the 3. Согласно принципу “строгой ответственности” требуется уста-
words in brackets. новить лишь факт причинения вреда, но нет необходимости доказывать
1 I’m sure he was guilty (He /go/ to prison) вину правонарушителя.
2 The fine was very high (It /be/ so high) 4. При условном осуждении могут быть назначены дополнитель-
3 He didn’t have a licence (He /have/ the gun) ные виды наказаний.
4 There was a lot of traffic (He /drive/ more slowly) 5. Возможно, судьи высших судов назначались лишь из числа ад-
5 She didn’t have her ID (She /show/ it/ to the police) вокатов высшей категории – барристеров.
6 He didn’t have a work permit (They /employ/ him) 6. Платным магистратам и мировым судьям позволено разбирать
некоторые категории гражданских споров.
III. Read the newspaper article and the letter in reply to it. Who do 7. Деление на фелонии и мисдиминоры, должно быть, имело арха-
you agree with – the judge or the writer of the letter? ичный характер до конца 18 века.
1. A judge ordered an 82-year-old man to pay 4,000 damages to a
burglar who was trying to break into his house. Jack Lewis was asleep in his V. Complete the text with the most suitable modals. Translate it.
house in Maidstone Kent when he heard noises. He picked up his shotgun and Civil procedure
went downstairs where he found Michael Phillips in the hall with a bag full of To start a civil case, a pleading 1) ………… be filed with the court,
electrical equipment. Phillips claimed that because he was unarmed, he put the called a complaint, naming the party against whom the case is brought (we 2)
goods down and raised his hands when he saw the shotgun. Lewis said Phillips ……….. call him the defendant). The person or organization filing the case 3)
had turned to run out of the open front door, so he shot him. Phillips suffered ……….. be called the plaintiff. The complaint 4)……….. state a cause of ac-
minor wounds to the legs. In the trial, the judge said despite the fact that Lewis tion (there 5)………… be enough set forth that a defendant 6) ………... know
was defending his own property, the shotgun was unlicenced and in any case, it what he is accused of having done). Only some civil cases 7) ……….. be veri-
was not acceptable for people to take the law into their own hands. fied (sworn to), and there is a court cost payable at the time of filing a civil
2. Sir, I am writing in disbelief at the judgement passed on Jack Lewis Next a summons is issued, inviting defendant to come to court. The
yesterday. In my opinion, it is absolutely unfair to make him pay for his act of summons 8) …………. tell the defendant how many days he 9) …………
self-defence. In theory he has committed an offence by firing an unlicenced make appearance and file an answer. If he does/not, a default judgement 10)
shotgun, and he should be prosecuted for this. But in practice the law should ………… be entered against him. A defendant 11) …………. to defend with-
be more flexible. As far as I’m concerned, for a criminal to receive compensa- out a lawyer.
tion for an injury sustained while carrying out a crime is quite outrageous. Both parties have a right to jury trial but they 12) ………… to file a pa-
Your faithfully per asking for a jury or they 13) ………… lose the right. There is not, gener-
Brian Forbes ally, a right to speedy trial in civil cases.
1) must
Work in pairs and talk about what Jack Lewis didn’t need to do, 2) may
should have or shouldn’t have done. 3) is to
He shouldn’t have shot him. 4) must
He didn’t need to use his gun. 5) must
6) can
IV. Translate the following sentences into English using modals. 7) have to/must
1. Осуществление прав и свобод человека и гражданина не должно 8) should
нарушать права и свободы других лиц. 9) has to
2. К уголовной ответственности может быть привлечено лишь ли- 10) may
цо, совершившее запрещенное законом общественно опасное деяние. 11) is allowed
129 130
12) are to 4. Don’t accept any offer without thinking it over carefully first, even
13) may though it’s possible that it’ll seem very good to you at first.
5. The police have evidently banned parking in this street.
VI. Complete each sentence with a suitable modals from the list. 6. The president admitted that there had, of course, been a breakdown of
law and order.
are not allowed is to could not
7. Maybe Carlos was arrested because he had entered the country ille-
couldn’t could needn’t
should had to
8. Every society that has ever existed has recognized the need for laws
had to was able to = managed to
which perhaps have been unwritten.
9. The police say the arson has been committed, but they are not sure.
1. I …………. take the company to court to get the money they owed
10. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it isn’t
there any more. I think somebody has stolen it.
2. The trial took a long time as the jury ………… reach a verdict.
3. It ………… be the judge who decides on the sentence.
VIII. Translate the following sentences paying attention to the mo-
4. You ………… to park here.
5. The two men were arrested before they ………… commit any more
1. The solution of the question of the burden of taxes can’t be endlessly
6. You ………… call a lawyer, but it’s a good idea.
2. Some politicians must have forgotten all the horrors of the world war
7. After climbing over the prison wall, Peter ………… to get away by
II reviving fascism in new forms.
stealing a car parked nearby.
3. The ship is likely to arrive at the port tomorrow morning we might be
8. Charles ………… deny having been at the scene of the crime.
informed of it.
9. The police ………… spent all morning searching the house for evi-
4. If the suspect is hostile, the investigator should determine the reason
for his hostility.
10. Today his term of imprisonment is over. It means he ……….. be re-
5. Either partner can institute criminal proceedings against the other.
6. The family status of early Roman jurisconsults may have been more
important than their legal expertise.
Must (deduction); may, might (possibility)
7. The advocate is to fight for the rights of his clients, but only up to the
point where an honourable person could fairly put the case on his own behalf.
VII. Change the underlined parts of the sentences by using the mo-
8. He (the advocate) must not identify with his client’s possible willing-
dal verbs must or may/might. Translate bearing in mind whether it’s de-
ness to tell untruths.
duction or possibility.
9. If incidental disputes concerning procedure have to be litigated, the
Example: I think George has won his case because he had a very good barrister is likely to conduct the proceedings.
defence lawyer – George must have won his case 10. The beginning civil-law judge can expect to start at the lowest level.
1. The driver of the car broken into is very nervous. 11. Legislation needs to be expressed in language readily comprehensi-
There are probably illegal drugs hidden somewhere behind the back ble by judges and lawyers.
seat. 12. Small parties like the Scottish National Party, whose support is con-
2. Why doesn’t the detective see to it himself? centrated in a particular part of the country, are more likely to win seats.
I’m sure he’s got plenty of evidence just now. 13. Before trial takes place the examining justices must hold a prelimi-
3. Perhaps your son wasn’t sober while driving. nary inquiry, called “committal proceedings”.
I think it’s the reason of the accident. 14. The “ alibi warning ” notice must be given to the prosecution if an
alibi defence is to be relied upon.
131 132
15. It must be decided whether the accused should be granted bail and 7. The judge…………be impartial when making a decision.
legal aid for trial. a. should c. is able to
16. At the end of the prosecution case, the defence may make a submis- b. will d. can’t
sion of “no case to answer”.
8. A burglar………….enter your home, grab the most valuable items
17. Hearsay evidence must be excluded on grounds of unreliability.
and escape.
18. Counsels should not press for conviction in any circumstances, but
a. should c. must
should proceed impartially to ensure that justice is done.
b. can d. has to
19. It is an old debate, whether an effective system of law can be im-
posed from above or must grow “organically” from below. 9. Thieves…………..to pay damages.
20. In accordance with a congressional enactment, a suit brought to a a. have c. can
state court that could have been brought to a federal court may be removed to b. must d. ought to
the federal court at the option of the defendant.
10. Solicitor………..deal with papers and hire the barrister.
a. can c. should
TEST YOURSELF b. is to d. is able
Choose the most suitable verb 11. Crime………….be committed by a law-abiding person.
1. The wittness…………..have given more information if he wasn’t a. should c. might
frightened. b. could d. can’t
a. must c. may
b. should d. is allowed to 12. A jury……………be chosen from citizens of this town.
a. are to c. have
2. Such a decision……………be made very soon. b. is to d. is allowed to
a. must c. ought to
b. have to d. is able to 13. The car…………….have been stolen an hour ago.
a. must c. could
3. We……………have sent the lawyer all the necessary information. b. is to d. ought
a. must c. can
b. should d. is allowed to 14. The copyright law……………be adopted as soon as possible.
a. can’t c. should to
4. General election to choose the next Government…………..be held at b. are to d. must
least every four years.
a. will c. have to 15. An accused……………be acquitted as he is not guilty.
b. is allowed to d. must a. should c. mustn’t
b. can’t d. is allowed
5. The verdict…………….be passed before a trial.
a. mustn’t c. is to
b. can’t d. can
6. The murderer will…………to escape if the police haven’t caught
a. can c. be able
b. must d. should

133 134
Reported speech 1 Note: sentences in direct speech have speech marks (inverted commas)
around the spoken words. Indirect or reported speech does not use speech
We often tell people what other people have told us. This is called re- marks.
ported or indirect speech. We usually change tenses and references to people, Note: past perfect in reported speech can be a report of either past sim-
places and times. ple or present perfect.
‘I’ve lost my keys!’ said Joe. Joe said he had lost his keys.
Without tense changes ‘I lost them yesterday,’ he said. He said he had lost them the day before.
Statements are often repeated immediately, and the reporting verb is in a
present tense. In this case, there are no tense changes. No changes after a past tense reporting verb
Tom says “I’m feeling ill”. Tom says that he is feeling ill. If the report is about something which is always true, it may not be neces-
Charlie says “I work 14 hours a day”. Charlie says that he works 14 sary to backshift.
hours a day. ‘I like apples more than I like oranges.’
She said that she likes apples more than she likes oranges.
Tense changes after a past tense reporting verb ‘Budapest is the capital of Hungary’.
Statements are usually reported with a past tense verb and an optional He said that Budapest is the capital of Hungary.
that. All tenses that follow move back into the past. This is sometimes called
backshift. Some speakers prefer to backshift in sentences of this kind.
• Present simple to past simple ‘I need some help.’
Speakers in reported speech
She said (that) she needed some help.
• Speakers can be mentioned at the beginning of the or end of the sentence in
• Present continuous to past ‘We are having our lunch.’
She said that they were having their direct speech.
lunch. Direct speech
• Present perfect to past perfect ‘I have lost my keys.’ Jack said, ‘We’re going to miss the train’.
He said (that) he had lost his keys. ‘We’re going to miss the train,’ said Jack.
• will to would ‘I will be home at 6.00.’ • Speakers are mentioned at the beginning of the sentence in reported speech.
She said that she would be home at 6.00. Reported speech
• Past simple to past perfect ‘I wrote two letters to her.’
He said (that) he had written two letters Jack said (that) they were going to miss the train.
to her.
Other changes
• be going to, to was /were ‘They are going to come back.’ In reported speech, references to people, places and times often change, be-
going to She said (that) they were going to come cause the point of view changes.
• must ‘I must finish this before I go.’ ‘I’ll see you here tomorrow,’ said Sue.
He said he must finish it before he went. Sue said she would see me there the next day.
Note that must does not change. ‘I bought this book yesterday,’ said Martin.
He said he had to finish it before he Martin said he had bought the book the day before.
Summarizing instead of verbatim reports
• Sometimes each word is reported (verbatim reporting), but we often sum-
marize what people say when we make reports.

135 136
‘Look, actually, tell him a call next week, OK?’ Wh-questions
She said she’d call you next week. Questions beginning when, what, why, where, how, etc. Are reported with
backshift. The question forms of direct speech are not used, so the subject in
Verbs easily confused: say, tell, speak bold comes before the verb. There is no question mark.
Speak describes the act of talking.
‘Where is the bus-station?’ she asked.
Simon spoke to me in the supermarket yesterday. She asked where the bus-station was.
‘Where have you come from?’ he asked.
Say describes the words used. It is followed by optional that. He asked me where I had come from.
‘It is warm today,’ she said.
Indirect questions
She said (that) it was warm.
• Indirect or embedded questions are questions which have an introductory
question before them. The indirect question does not have a question form.
Tell describes giving information It needs an object. It is followed by op-
tional that. Note that there is no change of tenses (backshift).
Introductory question: Could you tell me …? Do you know …?
‘You’ve won first prize,’ she said. • Wh-questions
She told me (that) I had won first prize.
Where is the post office?
Could you tell me where the post office is?
When does the film start?
Reported speech 2 Do you know when the film starts?
Commands and requests
• Commands are reported with tell and the infinitive. • Yes /no questions
‘Wait! Wait!’ I told him to stop. This questions use if.
Requests are reported with ask and the infinitive. Is this the right street?
‘Please wait!’ I asked her to wait. Do you know if this is the right street?
• There is a question mark, because of the introductory question.
Yes /no questions
• Questions with the answer yes or no are reported with backshift and using if. Reporting verbs
‘Does the London train stop here?’ she asked. Reporting verbs include part of the meaning of the words reported. Here are
She asked me if the London train stopped here. some of the most common reporting verbs.
advise ‘I wouldn’t buy that car, Janos, if I were you.’
• Note that the question form of the direct speech is not used in reported I advised Janos not to buy the car.
speech, as there is no longer a direct question. There is no question mark. agree ‘Yes, Jill, I think you’re right,’ said Mike.
Mike agreed with Jill.
Whether apologize ‘I’m really sorry for being so late,’ said Maria.
Whether means if … or not. We use whether when we report questions Maria apologized for being late.
linked with or. The question is reported with backshift. ask ‘Do you think you could help me, Sue?’
I asked Sue to help me.
‘Are you staying the night, or are you going home?’ he asked. congratulate “Well done, Tina, you’ve passed the exam!’
He asked me whether I was staying the night or going home. I congratulated Tina on passing her exam.
137 138
decide There are two types of decision. II. Translate into English:
‘I’m going to become a doctor!’ said Helen. 1. Он хотел знать, является ли конгрессмен членом сената либо
This is a decision about the future, or a plan. палаты представителей.
Helen decided to become a doctor. 2. Мы не знали, существуют ли специально установленные обя-
‘I’ll have the fish pie, please,’ said Bill. занности для члена Конгресса.
This is a decision of the moment. 3. Лектор заключил, что двухпартийная система США оказала
Bill decided to have the fish pie. влияние на политическую жизнь страны.
invite ‘Would you like to come to the cinema on Saturday, Pam?’ 4. Он интересовался, каким образом акт становился законом: пу-
I invited Pam to the cinema on Saturday. тем одобрения президентом или путем преодоления вето президента.
offer ‘Shall I carry your case, Dawn?’ said Peter. 5. Он спросил, принимает ли президент США участие в управле-
Peter offered to carry Dawn’s case. нии кабинетом из 10-12 человек.
promise ‘I’ll definitely be home by eight,’ said Ann. 6. Студент хотел знать, уходит ли кабинет в отставку, когда исте-
Ann promised to be home by eight. кает служебный срок президента.
‘I’ll wait for you, Helen,’ said Peter. 7. Студенты интересовались, какая ветвь власти ответственна за
Peter promised Helen that he would wait for her. соблюдение и исполнение законов.
refuse ‘No, I won’t open the door!’ said Carol. 8. Его интересовало, должен ли президент США быть коренным
Carol refused to open the door. гражданином.
remind ‘Don’t forget to send your mother a birthday card, Joe.’ 9. Студент хотел знать, какая должность в США является высшей
I reminded Joe to send his mother a birthday card. правительственной должностью.
suggest ‘How about spending the day at the beach?’ said Carlos.
Carlos suggested spending the day at the beach. III. Use the Sequence of Tenses in the following sentences beginning
each sentence with the words “She has just said that”, then with the words
TASKS “She told me that”.
I. Translate into English:
Example: “I don't like modern music.”
1. Наш начальник говорит, что его хобби – работа.
She has just said that she doesn 't like modern music.
2. Он спрашивает, сколько сейчас времени.
She told me that she didn't like modern music.
3. Врач спрашивает, как я себя чувствую. Я отвечаю, что неплохо.
И добавляю, что никогда раньше не болел.
1. “We haven't yet finished our work.” What has she just said? What
4. Мои родители всегда говорят мне не есть так быстро.
did she tell you?
5. Интересно, кем он работает?
2. “I heard the news only yesterday.” What has she just said? What did
6. Все спрашивают, как давно мы работаем вместе.
she tell you?
7. Она говорит, что оставила ключи дома.
3. “Solicitors make up the largest branch of the legal profession in
8. Сообщают, что завтра будет теплее, чем сегодня.
England and Wales.” What has she just said? What did she tell you?
9. Он просит не говорить, что он дома.
4. “Solicitors are found in every town, where they deal with all the
10. Интересно, кто изобрел велосипед?
day-to-day work of preparing legal documents.” What has she just said? What
11. Он спрашивает, какие цветы я люблю. Я отвечаю, что незабудки.
did she tell you?
12. Она спрашивает, как часто здесь идут дожди.
5. “In court a barrister wears wig and gown.” What has she just said?
13. Интересно, сколько требуется времени, чтобы написать книгу?
What did she tell you?
14. Интересно, в этом году будет жаркое лето?

139 140
6. “A jury consist of twelve people, who are ordinary people chosen at 1. “Olga's husband is a lawyer.” What did he say? What did he tell
random from the Electoral Register.” What has she just said? What did she tell you?
you? 2. “We don't remember how long detention may be in this case.” What
7. “Barristers are called in to advise on really difficult points.” What did he say? What did he tell you?
has she just said? What did she tell you? 3. “An arrested person has a statutory right to consult a solicitor.”
8. “To qualify as a barrister you have to take the examinations of the What did he say? What did he tell you?
Bar Council.” What has she just said? What did she tell you? 4. “The police are waiting outside.” What did he say? What did he tell
9. “Witness is someone who sees a crime or an accident.” What has she you?
just said? What did she tell you? 5. “He never does wrong things.” What did he say? What did he tell
10. “Magistrates are selected by special committees in every town and you?
district.” What has she just said? What did she tell you?
B. Example: “I represented professional interests of the police service
IV. The following contain sentences with present tense verbs in the in a trade union last year.” What did he say?
main clause. Change the main clause to past and adjust the dependent – He said that he had represented professional interests of the police
clause as necessary. service in a trade union the previous year.
Example: We hope that he will be able to attend. We hoped that he
would be able to attend. 1. “Police officers did not carry firearms.” What did he say? What did
1. A woman says to her solicitor that she wants to change her will he tell you?
again. 2. “Police work ranged greatly in that country.” What did he say? What
2. Mark thinks he is going to win a case. did he tell you?
3. I hear that Kate has accepted a new position at the district court. 3. “Police authorities employed over 41,500 civilians (including part-
4. The Deputy Prison Director says that his objective is not toto make time employees) in England and Wales last year.” What did he say? What did
life pleasant for prisoners, but to normalise it as much as possible. he tell you?
5. Frankie says he has heard that his pockets were full of dope and 4. “The police have been obtaining the views of people in the area
counterfeit banknotes. about the policing of it and cooperation with the community in preventing
6. I realize that they are older than they look. crime since 1984.” What did he say? What did he tell you?
7. She denies that there is a connection between two accidents. 5. “Particular efforts have been made to develop relations with young
8. He adds that he knows that settlements can occur before trial. people to prevent crime.” What did he say? What did he tell you?
9. He warns that a juror must not talk to the lawyers, parties, or wit-
nesses about anything. C. Example: “We'll release as many uniformed police officers as pos-
10. He informs that the robber is armed and dangerous. sible for operational duties.” What did he say?
– He said that they would release as many uniformed police officers
V. Read the statements and the questions; then answer the ques- as possible for operational duties. What did he tell you?
tions in reported speech. Apply the rules of sequence of tenses. Begin each – He told me that they would release as many uniformed police offi-
sentence with the words “He said that”, then with the words “He told me cers as possible for operational duties.
that”. Make all the necessary changes.
A. Example: “My train leaves at 5 sharp.” What did he say? 1. “Special constables will perform police duties in their spare time,
– He said that his train left at 5 sharp. What did he tell you? without pay.” What did he say? What did he tell you?
– He told me that his train left at 5 sharp. 2. “They will act mainly as auxiliaries to the regular force.” What did
he say? What did he tell you?

141 142
3. “People will be discussing issues of concern with the police in a He asked me...
constructive spirit very long.” What did he say? What did he tell you? 3. He said, “Is the Senate in Congress (USA) the Upper House or the
4. “Complaints from the public against the police will have been han- Lower House?”
dled by the end of this week.” What did he say? What did he tell you? He asked me ...
5. “We will have replaced police officers with civilians where posts do 4. Jane said, “The seats in the two front rows are to be occupied only by
not require police powers and training by May.” What did he say? What did he women.”
tell you? Jane said...
5. Ann said, “How do members of the legislature vote in your country?”
VI. Complete the sentences with say or tell (in correct form). Ann asked me...
1. Have you anything to …… for yourself before I pass a sentence? 6. Peter said, “Does the Speaker of the House of Commons ever make
2. I don’t want a lawyer to …… me what I cannot do; I hire him to speeches in the House, or are his duties like those of a chairman at a meeting?”
…… me how to do what I want to do. Peter asked me...
3. Don’t just stand here! ………….something! 7. Ted said, “Do the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition
4. I wonder where Sue is. She ……….she would be here at 8 o’clock. sit side by side or facing one another on opposite sides of the Clerk's table?”
The hearing is starting! Ted asked me...
5. Jack …………..me that he was fed up with his job. 8. He said, “How have Americans treated the problem of death pen-
6. I swear to …… the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth. alty?”
7. Don’t ………..anybody what I ………….. It’s a secret just between He asked me ...
us. 9. She said, “Who was the founder of the British police?”
8. “Did she ………you what happened?” “No, she didn’t She asked me ...
………..anything to me.” 10. Bob said, “What is your attitude to the problem of crime preven-
9. George couldn’t help me. He ……………me to ask Kate. tion?”
10. George couldn’t help me. He …………..to ask Kate. Bob asked me ...
11. The judge instructed the witness to ……… the whole truth about the
accident. VIII. Read the following orders or requests and the questions; then
12. You’ve …… us many interesting things about English law and answer the questions in reported speech. Follow the given example.
courts, but you didn’t …… anything about lawyers. Example 1: “Supervise any case involving death or serious injury.”
What did she tell you to do ?
VII. Complete the sentences by changing the direct speech to re- – She told me to supervise any case involving death or serious injury.
ported speech. Use the sequence of tenses. Example 2: “Don't release him on hall” What did she warn you abou ?
– She warned me not to release him on bail.
Example: Ann asked, “Are there two chambers in all legislatures? Can
you give the name of a country with only one?”
1. “Coordinate your efforts to produce good relations with the commu-
Ann asked me if there were two chambers in all legislatures and if I
nity.” What did they ask you to do?
could give, the name of a country with only one.
2. “Ensure the impartiality of the service in its dealings with the pub-
lic.” What did she advise him to do?
1. Bob said, “Which, in most countries, is more important and power-
3. “Maintain public confidence.” What did he remind us to do?
ful, the Upper House or the Lower House?”
4. “Discuss issues of concern with the police in a constructive spirit.”
Bob asked me...
What did she want us to do? What did she warn us about?
2. He said, “If, in Great Britain, the Government is defeated at a general
5. “Develop relations with young people, through greater contact with
election, who is invited to form the new Government?”
schools, for example.” What did he tell police officers to do?
143 144
6. “Don't drive too fast.” What did she warn you about? cide………………………………
7. “Don't put offence relating questions to a person after he or she has 5. What disciplinary measures are police officers subject to? Do you
been charged with that offence.” What did he tell you about? know………………………..?
8. “Don't employ his person.” What did he order him to do? 6. What are the most typical crimes committed by recidivists? You can't
9. “Don't detain a person beyond 36 hours if a warrant is obtained from imagine………………..
a magistrates' court.” What did he warn them about? 7. What is preponderance of evidence? Do you know …………
10. “Don't fail to appear in court!” What did he warn her about? …………………….?
8. When and why are jurors sent out of the courtroom during trial? An-
IX. Make the following direct questions indirect. Begin your ques- gela told me………………..
tions with the words “May I ask you ...”. 9. What is the goal of humanitarian treatment of offenders in Holland? I
Example: don't know…………………
a) Where do you work? 10. Why has the jury system been criticized? The book doesn't
May I ask you where you work ? say………………
b) Is there sufficient evidence to charge a person ?
May I ask you if there is sufficient evidence to charge a XI. Transform the following sentences from reported speech into
person? direct questions.
1. The judge told us what crime the accused would be guilty of, if the
1. Must the police decide on an appropriate method of dealing with evidence supplied by the prosecution was true.
him or her? 2. When the judge had finished his summing up, he asked the jury to
2. Who deters charging? consider their verdict.
3. Why do they take no further action? 3. The secretary when asked about the difference between a solicitor
4. Will they release the person with or without bail? and a barrister said that solicitors could appear in the lower courts of justice
5. Will the person be held in custody? and could speak for their clients.
6. Do you believe that detention is necessary for his own protection? 4. I inquired what one had to do if he needed a barrister in the High
7. Is there provision for statutory time limits on the period from arrest Court.
to the beginning of trial in England and Wales? 5. He was interested to know when a barrister could ask to be made a
8. In what situations can policemen carry arms? Queen's Counsel, or Q.C.
9. What are the duties of traffic wardens? 6. My friend wondered what he was supposed to do, if he got into trou-
10. Why was capital punishment imposed so frequently in ancient socie- ble with the law in England.
ties? 7. He wondered if someone might need a barrister in the High Court.
8. This person wanted to know if it was the solicitor who collected any
X. Complete the following sentences making indirect questions from evidence that was needed.
the questions given before each one. 9. The man asked if a solicitor could appear for his client in the higher
courts of justice.
Example: Where did he go? I know where he went. 10. The student was interested to know if solicitors had the same exami-
1. Who will be elected president? I'm not sure………………………….. nations to pass as barristers.
2. Whose footprint is it? They haven't discovered ……………… 11. He'd like to know if a barrister who was made a Queen's Counsel, or
……………. Q.C. could be called upon the prosecution.
3. What are the reasons for a person to be excused from the jury ser- 12. He asked if all barristers could make much money.
vice? He told me…………………… 13. He inquired what were other ways for a barrister if he didn't get
4. How was the murder committed? The police are still trying to de- briefs' to earn money.
145 146
XII. Rewrite these short jokes transforming direct questions into XIII. Retell the stories in reported speech. Use different verbs for
reported speech. reported speech:
1. An Irishman had just been found guilty of a serious crime and the Text 1:
judge asked him: “Can you pay anything at all towards costs which were also – Sir, do you swear this is not your signature? – said the lawyer.
awarded against him?” – Yes
“Not a penny, Your Honour,” said the accused. “Everything I own I've – Is it not your handwriting?
given to my lawyer and three of the jury.” – No
– You take your solemn oath that this writing does not resemble yours
2. Judge: “When you were committing the theft, did you not spare a
in a single particular?
thought for your wife and daughter?”
– Yes
Defendant: “I did, Your Honour. But there were only men's clothes in
– How can you be certain? – demanded the lawyer.
the shop.”
– I can’t write, – smiled the man.
3. First Businessman: “Did your ad get any results?”
Second Businessman: “I'll say! We advertised for a night watchman and Text 2:
the next night we were robbed.” A husband said to his friend: “My wife doesn’t allow me to sleep. She is
afraid of thieves, she wakes me up if she hears the slightest noise, and makes
4. A certain lawyer was asked what he thought about justice in his me get up to see if there are burglars in the house”.
country. “If somebody were to claim my best coat as his own and threaten me “You can easily get over that difficulty. Just explain to your wife that
with a lawsuit, in case I refused to give it up, he would certainly get it, for I
thieves don’t make any noise; they work quietly and don’t disturb anybody”.
should never go to law to defend my coat lest I should lose my last shirt.” “I’ve already done that, old man, but it only made matters worse. Now
5. Judge: “You stole eggs from this man's store. Have you any excuse?” she gets me up several times every night because she hears nothing”.
Accused: “Yes, I took them by mistake.” Text 3:
Judge: “How is that?” “Have you anything to say before I pass the sentence?” the judge said to
Accused: “I thought they were fresh.” the pickpocket. “What good have you ever done for mankind?”
“Well, Your Honour”, said the prisoner, “I’ve kept four or five detec-
6. Judge: “Aren't you ashamed to be seen here in court so often?” tives working regularly and I’ve helped several reporters, prison guards, and
Prisoner: “Why so, your Honour, I always thought it was a very respect- you to keep their jobs”.
able place.”
7. Judge (in traffic court): “I'll let you off with a fine this time, but an-
other day I'll send you to jail.” Driver: “Sort of a weather-forecast, eh, Judge?”
“What do you mean?” “Fine today – Cooler tomorrow.”
8. “What's the worst punishment for bigamy?”
“Two mothers-in-law.”
9. The presiding judge leans towards one of the other judges and says to
him in his ear, “This case must be held behind closed door.”
“Because from that door there's a cursed draught.”

147 148
Part II 2. Perfect Inf. – preceeding action.
I’m glad to have seen you.
The non-finite forms of the verb 3. Continuous Inf. – the action in process.
He might be meeting her at the station now.
The Infinitive 4. Passive Inf. – the action which is fulfilled not by the subject of the
The infinitive – has active and passive forms (voice) and tens forms: sentence.
Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect and Perfect Continuous. He wanted to be served at once.
Active Passive Inf. as an attribute in a sentence may denote a future action.
Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect Continuous This is the novel to be discussed.
to write to be writing to have written to have been writing The teacher gave the students a few questions to be answered.
to study to be studying to have studied to have been studying 5. Perfect Continuous Inf. expresses a process preceeding the action of
Passive the predicate.
to be written _____ to have been written _____ He is known to have been working at the problem for five years.
to be studied to have been studied
The functions of the Infinitive in a sentence
Tense and Voice forms may be used with the particle to: 1. The subject of a sentence is followed by the predicate.
I’d like to walk. To learn English is very important nowadays.
He wants to help you. To go on like this was dangerous.
I’m not going to stay here. To make a long story short is your task.
You ought to do it.
Or they may be bare infinitives after several verbs such as: can, could, 2. The predicative after several verbs such as: to be, to have, modal
may, might, must, let, make (заставлять), shall, should, will, would, see, notice, verbs, to decide, to promice, to want, to like, to begin, to start, to
watch, observe, hear, feel; know=see, have=make; in some cases after need, finish and others, being used both with and without the particle
dare, help; after expressions: had better, would rather, would sooner, cannot to. (Details will be given below).
but, nothing but, cannot choose but. She had to go to the library for this book.
He can skate. They may be travelling now.
You must do it. The justice in Great Britain should be done, morover.
I heard her sing. The justice should be seen to be done.
We watched them dance. 3. An object of a sentence after such verbs as: to agree, to advise, to
She made me wash up. afford, to attempt, to aim, to arrange, to ask, to deserve, to fail, to
You’d better go to bed now. forget, to learn, to manage, to threaten, would like.
I would rather not speak about it. We decided to meet at the station.
I would sooner do it. Tom asked us to be in time.
I can’t but say it to you. Don’t forget to leave a message.
But After the verbs hear, see, make in Passive Voice the Infinitive have to-forms.
He was heard to sing. 4. An attribute of a sentence.
I was made to wash up. The Infinitive in this function stands after the word it attributes. It may
be Active or Passive.
Various forms of the Infinitive have different meaning in a sentence. These are letters to be posted.
1. Simple Inf. – simultaneous action with the predicate. There are different ways to learn foreign languages.
I’m glad to meet you. I have no one to speak to.
149 150
Bill was the first to win the race. The structure is: subject + V + Inf.
The first thing for him to do was to obtain the informa-
tion (complex attribute) She is said to work hard at her dissertation.
The strike is expected to end soon.
5. Adverbial modifier. You are not supposed to park here.
The Infinitive usually stands at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. The steamer “Queen Marry” is considered to be the great-
To master your English you should mix with a native est in the world.
speaker for a while. The ship can be expected to arrive in a week.
He is clever enough to understand the problem. There happened to be many people there at that time.
We took a taxi so as not to miss the train. The problem proved to be very difficult.
The coffee is too hot to drink. He seems not to know the decision.
Infinitive Constructions Be careful with the translation of this structure. It can be the same as:
1. Complex object. It is said that she works hard at her dissertation.
The structure is: object + Infinitive It is expected that the strike will end soon.
after the verbs: It happened that there were many people there at that time.
It is supposed that it is a very good film.
want, ask, expect, help, beg, mean,
The film is supposed to be very good.
would like, would prefer, would love, would have
The teacher wanted his students to know English well But. Very often the structure something is supposed to + Inf. has a dif-
We expected him to be in time. ferent meaning:
Everybody considers him to be right. it means, it is expected, it is arranged, it is planned
He is supposed to be meeting her now.
There are several verbs which are followed by the bare Infinitive (with-
The train is supposed to arrive at 5.30.
out to) especially in complex object (verbs of feeling):
You are not supposed to park your car here.
feel, hear, see, notice, watch, observe, make (заставлять), let
I haven’t ever seen you dance. 3. Construction For-phrase + Infinitive
We made the children go to bed. The structure is: For + noun (or pronoun) + Infinitive
Let me do it myself. It is very important for him to know English.
We heard him lock the door. This is for you to decide.
They noticed her enter. The coffee is too hot for me to drink.
She made her son wash up. The last thing for him to do was to be late for the wedding.
I wouldn’t let him leave.

2. Complex subject structure is used after some verbs: What to choose?

in Passive: to say, to state, to report, to announce, to believe, to suppose, to 1. The structure: verb + (to) infinitive. After the verbs:
think, to expect, to know, to understand, to consider, to see, to hear. agree, advise, afford, attempt, aim, ask, arrange, decide, describe, forget,
In Active: to seem, to appear, to prove, to happen, to chance, to be likely, to have, hope, learn, manage, promice, threaten, seem, would like and others.
be unlikely
151 152
They agreed to invite their friends to the party. The first with the Infinitive:
When did Marry learn to drive? I don’t recommend anybody to stay in that hotel.
She had to inform him about his bad results. They do not allow us to smoke in the house.
You seem to have won the first prise. We aren’t allowed to smoke in the house.
She pretended not to know Nick. The meaning of this structure is general.
Don’t forget to post the letter. The second structure is with ing-form.
I wouldn’t recommend staying in that hotel.
2. After some verbs you can use a question word: They don’t allow smoking in the house.
what, which, whether, how We don’t allow smoking in the house.
The meaning is general.
The structure is: verb + qu. word + to Infinitive.
Could you show me how to change the film.
We asked how to get to the bank. I. Name the forms of the infinitives and translate:
I can’t decide what to do. To find, to be searching, to be crossexamined, to have been acquitted,
I don’t know whether she has come back. to suspect, to be investigated, to break the law, to be searched, to sum up, to be
interrogated, to consider the verdict, to get married, to make a conclusion, to be
3. There are two structures, where the Infinitive is an object: late, to be pleading.
1) verb + to Infinitive (simple object); II. Define the functions of the Infinitives paying attention to the
2) verb + object + to Infinitive (complex object). place of them and translate:
1 2 1. The teacher asked us to translate the text orally.
We expected to be late. We expected Bill to be late. 2. The author began to translate his novel into French two years ago.
Would you like to invite Marry Would you like me to invite Marry to 3. This crime must be investigated as soon as possible.
to the party? the party? 4. The judge asked the witness to keep to the point.
Do you want to come to the Do you want me to come to the discus- 5. She was glad to hear their confession.
discussion? sion? (Not! Do you want that I come?) 6. The lawyer wanted to be informed about new evidence.
Can you do it? Can you help me (to) do it? 7. The problem was too complicated to be settled immediately.
Possible with or without to. 8. You should be extremely attentive to this dangerous person.
9. Smith was the last to be arrested.
4. There are some verbs in the structure: verb + object + to Infinitive. 10. The lawyer advised his client to prepare all the documents.
11. They had no intention to commit a crime.
tell, remind, force, enable, teach, order, wash, invite, persuade, 12. To interrogate the accused is a difficult task.
get=persuade, arrange for 13. To interrogate the accused the investigator looked through all in-
Who taught you to ride? formation about the crime.
Will you remind him to buy some bread? 14. To make a long story short means to keep to the point and to be
Peter warned me not to open this device. brief.
I was warned not to open the device (passive). 15. She tried to make long story short.
16. To make a long story short she tried to find the proper words.
5. There is some difference between these structures after the verbs: 17. Confession is the best way for you.
advise, recommend, encourage, allow, permit, forbid 18. I’ll show you the painting to be hanged in the bed-room.

153 154
19. There is no need for him to appear in the court-room. 12. We would prefer ___________ to the theatre (to go) rather than
20. There is no reason for him to change anything in his life. __________ the film (to see).

III. Classify the Infinitive Constructions and translate the sen- V. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets with Complex
tenses: Subject:
1. They wanted him to be acquitted. 1. Your mother is worried about your being late (appear).
2. He seems to come soon. 2. Mr. Smith is absent minded (seem).
3. He is said to have come to the city. 3. They have considerred the verdict (say).
4. We heard Brown to be awarded with the first prise. 4. She became a film star (know).
5. The witness happened to know about the crime. 5. You should read all the evidence (to suppose).
6. She was prooved to be quilty. 6. His sons have already served in the Army (to be likely).
7. They consider themselves to be right.
8. The judge was known to be the best in the city. VI. Insert the words: what, how, where, whether and complete the
9. I have you to say such things. sentences using one of the verbs: do, park, drive, find, behave.
10. He is likely to know the robbers’ plan. 1. Can you show me __________ __________ the way to the postoffice?
11. They may happen to be found guilty. 2. We haven’t decided __________ ___________ yet.
12. Tom seems to have been discouraged by his failour. 3. Will you teach me __________ ___________ the car?
13. It is too late for me to refuse. 4. Don’t you know __________ __________ in this situation?
14. That is for you to decide to be or not to be an actress. 5. Who can tell me ___________ __________ the car?
15. It’s high time for you to pull yourself together.
VII. Analyse the Infinitive. Translate (for practice and control).
IV. Insert the Infinitive in the proper form: 1. Currently, the number of people out of work for 12 months or more
1. I’ll go to the hospital tomorrow __________ by the doctor (to exam- stands at 750,000 and will almost certainly hit the million mark later this year,
ine). where it is very likely to stay for several years, said commission chairman Sir
2. I would rather _________ to the Crimea (to go). Richard O’Brien.
3. The judge made the witness _________ the truth, the whole truth and 2. Generally, a witness cannot testify to hearsay, that is, what someone
nothing but the truth (to tell). else has told him outside of the presence of the parties to the action.
4. I was known __________ all the evidence by the beginning of the 3. Occasionally during the trial the lawyers will ask permission to ap-
trial (to examine). proach the bench and speak to the judge or the judge may call them to the
5. We heard him ___________ at the conference (to speak). bench.
6. Everybody knew she could __________ since morning till night (to 4. Like every other human undertaking, the effort to meet the often
dance). complex demands of the internal morality of law may suffer various kinds of
7. Don’t help him. He is very lazy. Let him _________ it himself (to shipwreck.
do). 5. The more the party went halfway to meet social expectations and
8. This crime should __________ long ago (to investigate). overcome errors the more ruthlessly it was attacked.
9. I want __________ about the trial. I would like to know everything 6. The magistrates can decide to try the charge themselves at any time
(to inform). during the hearing, but usually the decision is made at the outset at the sugges-
10. I want you __________ me about the trial (to inform). tion of the prosecution.
11. I want you _________ me about it before the trial finished (to in- 7. Under the law the court is required to ask a few preliminary questions
form). of the prospective jurors, touching their qualifications to act as jurors.

155 156
8. Despite differences of opinion on certain of these issues they had 24. Magistrate courts have been established to handle the large number
been able to draw up with the Peace Council a comprehensive set of policies to of cases which arise in urban communities.
end the threat of mutual nuclear annihilation. 25. At the same time it must be recognized that special steps should be
9. Irrespective of what concept is adopted for the restructuring of the trade taken to present types of crimes that terrorize the public, or disturb their sense
union movement, it must absolutely respect the system’s Socialist principles. of safety and security, such as housebreaking and robbery.
10. A crime is not committed by anyone who, because of a mental dis- 26. The doctrine of contract has been so thoroughly remodeled to meet
ease is unable to understand what he is doing and to control his conduct at the the needs of modern times, that there is less necessity here than elsewhere for
time he commits a harm forbidden by criminal law. historical research.
11. Shop stewards were reported to have held meetings at several major 27. Businessman Alan Eva, who paid to have his own factory burnt
work places with a view to organizing the strike. down, then got more than £1m1n from an insurance company, was jailed for 4
12. Because of the complexities of the system and the difficulties in po- years at the Old Bailey.
litical attitudes towards the land law, it is not possible to deal only with clear- 28. A number of statutes has been passed to prevent physical cruelty
cut major principles of reform. and neglect and to provide for children’s moral and mental welfare as well.
13. The cross-examining attorney may ask leading questions for the 29. The elements of the objective aspect of a crime are taken into con-
purpose of inducing the witness to testify about matters which he may other- sideration to determine how dangerous an act is to society.
wise have chosen to ignore. 30. Laws must be clearly written to define the responsibility and immu-
14. It may be necessary to refer to more than one code in order to ascer- nities of the police officer who represents society.
tain the state of the law. 31. The US intention is clear. It will talk about banning chemical weap-
15. Hobbes was convinced that the sovereign, in order to perform its ons, but only to buy time and to divert attention away from its steadily growing
functions adequately, should be omnipotent and not subject to legal restraints. stockpile threatening the world.
16. It is important to define law in order to establish proper methods of 32. Considerable social ingenuity will be required to remedy this struc-
studying law. tural defect in American society.
17. For well over a century it has been suggested, time and again, that in 33. This resulted in 1959 in the appointment by the President of the
order to keep the general law under constant review and bring it up to date Board of Trade of a committee to review the whole field of the existing law of
whenever necessary, this country needs a Minister of Justice. trade marks.
18. A constable also has certain privileges in order to enable him to 34. It is obvious for instance, that in order to draw up a will, or to en-
carry out his duties more efficiently, e.g. a certain amount of protection against force claims arising out of an agreement one has to know the law.
actions for damages, and exemption from jury service. 35. In order to perform its function the court needs willingness on the
19. The union should also be informed about the economic issues of the part of potential litigants to use the court as a conflict-resolving mechanism.
enterprise so as to have realistic ground for its fight in defence of the workers 36. In order to justify a homicide, as being in self-defense, the person
social interests. who is attacked must actually believe that he is in imminent danger of losing
20. Webster’s definition of violence is clear: the exertion of physical his life or of receiving serious personal injury.
force so as to injure or abuse. 37. In order to raise more money to avoid a government deficit, work-
21. In the spring of 1970, the Columbia Broadcasting Company took a ers’weekly national insurance contributions are likely to be upped by perhaps
poll of 1136 Americans to see how many of them supported the Bill of Rights. as much as £1.
22. The Courts of Appeals were organized to relieve the Supreme Court 38. In order to have the required “background” for their policy, the rul-
of pressure resulting from the accumulation of appellate cases. ing circles of the NATO countries have been putting over a period of years in
23. Statute law can be used to abolish common law rules which have increasing their military appropriations, which, as they themselves acknowl-
outlived their usefulness, or to amend the common law to cope with the chang- edge this, are very much higher than the defence expenditures of the socialist
ing circumstances and values of society. countries.

157 158
39. In order that a man and woman may become husband and wife, two 55. It may be too early for the total amount of compensation to be fi-
conditions must be satisfied: first, they must both possess the capacity to con- nally assessed and this issue might be postponed to a later date.
tract a marriage, and secondly, they must observe the necessary formalities. 56. The go-ahead has already been given for a chemical weapon plant to
40. To be declared criminally responsible a person must have reached a be built in the States.
certain age. 57. None of the courts went into the question whether there was suffi-
41. To understand this, it is necessary to consider what was happening cient material before the circuit judge for him to be satisfied as required by the
throughout Europe in the same period. section.
42. To make punishment effective the law of course fits the penalty to 58. For a policy of peaceful coexistence to succeed mass struggle is
the offence. necessary.
43. This conflict may be too general to be dealt with, instance by in- 59. For a marriage to be valid there must be consent by each party to
stance, although it is quite likely that this is the best we can do for the time take the other in marriage.
being. 60. For natural law to be recognized as such, it must have more than di-
44. The programs mentioned in this report have been in operation too vine origin.
short a time to provide a firm basis for evaluating their impact.
45. Most crimes for which arrests are made are actually committed in The Gerund
the presence of witnesses or a policeman, and the testimony of either is usually
sufficient to insure conviction without any confession. The gerund is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb.
46. The comparative method is sufficiently elastic to embrace all activi- The gerund denotes the name of an action. It has nominal and verbal proper-
ties which may be concerned with the study of foreign law. ties. The nominal characteristics are:
47. The foregoing discussion of the nature and functions of law is in- 1. It can be a subject, an object and a predicative.
tended only as the barest introduction of a subject far too big and important to 2. It can be preceded by a preposition.
be exhausted in a few pages. 3. It can be preceded by a possessive pronoun, or a noun in the posses-
48. We have enough experience to know that, however much care is sive case.
taken, some accidents are inevitable. The verbal characteristics are:
49. There are enough nuclear missiles in the world to turn it into a ra- 1. It can have a direct object.
dio-active desert. 2. It can be modified by an adverb.
50. Enough has been said to illustrate the difficulties encountered in any 3. The Gerund can have forms of tense and voice.
attempt to frame a satisfactory definition of comparative law.
51. Massive upsurges of peace action in Western Europe have become The gerund forms:
powerful enough to shake governments, modify international policy and com- Active Passive
pell heads of states in the western world to separate themselves from the dan- Simple writing being written
gerous foreign policies of the Reagan administration. Perfect having written having been written
52. The investigator should record just enough of the information to en- 1. Active forms of the gerund mean the actions done by the subject of
able him to complete his records at the conclusion of the interview. the sentence.
53. When a given social arrangement has been accepted, and when peo- They had no problem in transleting poems.
ple have conformed to it long enough to have made it customary or traditional, 2. Passive forms of the gerund mean the actions done not by the subject,
then it is regarded as normal and just to adhere to this arrangement and unjust but they are only directed to the subject of the sentence.
to deviate from it. He liked neither reading, not being read allowed.
54. It is not yet too late for the government to change its position and 3. Perfect forms of the gerund mean the actions done before the actions
stop the Pentagon testing of Cruise missiles on Canadian soil. of the predicate.
She denied having spoken about you.
159 160
Functions of the gerund: The gerundial constructions
The gerund can be as Gerundial constructions consist of gerund with preceding possessive
pronoun, or a noun in possessive case (as a complex subject, as a predicative)
1. a subject
and with a preceding preposition (as a complex object).
Swearing the oath is obligatory for every witness.
His being included in the delegation was unknown. (subject)
I don’t like your leaving so early. (object)
2. a predicative (after such verbs as to be, to begin, to stop, to continue,
They told us about their taking part in the conference. (object)
to keep, need, to enjoy, to avoid, line, dislike, hate, intend, prefer, can’t help, to
All of us knew about his being accused of shop-lifting. (object)
be worth, be used to, get used to, feel like, and others)
The Cayer was quite against interrogating that vitness. (object)
He kept on interrogating the suspect.
The accused was quite against being found guilty.
He denies stealing the money.
The Infinitive or the Gerund
3. an object Sometimes the both forms are possible. The gerund is used after the
a) direct verbs: stop, finish, delay, postpone, fancy, imagine, consider, avoid, admit,
I enjoyed dancing. deny, miss, risk, involve, practice, give up, put off, carry on, keep, keep on,
b) indirect prepositional object. enjoy, mind, remember, regret and others.
After certain word combinations such as: to accuse of, to approve of, to But the infinitive is also used after the verbs: stop, finish, remember,
hear of, to be found of, to be proud of, to go in for, to succeed in, to be sur- and regret.
prised of, to be interested in, to be engaged in, to insist on, to object to, to be We should remember, that if we speak about past actions it is safer to
disappointed at, to prevent from, to persist in, to spend in, to suspect of, to use the gerund, if we speak about future actions, we use the infinitive.
think of, to be afraid of, to be capable of, to insist of, to object to, to get used 1 He stopped smoking (gave up).
to, to look forward to, to count on, to be punished for, to be used for. 2 He stopped to smoke (the function of adverbial modifier of
And in the expressions: purpose).
There is no harm in … to regret
There is no sense in … I now regret saying what I said.
He was accused of stealing money. I regret to say sad news to you.
The boy was punished for breaking the window. to remember
He instisted on being informed about the case. I remember seeing him the other day but I don’t remember
Would you mind Richard’s being invited? where.
c) an attribute (with positions of, for) I remember to pay for the telephone.
He was born with the gift of winning hearts. To like, would like
Interrogation is an instrument for investigating. I like shopping (the occupation).
I don’t like the idea of their getting married. I would like to shop today.
d) adverbial modifier (of time, manner, attendant circumstances). I don’t like washing up, but
Preceded by the prepositions: after, before, on (upon), in, at, with, I like to wash up just after the meal (prefer).
without. The gerund is used after the verbs and expressions such as: to enjoy, to
After arriving in London he went to the British museum. mind, can’t help, would recommend + (general action), intend + (occupation),
Translate the text without using a dictionary. be used to + (ing), get used to + (ing).
Upon walking I found myself much recovered. I used to get up early in my childhood and to go to bed early
In spite of being busy he came to the party. too, but now I got used to getting up and going to bed late.

161 162
to be afraid of + gerund, when we are afraid of something bad happens 3. Tom enjoyed ___________ (to read) detective stories written by the
(bad results). famous writer.
to be afraid + infinitive, when we don’t want to do something not safe. 4. All Russia referendum is an instrument ___________ (to discuss)
I’m afraid to go to the dog because I’m afraid of being bitten. important problems of our home policy.
to be sorry to do smth (refers to future). 5. He managed to find the killer ___________ (not to use) the urgent
to be sorry for doing smth (refers to the past). measures.
I’m sorry to give you unpleasant news.
I’m sorry for my being late. IV. Classify the Gerund Constructions and translate the sentences:
1. Nobody knew about his being sent into the Space after his having
TASKS passed the qualification exam without special training for such a mission.
2. Her getting married to a well-known mafia christian father made her
I. Define the forms of the Gerund:
life awful.
interrogating, being accused, searching, having found, having been in-
3. The parents asked the police not to inform public about their chil-
vestigated, being arrested, breaking the law, creating, being sworn, having im-
dren’s being kidnapped.
4. Because of being worried about their children’s life the parents didn’t
want anybody to know about their children’s kidnapping.
II. Define the functions of the Gerund:
5. Instead of writing out new words by himself he asked his sister to do it.
1. He stopped smoking after being warned about the danger for his
6. They have no experience in translating special documents into Eng-
lish for the judge to understand.
2. Searching the house is impossible without getting a special warrant.
3. He is quite against her being arrested.
V. Analyse The Gerund. Translate for practice and control.
4. I don’t mind your taking part in the discussion of the evidence.
1. It may not be out of place to end these lectures by suggesting that the
5. You are not allowed to serve as a juror without swearing an oath.
exploration and uses of outer space call international law back to its prime
6. They were proud of having solved this difficult problem.
source in the law of nature.
7. Not knowing the laws is not the reason for excuse from.
2. If we are to examine what we have by way of a constitution we must
8. He enjoyed studying English by reading detective stories in original.
start by considering what, exactly, a constitution is.
9. The accused tried to avoid answering questions.
3. Law in its pure form, by setting barriers to the unlimited exercise of
10. I don’t mind being kept waiting.
power, must be viewed as a restrictive force in social life.
11. He had to admit stealing the diamond.
4. Under the federal rule, for example, a defendant with means may
12. Old Shark scraped up a gang and suggested robbing a bank.
automatically obtain all necessary subpoenas by simple paying a fee and desig-
13. Have you ever considered being a juror.
nating the desired witness.
14. The jury found Mr. Brown guilty of taking money from the com-
5. This country has now reached the stage where it can’t cope with
pany he worked for and keeping it for himself.
youngsters except by treating them as though they are hardened villains and
15. The rain prevented us from completing the work.
locking them up, wasting good money which could be used to improve the
environments they come from.
III. Insert the gerund in the proper form, use prepositions where
6. The positivist theory, by focusing on the political element in law
tends to exclude from consideration important areas and aspects of law such as
1. _____________ (to deliver) the lecture the professor invited the stu-
international law, ecclesiastical law, and the law of primitive societies.
dents to take part in ____________ (to discuss) the problem.
7. Both the conduct and the mental element differ from crime to crime
2. His __________ (to send) to the congress was supported by his scien-
and can be ascertained only by studying the definition of the particular crime.
tific superviser.

163 164
8. By dismissing all the opinions about which there could be the sigh II. Put the verb in the correct form.
test doubt, Descartes hopes to arrive at self-evident truths. 1. How old were you when you learnt (drive)?
9. Before turning to consider earlier evidence and authorities it is useful 2. He had made his decision and refused……………..his mind
to confront one further assertion in Kelsen’s statement. (change).
10. Before considering how technical issues can be best presented in 3. It was a really good holiday. I really enjoyed…………..by the sea
public policy forums, it may be worth examining some of the limitations on the again (be).
role that technical analysis can play in decision-making. 4. I can’t make a decision. I keep………………my mind (change).
11. Immediately after being sentenced to a month in jail, he was allowed 5. “Remember……………..Tom tomorrow.” “OK. I won’t forget”
bail to appeal on his own surety of £100. (phone).
12 We have already noted that the phenomenon of the solemn execution 6. I don’t want……………this book. It’s so boring (read).
of animals for having caused the death of a person appears not to be attested in 7. I have a friend who claims…………….able to speak four lan-
the records of the early English law. guages (be).
13. It is difficult to describe in a few general words the part played by 8. I pretended……………..interested in the conversation but really it
provincial police authorities in administering the police and to say what exactly was very boring (be).
are their functions and powers. 9. The water here is not very good. I’d avoid…………..it if I were
14. Shop stewards were reported to have held meetings at several major you (drink).
work places with a view to organizing the strike. 10. Did I really tell you I was unhappy? I don’t remem-
15. Finally, we must notice that a country may have sovereignty without ber……………that (say).
being independent. Take, for example, countries in the British Commonwealth 11. Why did you change your decision and refused……………his
in the periods before their formal independence. Possessing a legislature and a mind (change).
Cabinet of Ministers responsible to it, they can be described as self-governing 12. I don’t mind……………..home but I’d rather…………..a taxi
and as having in effect internal sovereignty. However, they do not have inde- (walk, get).
pendence, they are not states in the international sense. 13. I managed to get a visa, but I had difficulty…………..a visa (get).
16. Our duty has been to look for means of confining the scope of pun- 14. Do you feel like…………..out this evening (go)?
ishment as narrowly as possible without impairing the efficacy attributed to it.
17. This problem needs to be resolved urgently it is a question that has III. Compose sentences with the Infinitive Constructions using the
been raised over many years without the educational authorities making any given words.
sign of giving way. 1. He (see) her (dance) in the hall.
2. Tom (say) (be) the best student.
TEST YOURSELF 3. The conference (expect) (be held) in a week.
4. She (be likely) (graduate) from the University this year.
I. Insert to where necessary before the Infinitive 5. They (seem) already (pass) all the exams.
1. He can (predict) the future. 6. The only thing for him (do) is (make) he waiting for him.
2. The teacher made them (learn) the text by heart.
3. The investigator wanted (see) the crime-scene. IV. Choose the right word (Infinitive or Gerund).
4. You ought (help) your old parents. 1. Put that cigarette out! You are not allowed……………..in here.
5. He is expected (arrive) in time. (smoke)
6. Don’t let your child (go out) in such bad weather. 2. It’s hot in here. Would you mind………………the window? (open)
7. I saw the plane (crash) in the sky. 3. He found the work difficult, but he managed…………….the exami-
nation. (pass)

165 166
4. I never read Shakespeare now, because they made me…………….it 31. I gave up…………..five years ago. (smoke)
at school (study) 32. I’m bored with………….the same clothes every day. (wear)
5. She always travels by train or boat because she’s afraid of …… 33. The book was very difficult………………(understand)
………(fly) 34. Neither of them could find a job, so they both decided……
6. “Let’s go out tonight.” “All right. Where do you ……..(emigrate)
want………………?” (go) 35. She’s very confident. She expects……………the election. (win)
7. You’re overweight. You ought……………more exercise. (take) 36. I’m not here…………..my time. (waste)
8. This is a very beautiful village, but there’s nowhere…………..in the 37. They won’t let you…………the United States without a visa. (en-
evening. (go) ter)
9. When I first visited Britain, I couldn’t get used to……………..on 38. He joined the navy…………….the world. (see)
the left. (drive) 39. I wonder if you’d be kind enough…………….me? (help)
10. There’s a lot of traffic. We’d better not……………the road here. 40. Charlie Chaplin film always make me……………(laugh)
11. I don’t know why she resigned. She seemed…………….very happy
here. (be)
12. I’m tired of………………television every evening. (watch)
13. Her doctor advised her……………….a specialist. (see)
14. I’ll help you, I’m sure you aren’t string enough…………..it on your
own. (lift)
15. He spends all his time…………..comics. (read)
16. My parents were very strict. They wouldn’t let me……………out
late in the evenings. (stay)
17. A kettle is used for…………..water. (boil)
18. He’s working too hard. He’s too tired…………anything when he
gets home. (do)
19. The robbers forced the manager……………the safe. (open)
20. I hope……………..my brother in Australia next year. (visit)
21. He’s not interested in…………..money, his father’s a millionaire.
22. Don’t give up yet, we must keep…………..(try)
23. I’d rather…………….happy than rich. (be)
24. He needed bodyguards because several people had threat-
ened…………..him. (kill)
25. I was very happy…………….your news. (hear)
26. Take your time. I don’t mind……………..(wait)
27. I’d rather not…………..about that. (talk)
28. We’re going to Oxford tomorrow. Would you like………….with
us? (come)
29. He won’t be long. He’s just got two more phone calls……
30. She didn’t want to go to work, so she pretended…………..ill. (be)
167 168
The Participle Functions of Participle II
Function Indicators Patterns Notes
Forms of Participle I and Participle II
Predicative After the link My question to him
Form Active Passive verbs: to be, to remained unan-
Participle I seem, to look, to swered.
Simple showing being shown get, to remain, to We were very sur-
Perfect having shown having been shown grow, etc. prised when we
Participle II heard the news.
shown Attribute The engineers in- Participle II cor-
vited to our labora- responds to the
Functions of Participle I tory work very well. Russian страда-
The machines con- тельное или
Functions Patterns Notes
structed at this plant действительное
Predicative This film is thrilling. Participle I is usually ren-
produced many nuts. причастие of
I advise you to see it. dered into Russian by an
adjective. some verbs end-
Part of the predicate The girl was smiling. Participle I is usually ren- ing in-‘ся’, or by
She is waiting for a bus. dered into Russian by a a clause, or при-
verb. частным оборо-
Attribute The smiling faces of the In this function it corre- том.
children failed to cheer sponds to the Russian дей- Part of a com- a) after the verbs I saw him knocked In the sentence
him up. They heard the ствительное причастие. In plex object denoting sense off his feet. this construction
trembling voice of the girl. some cases it is rendered in perception: to I heard him talked has the function
Russian by a clause (при- see, to hear, to about. of a complex
частным оборотом). feel, to find, etc. I want it done by object. It usually
Part of a complex ob- I could see the boat ap- This construction with b) after the verbs tomorrow. corresponds to a
ject proaching the shore. Participle I corresponds to a denoting wish: to He had his boots subordinate ob-
subordinate object clause in desire, to want, mended. ject clause in
Russian. to wish, etc. I shall get this letter Russian.
Adverbial modifiers of: He was standing at the In this function Participle I с) after the typed.
attendant bridge admiring the beau- simple corresponds to the verbs: to have, to You must make your
circumstances tiful view. Russian деепричастие get, to make. news known.
(manner) несовершенного вида. Adverbial Usually after When asked, he In this function
cause Not knowing English very Participle I Perfect Corre- modifiers of: conjunction answered that he Participle II is
(reason) well, he should study sponds to the Russian дее- time when could not come. generally ren-
regularly причастие совершенного condition After if, when If asked, answer that dered in Russian
time While crossing the street вида. you are busy. by an adverbial
she fell and broke her leg. In some cases Participle I is When considered clause or прича-
Having done our home rendered by an adverbial from this point of стным оборо-
work we decided to go for clause or деепричастным view, this matter том.
a walk. оборотом. seems rather serious.
parenthesis Frankly speaking, I con- compari- After as if, as He stood as though
sider the plan to be unreal. son though struck by my words.
Judging by what critics concession After though Though impressed
say, the new play is worth by the news, he
seeing. didn’t show it.

169 170
Participle I indefinite passive is not often used as an attribute, but when it The Objective Participle Construction
is used in this way, it should not be confused with Participle II. Though both
The verbs of sense perception (feel, hear, notice, observe, perceive, see,
participles express a passive action, there is still a certain difference in meaning:
watch, listen) and the verbs to have, to get are often followed by the objective
Participle II expresses merely a state, while Participle I indefinite passive ex-
participial construction, i. e. by a noun (in the common case) or a pronoun (in
presses rather a progressive passive action represented as a state. A participial
the objective case) and a participle, standing in predicate relation to each other.
phrase with Participle II as its head word is usually rendered in Russian with the
When translated into Russian, both parts of the construction correspond to the
help of Participle phrase, (причастным оборотом) while a participial phrase
subject and predicate of a subordinate object clause.
with Participle I indefinite corresponds to a Russian attributive clause with the
I heard him practising his violin.
verb in the form of the imperfect aspect (несовершенного вида).
The difference between the objective-with-the-infinitive construction
1. Letters written by my sister are difficult to read. Письма, напи-
also used after these verbs and the objective-participial one is that the construc-
санные моей сестрой, трудно читать.
tion with participles describes the action as being in progress while the infini-
2. The letters being written by the engineer will be signed by the di-
tive is used to denote a complete act.
rector. Письма, которые сейчас пишет этот инженер, будут
After the verbs to imagine, to smell, to look (at), to keep, to catch, to set,
подписаны директором.
to start, to leave, to send ones the objective participial construction is used.
Participle I, both indefinite and perfect and participle II can be used as
1. I can smell dinner cooking.
adverbial modifiers:
2. Please, help me to start these mechanisms working.
- of time:
When the subject of the participle is represented by a lifeless thing, the
1. Seeing him on the other side of the street, I called him. Видя его
second part of the construction is expressed by Participle II.
на другой стороне улицы, я позвал его.
I heard these words mentioned several times.
2. Having sent the invitation, I felt a sense of relief. Послав при-
After the verbs to make, to get, to like, to want the construction is used
глашение, я почувствовал облегчение.
only with Participle II.
- of reason (cause):
1. He soon made his presence felt. Вскоре все почувствовали его
Being an orphan at six, he was brought up by a distant relative. Так как
он остался сиротой в 6 лет, его воспитывал дальний родственник.
2. She wanted her pie heated. Она хотела, чтобы ей подогрели
- of condition:
If sent immediately, the telegram will be delivered by eight
The objective participial construction with Participle II when used after
o’clock. Если телеграмму отправить сразу, ее доставят к 8 часам.
the verb to have, has a special meaning, i. e. it expresses the idea of something
- of comparison:
done for the benefit of the person, expressed by the subject of the sentence.
She paced up and down the room restlessly as if trying to make some
I had my car repaired, i. e. somebody repaired my car for me.
decision. Она непрерывно мерила комнату шагами, как будто старалась
In this case the subject of the participle is always represented by a noun
решить что-то.
expressing a lifeless thing.
As may be judged from some of these examples, participles in the ad-
verbial function may be preceded by conjunctions. Here is the full list of such
The Subjective Participial Construction
conjunctions: when, while, if, as, it, as though, though.
Participle I indefinite active and Participle II may also function as pre- This construction is formed only with Participle I of the active voice.
dicatives after link-verbs. This construction is used when the predicate of the sentence is expressed by
This story is really very exciting. one of the verb of sense perception in the passive voice.
While we were speaking, she grew more and more excited. They were seen speaking to the teacher.
If the participle is used as an attribute, it should be placed immediately Видели, как они разговаривали с учителем.
after the word it modifies. In the adverbial function the participle should have The pilot could be heard singing.
logically the same subject as the predicate of the whole sentence. Можно было слышать, как пилот поет.
171 172
The Absolute Participial Construction II. Translate into English.
The participle which is used as an adverbial adjunct (приложение) to Обвиняющий, защищающий, допрашивающий, производящий
any verb may be preceded by a noun (in the common case) or a pronoun (in the обыск, арестовывающий, производящий перекрестный допрос, грабящий,
nominative case), functioning as its subject. The whole construction is used as похищающий людей, совершающий преступление, судящий, подводящий
one-sentence component: an adverbial modifier of time, reason, condition, итоги, выносящий приговор, оправдывающий, уходящий в отставку, по-
manner or after dant circumstances and is called the absolute participial con- дающий апелляцию, объясняющий, влияющий, вызывающий свидетеля,
struction. It is separated by a comma from the main part of the sentence. This убеждающий, выносящий вердикт, выявляющий, платящий штраф, заяв-
construction is rendered in Russian by means of a corresponding adverbial ляющий о невиновности.
1. Her luggage registered, she went to the platform (an adverbial III. Translate into Russian.
modifier of time) – когда ее багаж был сдан в камеру хранения 1. The man standing before a judge is a criminal.
она пошла на платформу. 2. This is the article describing the crime of murder.
2. Our teacher having fallen ill, we had no English class (an adver- 3. Standing in the witness box he was giving evidence.
bial modifier of reason). Так как наша учительница заболела, у 4. The jury are reaching the verdict.
нас не было занятия по английскому языку. 5. While studying in а Law faculty I gained a lot of knowledge.
3. The show being not very long, we shall be able to get to the Pet- 6. He stood looking at the broken window.
rovs in good time (an adverbial modifier of condition). Если се- 7. The boy running along the street was a pickpocket.
анс будет не очень длинным, мы сможем попасть к Петровым 8. Being very busy he could not attend lectures.
вовремя. 9. Returning home he was arrested.
10. They are listening to a lecture on Law now.
When this construction occupies the end position in the sentence it cor-
responds in Russian to the second part of a compound sentence (often intro- IV. Translate into English.
duced by the Russian conjunctions причем, а, но). 1. Что ты делаешь? – Я ловлю карманника (a pickpocket).
We spent the summer in their cottage, they occupying the front 2. Ты видишь “зайца” (a stowaway), который прячется под шлюп-
room and we having verandah at our disposal. кой на палубе (on deck).
(an adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances) 3. Взломщик ломает стекло окна, стоя на лестнице.
Мы провели лето на даче, причем они занимали комнату,а мы 4. Убегая от полиции, преступник спрятался в саду.
имели в нашем распоряжении веранду. 5. Человек в мантии, стоящий у окна, – известный адвокат.
All forms of Participle I are used in this construction as well as Partici- 6. Полицейский допрашивал вора, когда зазвонил телефон.
ple II. 7. Гильотиной (the guillotine) пользовались во многих странах,
The Absolute Participial Construction is literary rather than colloquial. включая Шотландию и Италию.
8. Плачущий заложник раздражал похитителя, и он ударил его.
TASKS 9. Работая в полиции всю жизнь, он имел богатый опыт выявления
I. Form Participle I. преступлений.
10. Вчера в газете была статья, описывающая убийство, которое
To accuse, to defend, to convict, to interrogate, to search, to arrest, to
произошло два дня назад.
cross-examine, to rob, to kidnap, to commit a crime, to try, to sum up, to pass a
sentence, to plead guilty, to reach a verdict, to reveal, to pay a fine, to per-
suade, to give evidence, to call a witness, to explain, to influence, to acquit, to
retire, to appeal.

173 174
V. Form Present Participle Active and Passive and translate into 5. Having removed all the traces of his crime the criminal left the build-
Russian. ing.
e.g. to invite – приглашать 6. Having found the revolver and loaded it he sat down facing the door.
inviting – приглашающий 7. Having escaped from prison he began looking for the place where he
being invited – приглашаемый (будучи приглашаемым could get food.
или приглашенным) 8. Having found the money they began guarrelling about how to divide it.
9. Having entered the room suddenly they saw them opening the safe.
to accuse, to interrogate, to suspect, to convict, to seize, to search, to 10. Having stolen the silver he looked for a place to hide it.
give evidence, to defend, to appeal, to call a witness, to cross-examine.
VIII. Translate into English.
VI. Translate the sentences which have Present Participle (Active or 1. Полиция ищет украденный автомобиль.
Passive). 2. Мальчиков поймали, когда они крали вишню.
1. Being accused of the crime of murder he denied it. 3. Будучи свободным, он решил больше не совершать преступле-
2. The train arriving at the station was late. ний.
3. The speech being preparув by the Counsel for the Defence is very 4. Когда его допрашивали, он не знал, что ответить.
long. 5. Мужчина, покупающий сигареты, – знаменитый адвокат.
4. The accused was led out of the court being firmly maintained by a 6. Криминология – наука, рассматривающая (to deal with) природу
policeman. и причины преступлений.
5. Being cross-examined the witness answered all the questions. 7. Рассматриваемое дело представляет большой интерес.
6. The hostages being saved were frightened very much. 8. Обсудив широкий ряд проблем, адвокат и поверенный вырабо-
7. The project being realised was proposed by a group of judges. тали стратегию ведения дела в суде.
8. All the barristers belonging to the Bar must dine together several 9. Читая книгу, я узнал много новых интересных для меня сведе-
times a week. ний.
9. Being shown the way he reached the station soon. 10. Стоя перед полицейским, он не хотел признать свою вину.
10. Hoping to find the will she searched everywhere. 11. Будучи оправданным, он начал искать работу.
11. The people sleeping in the next room were wakened by the sound of 12. Завтракая, он слушал новости.
breaking glass. 13. Джим Винстайн, полицейский, производящий расследование
12. Being exhausted by his work he threw himself on his bed. (to make an investigation), допрашивает обеих женщин.
13. The bill being passed is very important. 14. Свидетель видела этих двух женщин, ходящих (to move) в ма-
14. When being asked the same question he didn’t know what to answer газине.
either. 15. Допросив свидетеля, адвокат обратился к судье.
15. What is the name of the barrister cross-examining the witness. 16. Вынеся вердикт (to reach a verdict), присяжные вернулись в зал
16. The man being charged of theft is not guilty. суда.
17. Подготовив дело, поверенный (a solicitor) передал его адвока-
VII. Translate the Perfect forms of Participle I (Active and Passive). ту (a barrister).
18. Уходя на работу (to leave for), он забыл взять свои документы.
1. Having passed the sentence the judge left the court-room.
19. Многоженец (a bigamist) – человек, который женится, будучи
2. Having appeared before the magistrate the accused was not sure that
he would be acquitted.
3. Having retained the barrister, the solicitor described the situation.
4. Having called the police the robbed man began waiting.
175 176
IX. Form Participle II. 7. При проведении перекрестного допроса обвиняемый признался
To acquit, to commit, to accuse, to defend, to rob, to kidnap, to arrest, to в совершенном преступлении.
convict, to reveal, to influence, to retire, to appeal, to search, to interrogate, to 8. Полицейский предупредил арестованного правонарушителя о
try, to sum up, to pass, to pay, to call, to explain. его праве на защиту (right to defence).
9. В суде ее представлял адвокат.
X. Translate into English. 10. Я думаю, что вердикт будет вынесен завтра.
11. Полицией были получены некоторые важные улики.
Оправданный, уплаченный, объясненный, обысканный, допрошен-
12. Это дело об ограблении было раскрыто в августе.
ный, похищенный, арестованный, совершенный, ограбленный, вызван-
ный, обвиненный, защищенный.
XIII. The objective Participle Construction. Translate into Russian.
XI. Translate into Russian. 1. The accused heard the question repeated.
2. We saw the criminal being arrested.
1. The information provided by him is very reliable.
3. A lot of witnesses saw the house being broken down.
2. When asked about his parents the boy wouldn’t answer.
4. I heard the news about the hostages being announced.
3. They reached the scene of crime deserted by the criminals.
5. The judge had his robe cleaned.
4. The wounded man bound his cut with a piece of cloth.
6. The superintendant wants the escaped caught by tomorrow morning.
5. The data saved in the police data base are very important for the de-
7. My neighbour had his flat robbed yesterday.
8. The investigator has had his request answered.
6. When initially detained, he was released on bail.
9. Where can I have my rights protected?
7. Outside London the police are local forces, employed and paid by
10. They had their rights restored.
11. The policemen saw four men escaping from the police-car.
8. When charged of murder, he was arrested.
12. The soldiers watched the plane being shot.
9. An arrested person has a statutory right to consult a solicitor.
13. The residents of the city standing near the court-building noticed the
10. Detention is forseen by a warrant obtained from a magistrates’
police-car arriving at the court-yard.
14. People wanted the hostages saved.
11. In Scotland the police may detain and question a suspected person
for a period of up to six hours.
XIV. Change the following sentence using:
12. Anyone arrested must be brought before a court with the least pos-
sible delay. a) Participle I
1. The police-officers who stood before him asked him to show them
XII. Translate into English using Past Participle (Participle II). all his things.
2. When a policeman was walking up the street he met a strange young
1. Информация, собранная (to collect) следователем, была очень
важной для уголовного дела.
3. As he left the room he was immediately arrested.
2. Многие серьезные преступления, расследованные им, сделали
4. The solicitor came up to each witness and asked to keep quiet.
его хорошим следователем.
5. The street, which runs east, is called Columbus Avenue.
3. Свидетели обвинения, приглашенные для судебного разбира-
6. As the defendant had no enough evidence he could not prove his in-
тельства, ждут в соседней комнате.
4. Совершенное деяние было квалифицировано как преступление.
7. We often speak about our rights, which are written in the Constitu-
5. Опубликованная статья была переведена на английский язык.
6. Присяжные заседатели, избранные на прошлой неделе, рас-
8. As I don’t know the witness I can’t believe him.
смотрели несколько дел.
177 178
9. When the investigator wrote his report, he was looking at his watch. 9. (to commit) a burglary the accused broke into the house through the
10. When they investigated the case, they were very careful. kitchen-window.
11. The escaped man hurried when he left the prison. 10. The party (to bring) an action is usually called a plaintiff.
12. When we stay in the witness box we must tell the truth. 11. The article on criminal law (to translate) yesterday was rather long.
13. When the judge came in, he immediately asked to begin selecting 12. The law (to pass) last week was very important.
a jury. 13. The judge (to work) in the city court was very fair.
14. When the kidnappers crossed the bridge, they saw several police- 14. The eye-witness (to interview) by the investigator is an old lady.
men who were waiting for them.
15. A person who brings good news is always welcome. XVI. Develop the idea according to the model. Work in pairs.
Model: My watch has gone wrong. (to fix)
b) Participle II A: It wants (needs) fixing.
1. The things which are left behind by criminals, are called evidence. B: You must have it fixed.
2. The public who were greatly impressed by the evidence of the wit-
ness hoped for the best. 1. My hair has grown long (to cut, to do).
3. The new job which was offered by the solicitor seems more interest- 2. My shirt isn’t fresh (to wash, to iron).
ing. 3. My car is out of order (to fix, to repair).
4. The prisoner who escaped from prison, evaded capture for 3 months, 4. My shoes are muddy (to polish, to clean).
until they found his hideout. 5. I have a bad tooth (to pull out, to fill – вырвать, запломбировать).
5. Another early code is the code of Hebrew Law which was contained 6. The door is badly painted (to repaint).
in the Book of Exodus in the Bible.
6. The members of the jury listened to speeches which were made by XVII. Practice sentences from the following table.
the person who had brought the case before them. Bill Got Their things Washed
7. It was the Law which was adopted in 1969. Richard Will get His suit Made
8. Sentences which were passed by the Crown Court are more severe Rebecca Had Her dress Carried by the porter
than those of Magistrates’Courts. The Browns Don’t like to have The car Pressed
9. The problem which was discussed at the previous conference was The passenger (s) Is (are) having Her clothes Taken
solved at last. The tourist (s) Couldn’t have Their photos Polished
10. The offender which was punished by the court was sent to prison for His shoes Fixed
a year.
XVIII. Translate into Russian the nominative absolute Participle
XV. Insert Participle I or Participle II. Construction.
1. It was an old judge (to wear) glasses. 1. The evidence being strong, the accused was found guilty by the jury.
2. I have read the Code (to describe) the laws of ancient Babylon. 2. The Senate consists of 2 members from each state, chosen for 6
3. Then another criminal (to lead) by the gangster jumped off the wall. years, one-third being re-elected every 2 years.
4. The solicitor was calming the (to sob) mother. 3. The trial being conducted properly, the lawyer couldn’t appeal
5. While (to cross) the street a juvenile was struck by a car. against it.
6. I have read a book (to describe) the life of this outstanding lawyer. 4. The accused having been sentenced to imprisonment, his lawyer ap-
7. The man (to answer) the questions of the judge is the defendant. pealed against the severity of the sentence.
8. (to appoint) the Lord-Chancellon, the Queen acts on the advice of 5. The case having been investigated, it was committed to the Crown
the Prime Minister. Court.

179 180
6. The proposal being unconstitutional, the committee rejected it. TEST YOURSELF
7. The US Congress consists of two chambers, each of them being
elected by citizens of all states. I. Use the proper form of Participle.
1. I had heard these problems (argue) among the scientists for years.
8. The student knowing English well, the examination did not last long.
2. While (to cross) the street a juvenile was struck by a car.
9. The lawyer being very experienced, he managed to win the case in
3. The number of cases (to come) to the police station is increasing.
4. My friend (to work) as a secretary at the city court wants to become
10. The jurors having given the verdict, the judge passed the sentence.
a law-student.
5. The act (to do) was defined as a crime.
XIX. Make up sentences, using the following phrases as nominative 6. (to adopt) last year the law on the prices is widely used now.
absolute Participle Construction. 7. (to receive) the information required the investigator arrested the
1. there being no time to lose suspect.
2. it being late 8. The motor (to be) in good order, the police could start.
3. being accused of 9. The weather (to be) windy, the thieves did not risk crossing the bay
4. having been elected in a small boat.
5. having agreed to bill 10. The policeman saw the prisoner (to escape).
6. having been completed 11. He had his rights (to restore).
7. being made 12. In England a (to convict) criminal (to exhaust) the appellate proce-
8. being difficult dure open to him may appeal only to the Crown.
9. being conducted 13. The student (to know) English well, the examination did not last
10. having been sentenced long.
14. The proposal (to be) unconstitutional, the committee rejected it.
XX. Translate into English. 15. The offender (to be) younger 14, his case was considered by the Ju-
1. Если обстоятельства позволят, преступник будет арестован. venile Court.
2. Так как вердикт был вынесен (to pass), судья зачитал приговор. 16. The jurors (to give) the verdict, the judge passed the sentence.
3. Когда закончили завтракать, поверенный пошел в свою конто- 17. While (to make) his report the speaker told us something interesting
about criminals.
18. The officer must show the warrant to the person (to be arrested) and
4. Так как было довольно поздно, поверенный закрыл свою конто-
must inform him of the cause of the arrest.
ру и пошел домой.
19. (to examine) the causes of the crime the court sentenced the criminal
5. Так как это правонарушение определено как незначительное
to imprisonment.
преступление (misdemeanor), наказание за него – штраф.
20. (to established) all the elements of the crime the investigator com-
6. Должность прокурора не является выборной, и прокуроры на- mitted the case to the court.
значаются Генеральным прокурором страны. 21. (to be discussed) at the meeting the question did not seem to be dif-
7. Так как свидетель присутствовал на месте преступления, следо- ficult.
ватель допросил его там. 22. (to be investigated) the case was committed to the Court.
8. Так как ночь была темной, потерпевший не смог заметить, был 23. The case (to consider) last week was very difficult.
ли грабитель вооружен. 24. The (to arrest) person was kept in prison.
9. Все судебные процессы проводятся в открытом суде, и стороны
имеют право быть представлены адвокатами. II. Translate into English.
10. Так как следователь был опытный, следствие длилось недолго. 1. Полиция сейчас ищет преступника.
2. Когда воры выходили из магазина, их арестовали.
181 182
3. Принятый год назад закон о прессе широко используется сей- Conditional Sentences
4. Совершенное деяние было квалифицировано как преступление. Real Condition Unreal Condition
5. Опубликованная статья была переведена на английский язык. The zero conditional : if, Type Two Type Three
6. Присяжные заседатели, избранные в прошлом месяце, рассмот- . .+ pres,..+ pres...
рели несколько уголовных дел. The first condi- If. . .+ past, …+ If. . .+ past perfect. ,
7. Читая этот текст, мы узнали много юридических терминов. tional : if, . .+ would (could, .+ would (could,
8. Человек, отвечающий на вопросы судьи, – обвиняемый. pres,..+ will + inf might) + inf might) + perfect inf
9. Стоящий у окна человек – очевидец дорожного происшествия. 1. If he wants me to 1. If there were other If each had accepted your
10. Рассматривая это уголовное дело, присяжные заслушали много draw up a chattel, possible suspects, Jack cheque for one million
свидетелей. mortgage (1) the an- would be released. pounds, cashable on
11. Подросток, отвечающий на вопросы судьи, совершил серьезное swer is 'no' Monday, incidentally,
преступление. you would have signed
12. Уйдя на пенсию, этот следователь открыл свое частное сыскное this illegal contract with
13. Совершив убийство, несовершеннолетний скрылся с места пре-
2. If you tell the police 2, If I found sufficient
14. Борясь с преступностью, уголовное право помогает укреплять the truth., I'm sure they evidence, I could prove
государство и поддерживать правопорядок. will believe you. his guilt.
15. Допрашивая свидетеля, следователь должен получить всю воз-
можную информацию о преступлении. Mixed Types
16. Английская правовая система иерархическая, причем суды But I blame the real culprit even more. If he knew his students better Pe-
высшей инстанции и судьи обладают большими полномочиями, ter would not have been expelled.
чем судьи низшей инстанции. The hijackers threatened to kill the pilot. Unless he had followed their in-
17. Так как жюри не вынесло вердикт при первом судебном разби- structions we couldn’t see him now.
рательстве, обвиняемому назначили повторное судебное разби-
рательство (a retrial). You form the zero conditional with if+ present, + present and use it to
18. Так как руководители профсоюза (a trade-union) были аресто- talk about general truths, habits or routines
ваны незаконно, Верховный Совет страны был вынужден (to be
You use if + present, +imperative to give instructions or advice.
pressed) освободить (to release) их.
You form the first conditional with if+present, + will + inf To talk about
19. Сенат состоит из 100 членов, причем сенаторы избираются на
a likely situation and its probable result in the future. You form the second
срок 6 лет.
conditional with if + past, + would + inf
20. Сенат состоит из двух членов от каждого штата, причем одна
a) to talk about an unlikely or imaginary situation and its probable
треть избирается каждые два года.
21. Так как судебный процесс велся (to conduct) соответствующим result in the future,
образом, адвокат не мог подать на него апелляцию (to appeal b) to give advice.
against) You form the third conditional with if + past perfect, + would have +
22. Когда полицейский инспектор допросил женщину, она была past participle to speculate about possibilities in the past that didn't happen.
арестована как подозреваемая.
23. Так как адвокат был очень опытным, ему удалось выиграть де- Note: You use may have, might have or could have when the result of
ло в суде. the past possibility is not certain.

183 184
You form a mixed conditional with if+ past perfect, + would + inf You If it were not for } Sb. / sth. ... sb. / sth. Would + inf. / perf. Inf
use it when you want to connect a possible past event with the present. You Если бы не }
form a mixed conditional with if + past, + would + past participle. You use it But for the witness, the case would be closed. If it were not for the physical
when the condition refers to no particular time and the consequence refers to evidence, the police would have failed to find the clue.
the past. If sb 1 sth should ... sb / sth will + inf. or imper. Если бы так
случилось, что ...
If Helen should join the gang, we'll be accomplices.
Some modal auxiliaries in conditional sentences If you should meet him, tell him that the police are tapping his phone.
Should, Had. Were } sb . . . sb / sth } would + inf. / perf. Inf. Ес-
Modal Verb Real Condition Real Condition ли бы, . . . случилось так, что . . .
Type One Type Two Type Three Should I know the truth. I would testify in court. Had he been seized by the
Can If the attorney can If the attorney could If the attorney police, he would have been arraigned. Were Jack here now. the jury would
defend her, he will defend her, he would could have de- not deliberate so long.
do it. do it. fended her, he Provided that – Providing – Suppose – Supposing
would have done it. I'll defend you provided that ( providing ) you’re telling the truth. Supposing
I'11 tell her about I would tell her I would have told he were guilty, what would you say?
the claim, if you see about the claim, if I her about the claim,
her in the court. could see her in the if I had been able to Note:
court. see her in the court.
In conditional clauses: I’ll call you if you refuse to be involved in
May If I may address the If I might (was al- If I had been al- If such a crime.
family lawyer, it'll lowed to) address lowed to address
save me a lot of the family lawyer, it the family lawyer, In object clauses: I don’t know if he will come here before the court
money. would save me a lot it would have saved starts handling his case.
of money. If he went me a lot of money.
If he goes to the to the crime scene, If he had gone to
crime scene, the po- the police might the crime scene, the Unless = If ... not = Если только не
lice may arrest him. arrest him. police might have
arrested him. Unless I am mistaken, Peter is innocent.
Must If she doesn't agree If she didn't agree to If she hadn't agreed
to keep the forgery keep the forgery in to keep the forgery Directed Speech Reported Speech
in secret, I must secret. I would have in secret I would Susan: “Leave some money at home in case Susan told me to leave some
make her do this, to make her do this. have had to make I need to pay a ransom.” money at home in case she
(I'11 have to ...} her do this. Mrs. Smith: “What will you do if the extor- needed to pay a ransom.
tion becomes evident?” Mrs. Smith asked Jack what
Arthur: “We'll stop the investigation if the he would do if the extortion
Conditional Constructions autopsy proves it was a suicide.” became evident.
If I were you, I would . . . + inf. / perf Inf. Arthur told us they would stop
(на вашем месте я бы ...) the investigation if the autopsy
If I were ( colloq. Was ) you, I wouldn't think of this suicide now. If I had proved it had been (was) a
been you, I would have arrested him earlier. suicide.
But for }
185 186
'Wish' statements The difference is clearer with obviously unreal comparisons.
(Жаль, что ...(не); хотелось бы, чтобы ... ) You looked as if you had just seen a murderer!

Wishes for Impossible things in the present 2. Present and past reference are both possible.
I wish(ed) + past clause . . . my friend didn't have any deal with that hard- I feel аs if I were judged.
ened criminal. He felt as if an expert had found the evidence to accuse the suspect.
Wishes and regrets about the past
. . .he had not been sentenced to such a long term Formal Subjunctives
I wish(ed) + perf clause
of imprisonment. . . . you could have protected 1. Insisting demanding, etc.
her from the suit. After verbs such as demand, insist suggest, require which involve an
Complaints, hopes, dissatisfaction implied obligation, the subjunctive may be used in formal style. This has only
I wish + ‘would’ clause . . . the criminal would stop committing these one form, that of the infinitive, and there is no third person -s, or past form.
awful series crimes. The verb has be for all forms.
They demanded that he be brought into court at once.
Note: We can replace I wish with If only for emphasis. We usually The same applies after expressions such as it is necessary / es-
stress only in speech. sential / important that …
If only there were no witnesses! It is essential that the police arrest the assassinators before
If only the decision of the jury had not been unanimous! Monday.
Unreal Tenses and Subjunctives 2. Less formal usage.
It's time, it's high time. Less formally should can be used, and colloquially no tense change is
These are followed by past simple or continuous, though the time re- made, or infinitive construction is used.
ferred to is unreal. It is important that the dossier should be filled in correctly.
It's time the criminal were/was found.
Note: was is more common in everyday speech than were. Formulaic Subjunctive
I would rather /I' d prefer( followed by a clause) These are fixed expressions all using subjunctive. Typical examples are:
I would rather is followed by past tenses in the same way as wishes God save the Queen!
about the present. It expresses a personal preference about actions. Both I'd Be that as it may happen in court every day.
rather and I'd sooner are used with normal tenses when comparing nouns or
phrases. TASKS
I would rather be a barrister than a solicitor.
Note: If you want somebody to do something use past simple after this I. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian and
structure. the choice of conditionals.
l. At the trial if the defendant is convicted, a date for sentence is set.
The police would rather people didn't commit crimes. 2. The plaintiff dropped the case if she accepted a six-figure settlement
As if/ as though collected by civil rights.
1. Real and unreal 3. If he'd seen the decree on the fifth, he'd have known it was a forgery.
The tense here depends on whether the comparison is true or unreal. 4. The preference not to imprison if a fine or other punishment is suffi-
He acts as if he were in charge. cient is easily explainable: prisons are overcrowded.
He acts as though he isn't a witness but a suspect.

187 188
5. Should he or she move outside the permitted area, the computer will 6. Chiles had said there would be f) I should have some right of cross-
activate an alarm and the police will arrest him or her. no deal, examination.
6. He or she can call his or her own witnesses who, if they do not want 7. It could open up a new frontier g) it means that he commits a crime.
to attend voluntarily, may be legally compelled to do so. of civil rights suits,
7. It would have to look like an accident or suicide because if it looked 8. Supposing the state recovered h) providing the High Court agrees.
like anything else, he would be the first one the police would suspect. nothing,
8. The present Law operates a presumption to the effect that the exis- 9. If the appeal is unsuccessful or i) if the private lawyers were satisfied
tence of a corporation need be mentioned in the Charter only if the duration is the defendant decides not to appeal, with the fee agreement.
not. 10. If Fremont C.Sabin was killed j) all the lawyers money they pumped
9. He had hoped he would have been able to drive past the post, but it before Mrs. Sabin was divorced, into the case would be flushed.
looked as he would have to stop. 11. If a judge finds a verdict of k) you did.
10. The point of the woman being strange (зд. suspicious) is this: if she guilt,
had known him and wanted to kill him, it would have been more natural to do 12. If a person breaks the law or l) no one would ever have detected
so inside somewhere and not to take this insane risk of killing him in the open. violates public order, that forgery.
11. From reading the transcript, Adam judged that there was no real evi-
dence against Jennifer Parker. Unless she confessed or unless someone came Conditional sentences: type 1.
forward with information that proved criminal complicity, Di Silva would not
III. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
be able to touch the girl.
1. If the High Court... (uphold) the Chicago law, dozens of cities... (be
12. It isn't that Mason told him but if you've followed my cases, you'll
expected) to pass similar measures.
note that most of them have been cleared up in the courtroom.
2. You ... (need) probably a lawyer , if you ... (wish) to buy, sell or rent
13. If anybody's going to be hung for murder on my say-so( 1), I want it
a house.
to be after a case is built up which can't be torn down.
3. Unless the case .. .(be) serious, the arrested person ... (be)usually
I4. During the first year of school while Jennifer's classmates were flail-
granted bail if he or she ... (be able) to be quickly brought to court.
ing about in an impenetrable swamp of contracts, torts, property, civil proce-
4. In this category are the laws valid which impose civil liability for
dure and criminal law, Jennifer felt as though she had come home.
slander or libel, you .. .(be allowed) to call a man a thief unless he ...(be) a
15. If there is a will I m the executrix of it. if there isn't. I'm entitled to
letters of administration.(2)
5. If the House ... (vote) for the bill, it ... (proceed) to the committee
(l) c моего разрешения
(2) право на управление имуществом по постановлению суда
6. If the proof ... (not be) sufficient, the jury ... (return) a not guilty ver-
II. Match the phrases in the left column with those from the right to
7. That, basically, ... (be) the standard which the government ... (not be)
make up sentences.
meet if it... (seek) to limit political speech.
8. If the House so ... (decide) the whole House sitting in the committee
1. If he has a murder case, a) the divorce was inoperative.
... (refer) to the bill.
2. If he had shot himself, b) the accused is sentenced to jail or
9. Occasionally, if circumstances or policies ... (change), provisions ...
payment of a fine.
(not be) brought into effect and may be repealed.
3. If anyone had a motive for kill- c) the penalty is imposed.
10. If people ... (not attend) their trial, they ... (lose) money (bail).
ing him,
11. If the magistrates ... (find) a person guilty after a trial, they may im-
4. If it hadn't been for this murder, d) he'd have left some fingerprints on
pose fines for each offence or ... (be able) to send people to prison.
the gun.
5. If the parrot is to be a witness. e) I'll listen to him.
189 190
12. I am warning you for the last time: you ... (not win) if you ... (at- 14. Texas lawyers agreed to get as much as they could back to the state
tempt) to contest the will after my death. if arbitrators ... (short) them on the contracted 15 per cent.
13. If magistrates ... (be) content to deal with the case; they ... (do) so 15. If I ... (keep) a district attorney record, I ... (give) him more points
with the consent of the accused. for finding out somebody was innocent and not prosecuting that person than I
14. If a landlord ... (fail) to provide adequate proofs, he ... (be able) now would for getting a convict just because he had gone into court.
to receive a fine of up to $250 a day.
15. If an individual MP ... (die) or ... (resign) between General Elections Conditional sentences: type 3.
a by-election in a single constituency ... (be held).
V. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1. He ... (ask) for an annulment or a divorce, if he ... (not be) for his
Conditional sentences: type 2.
dread for publicity.
IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form. 2. She was sent to prison only because she refused to pay the fine; if she
1. If he ... (win) the election, it ... (mean) moving to Washington, DC, ... (pay) the fine she ... (not be) sent to prison.
giving up his law practice, starting a whole new life. 3. If there ... (be) any kind of inquiry, he ... (be sought) certainly for
2. It was a prize that took years to attain, and he ... (not be) about to de- questioning.
prive someone of it unless he (be) certain there was justification. 4. The authorities ... (arrest) me in Hanoi, if they ... (know) of my illegal
3. If court ... (be) not in session she ... (hang) around his office, listening purpose, but, fortunately, I was free.
to him discuss his cases and his clients. 5. If Dorothy ... (be killed) the murderer ... (swear) on a dozen Bibles.
4. All I did was to request Mr. Monroe to ask the computer if there ... 6. He was insanely jealous and yes, he admitted, if he ... (have) the op-
(be) other possible suspects. portunity and the means, he ... (kill) Anton.
5. If the telephone line ... (be tapped) by the police, Sergeant Holcomb 7. I just thought that if I ... (get) the truth out of him, someone ... (start)
... (know) about it, and if that's the case, the police must have records of the already the investigation.
conversations which took place over that phone ... 8. If any of the vice interests ... (decide) to bump Sabin off (1), they ...
6. Не seemed to think that he ... (be dragged)up before the Grand Jury in (hire) a down-and-outer (2) to do the job, or else ... (have) a mobster (3) put on
San Molinas if he ... (try) anything like that. the act.
7. I think, I ... (can), Mason told him if I ... (be permitted) to question 9. If she ... (secure) a California divorce, she ... (have) to wait a year for
the witnesses. the interlocutory decree to be become final, before she could have married
8. If someone ...(say), I will give you $500 to go into court and swear again.
that this statement is true, what you ... (do)? 10. The accident was mainly Tom's fault. He was driving much too
9. The officers followed too closely, knowing there ... (be) not enough close to the car in front. If he ... (be) further away he … (be able) to stop in
room to stop if the pursued ... (lose) control. time.
10. That meant if tobacco ... (pay) the lawyers, they ... (have) to acqui- 11. The burglar made quite a lot of noise getting into the house: but for-
esce to arbitration and an annual $500-million natural fee cup. tunately for him the family were watching a noisy TV play. If they ... (play)
11. If we ... (be) going to represent more than the few states we were cards they ... (hear) certainly him.
representing, we ... (need) more financial horsepower and more legal horse- 12. We were traveling with false passports. That was the trouble. If our
power. passports ... (be) all right we ... (not be) arrested.
12. If the powerful tobacco lobby ... (know) what was coming, the legis- 13. They voted by a show of hands and decided in favor of a strike. But
lation ... (be) doomed. it was by a narrow margin, and I think if they ... (hold) a secret ballot there ...
13. If I ... (come) across two men fighting with knives I ... (call) the po- (not be) a strike.
lice. - But this is a very peaceful area.

191 192
14. If their story ... (seem) good enough I ... (fly) to Hong Kong and ...
(send) it from there, but any news about the conspiracy turned out to be enough VII. Complete the sentences using different forms of conditionals.
for our arrest. 1. If the jury's verdict is 'guilty', ... .
15. When Adam was through reading the transcript there was no doubt 2. There must be a trial providing … .
in his mind that Michael Moretti ... (be found) guilty by the jury if fate ... (not 3. The judge can interfere in case ... .
intervene) in the form of Jennifer Parker. 4. The accused would face a maximum term of life in prison without pa-
(1) устранить role if ... .
(2) безработный, бродяга 5. If he had been convicted of the murders, ... .
(3) гангстер 6. Were the jurors convicted of the guilt of the defendant, ... .
7. If the only suspect didn't do it, ... .
Conditional sentences: Mixed types. 8. The defendant should have been acquitted supposed ... .
9. If the jury remains out for long enough ... .
VI. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
10. It would have been convenient for the blackmailer, if... .
1. If Dorothy ... (commit) suicide you ... (be) in some way responsible.
11. It can be murder or manslaughter provided that ... .
2. But I blame the real culprit even more. If he ... (admit) his guilt Peter
12. If you were to get involved in the solving of a real crime, perhaps a
... (not be) expelled.
crime of great complexity, ... .
3. If she ... (be working) for Moretti he ... (protect) her with a reasonable
13. Unless the case is serious, ... .
plausible story.
14. Should the proof be not sufficient, … .
4. How ... (fix) the time of death so accurately, Dake asked, if they ...
15. If you've been tampering with my witnesses,' the prosecuting attor-
(not find) the body for so long?
ney exploded, I ...
5. It ...(be) easy to go ahead and carry out the wishes of Stewart
Needham. Judge Lawrence Waldman and Robert di Silva unless some instinct
VIII. Rewrite the sentences given below using the prompt words
... (make) Adam Warner hesitate.
which follow each of them.
6. If that ... (be) а ease, he said, there were probably anywhere from a
1. Dick is in prison because a detective recognized him.
hundred and 50 people who ... (murder) him without batting an eyelash?
(If a detective ...)
7. If you ... (know) all that Raymond Sprague said, and then hid Helen
2. If arrested , don't say anything you think might incriminate you.
Monteith where we couldn't question her, I think I ... (charge) you with being
an accessory?
3. The only thing that might prevent us from being there on time is the
8. If she … (be) in court in Reno, she … (be killing) her husband in a
main witness's testimony.
mountain cabin in San Molinas Country at one and the same time.
(... provided that...)
9. The headmaster decided that Peter was the culprit and expelled him
4. You'd see a big swing to the left if there was a general election this
from the school. A more intelligent man ... (realize) that he ... (not be able) to
be guilty.
10. He ... (be told) to make the attack at exactly 12.15 if anybody ... (ac-
5. If the conduct is not too egregious and the lawyer doesn't want to lose
cuse) him of disobeying an order.
the client, some lawyers recommend handling the situation delicately to avoid
11. Speakers could not be punished for what they said, unless they ...
embarrassing the client.
(incite) others to unlawful conduct and unless the circumstances ... (be) such as
(Provided that...)
to reasonably justify fear that action would occur.
6. If only a lawyer chooses to protect assets by insurance , prudence dic-
12. Critics said that if Microsoft's opponents ... (be able) to infiltrate the
tates that the limits of liability should probably be equal to or greater than the
software giant and devise a strategy that would backfire they ... (not do) better
auto limits of liability.
than Neukom's confrontational approach to the judge.
(Provided that ...)
193 194
7. Moreover, he said the statute would require the company to defer to 2. Если присяжные признали подсудимого виновным, судья опре-
national court systems in handling cases unless those courts were unwilling or деляет ему меру наказания.
unable to do so. 3. Если бы был нанесен ущерб собственности юридических и фи-
(... if those courts ... ) зических лиц, то могло бы быть использовано деликатное право.
8. Officers shot at the car. The court held such gunfire is a seizure if the 4. Если закон все-таки будет нарушен, необходимо использование
driver stops as a result средств судебной защиты и судопроизводства.
( ... if the driver should ...) 5. У полиции не будет ни одного ключа к разгадке преступления,
9. Unless the Charter of a corporation provides otherwise, the stock- если подтвердится алиби главного подозреваемого.
holder of a Delaware corporation has no responsibility for the debts of the cor- 6. Если все-таки так случится, что шантажист выдаст себя, нам не
poration. нужно будет платить выкуп.
(If …) 7. Адвокату удастся добиться освобождения подсудимого в случае
10. If there were no eye-witnesses, the defendant would be released. отсутствия прямых доказательств его вины.
(But for…) 8. Будь я на твоем месте, я бы признался в соучастии в преступле-
11. The sentence would not have been so severe, if the accused had нии, говоря, что не осознавал всей ответственности в случае провала.
pleaded 'guilty' 9. Преступник так и не был бы пойман, если бы обстоятельства де-
( ... supposing ...) ла не были бы полностью расследованы.
12.Had the police been in the crime scene at 9 , they would have caught 10. При условии, что правительство уйдет в отставку, представи-
the criminals. тель правых получит право выиграть на выборах.
(If …) 11. Если бы милиция действовала более решительно, террористам
не удалось бы скрыться безнаказанно.
IX. Complete the blanks with a suitable word or a phrase. 12. В случае отсутствия отпечатков пальцев на орудии убийства и
According to the institute experts, the Scharf-Gerstenberg collection ---- улик, указывающих на конкретное лицо, перед следователями возникнет
(1)---- confiscated in 1945 unless there ----(2)---- a tribunal ruling that pro- трудная задача раскрыть преступление.
nounced its owners war criminals, or a relevant decision by the Control Coun-
cil of Germany. If the paintings ----(3)---- indeed seized from their owners XI. Translate the sentences from English into Russian. Pay atten-
without observing this legal procedure, the claimants ----(4)---- the right to tion to the subjunctives.
demand their return. 1. I wish the testimony against me was false.
Today ----(5)---- the court hearing really take place, the court ----(6)---- 2. He wishes the evidence would suddenly disappear.
to demand proof from the defendant, that is, the RF Government, that the con- 3. It's high time the case was closed.
fiscation ----(7)---- lawful 4. The judge would rather the suspect pleaded guilty.
Though it is fairly difficult to predict how the prospective trials may 5. The accused wished he had not committed such a senseless crime.
end, of course. Anyway, the experts are certain that even if the heirs ----(8)---- 6. The government would rather not put into effect that compromising
Moscow empty-handed, they ----(9)---- apply to the National Court of Justice law.
in the Hague which may easily find against Russia as well because one of the 7. I had better be not involved in the case connected with blackmail.
basic clauses of the Russian Restitution Law declaring items in private owner- 8. It's obligatory that all the evidence be mentioned in the protocol.
ship “property of enemy states” is blatantly at variance with international law. 9. I feel as if I had added a sense of guilt to my other more formal obli-
X. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English. 10. He wished nobody of his personnel staff had been bribed by the in-
1. Если обвиняемый признает себя виновным, дело слушается без genious Mr.Hong.
присяжных. 11. It was as though Pyle, when he left me, had sentenced me to long
term of solitude.
195 196
12. The jury were absolutely confused and wished they didn't have to 12. The accused regrets he put at risk all his fortune and had to commit
bring in a verdict in that case. the burglary.
13. It's necessary that the police officer should be present at the crime (He wishes ...)
scene to collect ail the evidence of the crime.
14. If only the eyewitness could nor testify in favor of the victim! XIII. Complete the following statements:
15. You sound as though you were more of a detective man a lawyer. 1. The foreman wished ...... .
2. It's time the defense attorney ...… .
XII. Rewrite the sentences given below using the prompt words 3. The police suggested that the case ..... .
which follow each of them. 4. The witness would rather ..... .
1. It's a pity I'm not eligible for the elections this year. 5. Any plaintiff had better ….. .
(I wish ...) 6. They demanded that the complaint ..... .
2. What a pity! The fraud has been disclosed. 7. Granted on bail the person wishes ….. .
(The man wishes ...) 8. It's high time the trial ..... .
3. The convict regretted he had given false testimony against his ac- 9. A police officer would rather perpetrators ..... .
complice. 10. You'd better ….. .
(The convict wished ...) 11. I wish our government ..... .
4. I'm sorry I have brought fake banknotes to the central bank. 12. The witness sounded as though ….. .
(I wish … )
5. The culprit doesn't want the police to add two more cases connected XIV. Correct the mistakes if there are any.
with money laundering in NY banks to his dossier or his sentence will be too 1. I wish the attorney for prosecution proved guilt of the suspect.
severe. 2. I would rather you don't break the law.
(The culprit had better ... ) 3. She wised she didn't sign that forgery.
6. Now I feel I must go to the police and plead guilty. I can 't bear it any 4. The criminals had better not to extort money from people or they will
more. be imprisoned.
(It's time ...) 5. I would rather to be a marshal of the court. (суд. исполнитель)
7. It is more preferable for famous people not to be involved in any 6. Now mat makes it look as though the murder have some powerful
criminal cases in order to avoid any trials. reason for wanting Sabin out of the way ...
( ... would rather ...) 7. It's high time the government will do their best to solve the problem
8. According to the criminal code people are obliged to observe laws of unemployment and reduction.
strictly. 8. It's important that all citizens be law-abiding and respect the laws.
(… it is important that...) 9. I wish sometimes you have a few bad motives, you might understand
9. Ruling the country, the government wishes to have law-abiding citi- a little more about the nature of hardened criminals.
zens than to have people who need a constant deterrent from committing 10. She feared lest she be made to give testimony against her will.
crimes. 11. I wish state officials stop taking bribes and do their duty irre-
(If only the government...) proachably.
10. The judge must appoint an advocate if the accused is unable to pay 12. The key witness for prosecution behaved as though he had his own
his work. interest in the case.
(The law demands that...)
11. I'm tired of waiting for the verdict!
(I think it's high time the jury ...)

197 198
TEST YOURSELF 9. If Member states …… to do so, the Commission would have
brought them before the European Court of Justice which judges cases
I. Choose the right answer. involving the interpretation of European law.
1. It's time the jury ..... their deliberations and the verdict. A. failed B. would fail C. had failed
A. would stop/bring up
B. stopped/brought up 10. Provided that the defendant …… silent court will enter a plea of
C. stop/bring up not guilty, set the case for jury trial and appoint an attorney to meet and
consult with the defendant.
2. If only the witness …… my alibi I A. will remain B. would remain С. remains
A. verified B. verifies C. would verify 11. If it …… I had helped you escape I would go to jail.
3. Dick wishes the court . . . . . . the accused guilty and …… him to A. were found out B. found out C. would have been found out
life imprisonment. 12. You know, Della, I wish people …… to differentiate between the
A. will find/sentence reputable lawyer who represents people accused of crime and the criminal law-
B. found/sentenced yer who becomes a silent partner in the profits of crime.
C. finds/sentences A. will learn B. would learn C. would have learnt
4. You behave as if you . . . . . . by a criminal, 13. He had looked at me with compassion, as he …… at some prisoner
A. were being blackmailed for whose capture he was responsible undergoing his sentence for life.
B. would be blackmailed A. might look
C. had been blackmailed B. might have looked
C. might have been looked
5. Should it turn out later to be false you …… liable for damage that
your statement may have caused . 14. If only the High Court …… a new frontier of civil rights suits.
A. would not be A. could open up B. can open up C. will be able to open up
B. will not be 15. The cold, harsh words of the transcript were clear-cut, and yet Adam
C. were not wished he ..... the tone of Jennifer Parker's voice when she denied her guilt.
A. could hear B. could have heard C. might hear
6. I'm afraid that Smith is a hardened criminal. Unless we …… him
this time he will be able to commit more crimes. II. Complete the blanks with a suitable word or a phrase.
A. will punish B. punished C. punish Under those circumstances, Mason said, don't you think it ----(1)----
7. ……. the delegates ……. to agree on this point, known as the more fair , all around, to have the guilt or innocence determined at the coroner's
Great Compromise, the Convention would have been broken up at that junc- inquest tonight? Then, perhaps, it ----(2)---- necessary to take the matter before
ture. a jury. If Helen Monteith ----(3)---- innocent; the prosecution ----(4)---- every-
A. Were ... unwilling thing to gain by having me put all my facts before the coroner's jury. If she ----
B. Had ... been unwilling (5)---- innocent, then the prosecution ----(6)---- everything to gain by not being
C. Would . . . be unwilling put in the position of going into court on a big case, and having the jury return a
verdict of not guilty.
8. Unless the case … serious, the arrested person is granted a bail if
he or she cannot be quickly brought to court.
A. is B. will be C. has been

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Relative Clauses TASKS

The pronouns who (whom), whose, what, which, that, where, used to I. In the exercise you have to explain what some words mean.
connect subordinate clause with the principal clause. Choose the right meaning from the box and then write a sentence with
The conjunctive pronouns can be used to refer to some noun in the prin- ‘who’
cipal clause. They are called relative pronouns. E.g. An investigator is a person who deals with crimes.
Who (whom) is used only of persons: A person who works at the Bar is Magistrates are people who are laymen.
a lawyer. Steals from a shop 1. a counsel for defence
The woman whom I wanted to see is on holiday. Protects people in the court 2. an offender
Breaks the law 3. a burglar
Which is used of things: I don’t like detectives which have unhappy No longer works and gets money from the state 4. a lawyer
ends. Studies law 5. policemen
That may be used of both persons and things: What is the profession Works at the Bar 6. a law student
that/which you study in the Law Faculty? Breaks into a house to steal things 7. an investigator
The person that/who is talking to the judge is my client. He/She accuses people in the court 8.a counsel for prosecution
Note: Look “Extra information” clauses. Doesn’t believe in God 9. a kidnapper
If these pronouns are used as a subject in the sentence we mustn’t omit Are laymen 10. an assassin
them: Have the right to arrest people 11. witnesses
The woman who lives next door is a doctor.- “Who” is the subject, we Renders a verdict 12. the jury
can’t say: The woman lives next door is a doctor. Murders people 13. magistrates
But if those pronouns are used as an object we may omit them: Have Deals with crimes--- 14. an atheist
you found the key that I lost? – The key is the object, so we may say: Have you Demands ransom for people 15. a shoplifter
found the key I lost? Give testimony at the trial 16. a customer
Whose may be used of both persons and things instead of his/her/their: Buys something from a shop 17. a pensioner
We saw some people whose car had broken down.
There are newspapers whose pages are full of criminal news. II. Make one sentence from two.Use who/which/that :
Where is used to talk about a place: The hotel where we stayed wasn’t E.g. A girl was mugged 2 days ago. Now she is in hospital.- The girl
very clean. who was mugged is in hospital.
1. A band committed a crime. Now it is court-room.
‘Extra information’ clauses 2. We study Civil and Criminal Laws. They are of great importance.
We mustn’t use the pronoun that in clauses where the extra information 3. There are more than 50000 solicitors in England. They work in the
is given: offices.
Compare: Do you know anyone who/that works in our District court? 4. A lawyer is a very popular profession. It is rather well-paid.
John, who (not ‘that’) works in our District court may help you. 5. A barrister defends an accused. He’s committed a theft.
In the second sentence there is additional information about the person. 6. A judge decides questions of law. They are not for the jury.
We should use commas (,) in these clauses. 7. Some people were arrested. They have been released.
Compare: Barbara works for a company which/that makes toys. 8. Justices of the peace are laymen. They work at the Magistrates’
Barbara told us about her job, which (not ‘that’) she is enjoying Courts.
much. 9. A witness gave testimony. They were false.
Compare: We met some people whose car had been stolen. 10. A defendant pleaded his guilt. It was obvious.
Amy, whose car had been stolen, was in a very bad mood.
201 202
11. The third kind of judges are Recorders. They work at the Crown 4. Do you know the name of the judge to … I spoke on the phone?
Court. 5. The juvenile to … the barrister wanted to talk has escaped.
12. The duties of the Police in the USA are to prevent crimes and disor- 6. Has the investigation found any evidence against the criminal …
der and preserve the peace. They are the most principle ones. that manslaughter 6 months ago?
13. A man answered the phone. He told me you were out. 7. The Crown Court deals with prisoners … committed more serious
14. A boy was injured in the accident. It happened 2 days ago. crimes.
15. A notary helped us. She was very polite and patient. 8. An orphan is a child … parents are dead.
9. The offender with … the counsel for defence wanted to meet died
III. In some of these sentences you don’t need who /or that in the hospital of prison.
or/which. If you don’t need words, put them into the brackets: 10. Jail is only for people … guilt is proved.
E.g. Have you found any evidence (that) you need? 11. A witness is a person … testimony is very important at the trial.
The man who lives next door was accused of shoplifting. 12. An arrested person has the right to consult a solicitor… he can hire
1. Do you know a lawyer who can help me? or be appointed by the state.
2. Miss Black had hired a barrister that she needed. 13. There are only 70 stipendiary magistrates … duty is to decide both
3. The barrister examines witnesses who have seen or heard something. legal questions and questions of law.
4. It was a very serious case. It was the most serious case which I’ve 14. The defendant … the judge allowed to give a last word refused to
ever investigated. speak.
5. What have you told the advocate who came to you? 15. I met my friend … I haven’t seen for ages.
6. A notary works with clients that he doesn’t choose.
7. Mr. Smith has investigated the murder which was committed last year. V. Add one of the pieces of information below to each sentence and
8. The jury decides the questions of facts that don’t concern the judge. use who (whom)/which/whose/where. Don’t forget about commas:
9. What has she made with the money which I gave her? E.g: The police are looking for 2 boys aged 14…
10. He was accused of the crime that he hadn’t committed. The police are looking for 2 boys aged 14, who have stolen a
11. The police arrested the person who they have been searching for sev- computer from the office.
eral months. our father graduated from
12. It was an awful experience. It was the worst thing which has ever lives in New York
happened to him. will be heard by the Magistrates’ court
13. What happened to the people who were charged with the robbery of stole a computer from the office
the bank? I hadn’t seen since the last trial
14. The people that work in the Notary Office are very friendly. handbag had been stolen
15. The counsel for the prosecution was able to prove her innocence that justice in minor civil cases is administered
was obvious. is a Queen’s Counsel
many crimes happen
IV. Insert who/ whom/ whose/ or nothing at all: can hold some investigating departments
E.g. What’s the name of the barrister who has helped you with your was committed by a juvenile
case? I spoke on the phone last week
The people (who/whom) I talked to were polite. was wrongfully arrested
1. The jury … verdict is “not guilty” has represented it at the trial. the murder of their servant was committed
2. A terrorist is a person … commits crimes according to his or her po- speaks French and Italian
litical reasons. is going to hear the case of a fraud
3. I don’t know the family … car was stolen.
203 204
1. ---- The police are looking for 2 boys aged 14…--- 13. Mrs. Fox is the best counsel for defence. She has never lost the
2. My best friend John … is a judge. cases.
3. Inspector Newman was asked to comment on the latest murder … . 14. We have met a couple. Their car was stolen last night.
4. Detective Jim Colin is investigating the case … . 15. The chief of police called Mr. Johnson told me about the robbery. I
5. My brother is going to become an investigator and enter the Univer- spoke to him on the phone last evening.
sity … .
6. John … was released in the court. VII. Translate the sentences, point out your attention to the relative
7. Alice … works as a tourist guide. clauses:
8. The Browns are going to leave the house … . 1. The term “punishment” means those measures which in different
9. Yesterday I met Judge Grey … . ways involve restriction of certain rights.
10. The case will be handled in the County Court … . 2. Life in the country isn’t what is used to be, you know.
11. My uncle Jack … works in the High Court. 3. Barristers are the court-room lawyers, whose wigs and robes are fa-
12. Ann … was very upset. miliar to anyone who has seen motion pictures or stage plays about English
13. New York is one of the most dangerous place in the USA .. . trials.
14. A new police station … will be built next year. 4. The Lord Chief Justice, who presides over the Queen ’s Bench Divi-
15. The judge has chosen a fresh jury … . sion of the High Court, normally sits when criminal appeals are under consid-
16. Mr. Carter … is a very qualified lawyer. eration.
5. Meg loved her little brother to whom she had been a second mother.
VI. Make one sentence from 2. Use the necessary relative clauses, 6. The Bar is actually the barrier in the courts beyond which no one
don’t forget about commas in the sentences with extra information: may pass the privilege of Queen’s counsel who has been called within the Bar.
E.g: There’s a woman living next door. She is a lawyer.- The woman 7. At the time I was reading an interesting book which later on I gave
who lives next door is a lawyer. as a present to my niece.
I’ve got a brother called Jim. He lives in London. He is a law- 8. There are newspapers in G. B. whose pages are largely filled with
yer.- My brother, who lives in London, is a lawyer. news of sport and with stories of film-stars, or accounts of crime and of law-
1. He has got a sister. She has graduated from the Law Faculty. court trials.
2. Margaret showed me a photograph of her son. He is a policeman. 9. He went one day to a picture dealer in whose shop my brother
3. A friend of mine is an advocate. He defends people when they are in thought he could buy a picture or two.
trouble. 10. Every police force in G. B. has its own detective complement
4. There are some offenders. They are difficult to interrogate. staffed by police officers who, during their service as uniformed constables,
5. There are too many criminals in this prison. It is overcrowded. showed a special aptitude for the investigation of crime.
6. Sheila has a responsible job. Her job involves investigating crimes. 11. The informant is a person who serves the police officer confiden-
7. Mrs. Black was arrested in the department store. She had committed tial information about a crime as his civic responsibility and duty.
a shoplifting. 12.Groups support of criminal behavior: the extent to which the of-
8. Tim told me about a new case. He has been investigating it for 3 fender’s criminal behavior is supported by the norms of the group or groups to
months. which he belongs.
9. People can be present at the trial. They are held in the open court. 13. She had a wit that was irresistible.
10. There are Magistrates’ Courts. Cases involving minor offences begin 14. Cities and rural districts have different rates of crime which are de-
and end there. termined not by the size of the population but by the way in which the people
11. The prisoners are sent to jail. They spend some time depending on live and are governed.
their sentences.
12. Do you know any barrister? Who can take our case in his hand?
205 206
FINAL TEST Грамматический справочник
Insert who/ whom/ whose/ which/ that/ where or nothing if possible
and translate the sentences: Артикль
E.g. Do you know the name of the hotel where the dangerous criminal (The article)
was caught by the police?
The judicial reforms which/that took effect in 1972 have intro- Артикль – служебное слово, которое обычно не имеет самостоя-
duced a new national criminal court, the Crown Court. тельного значения и является определителем существительного. На рус-
1. The place … criminal cases are heard is called the Crown Court. ский язык артикль обычно не переводится.
2. I met a friend … father is the greatest judge in our district. В английском языке имеется два артикля: a, the.
3. He didn’t know anybody … could help him in his trouble with the Неопределенный артикль a имеет два варианта написания и произ-
police. Do you? ношения:
4. A person … works at the Bar is an advocate. a [ǝ] – перед словами, начинающимися с согласной:
5. The investigator has found the evidence … can help to prove her a procurator, a judge
innocence. an [ǝn] – перед словами, начинающимися с гласной:
6. We know some prisoners … guilt isn’t proved. an advocate
7. The court is a place … trials are heard. Определенный артикль the имеет два варианта произношения:
8. That barrister … is defending you now has much more experience. the [ðǝ] – перед словами, начинающимися с согласной:
9. The lawyer …I want to hire has just gone away on holiday. the court
10. Cases … involve minor offences begin and end in Magistrates’ the [ði] – перед словами, начинающимися с гласной:
Courts. the evidence
11. I know a man … mother is a good notary. Наличие артикля исключает употребление других определителей
12. A place … criminals or offenders are sent to is a prison. существительного: указательного, притяжательного, неопределенного
13. A solicitor … duties are to prepare contracts, draft deeds and to give местоимений и т. д.
general legal advice may represent his client in the County Court. a
14. I met him at the court … he was working as a plaintiff. the
15. He is the man … car was stolen last night. my case
16. Can you advise me any counsel of defence … I may address to? this
17. Cities and rural districts have different rates of crime ….. are deter- some
mined not by the size of the population but by the way in … the Pete’s
people live and are governed.
Примечание: определения, выраженные прилагательными, существитель-
ными, порядковыми числительными и т. д., стоят всегда
между указанными определителями и существительными.
my serious case

207 208
Неопределенный артикль произошел от числительного “один” С определенным артиклем употребляются названия:
(one) и поэтому может употребляться перед исчисляемыми существи- – океанов – the Pacific Ocean – Тихий океан
тельными в единственном числе, давая понятие о предмете, обозначая – морей – the Black Sea – Черное море
название предмета, название класса, к которому относится предмет, а – заливов – the Persian Gulf – Персидский залив
иногда сохраняя свое числовое значение – один. – рек – the Volga – Волга
В русском языке перед такими существительными (которым в анг- – некоторых стран – the USA – США
лийском языке предшествует неопределенный артикль) можно поставить – the USSR – СССР
одно из следующих слов: один, какой-то, любой. – горных хребтов – the Alps – Альпы
Give me a criminal code, please. – сторон света – the North – север
I am a member of a jury in a trial. – the South – юг
A solicitor also deals with matters outside Court – судов – the “Lermontov” – “Лермонтов”
– гостиниц – the “National” – “Националь”
The trial lasted for an hour.
Исчисляемые существительные во множественном числе, а так- Имена существительные собственные, как общее правило, упот-
ребляются без артикля:
же существительные вещественные (например: молоко, нефть) и отвле-
Petrov, Moscow, Omsk, England, France.
ченные (музыка, ненависть) употребляются без артикля, если дается
название нескольким предметам одного класса, веществу, явлению. Значение имени существительного является определяющим при
Barristers are different from solicitors. употреблении с ним артиклей. Все имена существительные можно разде-
A jury consist of “jurors”, who are ordinary people. лить нa следующие группы слов, или лексико-семантические разряды:
Life is impossible without water and air 1) разряд нарицательных и собственных существительных;
2) разряд конкретных существительных (a lawyer, a house, a table),
Определенный артикль the произошел от указательного местоиме- которым противостоят существительные абстрактные (freedom, justice);
ния that – тот. 3) собирательные (police, government, news).
The употребляется как с исчисляемыми существительными в един- Исчисляемость или неисчисляемость имени существительного яв-
ственном и множественном числе, так и с неисчисляемыми существи- ляется вторым фактором, определяющим употребление с ним артиклей.
тельными (подразумевая этот, тот, тот самый, который).
Существительные с определенным артиклем обозначают не назва- Неопределенный артикль употребляется перед исчисляемыми су-
ние предмета, вещества, а конкретный предмет (или предметы) из дан- ществительными в единственном числе в следующих случаях:
ного класса предметов или конкретное вещество. То есть данный пред- 1) при классификации предметов, лиц, явлений
мет, вещество, явление рассматриваются как уже известные и говоряще- It’s a book;
му, и слушающему. 2) для обобщения (классифицируемый предмет выступает в роли
The Courts of appeals and the Supreme Court are appellate Courts. представителя класса предметов, лиц, явлений)
He’s a lawyer;
Please, open the door and let the policemen in.
3) для обозначения единичности
Is the Clerk of the Court different from the Magistrates?
An hour and a half is enough for this trial;
Сравните употребление a и the: 4) с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе в
I bought a magazine. Я купил журнал (а не книгу, не газету). восклицательных предложениях после слов what such
The magazine is very interesting. Журнал (тот самый, который я купил) What a chance.
очень интересный.
We sent him a telegram. Мы послали ему телеграмму (а не Определенный артикль употребляется в тех случаях, когда ситуа-
письмо). ция (то, что вы можете мысленно представить себе) или контекст (часть
связного текста) показывает, что речь идет об определенном предмете
The telegram was very important. Телеграмма (та самая, которую мы
послали) была очень важной.
The heir is too rich.
209 210
Имя существительное b. У некоторых существительных, оканчивающихся на -о, во мно-
жественном числе добавляется -es.
(The noun) potato – potatoes; tomato – tomatoes
Существительное в современном английском языке имеет:
– два числа – единственное и множественное; c. У существительных, оканчивающихся на -f, -fe, во множествен-
– два падежа – общий (Common Case), не имеющий специальных ном числе обычно f переходит в v, за которым следует -es:
окончаний, и притяжательный (Possessive Case), имеющий окончание ‘s shelf – shelves [ʃelvz] proof – proofs roof – roofs
или только ‘ . но:
В отличие от русского языка существительное в английском языке knife – knives [naivz] chief – chiefs
не имеет грамматической категории рода. Существительные, обозначаю-
щие живые существа, заменяются местоимениями he, she согласно их d. У существительных, оканчивающихся на -y с предшествующей
полу (a boy – he, a girl – she), а существительные, обозначающие неоду- согласной, y заменяется i и добавляется окончание -es:
шевленные предметы, вещества, отвлеченные понятия, заменяются ме- city – cities [sitiz] boy – boys
стоимением it. но:
Те и другие существительные во множественном числе заменяются baby – babies [beibiz] (y предшествует гласная)
местоимением they (boys – they, books - they).
Особые случаи образования множественного числа
Число (Number) имен существительных Единственное число Множественное число
мужчина, человек man [mæn] men [men]
Образование множественного числа имен существительных.
a. Имена существительные образуют множественное число при женщина woman [wumən] women [wimin]
помощи окончания -s (или -es, если существительное оканчивается на s, ступня, фут foot [fu:t] feet [fi:t]
ss, ch, sh, x). зуб tooth [tu:θ] teeth [ti:θ]
Окончания произносятся следующим образом: ребенок child [tʃaild] children [tʃildrən]
[s] после глухих согласных
map [mæp] maps [mæps] Иностранные заимствования
Некоторые существительные, заимствованные из латинского и
[z] после гласных и звонких согласных греческого языков, сохраняют свои формы множественного числа.
-s bag [bæg] bags [bægz]
is [is] « es [i:z]
boy [bɔi] boys [bɔiz] analysis анализ analyses анализы
axis ось axes оси
[iz] после свистящих и шипящих
basis основа bases основы
(s, z, ʃ, ʧ, dʒ) crisis кризис crises кризисы
rose, [rouz] roses [rouziz] phasis фаза phases фазы
page [peidʒ] pages [peidʒiz] us « i [ai]
place [pleis] places [pleisiz]
us « a [ə]
- [iz] тоже после шипящих и свистящих locus месторасположение loci месторасположения
- es focus фокус, центр foci фокусы, центры
class [kla:s] classes [kla:siz]
radius радиус radii радиусы
watch [wɔʧ] watches [wɔʧiz] nucleus ядро nuclei ядра
211 212
stimulus влияние, стимул, stimuli влияния, стимулы, Much pleasant news was brought Много приятных новостей привез
побудитель побудители by Petrov. Петров.
Genus род, сорт genera рода, сорта The latest information on the Последние сведения о движении
on, um « a [ə] movement of glaciers in this re- ледников в этом районе опублико-
phenomenon явление phenomena явления gion has been published in our ваны в нашем журнале.
criterion критерий criteria критерии magazine.
datum данная величина data данные величины He gave us some good advice. Он дал нам несколько хороших
stratum пласт strata пласты советов.
maximum максимальное maxima максимальные
значение значения Падеж (case)
minimum минимум minima минимумы В современном английском языке существительное имеет только
equilibrium равновесие equilibria равновесия два падежа: общий (Common Case), не имеющий специальных окончаний,
a « æ [i:] и притяжательный (Possessive Case), имеющий окончание ‘s или ‘ (апо-
formula формула formulae формулы строф s или апостроф).
nebula туманность nebulae туманности
corona корона coronae короны Общий падеж (Common Case)
Существительное в общем падеже не имеет специального оконча-
Существительные, имеющие одну форму ния. Для выражения связей данного существительного с другими словами
в предложении (которые в русском языке выражаются падежными окон-
единственного и множественного числа чаниями) форма существительного в английском языке не изменяется, а
падежные отношения выражаются порядком слов и предлогами.
species вид species виды Английскому существительному в общем падеже с предлогом мо-
series серия, ряд series серии, ряды жет соответствовать русское существительное в косвенном падеже без
facies фация facies фации предлога и с предлогом.
means средство, способ means средства, способы Английские предлоги of, to, with, by являются наиболее характер-
evidence доказательство ными предлогами, соответствующими русским косвенным падежам без
Примечание: В отличие от русского языка существительные work of – родительному падежу
работа; money деньги; advice совет, советы; evidence доказательство, дока- to – дательному падежу
зательства; knowledge знание, знания; progress успех, успехи; information by, with – творительному падежу
сведения, сообщения, информация; news новость, новости – в английском of = about – предложному падежу с предлогами
языке являются неисчисляемыми существительными и, следовательно, не о и об
употребляются с неопределенным артиклем. Они сочетаются со словами The center of the city. Центр города.
much, little и глаголами только в единственном числе. The window of my room is large. Окно моей комнаты большое.
work Give this book to your boy. Дайте эту книгу своему мальчику.
much news He goes there by bus. Он ездит туда автобусом.
knowledge is (was)… He writes with a pen. Он пишет ручкой.
little money

213 214
При этом with употребляется с существительным, обозначающим Притяжательный падеж существительных, не имеющих во множе-
орудие действия; by – с существительным, обозначающим действующее ственном числе -s (men, children), образуется прибавлением -‘s (как и в
лицо или действующую силу. единственном числе).
He was killed with a knife. Он был убит ножом. The children’s room. Комната детей.
He was killed by the fascists. Он был убит фашистами.
This machine is driven by electricity. Эта машина приводится в действие Существительное в притяжательном падеже исключает употребле-
электричеством. ние артикля перед следующим за ним существительным. На русский
язык оно обычно переводится существительным в родительном падеже
Те же самые предлоги могут соответствовать русским косвенным или притяжательным прилагательным.
падежам с предлогами: Pete’s friends. Друзья Пети. Петины друзья.
Go to the blackboard, please. Идите к доске, пожалуйста.
He went to the concert yesterday. Он ходил на концерт вчера. Для выражения принадлежности часто наряду с существительными
We shall go to the University tomor- Мы пойдем в университет завтра. в притяжательном падеже употребляется существительное с предлогом
row. (также переводимое на русский язык родительным падежом).
He lives with his parents. Он живет со своими родителями. The children of my sister.
Who is standing by the window? Кто стоит у окна? Дети моей сестры.
One of my friends is a pilot. Один из моих друзей летчик. My sister’s children.
What are you thinking of (about)? О чем Вы сейчас думаете? The reports of the students.
Доклады студентов.
The students’ reports.
Притяжательный падеж (Possessive Case)
Возможны сочетания существительного с of и притяжательного
Существительное в притяжательном падеже является определени- падежа.
ем к другому существительному, перед которым оно стоит, выражает The work of my friend’s father. Работа отца моего друга.
принадлежность предмета или его отношение к другому предмету и отве- The address of my best friend’s par- Адрес родителей моего лучшего
чает на вопрос whose? чей? ents. друга.
Как правило, в форме притяжательного падежа употребляются оду-
шевленные существительные. В форме притяжательного падежа могут также употребляться не-
которые неодушевленные существительные, обозначающие время, рас-
Притяжательный падеж существительных в единственном числе стояние, страны, города, а также слова world, country, city, ship, the sun,
образуется прибавлением к ним окончания -‘s, которое произносится со- the moon, the earth, today, yesterday.
гласно правилам произношения окончания -s множественного числа су- An hour’s interval. Часовой перерыв.
ществительных. A five minutes’walk. Пятиминутная прогулка.
The student’s answer. Ответ студента. The soviet Union’s policy. Политика Советского Союза.
Petrov’s report. Доклад Петрова. The earth’s surface. Поверхность земли.
The actress’s dress. Платье актрисы. The moon’s light. Свет луны (лунный свет).
Today’s newspaper. Сегодняшняя газета.
Притяжательный падеж существительных во множественном числе
(оканчивающихся на -s) образуется прибавлением к ним на письме одного
апострофа и на слух ничем не отличается от единственного числа. Функции имени существительного в предложении
The students’ books. Книги студентов. Существительное в общем падеже может быть в предложении:
The student’s books. Книги студента. 1) Подлежащим.
The student is reading. Студент читает.
215 216
2) Именной частью составного именного сказуемого. Factory workers Фабричные рабочие
He is a student. Он студент. Communist Party members Члены коммунистической партии
Labour Government Policy Политика лейбористского прави-
3) Дополнением (прямым, косвенным беспредложным, косвен- тельства
ным предложным). Earth gravity measurement Измерение земного тяготения
I see my sister (Ann) every day Я вижу мою сестру (Анну) каждый The World Health Organization Всемирная организация здравоохра-
день нения
I can tell my sister (Ann) about Я могу сказать моей сестре (Анне) о Polar Research and Development Центр по исследованию и развитию
the meeting. собрании. Centre полярных районов
I often speak with my sister Я часто разговариваю с моей сестрой
(Ann) about it. (Анной) об этом. Структура существительных
При отсутствии косвенного дополнения прямое дополнение стоит По своей структуре существительные бывают:
после глагола. Простые: book книга
I know this student (him) well. Я знаю этого студента (его) хорошо. table стол
При наличии косвенного и прямого дополнений косвенное допол- Производные: (с суффиксами и префиксами)
нение ставится перед прямым или с предлогом to после него. darkness темнота
I can give this student (him) my Я могу дать этому студенту (ему) friendship дружба
text-book. мой учебник. misprint опечатка
I can give my text-book to this stu- Я могу дать мой учебник этому Сложные: courtroom судебный зал
dent (to him). студенту (ему). newspaper газета
Если же прямое дополнение выражено местоимением, оно всегда textbook учебник
стоит перед косвенным дополнением. earth quake землетрясение
Here is the letter. Send it to Peter. Вот письмо. Отправьте его Петру. courtroom зал судебного заседания
Send Peter this letter.
Send this letter to Peter.
4) Обстоятельством. (The Adjective)
He stood behind the door. Он стоял за дверью.
Общие сведения
5) Определением.
К числу прилагательных относятся слова, обозначающие свойства
The window of this room is large. Окно этой комнаты большое.
предметов, например: large, blue, simple, delightful, progressive. В
A bright winter day. Ясный зимний день.
предложении они обычно выполняют функции:
Из примеров видно, что в английском языке отношение существи- 1) определения к существительным, например:
тельного к другим словам в предложении определяется его местом в It was early spring. Была ранняя весна.
предложении и предлогами.
2) предикатива (т.е. именной части составного сказуемого), на-
Большую трудность для перевода с английского языка на русский пример:
представляют двух- или многоэлементные определения, выраженные The weather was cold yet. Погода все еще была холодная.

217 218
3) части составного глагольного сказуемого, например: happy – happier – happiest; simple = simpler – simplest;
She lay motionless with her Она лежала неподвижно, и голова ее 3) двусложные прилагательные с ударением на втором слоге, на-
head towards the wall. была повернута к стене. пример: polite – politer – politest.
Вторым способом образуют степени сравнения все остальные при-
4) объектного предикатива, например: лагательные, не вошедшие в первую группу, например: careful – more
I thought him very clever. Я считал его очень умным. careful – most careful; personal – more personal – most personal; tired – more
tired – most tired; afraid – more afraid – most afraid.
5) субъектного предикатива, например: Несколько прилагательных образуют степени сравнения не по об-
The door was closed tight. Дверь была плотно закрыта. щему правилу:
good – better – best;
Прилагательные bad – worse – worst;
far – farther – farthest (о расстоянии);
Простые good, bad, long, large, easy
far – further – furthest (о времени и расстоянии);
Производные суффиксы: префиксы: late – later – latest (о времени);
-ful beautiful un- untrue late – latter – last (о порядке следования);
-less useless in- insin- old – older – oldest (о возрасте);
-able comfortable im- cere old – elder – eldest (о старшинстве, употребляется только как оп-
-ous famous ir- impos- ределение к существительному).
-y lucky sible Сравнительная степень прилагательных употребляется, когда срав-
-ly lovely irrele- ниваются два предмета, действия и явления, например:
-ish reddish vant My father is much older than my Мой отец значительно старше
-en golden mother. моей матери.
Составные snow-white, dark-blue He found the work easier than he Он нашел, что работа была легче,
had expected. чем он предполагал.
Прилагательные в английском языке не изменяются ни по паде-
I’m now more experienced than Я теперь более опытен, чем два
жам, ни по числам, но они образуют степени сравнения.
two years ago. года назад.
Степени сравнения прилагательных
Превосходная степень прилагательных употребляется при сравне-
В английском языке различают три степени сравнения прилага- нии трех и более предметов, действий или явлений, например:
тельных: положительную (the positive degree), сравнительную (the com- Mine is the smallest study in the Мой кабинет самый маленький в
parative degree) и превосходную (the superlative degree). office. офисе.
Прилагательные в положительной степени не имеют никаких Pete is the best student of us all. Пит учится лучше нас всех.
окончаний, например: slow, straight, productive, curious.
Сравнительная и превосходные степени у одних прилагательных Равное качество предметов, действий и явлений выражается с по-
образуются с помощью суффиксов -er и -est, а у других – прибавлением мощью союзов as … as, например:
слов more и most. It was as cold as in winter there. Там было холодно, как зимой.
Первым способом степени сравнения образуют: The trial was as complex as the Этот судебный процесс был та-
1) односложные прилагательные, например: new – newer – newest; Brown’s. кой же сложный, как и судебное
quick – quicker – quickest; дело Брауна.
2) двусложные прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на -er, -ow, -y и
-le, например: clever – cleverer – cleverest; narrow – narrower – narrowest;
219 220
Неравное качество предметов, действий или явлений выражается с Употребление
помощью not so … as или not as … as, например: 1. Определение They live in the new house.
The sun is now not so (as) hot as in Солнце сейчас не такое жаркое, 2. Часть сказуемого My house is new.
the afternoon. как днем. Перевод
Уменьшение качества выражается с помощью less … than, напри-
This lawyer is less experienced Этот юрист менее опытен, чем
than that one. тот. (The Adverb)
Параллельное возрастание (или уменьшение) качества предметов,
Наречие – это слово, обозначающее признак действия или качества.
действий или явлений выражается с помощью конструкций the -er … the
Большинство наречий образовано от соответствующих прилага-
-er, или more … as … -er, например:
тельных с помощью суффикса -ly, например: slow – slowly, careful – care-
The longer I stay here the better I Чем дольше я нахожусь здесь, тем
like it. больше мне здесь нравится.
В этой группе имеются наречия, форма которых не отличается от
He became more careful as he grew С возрастом он стал более осто-
формы соответствующих прилагательных. Различить их можно только на
older. рожным.
основе их функций в предложении, например:
There were not so many cases in early В ранние времена не было так
Степени сравнения time. много законов.
Положи- The thief was caught early in the Вора поймали рано утром.
Сравнительная Превосходная
тельная morning.
Односложные long longer the longest He drew a straight line. Он провел прямую линию.
large larger the largest He went straight home. Он пошел прямо домой.
easy easier the easiest Следует обратить внимание на то, что в английском языке есть па-
Многосложные beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful ры наречий, которые образованы от одного корня, но резко отличаются
impossible more impossible the most impossible друг от друга по смыслу, например:
difficult more difficult the most difficult late – поздно near – близко hard – упорно (много)
Исключения good better the best lately – в последнее время nearly – почти hardly – едва
bad worse the worst
little less the least
many more the most He came late. Он пришел поздно.
much more the most He has been busy lately. Он был занят в последнее время.
far farther (further) the farthest (furthest) She lives near the university. Она живет близко от университета.
The trial is nearly finished. Судебное рассмотрение почти закончено.
Сравнительные конструкции He works hard. Он много (упорно) работает.
He can hardly walk. Он едва может ходить.
The result of the experiment is much better
than that of the previous one.
Большинство наречий являются неизменяемыми словами, но ряд
as … as This result is as good as that one.
наречий образа действия имеют формы сравнительной и превосходной
not so … as This result is not so good as that one.
степеней, которые они образуют в основном с помощью more и most,
the (more) … the (less) The more we study the less we know. например: quickly – more quickly – most quickly; carefully – more carefully
– most carefully.
221 222
Только небольшое количество наречий образует степени сравнения 2. Вопросительное слово Where do you work?
с помощью -er и -est, например: soon – sooner – soonest; early – earlier – 3. Союзное слово Here is the house where he lives.
earliest. How I should do it is not known.
Наречия well, badly, far, late образуют степени сравнения так же, The question is how I should do it.
как и соответствующие прилагательные, не по общему правилу. I don’t know how I should do it.
Следует, однако, помнить, что наречия в превосходной степени Перевод
практически не употребляются. Наречиями
Простые well, much, very, often
Производные partly, quickly, hardly Настоящее неопределённое
Составные Sometimes, somewhere, anywhere, no- (Present Simple)
where, since then, so far
Present Simple совпадает с первой основной формой глагола – ин-
Совпадающие по форме
финитивом без частицы to для всех лиц и чисел, кроме третьего лица
– с прилагательными fast, hard, late
единственного числа. В этой форме к основе инфинитива прибавляется
He is working fast. It is a fast train.
окончание -s или -es.
– с предлогами after, before, since
Окончание -s прибавляется к основе большинства глаголов:
I haven’t seen him since. I haven’t seen
(to) write – he writes (писать – он пишет);
him since that day.
(to) work – he works (работать – он работает).
– с союзами since, when, where, but
Окончание -es используется тогда, когда глагол в инфинитиве
I haven’t seen him since. I haven’t seen
оканчивается на:
him since he went there.
а) s, ss, ch, sh, tch, x:
(to) dress – he dresses (одеваться – он одевается);
Степени сравнения (to) watch – he watches (наблюдать – он наблюдает)
Положительная Сравнительная Превосходная б) у, перед которым стоит согласная; у при этом меняется на i:
Односложные fast faster fastest (to) try – he tries (пытаться – он пытается).
late later latest Окончание третьего лица единственного числа читается как [s] по-
early earlier earliest сле глухих согласных, как [z] после звонких согласных и гласных и как
Многосложные slowly more slowly most slowly [iz] - после s, ss, sh, ch, tch, x: asks [a:sks], reads [ri:dz], tries [traiz], dresses
beautifully more beautifully most beautifully ['dresiz].
Исключения well better best Вопросительная форма present simple образуется при помощи
badly worse worst вспомогательного глагола does для третьего лица единственного числа и
little less least глагола do для остальных лиц и чисел.
much more most Отрицательная форма present simple образуется при помощи
far farther (further) farthest (furthest) вспомогательного глагола do или does и отрицания not.
Не speaks. Он говорит.
Употребление Does he speak? Говорит ли он?
1. Обстоятельство: Не does not speak. Он не говорит.
– при глаголе He is working fast.
– при прилагательном He is a very good speaker.
– при наречии He speaks English very well.
223 224
Формы глагола в Present Simpe if если, in case в случае, supposing предположим, unless если
не, when когда, before перед, till (until) до, as soon as как
Форма только, provided если только, while пока и др.
Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная (В соответствующих русских предложениях глагол стоит в
Ед. I (you) ask. Не (she, Do I (you) ask? Does I (you) do not ask. будущем времени.)
it) asks. he (she, it) ask? He (she, it) does not If you interrogate him, you will understand the reason.
ask. (Если вы допросите его, то поймёте причину.)
Мн. We (you, they) ask. Do we (you, they) ask? We (you, they) do When John comes home, he will be shocked.
not ask. (Когда Джон придёт домой, он будет шокирован.)

В разговорной речи вместо полных форм обычно используют со- Present Simple часто употребляется с наречиями, выражающими
кращенные: don't [dount], doesn't [daznt]. частотность: always всегда, often часто, seldom редко, sometimes иногда,
never никогда, hardly ever почти никогда, nearly always почти всегда,
Present Simple употребляется в основном: usually обычно, generally как правило и т. д. Наречия обычно ставятся
1) для обозначения простых фактов и общих истин: перед глаголом:
The coffee beans grow well in Brazil. I always get up early. Я всегда встаю рано.
(Кофейные бобы хорошо растут в Бразилии.) We often go to the theatre. Мы часто ходим в театр.
Water boils at 100 degrees C. They never have quarrels. Они никогда не ссорятся.
(Вода закипает при 100° С.)
The early bird catches the worm. В предложениях с глаголом to be наречия, выражающие частот-
(Кто рано встает, того удача ждет.) ность, стоят после форм этого глагола:
She is sometimes afraid of darkness. Иногда она боится темноты.
2) для выражения повседневных, повторяющихся действий, привы-
чек, обычаев:
I have a cup of coffee every morning. Настоящее продолженное
(Каждое утро я выпиваю чашку кофе.) (Present Continuous)
You aren't going to leave me behind? I always go with you.
(Ты ведь не уедешь без меня? Я всегда езжу с тобой.) Present continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного гла-
The traditions of boyhood live on in us. гола to be в настоящем времени и четвертой основной формы смыслового
(В нас всегда живут традиции, заложенные в детстве.) глагола.
I am speaking. Я говорю.
3) для выражения будущего действия: Не is speaking. Он говорит.
а) программы, расписание We are speaking. Мы говорим.
The plane for Glasgow leaves at 10.05 on Tuesday morning. При образовании вопросительной формы глагол to be ставится пе-
(Самолёт в Глазго отправляется в 10.05 во вторник утром.) ред подлежащим:
John leaves for Moscow next week. Is he speaking? Говорит ли он?
(Джон уезжает в Москву на следующей неделе.) При образовании отрицательной формы между глаголом to be и
б) в условных и временных обстоятельственных предложениях формой смыслового глагола ставится отрицание not.
после союзов: Не is not speaking. Он не говорит.

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Формы глагола в Present Continuous They are leaving Moscow next week. They are going to the south.
(На следующей неделе они уезжают из Москвы. Они едут на юг.)
Форма Глаголы чувственного восприятия (to hear слышать, to see ви-
Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная деть), умственной деятельности (to know знать, to understand понимать,
Ед. I am asking. You are Am I asking? Are I am not asking. You to remember помнить, to forget забывать), чувств (to like нравиться, to
asking. He (she, it) is you asking? Is he are not asking. He love любить, to hate ненавидеть), желания (to want хотеть, to wish же-
asking. (she, it) asking? (she, it) is not asking. лать), принадлежности (to belong принадлежать, to possess владеть) и
Мн. We (you, they) are Are we (you, they) We (you, they) are глагол to be быть, как правило, не употребляются в Present Continuous.
asking. asking? not asking. Некоторые глаголы могут употребляться в Present Continuous, но
приобретают другое смысловое значение:
В разговорной речи вместо полных форм обычно используют со- to think – * “думать; полагать”
кращенные: isn't ['iznt], aren't [a:nt]. e.g. I think it is a serious crime.
Обратите внимание, что в английском языке формы единственного * “обдумывать”
и множественного числа второго лица совпадают. e.g. What are you thinking about?
You are speaking English Ты говоришь по-английски.
Вы говорите по-английски. to see – * “видеть; понимать”
e.g. I see what you mean.
Present Continuous представляет собой длительный вид настоящего e.g. I see there is a problem in representing facts.
времени и употребляется в следующих случаях. * “встречаться”
1. Для выражения действия, протекающего в момент речи или в на- e.g. We’re seeing Jenny tonight to decide the case in an im-
стоящий период времени. В этом случае настоящее продолжен- partial way.
ное указывает на то, что действие, совершающееся в настоящий to hear – * “слышать”
момент, началось до этого момента и будет продолжаться после e.g. They hear him giving evidence in the courtroom.
него. На длительный характер действия могут указывать обстоя- * “получать известие”
тельства времени: now, right now, at this moment сейчас, в дан- e.g. The witness looks forward to hearing from
ный момент, today сегодня, this week (month, year) на этой неде- to feel – * “понимать; чувствовать”
ле (в этом месяце, году) и т. д.: e.g. I feel that something goes wrong.
It's raining hard today, and the children are playing inside all the * “ощущать; чувствовать себя …”
time. e.g. “What’s the matter with you? Are you feeling well?”
(Сегодня идет сильный дождь, и дети играют дома целый день.)
Helen is listening to the news on the radio right now. to look – * “выглядеть”
(Как раз сейчас Елена слушает последние известия по радио.) e.g. The policeman has worked all the night long. He looks
It's noon. I'm sitting in the park. Some children are playing with a very tired.
ball. An old man is reading a paper. * “смотреть”
(Полдень. Я сижу в парке. Несколько детей играют в мяч. Пожи- e.g. The investigator is looking at the suspects’ photos.
лой человек читает газету.) to smell – * “иметь запах”
2. Для выражения будущего действия (как и настоящее время в e.g. It smells of burnt paper here.
русском языке), когда налицо намерение совершить действие * “нюхать”
или уверенность в его совершении. В этом случае на будущее e.g. “Why is he smelling the bottle of perfume?
действие указывают наречия tomorrow завтра, soon скоро и др. Is it the same scent we felt at the place of crime?”
или контекст:
227 228
to taste – * “иметь вкус” правило, не указывается, оно не имеет значения, так как важен
e.g. The meal tastes wonderful. сам факт совершения действия к настоящему моменту или его
* “пробовать” результат.
e.g. They are tasting the meal. I have seen the film and I think it is dull.
(Я видал фильм и считаю eго скучным.)
Сочетание Present Continuous глагола to go с инфинитивом очень Форма have seen выражает действие, которое закончилось к
часто употребляется для выражения намерения совершить действие или моменту речи, до настоящего времени, то есть преднастоящее.
уверенности в его совершении. С настоящим его связывает результат – мнение о фильме.
I'm going to work in summer. Я собираюсь работать летом. Ann has read this book.
(Аня (уже) прочитала эту книгу.)
Если время действия указано, то употребляется Past Simple:
Настоящее совершенное Ann read this book last month.
(Present Perfect) (Энн читала эту книгу в прошлом месяце.)
В этом значении Present Perfect часто употребляется с наре-
Present Perfect образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола чиями just только что и already уже, а в отрицательных пред-
to have в настоящем времени (have, has) и третьей основной формы смы- ложениях – с yet еще. Эти наречия подчеркивают тот факт, что
слового глагола. действие, которое началось в прошлом, завершилось очень
В вопросительном предложении вспомогательный глагол ставится близко к моменту речи (к настоящему моменту).
перед подлежащим. The mail has just come.
В отрицательном предложении после вспомогательного глагола (Почта только что пришла.)
ставится отрицание not. We have already come to a definite conclusion.
Не has asked. Он спросил. (Мы уже пришли к определенному заключению.)
Has he asked? Спросил ли он? I haven't seen her yet
He has not asked. Он не спросил. (Я ее еще не видел.)
В этом же значении Present Perfect употребляется с наречи-
Формы глагола в Present Perfect
ем lately недавно или of late в последнее время.
Форма I have seen many pictures lately (of late).
Число (В последнее время я посмотрел много картин.)
Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
I (you) have asked. Have I (you) I (you) have not asked.
Ед. Не (she, it) has asked? Has he He (she, it) has not 2. Для выражения действия, которое завершилось; но тот период,
asked. (she, it) asked? asked. в которое оно происходило, еще продолжается, может быть
We (you, they) Have we (you, We (you, they) обозначен обстоятельством времени today сегодня, this week на
Мн. этой неделе, this month в этом месяце, this year в этом году,
have asked. they) asked? have not asked.
this century в нашем веке:
В разговорной речи вместо полных форм обычно употребляются I have seen the film twice this week.
сокращенные: (Я дважды видел этот фильм на этой неделе.)
haven't [hevnt], hasn't [heznt]. Если время действия истекло, глагол употребляется в Past
Simple. Так, например, днем или вечером мы можем сказать:
Употребление Present Perfect I wrote a letter this morning.
1. Для выражения действия, завершившегося к моменту речи, по- (Сегодня утром я написал письмо.)
этому его можно назвать преднастоящим. Время действия, как Но если разговор происходит утром, то мы скажем:
229 230
I have written a letter this morning. 2. Весь период времени, охватываемый действием глагола в
И в первом, и во втором предложении глагол переводится на Present Регfect – от прошлого до настоящего включительно –
русский язык прошедшим временем. может передаваться предлогом for:
I have lived in Kiev for 3 years.
3. Для выражения действия, которое началось в прошлом, про- (Я живу в Киеве три года.)
должалось до настоящего времени и протекает в настоящем, В этом значении Present Perfect употребляется:
т. е. действие, которое охватывает целый период времени, а) с глаголами, с которыми невозможен Present Perfect Con-
включающий и настоящий момент (= преднастоящее + настоя- tinuous – to see, to hear и т. д.
щее): I haven't seen my friend for a week.
I have known him all my life. (Я не видел друга неделю.)
(Я знаю его всю жизнь. = Я знал его раньше и знаю сейчас.) б) с глаголами to live жить, to study учиться, изучать, to
I have always been in love with you.
work работать и др., выражающими процесс, длитель-
Я всегда вас любил. (= Я любил вас раньше и люблю те-
ное действие
I have worked at my report since early morning.
Глагол в Present Perfect в этом значении переводится на русский (Я работаю над докладом с утра.)
язык глаголом в настоящем времени. Но в этом случае возможна и форма Present Perfect Continu-
Примечания. ous: I have been working at my report since early morning.
1. Present Perfect употребляется в тех случаях, когда начало Present Perfect может употребляться с наречиями, обозначающими
действия передается посредством since с тех пор как, высту- частотность действия или выражающими неопределенность времени дей-
пающим: ствия, которые также употребляются со всей группой времен Simple (не-
a. в качестве союза: определенных) – Present Simple, Past Simple и Future Simple. Это наречия:
I have lived in Moscow since my family moved here in 1960. always всегда, often часто, seldom редко, ever когда-нибудь, never нико-
(Я живу в Москве, с тех пор как моя семья переехала сю- гда, hardly ever почти никогда т. д.
да в 1960 году.) I have never seen this man.
Since вводит придаточное предложение, в котором ука- (Я никогда не видела этого человека.)
зывается на начало действия в прошлом. В таких случаях, Have you ever been to the Hermitage?
как правило, глагол в главном предложении употребляется в (Вы когда-нибудь были в Эрмитаже?)
Present Perfect, а в придаточном – в Past Simple.
b. в качестве наречия:
We moved in Moscow in 1960. Настоящее перфектно-длительное
(Мы переехали в Москву в 1960 г.)
We have lived here since. (Present Perfect Continuous)
(С тех пор мы живём здесь.) Present Perfect Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательно-
c. в качестве предлога: го глагола to be в форме Present Perfect have been, has been и четвертой
We have lived in Moscow since 1960. основной формы смыслового глагола.
(Мы живём в Москве с 1960.) В вопросительном предложении первый вспомогательный глагол
В этих случаях вопросы к обстоятельству времени образу- have, has ставится перед подлежащим.
ются при помощи since when с каких пор или how long В отрицательном предложении после первого вспомогательного
глагола have, has ставится отрицание not.
Since when (How long) have you lived in London?
Не has been asking. Он спрашивал.
(С каких пор (сколько времени) вы живёте в Лондоне?)
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Has he been asking? Спрашивал ли он? Вопрос к обстоятельству времени в этих случаях начинается с
He has not been asking. Он не спрашивал. how long сколько, как долго.
How long have you been sitting here?
Формы глагола в Present Continuous (Сколько (как долго) ты уже сидишь здесь?)
Форма Если в момент речи действие, выраженное сказуемым, еще про-
Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная должается, глагол в Present Perfect Continuous переводится на
Ед. I (you) have been Have I (you) been I (you) have not been русский язык глаголом несовершенного вида в настоящем вре-
asking. He (she, it) asking? Has he (she, asking. He (she, it) has мени.
has been asking. it) been asking? not been asking.
Мн. We (you, they) have Have we (you; they) We (you, they) have 2. Чтобы подчеркнуть, что, хотя длительное действие только что
been asking. been asking? not been asking. закончилось, завершилось, результат его виден налицо.
“What's the matter? Why are you out of breath?”
Употребление Present Perfect Continuous “I've been running all the way.”
1. Чтобы подчеркнуть длительный характер действия, которое (Что случилось? Почему ты запыхался?
началось в прошлом и продолжается в настоящем. – Я бежал всю дорогу.)
“What are you doing here?” – Если действие, которое длилось какое-то время, к моменту речи
“I'm waiting to talk to the teacher. I have been waiting for almost уже закончилось, глагол в Present Perfect Continuous переводит-
twenty minutes, but he's still busy.” ся на русский язык глаголом несовершенного вида в прошед-
(– Что ты здесь делаешь? шем времени.
– Я жду, чтобы поговорить с учителем. Я жду уже почти 20
минут, но он все еще занят.)
В этом значении глагол в Present Perfect Continuous может быть Прошедшее неопределённое
взаимозаменяем глаголом в Present Perfect, хотя Present Perfect
Continuous выражает длительность действия более эмоциональ- (Past Simple)
но. Однако только Present Perfect может употребляться с глаго- Past Simple правильных глаголов образуется при помощи оконча-
лами, выражающими состояние, восприятие и т. д., которые не ния -ed или -d, прибавляемого к основе инфинитива. Окончание -ed ис-
употребляются в длительном виде. Начало действия может пользуется в большинстве случаев: to ask – he asked (спрашивать – он
быть обозначено предлогом (союзом) since с тех пор (как). спросил) to answer – he answered (отвечать – он ответил).
She has been reading since 3 o’clock (since morning, since I came). Окончание -d прибавляется к основе инфинитива, если она оканчи-
(Она читает с трёх часов (с утра, с тех пор как я пришла).) вается на е.
to invite – he invited (приглашать – он пригласил)
Период времени, в течение которого происходило действие, to decide – he decided (решать – он решил)
может быть выражен предлогом for со словосочетанием или на- Окончание -ed/-d читается как [id] после согласных t и d, как [d]
речием, служащим обстоятельством времени (all day long весь после звонких согласных, кроме d, и после гласных и как [t] – после глу-
день, the whole month целый месяц, lately недавно, за последнее хих согласных, кроме t: wanted [wantid], played [pleid], opened ['oupənd],
время и др.): worked [wə:kt].
Не has been reading for his exam all day long. Если глагол оканчивается на у, перед которым стоит согласная, у
(Он целый день готовится к экзамену.) перед окончанием -ed меняется на i.
to try – he tried (пытаться – он пытался)

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Если глагол оканчивается на согласную, которой предшествует (Мистер Уэст подошел к дому, достал из кармана ключ и от-
краткий гласный, конечная согласная обычно удваивается. крыл дверь.)
(останавливаться – он остановился)
to stop – he stopped; 3. Для описания обычных, повторяющихся действий в прошлом.
to plan – he planned; When Mr. Dance was a student, he used to ride a bike to classes.
to prefer – he preferred. (Когда мистер Данc был студентом, он бывало ездил на занятия
Past Simple неправильных глаголов образуется особо (вторая ко- на велосипеде.)
лонка таблицы неправильных глаголов). Неправильные глаголы нужно Last year we used to go to the skating-rink on Sundays.
запомнить сразу во всех основных формах. (В прошлом году мы обычно ходили на каток по воскресеньям.)
Вопросительная форма Past Simple образуется при помощи вспомо-
гательного глагола to do в форме did, который ставится перед подлежащим. Различие в употреблении Past Simple и Present Perfect
Основной глагол при этом ставится в форме инфинитива без частицы to. Употребление Past Simple Употребление Present Perfect
Отрицательная форма Рast Simple образуется при помощи вспо- 1. Past Simple выражает действие, 1. Present Perfect показывает, что
могательного глагола to do в форме did, за которым идет отрицание not. целиком относящееся к прошлому, действие, которое соверши-
Не asked. Он спрашивал. не связанное с настоящим. Поэто- лось, связано с настоящим, на что
Did he ask? Спрашивал ли он? му Past Simple употребляется с указывают наречия, с которыми
He did not! ask. Он не спрашивал. наречиями: ago тому назад (a употребляется Present Perfect (они
month ago месяц тому назад, в основном обозначают период
Формы глагола в Past Simple three days ago три дня тому назад времени в настоящем, который
Форма и т. п.), long ago давно, the other еще не закончен): today сегодня,
Число day на днях (в прошлом), yesterday различные сочетания с this этот
Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
Ед. и мн. I (you, he, she, it, we, Did I (you, he, she, I (you, he, she, it, we, вчера; с сочетаниями с last про- (this week на этой неделе, this
they) asked. it, we, they) ask? they) did not ask. шлый (last week на прошлой неделе, month в этом месяце, this year в
last month в прошлом месяце, last этом году и т. п.):
В разговорной речи вместо полной формы обычно используется year в прошлом году и т. п.); с ука- I have written several letters
сокращенная: didn't ['didn’t]. занием даты или периода времени today.
в прошлом (in July в июле, in 1990 в (Сегодня я написал несколько
Употребление Past Simple 1990 г. и т. д.): писем.)
1. Для описания действий, происходивших в прошлом, как завер- I wrote several letters yesterday. Mr. and Mrs. Gray have been to the
шившихся, так и не завершившихся в прошлом, но не связан- (Вчера я написал несколько писем.) theatre this week.
ных с настоящим. Прошедшее действие может характеризо- Mr. and Mrs. Gray went to the theatre (Мистер и миссис Грей были в
ваться обстоятельством времени (yesterday вчepa, last week на last week. театре на этой неделе.)
прошлой неделе, a month ago месяц назад, on Sunday в воскресе- (Мистер и миссис Грей ходили в Present Perfect употребляется с
нье, in 1990 в 1990 году и др.). театр на прошлой неделе.) наречием just только что:
I worked in London police from 1984 to 1997. Past Simple употребляется с наре- I've just bought a new dress.
(Я работал в лондонской полиции с 1984 по 1997.) чием just now только что: (Я только что купила новое пла-
I met your brother the other day. I saw that you came in just now. тье.)
(На днях я встретил твоего брата.) (Я видел, как вы только что
2. Для описании ряда последовательных действий в прошлом. вошли.)
Mr. West came up to the house, took the key out of his pocket and
opened the door.
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2. Past Simple употребляется в спе- 2. Present Perfect употребляется с В разговорной речи вместо полных форм обычно используются со-
циальных вопросах, начинающихся глаголом to be в значении съез- кращенные: wasn't, weren't.
с when и where, так как такие во- дить, побывать, навестить. После
просы относят действие к конкрет- глагола to be в этом значении су- Past Continuous обычно употребляется:
ной ситуации в прошлом: ществительное, выражающее об- 1. Для выражения конкретного действия, длившегося в точно ука-
Where did you see him? стоятельство места (направление), занный момент или период в прошлом, который обозначен либо
Где ты его видел? употребляется с предлогом to: обстоятельством времени, либо другим (одно действие на фоне
When did you see him? “Have you ever been to Belgrade?” другого) действием в прошлом. При этом ни начало, ни конец
Когда ты его видел? “Yes, I've been there once. I went длительного действия не известны.
(В ответе на этот вопрос может there in 1982.” When I entered the room he was reading a book.
быть и Past Simple, и Present Perfect – Ты когда-нибудь был в Бел- (Когда я вошла в комнату, он читал книгу.)
в зависимости от ситуации: граде? At three o'clock yesterday I was reading a book.
I saw him yesterday. – Да, я был там однажды. Я ездил (Я читала книгу вчера в три часа.)
Я видел его вчера. туда в 1982 г.
2. Для выражения длительного действия, протекавшего в опреде-
I have just seen him.
ленный период времени в прошлом (from six to seven с шести
Я только что его видел.)
до семи, all day long last Saturday весь день в прошлую субботу,
the whole day yesterday весь вчерашний день и т. д.).
I was writing a composition the whole day yesterday.
Прошедшее продолженное (Вчера я целый день писал сочинение.)
(Past Continuous)
И в этом случае начало и конец длительного действия не известны;
Past Continuous образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to важно только, что оно длилось весь указанный период времени. В обоих
be в прошедшем времени и четвертой основной формы смыслового глагола. случаях Past Continuous употребляется, когда нужно подчеркнуть сам
Не was speaking. Он говорил. процесс действия, его продолжительность. Если же важен только факт
We were speaking. Мы говорили. совершения действия, то употребляется Past Simple.
При образовании вопросительной формы глагол to be ставится пе-
ред подлежащим. 3. Кроме того, Past Continuous может употребляться для выраже-
При образовании отрицательной формы между глаголом to be и ния одновременных действий, протекавших в прошлом в один и
формой смыслового глагола ставится отрицание not. тот же момент.
Was he speaking? Говорил ли он? The children were playing while their mother was watching them.
Не was not speaking. Он не говорил. (Дети играли, в то время как их мать наблюдала за ними.)
While my mother was reading a book I was playing the piano.
Формы глагола в Past Continuos (Пока мама читала книгу, я играла на пианино.)
As I was taking a shower, my mother was cooking breakfast.
Утвердительная Вопросительная Отрицательная
Число (В то время, когда я принимала душ, мама готовила завтрак.)
форма форма форма
Ед. I (he, she, it) was Was I (he, she, it) ask- I (he, she, it) was not 4. Past Continuous может выражать намерение, относящееся к про-
asking. ing? asking. шлому, в основном с глаголами движения: to come приходить,
You were asking. Were you asking? You were not asking. to go идти, to leave уезжать, to start отправляться и др.:
Мн. We (you, they) Were we (you, they) We (you, they) were not My friend was glad that I was leaving for the South.
were asking. asking? asking. (Мой друг порадовался, что я собираюсь ехать на юг.)
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Примечание. We hurried to the theatre. We got Мы поспешили в театр. Без чет-
Past Continuous, как правило, не употребляется с глаголами чувст- there at a quarter to eight. The верти восемь мы вошли в зал.
венного восприятия. show had already begun. My friend Представление уже началось. Мой
looked around. He had never been друг посмотрел вокруг. Он никогда
to this theatre before. не был в этом театре раньше.
Прошедшее совершенное
(The Past Perfect Tense)
Прошедшее совершенное продолженное
1. Прошедшее время группы Perfect употребляется для обозначения (The Past Perfect Continuous Tense)
действия, уже совершившегося до определенного момента в прошлом и
соотнесенного с этим моментом в прошлом, а не с моментом речи (то 1. Прошедшее время группы Perfect Continuous образуется при по-
есть не с настоящим моментом). мощи глагола to be в Past Perfect и причастия I смыслового глагола:
Прошедшее время группы Perfect образуется при помощи вспомо-
I had been waiting for 2 hours. (Я прождал 2 часа).
гательного глагола have в форме прошедшего времени и причастия II-
смыслового глагола: Для образования вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол
had ставится перед подлежащим:
I had read the book by five o’clock yesterday.
Had he been waiting for 2 hours. (Он прождал 2 часа).
(Вчера к пяти часам я прочитал книгу).
Для образования отрицательной формы отрицательная частица
Для образования вопросительной формы вспомогательный глагол not ставится после вспомогательного глагола had.
had ставится перед подлежащим:
He had not been waiting long. (Он недолго ждет).
Had he read the book by five o’clock yesterday?
Прошедшее время группы Perfect Continuous обозначает действие,
которое началось в указанный момент в прошлом и совершалось некото-
Для образования отрицательной формы отрицательная частица not
рое время, включая другой указанный момент (или вплоть до него).
ставится после вспомогательного глагола had.
He had not read the book by five o’clock yesterday 2. The Past Perfect Continuous употребляется:
а) когда в предложении обозначен период времени, в течение
2. Определенный момент в прошлом может быть выражен точным которого действие происходило до определенного момента в прошлом и
указанием времени (года, числа, часа и т. д.) с предлогом времени by (к) (или) включая его; этот период времени обычно обозначается обстоятель-
или другим прошедшим действием, событием или ситуацией: ством времени с предлогом for.
I had already read the book when my friend rang me up. He had been working for two hours by the time I came back.
(Я уже прочитал книгу, когда мой друг позвонил мне (Он работал уже два часа до того времени, когда я вернулся).
( к тому моменту, когда он позвонил мне)).
б) когда в предложении обозначен момент в прошлом, с которо-
го начиналось действие; этот момент обозначается обстоятельством вре-
3. В английском языке в повествовании при описании последова-
мени с предлогом since (c), придаточным (с тех пор, как) или наречием
тельных событий в прошлом употребляется прошедшее время группы
since (с тех пор).
Indefinite. Если же последовательное изложение событий нарушается, т.е.,
если указывается действие, которое произошло ранее, оно выражается Mary had been translating the article since 9 o’clock yesterday.
прошедшим временем группы Perfect. (Вчера Мэри переводила эту статью с 9 часов).
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3. Глаголы, не имеющие формы Continuous, употребляются в фор- Будущее совершенное продолженное время (Future Perfect Pro-
ме Perfect, а не Perfect Continuous. К ним относятся глаголы, выражающие gressive)
чувства, восприятия и умственную деятельность, а также некоторые дру- Oбразуется с помощью глагола to be в форме Future Perfect (shall
гие глаголы, например: to want – хотеть, to like – нравиться, to love – have been, will have been) и причастия I смыслового глагола.
любить, to wish – желать, to see – видеть, to hear – слышать, to feel – The Future Perfect Progressive (Continuous) Tense выражает дейст-
чувствовать, to know – знать, to forget – забывать, to seem – казаться, to вие, которое началось до определенного момента в будущем и будет на-
be – быть и др. ходиться в процессе вплоть до этого момента, включая его.
I shall have been staying at this hotel for a week.

Будущие времена Другие способы выражения будущего времени

(Future) • The Present Progressive употребляется для выражения действия,
которое запланировано и определенно состоится в ближайшем будущем
Простое будущее время (Future Simple) (обычно с глаголами движения).
Образуется при помощи вспомогательных глаголов shall и will и I am leaving tonight.
инфинитива смыслового глагола без частицы to. He is coming to dinner on Thursday.
В современном английском языке есть тенденция к употреблению
вспомогательного глагола will для всех лиц. • Сочетание модального глагола to be и инфинитива указывает
на действие, которое было заранее запланировано и которое должно быть
The Future Simple (Indefinite) Tense выражает: выполнено:
1. Действие, которое будет совершено в будущем: It will be cold to- I’ve had a letter from home. I am to go back at once, my brother in
morrow. trouble.
2. Действие, которое будет происходить в течение какого-либо He is not to treat his child like that!
времени в будущем: I think I’ll be in love with you all my life. • Конструкция to be going + инфинитив обозначает намерение
3. Повторяющееся действие в будущем: Will you phone me every говорящего совершить действие в ближайшем будущем:
evening? I am going to tell him the truth.
She is going to explain it tomorrow.
Будущее продолженное время (Future Progressive)
Образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be в Future Различие между WILL и TO BE GOING TO
Simple (shall be, will be) и причастия I смыслового глагола. Will используется в том случае, когда во время разговора мы при-
The Future Progressive (Continuous) Tense выражает: нимаем спонтанное решение относительно чего-либо.
1. Действие в процессе в определенный момент в будущем. In an To be going to употребляется в случае, если говорящий решил что-
hour we will be listening to the trial at the Crown court. либо до момента разговора.
2. Действие, которое говорящий предвидит в будущем. I must go or
Сравним 2 примера:
my parents will be worrying about me.
1. I’ll have a party.- That’s a good idea. We’ll invite lots of friends.
2. Later that day. Helen meets Dave: Sue and I decided to make a party.
Будущее совершенное время (Future Perfect)
We’re going to invite you and other people.
Образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола have в Future
Simple (shall have, will have) и причастия II смыслового глагола.
The Future Perfect Tense выражает действие, закончившееся до оп-
ределенного момента в будущем.
They will have got our letter by Monday.

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Страдательный залог Употребление страдательного залога
(The Passive Voice) 1. Страдательный залог употребляется тогда, когда говорящий ли-
бо не знает, кто совершает действие, либо не придает этому
В английском языке значение залога выражается в форме глагола. значения.
Страдательный залог показывает, что действие глагола-сказуемого My car has been stolen. I was given a warrant.
направлено на лицо или предмет, выраженный существительным или ме-
стоимением в функции подлежащего. 2. Когда говорящий выражает процесс действия (или воздействия)
The man was arrested by the police, Мужчина был арестован полици- и состояние, наступившее в результате этого воздействия.
but now he is released. ей, но сейчас он освобожден.
That Law was adopted in 1969. Тот закон был принят в 1969 г. Страдательный залог употребляется с переходными глаголами.
He was helped to write a report. The boy is being looked for at the moment.
Образование страдательного залога Хотя есть переходные глаголы, с которыми пассивный залог не
В английском языку страдательный залог образуется с помощью возможен. Например: to resemble, to seem, to have, to possess, to suit, to
вспомогательного глагола to be в соответствующем времени и формы lack, to find out, to fit.
причастия II смыслового глагола. Это можно представить формулой: The boy resembles his father.
to be + Participle II (V3 смыслового глагола)
Страдательный залог также употребляется после некоторых непе-
The Passive Voice существует в следующих видовременных формах: реходных глаголов. Например: to attend, to answer, to join, to affect, to fol-
The Present Indefinite(Simple) – is, am, are + done (V3) low и др.
The Past Indefinite(Simple) – was, were + done (V3)
The Future Indefinite(Simple) – will(shall) + be + done(V3) Дополнение в предложении с глаголом-сказуемым в страдательном
The Present Continuous(Progressive) – is,am,are +being +done залоге употребляется с предлогом by или with:
The Past Continuous(Progressive) – was,were +being +done(V3) by – выражает действующее лицо или действующую силу.
The Present Perfect – have, has + been +done (V3) with – выражает орудие действия.
The Past Perfect – had + been + done (V3) The letter was written by a lawyer. The letter was written with a pencil.
The Future Perfect – will,shall + have been +done
В качестве вспомогательного глагола для образования форм стра-
Формы The Perfect Continuous и The Future Continuous отсутствуют. дательного залога все шире используется get вместо be, в этом случае get
выражает процесс, а be – его результат.
Вопросительная форма образуется путем переноса (первого) вспо- He got angered when he realized he was being manipulated.
могательного глагола на место перед подлежащим, например: (Его раздражение нарастало в течение некоторого времени.)
When was he arrested ? He was angered when he realized he was being manipulated.
Has he stolen the car ? (Его раздражение было немедленной реакцией, когда он осознал это.)
На русский язык глагол в страдательном залоге можно переводить
Отрицательная форма образуется с помощью отрицания not , кото- тремя способами:
рое ставится после первого вспомогательного глагола, например: 1) глаголом, оканчивающимся на -ся, -сь;
The letter will not (won’t ) be sent to the lawyer. 2) сочетанием глагола “быть” с краткой формой причастия страда-
В вопросительно-отрицательной форме первый вспомогательный тельного залога;
глагол ставится перед подлежащим, а частица not – после подлежащего. 3) глаголом в действительном залоге в 3-м лице множественного
Has the book not been written? числа в составе неопределенно-личного предложения;

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4) глаголом в действительном залоге (при наличии исполнителя Модальные глаголы Эквиваленты
действия). 1) являются недостаточными, т. к. 1) употребляются во всех грамма-
The case was considered by the Crown Court yesterday. не изменяются по временам, т. е. тических временах
Дело рассмотрел суд Короны вчера. Дело было рассмотрено судом не имеют личных форм (за исклю- I’m having to put up with his pres-
Короны вчера. Дело рассматривалось судом Короны вчера. чением could и might (past simple)) ence.
2) не имеют неличных форм (Ger- 2) могут иметь неличную форму
В английском языке глаголы, которые имеют два дополнения, мо- und, Infinitive, Participle) It was awful, not being able to see
гут образовывать страдательный залог двумя способами. you for so long.
К этим глаголам относятся: bring, give, lend, pass, pay, promise, sell, 3) вопросительная и отрицатель- 3) вопросительная и отрицатель-
send, show, tell, hand, ask, offer, teach. ная форма строится без вспомога- ная форма строится по правилам
Например: The police were given the information. The information was тельного глагола употребления личных форм
given to the police. I was handed a note. A note was handed to me. I cannot promise you anything Did you have to tell them about it?
Форма страдательного залога наблюдается после модальных глаго- 4) в составе сказуемого занимает 4) может употребляться после
лов и вспомогательных will, shall, would, should, иначе эта форма называ- первое место другого модального глагола
ется инфинитив в форме страдательного залога (The Infinitive Passive). Tom might be able to come tomorrow
Например: Мr. Jones will be arrested. They ought to have been pun- 5) требуют после себя употребления смыслового глагола в одной из
ished more severely. форм инфинитива:
без частицы to с частицей to
(за исключением ought to)
Модальные глаголы
Формы инфинитива
(The Modals)
В английском языке есть группа глаголов, которые выражают не Tenses действительный страдательный
действия, а только отношение к ним со стороны говорящего, оценку дей- (Active Voice) (Passive Voice)
ствия, т. е. возможность, необходимость, предположительность, должен- Indefinite to ask to be asked
ствование, разрешение и т. д. Они называются модальными, некоторые из Continuous to be asking -------------
них имеют эквиваленты. Perfect to have asked to have been asked
Perfect Continuous to have been asking -------------
Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты
Модальные глаголы Эквиваленты Употребление модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов
can (could) to be able to can (could) / to be able to
may (might) to be allowed to 1. Глагол can (could) выражает способность или возможность что-
Must to have to либо делать (мочь).
to be to He can analyse people’s handwriting.
Shall Это значение can может быть выражено конструкцией to be able to.
Should Helen can / is able to read well, even though she is only three.
ought to Ho: в значении “удалось, получилось” употребляется только was /
Need were able to (=managed), но не could.
Very few people were able to survive after explosion.
Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты имеют ряд формальных от-
личительных особенностей.
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2. Can может выражать разрешение. Но: для выражения отсутствия необходимости, разрешения не вы-
You can borrow my car. полнять действия используются not to have to, need not
3. Can (could) только в вопросительных и отрицательных∗ предло- You needn’t do it today
жениях может выражать сомнение, удивление, недоверие, невероятность. – для получения распоряжения или указания (что сделать или как
Can it be true? He can’t have said it. поступить) употребляется глагол shall
Shall I do again?
may (might) / to be allowed to
1. may (might)∗∗ может выражать разрешение. 2. must может выражать предположение с уверенностью (должно
May I come in? быть, очевидно, вероятно) – только в утвердительных предложениях.
Might I come too? The streets are wet. It must have been raining all the night.
В этом значении may соответствует to be allowed (разрешено): I must have seen you somewhere before. Your face is very familiar to me.
You’ll be allowed to ask for help;
not to be allowed (запрещено): should / ought to
You are not allowed to feed animals. 1. Глагол should имеет значение личного мнения, совета (следует,
2. may выражает предположение с оттенком сомнения, неуверенно- должен, нужно). Может употребляться:
сти (возможно, может быть) а) с простым инфинитивом, если высказываемое мнение относится
She may have left. к настоящему или будущему времени
В этом значении may (might) употребляется наряду с could (только One shouldn’t make a decision in a hurry;
в утвердительной форме). б) с перфектным инфинитивом, если высказываемое мнение отно-
You could have lost your keys. сится к прошедшему времени. В этом случае высказывание имеет оттенок
порицания, упрека
must / to have to / to be to The boy shouldn’t have gone out without the permission.
1. must может выражать обязанность, долг, необходимость.
You must warn him. 2. В значении совета, мнения и порицания, упрека употребляется
В этом значении must соответствует: также глагол ought to
1) to have to (to have got to), выражающему необходимость, вызван- He was sorry he had said things which he ought not to have said.
ную обстоятельствами (вынужден, приходится, должен)
She has had to give up her job because she can’t find a nurse need
to look after her bab;. Употребляется для выражения необходимости совершить действие
2) to be to, выражающему предварительную договоренность, обя- (нужно, надо)
занность, предусмотренную по плану, по расписанию (употребляется Need not (needn’t)
только в Present Past Simple) hurry
We were to meet her yesterday. don’t need to
– в отрицательной форме must not (mustn’t) имеет значение катего-
рического запрещения (нельзя, не должен, запрещается) You needn’t have come so early.
You mustn’t tell anybody else.

cannot (can’t) – перевод на русский язык: не может быть, вряд ли; неужели.
might – делает просьбу более вежливой.
247 248
Косвенная речь в) если действие придаточного предложения последует за дей-
ствием главного, т.е. по отношению к нему совершится в будущем,
(Reported Speech) то сказуемое этого предложения стоит в Future-in-the-Past∗. Ска-
Cодержание ранее высказанного сообщения можно передать прямой зуемое придаточного предложения переводится в этом случае гла-
речью (от лица говорящего) или косвенной речью (от лица передающего). голом в будущем времени:
I was sure you would come.
He says: “I need some help”. – He says (that) he needs help. – Я был уверен, что вы придете.
He said: “I need some help”. – He said (that) he needed help. I hoped that he would try to come in time.
– Я надеялся, что он постарается придти вовремя.
При употреблении косвенной речи соблюдаются следующие правила:
В английском языке время глагола в придаточном предложении за- Придаточное предложение в косвенной речи
висит от времени глагола главного предложения. Perfect
Simple Continuous Perfect
Главное Continuous
Время глагола в придаточном предложении не изменяется, если
предложение Present
глагол главного предложения стоит в настоящем или будущем времени.
you are busy вы заняты ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
He knows that you were busy Он знает, что вы были заняты
wrote (active was (were) had written had been writ-
you will be busy вы будете заняты voice) writing (active) ing
Он сказал was (were) (active) had been writ- (active)
1. Если глагол главного предложения стоит в одном из прошедших (что) written (passive was (were) ten
времен (обычно в Past Simple), то глагол в придаточном предложении He said (that) voice) being written (passive)
тоже должен употребляться в прошедшем времени. Происходит сдвиг (passive)
времен в прошедшие времена. Соблюдается правило согласования вре-
мен (Sequence of Tenses). Future
а) если действие придаточного предложения происходит одно- ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
временно с действием главного, то сказуемое придаточного пред- Future-in-the-Past
ложения стоит в Past Simple или Past Continuous и переводится на would write would be writ- would have would have
русский язык глаголом в настоящем времени: (active) ing written (active) been writing
He said he lived in Moscow. would be writ- (active) would have (active)
– Он сказал, что живет в Москве. ten (passive) been written
I thought that he was waiting for me in the hall. (passive)
– Я думал, что он ждет меня в холле.
Правила согласования времен распространяется и на косвенную
б) если действие придаточного предложения предшествовало речь.
действию главного, то сказуемое придаточного предложения стоит
в Past Perfect или Past Perfect Continuous и переводится на русский ∗
Future-in-the-Past образуется так же, как и соответствующие времена Fu-
язык глаголом в прошедшем времени:
ture, с той лишь разницей, что вместо shall и will употребляются вспомогатель-
He said he had lived in Moscow. ные глаголы should и would и соответствующий инфинитив смыслового глагола
– Он сказал, что жил в Москве. без to. Future-in-the-Past выражает будущие действия по отношению к прошед-
They informed us that they had sent the papers by post. шему моменту. Future-in-the-Past употребляется в придаточных предложениях,
– Они сообщили нам, что они послали документы почтой. когда сказуемое главного предложения выражено глаголом в прошедшем време-
249 250
She said: “I won’t speak without my lawyer.” the day after tomorrow – two days later
She said that she would not speak without her lawyer. next year – the following year, the next year
He said: “My car has been stolen.” yesterday – the day before
He said that his car had been stolen. the day before yesterday – two days before
ago – before
1. Косвенная речь вводится союзом that, который часто опускается: here – there
He said: “I have lost my keys.”
He said (that) he had lost his keys. “I’ll see you in the court tomorrow,” said Sue.
Sue said that she would see me in the court the next day.
2. Если в словах, вводящих прямую речь, употреблен глагол to say
без дополнения, указывающего на лицо, к которому обращают- Вопросительные предложения
ся с речью, то to say сохраняется. 6. Общие вопросы вводятся союзами if, whether, имеющими зна-
He said, “She will come in the evening.” чение частицы “ли”. В придаточных предложениях соблюдается
He said that she would come in the evening. порядок слов утвердительного предложения (прямой порядок
3. Если в словах, вводящих прямую речь, употреблен глагол to say She asked: “Does the conference on law problems start in March?”
(употребляется с предлогом to) с дополнением, то он заменяется She asked if the conference on law problems started in March.
глаголом to tell (употребляется без предлога):
He said to them: “I’m glad I can give you all the necessary informa- 7. Специальные вопросы вводятся тем же вопросительным сло-
tion.” вом, с которого начинается прямая речь. Соблюдается порядок
He told them (that) he was glad he could give them all the necessary слов утвердительного предложения (прямой порядок слов).
information.” He asked: “Who is invited to form the new Government?”
He asked who was invited to form the new Government.
Также глагол to say употребляется в следующих конструкциях: She said: “How do the members of the legislature vote in your coun-
“say something to somebody” try?”
Ann said goodbye to me and left. She asked how the members of the legislature voted in my country?”
What did you say to the police?
“say to do something” Побудительные предложения
The doctor said to stay in bed for a few days. 8. Для передачи побуждений в косвенной речи употребляются
простые предложения с инфинитивом с частицей to. Отрица-
4. Личные и притяжательные местоимения заменяются по смыслу: тельная форма повелительного наклонения заменяется инфини-
He said: “You have stolen my car!” тивом с частицей not. Если прямая речь выражает приказание,
He said that she had stolen his car. то глагол to say заменяется глаголом to tell (велеть), to order
(приказывать). Если прямая речь выражает просьбу, глагол to
5. Указательные местоимения и наречия времени и места заменя- say заменяется глаголом to ask (просить)
ются по смыслу другими словами: He said: “Coordinate your efforts with the police.”
this – that He asked to coordinate our efforts with the police.
these – those She said him: “Don’t fail to appear in the court!”
now – then She ordered him not to fail to appear in he court.
today – that day
tomorrow – the next day
251 252
9. Наряду с глаголами to tell, to ask, to order для введения косвен- Формы причастия I
ной речи употребляются многие другие:
To admit, to explain, to point out, to advise, to agree, to answer, to Participle I Active Passive
reply, to apologize, to congratulate, to decide, to invite, to inform, to non-perfect sending being sent
offer, to suggest, to promise, to refuse, to remind, to warn, to thank, perfect having sent having been sent
to protest, to beg, to request, to demand, to wonder.
Причастные обороты
He said: “I meet you after the sitting of the jury for a cup of coffee.” Сочетание неличной формы глагола с именем существительным
He promised to meet me after the sitting of the jury for a cup of cof- (или местоимением), выступающее в качестве одного члена предложения,
fee. называется предикативным оборотом, который соответствует по значе-
The thief said: “I stole the money.” нию придаточному предложению.
The thief admitted that he had stolen the money.
Сложное дополнение с причастием
(существительное в общем падеже или личное
Неличные формы глагола местоимение в объектном падеже + причастие)
(Non-finite forms of verb) Причастие I (non-perfect) и Participle II.
В английском языке имеются три неличные формы глагола: при- Сложное дополнение употребляется после глаголов, выражающих:
частие, инфинитив и герундий. Неличные формы не изменяются по лицам а) физическое восприятие (see, hear, watch, notice);
и не употребляются самостоятельно в роли сказуемого. Помимо глаголь- b) желание (want, wish, would like).
ных свойств неличные формы глагола обладают признаками других час- I saw him photographing the Я видел, как он фотографировал
тей речи. Monument. памятник.
The family wanted the case Родственники хотели, чтобы дело
The Participle (причастие) investigated by somebody else. расследовал кто-нибудь другой.
c) после глагола have в конструкции have something done (кон-
1. Причастие – неличная форма глагола, обладающая свойствами струкция означает, что действие производится не лицом-подлежащим, а
глагола, прилагательного и наречия. каким-либо другим лицом).
Английское причастие соответствует русским причастию и дее- I had my car repaired. Я отремонтировал автомобиль (но
причастию. не сам, мне его отремонтировали в
The facts illustrating his theory Факты, иллюстрирующие его тео- мастерской).
sound convicing. рию, звучат убедительно. She had her flat redecorated. Она сделала ремонт в квартире (ра-
Illustrating his theory, he gave a Иллюстрируя свою теорию, он при- ботали мастера).
lot of historical facts. вел много исторических фактов. She made a dress. Она сшила платье (сама).
She had a dress made. Она сшила платье (ей сшили в мас-
2. В английском языке различают причастие I (Participle I или Pre- терской).
sent Participle) и причастие II (Participle II или Past Participle). Participle I
выражает действие, являющееся признаком предмета (the boy sitting on the Глагол have в этой конструкции может употребляться в различных
chair – мальчик, сидящий на стуле) или сопутствующим действием (sitting временных формах.
on the chair he asked… – сидя на стуле, он спросил…). I am having my flat redecorated. Мне ремонтируют квартиру.
I’ve just had my flat redecorated. Мне только что отремонтировали
253 254
I’ll have my flat redecorated next Мне отремонтируют квартиру в Свойства причастия
month. будущем месяце.
1. Причастие имеет ряд глагольных свойств:
а) залог;
Независимый причастный оборот b) относительное время;
Как Participle I, так и Participle II могут быть вторым элементом c) имеет прямое дополнение;
особой конструкции – Nominative Absolute Participle Construction (незави- d) определяется наречием.
симого причастного оборота).
Первый элемент: существительное, личное местоимение, место- Залог
имение it или this (редко). What is the name of the police Как фамилия полицейского ин-
Второй элемент: причастие I (в любой из своих форм) одно или с inspector questioning this woman? спектора, допрашивающего эту
зависимыми словами. женщину?
Эта конструкция имеет самостоятельное подлежащее и чаще всего What’s the name of the woman Как зовут женщину, которую доп-
выражает время, причину или сопутствующие обстоятельства. На рус- being questioned? рашивают?
ский язык переводится придаточным обстоятельственным предложением. Having questioned the woman, Допросив женщину, инспектор
Подлежащим в таком предложении является существительное или место- the inspector no longer doubted больше не сомневался, что убий-
имение, к которому относится причастие. На письме независимый прича- that she was the murder. цей является она.
стный оборот выделяется запятой. Причастные обороты являются при- Having been questioned a second После того, как женщину допро-
надлежностью письменной речи. time, the woman realized, that сили еще раз, она поняла, что ее
she was suspected of the murder. подозревают в совершении этого
It being Sunday, the shops Так как было воскресенье, все убийства.
were closed. магазины были закрыты.
There being a lot of things to dis- Поскольку нужно было обсудить 2. Причастие имеет формы относительного времени, то есть вы-
cuss, the conference lasted long. много вопросов, конференция ражает одновременность или предшествование по отношению к другому
длилась долго. действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым. Неперфектная форма при-
частия I обозначает действие, одновременное с действием глагола-
Если независимый причастный оборот стоит в начале предложе- сказуемого, независимо от времени последнего.
ния, его перевод начинается со слов: так как, поскольку, когда; если же She is looking at the boys playing Она смотрит на мальчиков, иг-
независимый причастный оборот стоит в конце предложения, его перевод in the yard. рающих во дворе.
начинается со слов: причем, а, но. She looked at the boys playing in Она посмотрела на мальчиков,
the yard. игравших во дворе.
The situation being favourable, Так как ситуация была благо-
they bought the shares. приятной, они купили эти акции. Перфектная форма причастия I обозначает действие, предшест-
Members of Parliament Члены (английского) Парламента вующее действию глагола-сказуемого.
vote automatically with their parties, голосуют автоматически со сво- Причастия от глаголов hear, see, notice, learn, understand, realise,
the limit for the division being ей партией, причем голосование come, arrive и некоторых других имеют неперфектную форму, если вы-
six minutes. не должно занимать более шес- ражаемое ими действие непосредственно предшествует действию глаго-
ти минут. ла-сказуемого.

Hearing the news (when I heard Услышав эти новости (когда я

the news), I called him at once. услышал эти новости), я сразу
же позвонил ему.

255 256
Arriving at the station (when she Приехав на вокзал (когда она 2. Обстоятельство
arrived at the station), she called me приехала на вокзал), она сразу Обстоятельство (времени, причины, условия, образа действия и
up at once. же мне позвонила. др.), часто в сочетании с союзом (when, while, if, with).

Значение причастия II определяется контекстом. When asked, he couldn’t answer any- Когда его спросили, он не мог
If treated by a good specialist the Если больного будет лечить thing. ничего ответить.
thick man will recover хороший врач, он выздоровеет If asked, answer that you are busy. Если тебя спросят, ответь,
When treated by a good specialist, Когда больного начал лечить что ты занят.
the sick man began to feel better. хороший врач, он почувствовал When addressed, you have to stand up. Когда к тебе обращаются, ты
себя лучше. должен встать.
When changed, the article will be pub- При внесении изменений ста-
3. Причастие переходного глагола имеет дополнение lished. тья будет напечатана.
He sat at his desk writing something. Он сидел за столом и что-то
писал. В функции обстоятельства Participle II переводится придаточным
обстоятельственным предложением либо “при” + существительное.
4. Причастие может определяться наречием
Supported unanimously, the project Получив единогласную под- 3. Часть сказуемого
was approved. держку, проект был одобрен. Во временах группы Perfect и Passive Voice.
He has done it.
5. Причастию свойственны также некоторые черты прилагательно- The article was published.
го и наречия. Оно может выступать в роли тех же членов предложения,
что и прилагательное и наречие: является определением, именной частью Функции причастия I (Present Participle)
сказуемого и обстоятельством.
1. Определение (все формы, кроме перфектных форм причастия I).
Причастие отвечает в этом случае на вопрос: какой? какая? какое?
Функции Participle II
1. Определение На русский язык Participle I переводится:
В функции определения Participle II может стоять до и после опре- а) причастием действительного залога на -щий, -щийся, -щая, -щее,
деляемого слова и переводится на другой язык страдательным причасти- -щие, иногда -вший, -вшие, независимо от времени действия, выраженно-
ем или придаточным определительным предложением. го сказуемым.
We entered the deserted house. Мы вошли в дом, который был We often speak about our friends Мы часто говорим о наших друзь-
покинут жильцами. living in the south. ях, живущих на юге.
The machine constructed by him is Машина, сконструированная им,
very effective. очень эффективна. b) определительным придаточным предложением.
The engineers invited to our Инженеры, приглашенные в нашу The President said that one of the Президент сказал, одной из глав-
Laboratory work very well. лабораторию, работают хорошо main tasks facing humanity was to ных задач, которые стоят перед
(или: Инженеры, которых при- create a nuclear-free world. человечеством – создать мир без
гласили в нашу лабораторию …) ядерного оружия.

2. Часть сказуемого
The boys are running now. Мальчики сейчас бегут.

257 258
3. Обстоятельство (времени, причины, образа действия и др.). The house built in our street is very Дом, построенный на нашей ули-
When (while) arriving at the station Приехав на вокзал, он снова све- beautiful. це, очень красив.
he consulted he time-table again. рился с расписанием поездов. Houses built in Moscow every year Дома, строящиеся в Москве каж-

Being asked he couldn’t Когда его спросили, он не мог ниче- make our capital more and more дый год, делают нашу столицу
Having been asked answer го ответить. beautiful. все более красивой.
When asked anything
Being in London (as I was in Lon- Будучи в Лондоне (поскольку я был Причастие II переходных глаголов выражает состояние или качест-
don), I could not help them. в Лондоне), я не мог им помочь. во предмета, явившееся результатом воздействия на предмет извне (a
He asked questions looking at Он задавал вопросы, глядя на нас с locked door – закрытая дверь, a stolen book – украденная книга).
me suspiciously. подозрением. Причастие II непереходных глаголов самостоятельно не употреб-
ляется, а служит для образования глагольных форм группы Perfect.
На русский язык Participle I в функции обстоятельства переводится She has smiled. He has been living here for 20 years.
деепричастием несовершенного вида, оканчивающимся на -а, -я (напри- Причастие II переходных глаголов всегда пассивно по назначению
мер: лежа, сидя) или деепричастием совершенного вида с суфиксами -ав, (given – заданный, told – рассказанный).
-ив (например: сказав, решив). Глаголы, в которых заложена необходимость сочетаться с допол-
Reading English books you enlarge Читая английские книги, вы уве- нением, без которых значение самого глагола остается незавершенным,
your vocabulary личиваете свой словарный запас называются переходными (to tell a story, the truth, to give a book, to buy
Studying a foreign language students Изучая иностранный язык, сту- food).
should learn the words денты должны учить слова Глаголы, которым не требуется дополнения, называются непере-
ходными (to walk, to live, to smile).
Перед Participle I в функции обстоятельства часто стоят союзы
when или while. Такие причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным
предложениям времени. Инфинитив
While studying a foreign language Когда студенты изучают ино- (Infinitive)
students should learn new words странный язык, они должны
учить новые слова Инфинитив – это неличная форма глагола, т.е. он не изменяется по
лицам и числам (не спрягается).
Допустим такой перевод: При изучении иностранного языка … Формы инфинитива
(т.е. при + существительное). Active Passive
Indefinite (Non-Perfect) to try tо be tried
Функции причастия II (Past Participle) Perfect to have tried to have been tried
Participle II имеет только одну форму. Образуется добавлением
суффикса -ed к основе правильных глаголов, а причастие II неправильных Неперфектные формы to try и to be tried обозначают действия, од-
глаголов см. в третьей колонке неправильных глаголов. новременные с действием, выраженным глаголом-сказуемым, или буду-
Participle II на русский язык переводится страдательным причасти- щие по отношению к нему.
ем совершенного и несовершенного вида с суффиксами-окончаниями Перфектные формы to have tried и to have been tried обозначают
(-анный, -енный, -имый, -тый), а также причастиями, образованными от действия, совершенные ранее действия, выраженного глаголом-сказуе-
переходных глаголов (invented – изобретенный, изобретаемый, изобре- мым.
тавшийся). Формы действительного залога to try и to have tried обозначают
действия, совершаемые лицом (предметом). Формы страдательного зало-

259 260
га to be tried, to have been tried обозначают действия, совершаемые над 5. Определение.
лицом (предметом). Инфинитив в функции определения стоит после определяемого
Для перевода необходимо также устанавливать функцию инфи- существительного и отвечает на вопрос какой?
нитива, т. е. каким членом предложения является та или иная форма ин- а) Не had a great desire to interro- У него было огромное желание
финитива (по месту в предложении и вопросу). Инфинитив может быть gate the offender immediately. допросить правонарушителя не-
любым членом предложения. медленно.
Many measures to eliminate juve- Много мер для ликвидации (по ли-
1. Подлежащее. Стоит в начале предложения с последующим ска- nile delinquency are taken in this квидации) преступности несо-
зуемым. country. вершеннолетних принимается в
То consider cases honestly is the Рассматривать дела честно – этой стране.
duty of every judge. долг каждого судьи.
Инфинитив в Active Voice в функции определения переводится су-
ществительным в косвенном падеже с предлогом или неопределенной
2. Сказуемое. Сказуемое может быть частью сказуемого: а) состав-
формой глагола.
ного глагольного и б) составного именного.
б) The problem to be solved is impor- Проблема, которую надо решить,
а) Как часть составного глагольного сказуемого инфинитив упот-
tant. важна.
– после модальных глаголов:
Инфинитив в Passive Voice в функции определения переводится
You must read a lot. Вы должны много читать.
придаточным определительным предложением с союзом который и од-
– после глаголов, которые без инфинитива не имеют законченного
ним из слов: нужно, можно, должно, следует, будет.
значения (to begin, to continue, to finish, to end и некоторых других):
He began to read. Он начал читать.
Сложное подлежащее (Complex Subject)
б) Как часть составного именного сказуемого инфинитив обычно
употребляется после глагола-связки to be. Глагол-связка to be переводится Сложное подлежащее представляет собой сочетание существи-
словами быть (есть); значить, состоять в том, чтобы. тельного (в общем падеже) или местоимения (в именительном падеже) с
То live is to learn. Жить – значит учиться. инфинитивом.
Глаголами-сказуемыми в таких предложениях бывают следующие
3. Дополнение (стоит после сказуемого). группы глаголов.
I like to walk. Я люблю ходить пешком. I. В страдательном залоге.
При переводе инфинитива Passive в функции дополнения необходимо 1. Глаголы, выражающие умственную деятельность: to know –
брать союзы что, чтобы, когда и др. (по смыслу). знать; to believe – считать, полагать; to consider – считать; to expect –
Не wanted to be invited there. Он хотел, чтобы его пригласили туда. ожидать; to suppose – предполагать; to understand – понимать и др.
2. Глаголы, выражающие чувственное восприятие: to see – ви-
4. Обстоятельство цели. деть; to hear – слышать и др.
Инфинитив в функции обстоятельства цели может стоять как в на- 3. Глаголы, выражающие сообщение: to announce – объявлять; to
чале предложения (перед подлежащим), так и в конце предложения. Пе- report – сообщать; to say – сказать; to tell – говорить, сказать; to state –
ред инфинитивом в этой функции часто стоит подчинительный союз in сообщать и др.
order. При переводе такого инфинитива употребляется союз чтобы. Примеры (выделено сложное подлежащее):
I have come here to study. Я пришел сюда, чтобы заниматься. The delegation is known to arrive Известно, что делегация скоро
То eradicate crime it is necessary Чтобы искоренить преступность, soon. прибудет.
to study all causes of crimes. необходимо изучать все причины The delegation was announced to Объявили, что делегация прибыла.
преступлений. have arrived.
261 262
The delegation was expected to be Ожидали, что делегацию встре- Сложное дополнение (Complex Object)
met at the station. тят на вокзале. Сложное дополнение представляет собой сочетание существитель-
The delegation was reported to Сообщили, что делегацию уже ного (в общем падеже) или местоимения (в объектном падеже) с инфини-
have been met. встретили. тивом. Стоит на обычном (третьем) месте дополнения в предложении,
после сказуемого. Употребляется со следующими группами глаголов.
II. В действительном залоге.
to seem – казаться, to happen – случаться; to prove – оказываться, Глаголы-сказуемые,
доказывать; to appear – оказываться. после которых употребляется Примеры Перевод
Примеры: сложное пополнение
She seems to work much. Кажется, (что) она много рабо- I группа
тает. Глаголы, выражающие жела-
She appears to study at the Law Она, оказывается, учится в юри- ние (нежелание)
Institute. дическом институте. to want, to wish, I want you to come Я хочу, чтобы вы
to like, should (would) tomorrow. I like пришли завтра. Мне
III. Фразы, состоящие из глагола to be и прилагательных likely – like, to dislike, to hate people to tell the нравится, когда люди
вероятно, unlikely – маловероятно, sure – определенно, certain – несо- truth. говорят правду.
мненно. Примеры: II группа
The lecture is likely to be in Hall 7. Вероятно, лекция будет в седьмой Глаголы, выражающие умст-
аудитории. венную деятельность
The delegation is unlikely to arrive Маловероятно, что делегация To expect, to think, They expect us to Они ожидают, что мы
soon. скоро прибудет. to believe, to suppose, come. приедем
He is sure to come. Он обязательно придет. to consider, to find,
to know, to suspect, to under-
Перевод таких предложений следует начинать со сказуемого; гла- stand
гол этот берется в русском языке в неопределенно-личной форме (гово-
рят, сообщают, видели); затем берутся союзы что, чтобы, как; затем пе- III группа
реводится первый элемент сложного подлежащего, т.е. существительное Глаголы, выражающие по-
или местоимение, стоящие перед сказуемым; затем переводится инфини- буждение, допущение
тив глаголом в форме времени, при этом необходимо учитывать смысл To make (заставлять) He made me do it Он заставил меня
формы инфинитива. to get, to order, again. сделать это еще раз.
сложное подлежащее to ask, to allow, to let They ordered us to Они приказали нам
come. прийти

The boy was reported to have committed Предложения со сложным дополнением переводятся на русский
сказуемое язык сложноподчиненными предложениями с придаточными, вводимыми
союзами что, чтобы, когда, как, в которых существительное в общем па-
деже или местоимение в объектном падеже (первая часть) является подле-
Сообщили, что подросток совершил незначительное правонарушение. жащим, а инфинитив (вторая часть) – сказуемым в личной форме глагола.
(Perfect Infinitive указывает, что действие to commit совершилось
раньше действия to report)

263 264
Герундий 1 2 3
to result in – приводить к
(Gerund) ч.-л.
Герундий – это неличная форма глагола, которая имеет признаки tо spend in – тратить (время)
на ч.-л.
глагола и существительного. Герундий образуется: Inf. (без to) + ing.
to succeed in – удаваться
to be engaged in –заниматься
Функция Пример Примечание to be interested in – интересо-
1 2 3
1. Подлежащее Reading English books За герундием с относящими-
to ассuse of – обвинять
helps to master English. ся к нему словами идет ска-
в ч.-л.
Чтение английских книг зуемое (глагол в Present
to approve of – одобрять ч.-л,
помогает овладевать Indefinite)
to hear of – слышать ч.-л.
английским языком
to inform of – сообщать
2. Часть сказуе- Герундий идет за глаголами о ч.-л.
мого to begin, to go on, to finish, to to suspect of – подозреватъ в
а) составного The student stopped stop, to continue. ч.-л.
глагольного talking at last. to think of – думать о
Студент, наконец, lo be afraid of – бояться ч.-л.
перестал разговари- Герундий стоит за to be, to be (in) incapable of – быть
вать. который переводится быть (не)способным
б) составного Our task is studying (есть), значить, состоять в to be fond of – любить ч.-л.
именного well. том, чтобы. to be proud of – гордитъся
Наша задача состоит в ч.-л.
том, чтобы хорошо to count on (upon) – рассчи-
учиться. тывать
3. Дополнение После глаголов to remember, to depend on (upon) – зави-
а) прямое Не avoids meeting his to avoid, to mention, to suggest. сеть от ч.л.
friends, В функции косвенного to insist on – настаивать
Он и избeгает встре- дополнения герундий to object to – возражать про-
чаться употребляется после: тив ч.-л.
с друзьями. to be disappointed at – 4. Обстоятельст- Перед герундием употреб-
б) косвенное Не is interested in read- быть разочарованным в во: ляются предлоги on, in, after,
ing books. to be surprised at – удивлять- defore.
Он интересуется чте- ся ч.-л. а) времени On coming home I had a Герундий употребляется с
нием to prevent from – препятство- rest. Придя домой, я предлогами by, without, be-
вать отдохнул. sides, instead of.
to consist in – заключаться б) образа дейст- You саn master English
to persist in – настаивать на вия by reading English
ч.-л. books. Вы можете
265 266
1 2 3 Герундий с относящимися к нему словами является одним членом
овладеть английским предложения.
языкам читая англий- На русский язык герундий переводится существительным, неопре-
ские книги. деленной формой глагола, деепричастием или придаточным предложени-
5. Определение I like the idea of going Герундий имеет предлоги ем.
there of, for, in, at. Герундий имеет четыре формы, которые образуются от соответст-
Мне нравится мысль В функции определения вующих форм инфинитива:
пойти туда герундий Indefinite (Non-Perfect) Perfect
употребляется после суше- to abolish to have abolished
ствительных: Active
abolishing having abolished
astonishment (at) – удивление
disappointment (at) – разоча- Passive to be abolished to have been abolished
рование being abolished having been abolished
surprise (at) – удивление
plan (for) – план Таким образом, герундий имеет те же сложные формы, что и Parti-
preparation (for) – приготов- ciple I. Эти формы сохраняют тот же смысл. Переводятся они в зависимо-
ление сти от функции в предложении. Иногда даже сложная форма герундия
reason (for) – причина, осно- может переводиться одним словом.
вание Пример:
experiencе (in) – опыт After having been discussed by the После обсуждения парламентом
interest (in) – интерес Parliament the law was adopted. закон был принят.
skill (In) –мастерство
art (of) – искусство Самостоятельный герундиальный оборот (СГО)
chance (of) – удобный случай
opportunity [of) – возмож- Когда перед герундием стоит существительное или притяжатель-
ность ное местоимение, имеет место самостоятельный герундиальный оборот
fear (of) – страх (СГО). Запятой СГО не отделяется. СГО переводится придаточным пред-
habit (of) – привычка ложением (союзы берутся по смыслу, герундий переводится сказуемым в
hope (of) – надежда личной форме глагола).
idea (of) –мысль, идеи Пример:
importance (of) – важность The teacher objects to the group tak- Преподаватель возражает
intention (of) – намерение ing the exam ahead of time. против того, чтобы группа сда-
means (of) – средство вала экзамен досрочно.
method (of) – метод
necessity (of) – необходи-
мость Условные предложения
pleasure (of) – удовольствие (Conditional sentences)
possibility (of) – возможность
right (of) – право В английском языке придаточные предложения условия соеди-
objection ((о) – возражение няются с главным при помощи следующих союзов:

267 268
If – если: В придаточном предложении употребляется Past Indefinite, а в
If you graduate from the faculty of Law you will become a lawyer. главном – сочетание глагола should (1-е лицо ед. и мн. числа) или would
(для остальных лиц и чисел) или could и might с инфинитивом без части-
Unless – если ... не: цы to.
We will fail the investigation unless we hurry with evidence. If we had time we would conclude the contract.
Условные предложения II типа переводятся на русский язык со-
Supposing (that) – предположим (что), допустим (что): слагательным наклонением.
Supposing the case is initiated, shall we arrest the suspect? Если сказуемое придаточного предложения выражено глаголом
to be, то наряду с его обычными формами прошедшего времени (was,
On condition (that), provided (that) – при условии если, при усло- were) может употребляться форма were для всех лиц и чисел.
вии что: If I were you, I should (would) plead guilty.
We were called to give testimony on condition that we were the only
eye-witnesses of the crime. Придаточные условные предложения III типа
(Последние два союза в разговорной речи не употребляются) Нереальное условие в прошедшем времени (Impossible Condition)
Придаточные условные предложения III типа выражают нереаль-
Придаточные условные предложения I типа. Реальные условия. ное условие совершенного действия в прошедшем времени. В придаточ-
(Probable Condition) ном предложении употребляется время Past Perfect, а в главном – сочета-
Придаточные предложения условия I типа чаще всего выражают ние глаголов should и would или could и might с перфектным инфинити-
реальные условия выполнения действия в будущем времени. При этом вом.
глагол-сказуемое придаточного предложения употребляется в Present If he had been here yesterday, he could have seen the robbery.
Indefinite, а главного – в Future Indefinite:
Придаточные условные смешанного типа
Suppose the verdict is brought in, then we shall have to give up our Придаточные условные смешанного типа бывают двух видов:
business. 1) условие относится к прошедшему, а следствие – к настоящему
Если действие относится к настоящему или прошедшему вре- или будущему времени:
мени, то времена в английском языке совпадают с русскими: If you had not followed the instructions of the hijackers we were dead now.
2) условие относится к определенному времени, а следствие – к
If I have time I collect evidence of each case.
If I had time I collected evidence of each case.
If I lived in the country such an accident would never have happened to me.
В придаточном предложении условия наряду со временем Pre-
sent Indefinite для выражения меньшей вероятности совершения дей- Инверсия в придаточных условных предложениях
ствия употребляется сочетание глагола should с инфинитивом без час- Во всех трех типах условных предложений союзы if, provided мо-
тицы to: гут быть опущены; при этом в придаточном предложении условия вспо-
могательный или модальный глагол выносится на место перед подлежа-
If he should testify we shall be prosecuted.
Придаточные условные предложения II типа Предложения условия I типа:
Нереальное условие в настоящем или будущем времени Should I know the truth, I will testify in court.
(Improbable Condition)
Предложения этого типа выражают нереальное условие совершен- Предложения условия II типа:
ного действия в настоящем или будущем времени. Were Jack here now, the jury would not deliberate so long.

269 270
Предложения условия III типа: a) приказания, предложения и т. д. или b) удивления, сожале-
Had you read this article you could have told us about the serial murderer. ния и т. д.;
Сослагательное наклонение (Subjunctive Mood) b) They suggested that the article be printed in their magazine.
5) в придаточных предложениях цели после союзов so that (что-
Указывает на то, что действие является предполагаемым или жела-
бы), lest (чтобы не):
тельным, а также возможным при известных условиях.
You should revise the material lest you forget it.
Формы Subjunctive переводятся на русский язык формами русского
6) в придаточных предложениях сравнения после союзов as if, as
сослагательного наклонения – сочетание глагола в форме прошедшего
though (как будто, как если бы):
времени с частицей бы (или без частицы бы, если она входит в состав
I feel as if I were judged.
союза чтобы, если бы).
7) в уступительных придаточных предложениях. В этих случаях
В современном английском языке употребляются две формы со-
глаголы may и might на русский язык не переводятся:
слагательного наклонения: синтетическая (простая) и аналитическая
Whenever they may write to me I will be glad.
8) в придаточных предложениях цели:
Синтаксические формы сослагательного наклонения dсех глаголов
They spoke as though they had seen it with their own eyes.
за исключением глагола to be, совпадают с формами изъявительного на-
После выражения It is (about, high) time обычно употребляется Past
клонения в настоящем времени (Present Indefinite) без окончания -s в
Indefinite в значении сослагательного наклонения.
третьем числе единственного числа (he ask). Глагол to be имеет две фор-
It is (about, high) time you caught the criminal.
мы: be (архаичная форма) и were для всех лиц единственного и множе-
ственного числа (хотя в современном английском языке есть тенденция
Сослагательное наклонение после глагола to wish
употреблять обычные формы прошедшего времени – was для единствен-
В придаточном предложении после глагола to wish для выражения
ного числа, were для множественного числа).
сожаления, неосуществленного желания употребляются следующие фор-
Аналитические формы сослагательного наклонения образуются
при помощи глаголов should (для 1-го лица ед. и мн. числа) и would (для
1) форма, совпадающая с Past Indefinite, для выражения действия,
2-го и 3-го лица ед. и мн. числа) + инфинитив без частицы to или не изме-
относящегося к настоящему времени:
няющихся по лицам глаголов should, may, might + инфинитив без части-
I wish I were a lawyer.
цы to.
2) форма, совпадающая с Past Perfect, для выражения действия,
относящегося к прошлому:
Употребление форм сослагательного наклонения
I wished he had not been sentenced to imprisonment.
Формы сослагательного наклонения употребляются:
3) для выражения сожаления, относящегося к будущему времени,
1) в простых предложениях:
после глагола to wish употребляются модальные глаголы would и could:
I should like to investigate a crime.
They wish the criminal would stop committing crimes.
There would be no fingerprints on the gun.
2) в восклицательных предложениях:
So that may be! (Да будет так!)
3) в придаточных предложениях после безличных предложений Относительные местоимения
типа it is necessary: (Relative Pronouns)
It is important that they should know their rights.
It is necessary that he be present. Для связи придаточных предложений с главным употребляются
4) в дополнительных придаточных предложениях, зависящих от союзные местоимения Who-Whom, Whose, Which, That, What, Where.
глаголов в главном предложении со значением: Who относится к лицам (вместо he, she, they)
A person who works at the Bar is a lawyer.

271 272
Whom употребляется вместо who в том случае, если это слово в Оглавление
предложении является дополнением.
The person whom I wanted to talk to has already left. Предисловие ................................................................................................. 3
Слова which и that относятся к неодушевленным предметам и от-
влеченным понятиям. Part I
What is the profession that/which you study at the Law Faculty? The Article (Э.В. Акаева, Б.А. Мартынов).......................................... 4
Мeстоимение whose используется в сложных предложениях вместо The Noun (Б.А. Мартынов)................................................................ 11
притяжательных his, her, their, our. Adjectives and adverbs (С.Д. Оськина)............................................... 24
We saw the person whose car had been broken down. The Verb The Active Present Simple (Ю.Б. Дроботенко) ................. 35
Where используется в придаточных предложениях, когда мы ука- Present Continuous (Ю.Б. Дроботенко)............................................. 40
зываем на обстоятельство места. Stative Verbs (Ю.Б. Дроботенко) ...................................................... 45
The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very comfortable. Present Perfect (Ю.Б. Дроботенко).................................................... 51
Past Simple (Ю.Б. Дроботенко)......................................................... 55
That∗ может использоваться для указания не только на неодушев- Used to (Ю.Б. Дроботенко) ............................................................... 61
ленные предметы, но и на лица. Past Continuous (Ю.Б. Дроботенко).................................................. 66
The man who/that is talking to you is my friend. Present Perfect Continuous (Ю.Б. Дроботенко)................................. 71
Если местоимения who, which, that являются в предложении под- The Past Perfect Tense (С.Н. Голерова).............................................. 77
лежащим, мы не можем их опустить. The Past Perfect Continuous Tense (С.Н. Голерова) .......................... 82
The woman who lives next door is a doctor. The Future Tenses (Т.Н. Дорофеева) .................................................. 89
Who (the woman) является подлежащим. The Passive (С.Д. Оськина)............................................................... 102
Where is the cake that was in the fridge? Modals (М.Х. Рахимбергенова) ........................................................ 127
That (the cake) – тоже подлежащее. Reported speech 1 (Р.Р. Мавлиева)................................................... 135
Reported speech 2 (Р.Р. Мавлиева)................................................... 137
Если же эти слова являются в предложении дополнением, мы их
можем опустить. Part II
Нave you found the keys (that) you lost? The non-finite forms of the verb The Infinitive (О.Н. Глазер).......... 149
The woman (who(m)) I wanted to talk to was busy. The Gerund (О.Н. Глазер) ................................................................. 160
The Participle (Э.К. Сопелева).......................................................... 169
Conditional Sentences (И.Г. Оконешникова) ................................... 184

Грамматический справочник
Артикль (The article)......................................................................... 208
Имя существительное (The noun).................................................... 211
Прилагательное (The Adjective) ..................................................... 218
Наречие (The Adverb)....................................................................... 222
Настоящее неопределённое (Present Simple) ................................ 224
∗ Настоящее продолженное (Present Continuous) ............................. 226
Note: Если в предложении дается дополнительная информация, нельзя
использовать that, вместо этого местоимения необходимо употребить либо who, Настоящее совершенное (Present Perfect) ..................................... 229
либо which, в зависимости от ситуации. Настоящее перфектно-длительное (Present Perfect Continuous).. 232
John, who (not “that”) speaks English and French, works as a tourist guide. Прошедшее неопределённое (Past Simple)..................................... 234
Colin told me about the new job, which (not “that”) he’s enjoying. Прошедшее продолженное (Past Continuous) ............................... 237
273 274
Прошедшее совершенное (The Past Perfect Tense).........................239
Прошедшее совершенное продолженное (The Past Perfect
Continuous Tense)..........................................................................................240
Будущие времена (Future) ................................................................241
Страдательный залог (The Passive Voice) ......................................243
Модальные глаголы (The Modals) ...................................................245 Cоставители:
Косвенная речь (Reported Speech) ..................................................249 Элеонора Вячеславовна Акаева, Ольга Николаевна Глазер,
Неличные формы глагола (Non-finite forms of verb) ......................253 Светлана Николаевна Голерова, Татьяна Николаевна Дорофеева,
Инфинитив (Infinitive) ......................................................................260 Юлия Борисовна Дроботенко, Рушана Руслановна Мавлиева,
Герундий (Gerund) ...........................................................................265 Борис Александрович Мартынов, Ирина Геннадьевна Оконешникова,
Условные предложения (Conditional sentences) ............................268 Светлана Дмитриевна Оськина, Майра Хаджимуратовна Рахимбергенова,
Относительные местоимения (Relative Pronouns) ..........................272 Элеонора Кузьминична Сопелева


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