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Å. À.

ÂÀÑÈËÜÅÂÀ

ENGLISH GRAMMAR
50 EXCEPTIONS

ÀÍÃËÈÉÑÊÀß ÃÐÀÌÌÀÒÈÊÀ
50 ÈÑÊËÞ×ÅÍÈÉ

Москва
2015
УДК 811.111(075) Электронные версии книг
на сайте www.prospekt.org
ББК 81.2Англ-9
В19

Васильева Е. А.
В19 English grammar: 50 exceptions (Английская грамматика: 50 ис-
ключений). — Москва : Проспект, 2015. — 40 с.

ISBN 978-5-392-14347-4
Grammar rules help to understand the language structure, to see how it normally works.
However, when you learn grammar rules you also have to meet various exceptions
that on the one hand may seem confusing at first, but on the other hand they are often
the most important cases of the rules. Almost all English grammar rules have some
exceptions to them.
One of the ways to remember the numerous exceptions is to make a list of the most
common ones. In this reference book you can find the list of fifty most commonly used
exceptions in English pronunciation, spelling and grammar.
Грамматические правила помогают понять структуру языка, увидеть, как он
работает.
Однако, когда мы учим грамматические правила, мы встречаем множество
исключений, которые сперва могут показаться запутанными, но в то же время
являются самой важной частью правила. Практически все правила английской
грамматики имеют несколько исключений.
Один из способов запомнить многочисленные исключения – сделать список
самых распространенных из них. В этой книге вы найдете список из пятидесяти
наиболее используемых исключений из правил английского произношения, на-
писания и грамматики.
Вся книга написана на английском языке.
УДК 811.111(075)
ББК 81.2Англ-9

Учебное издание
Васильева Елена Анатольевна
ENGLISH GRAMMAR: 50 ИСКЛЮЧЕНИЙ
АНГЛИЙСКАЯ ГРАММАТИКА: 50 ИСКЛЮЧЕНИЙ
Справочник
Оригинал-макет подготовлен компанией ООО «Оригинал-макет»
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Санитарно-эпидемиологическое заключение
№ 77.99.60.953.Д.004173.04.09 от 17.04.2009 г.
Подписано в печать 10.10.2014. Формат 60×90 1/16.
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111020, г. Москва, ул. Боровая, д. 7, стр. 4.

© Васильева Е. А., 2014


ISBN 978-5-392-14347-4 © ООО «Проспект», 2014
CONTENTS

Particular Point 1 ........................................................................................... 5


Particular Point 2 .......................................................................................... 6
Particular Point 3 ........................................................................................... 7
Particular Point 4 ........................................................................................... 7
Particular Point 5 ........................................................................................... 7
Particular Point 6 ........................................................................................... 8
Particular Point 7 ........................................................................................... 9
Particular Point 8 ......................................................................................... 10
Particular Point 9 ......................................................................................... 12
Particular Point 10 ....................................................................................... 12
Particular Point 11 ....................................................................................... 13
Particular Point 12 ....................................................................................... 13
Particular Point 13 ....................................................................................... 14
Particular Point 14 ....................................................................................... 14
Particular Point 15 ....................................................................................... 14
Particular Point 16 ....................................................................................... 15
Particular Point 17 ....................................................................................... 15
Particular Point 18 ....................................................................................... 15
Particular Point 19 ....................................................................................... 15
Particular Point 20 ....................................................................................... 16
Particular Point 21 ....................................................................................... 16
Particular Point 22 ....................................................................................... 16
Particular Point 23 ....................................................................................... 17
Particular Point 24 ....................................................................................... 17
Particular Point 25 ....................................................................................... 17
Particular Point 26 ....................................................................................... 18
Particular Point 27 ....................................................................................... 19
Particular Point 28 ....................................................................................... 22
Particular Point 29 ....................................................................................... 22

3
Particular Point 30 ....................................................................................... 22
Particular Point 31 ....................................................................................... 22
Particular Point 32 ....................................................................................... 23
Particular Point 33 ....................................................................................... 23
Particular Point 34 ....................................................................................... 23
Particular Point 35 ....................................................................................... 23
Particular Point 36 ....................................................................................... 24
Particular Point 37 ...................................................................................... 24
Particular Point 38 ...................................................................................... 24
Particular Point 39 ....................................................................................... 24
Particular Point 40 ....................................................................................... 25
Particular Point 41 ....................................................................................... 25
Particular Point 42 ....................................................................................... 25
Particular Point 43 ....................................................................................... 26
Particular Point 44 ....................................................................................... 33
Particular Point 45 ....................................................................................... 35
Particular Point 46 ....................................................................................... 35
Particular Point 47 ....................................................................................... 36
Particular Point 48 ....................................................................................... 37
Particular Point 49 ....................................................................................... 38
Particular Point 50 ....................................................................................... 40
PARTICULAR POINT 1
The nouns below don’t take the article a/an and go with a singular verb.

Uncountable nouns
accommodation (a place to live) luck (a bit/ stroke of luck)
advice (a piece of advice) luggage (a piece of luggage,
applause a case, a trunk)
cash litter
chess money (a note, a coin, a sum)
cutlery music
dancing parking
evidence pasta
fruit permission
fun (a bit of fun) produce
garbage progress (a step forward)
information (a piece of information) publicity (an advertisement)
ink scenery
jewelry travel
knowledge (a fact) work (a piece of work, a job)
lightning (a flash of lightning)

5
PARTICULAR POINT 2
Some uncountable nouns can turn into countable with a more specific
meaning.

agreement – an agreement observation – an observation


art – an art, the arts pain – a pain
beauty – a beauty pity – a pity
business – a business play – a play
cold – a cold pleasure – a pleasure
competition – a competition property – a property
conversation – a conversation protest – a protest
country – a country reading – readings
crime – a crime reason – a reason
damage – damages religion – a religion
decision – a decision room – a room
dislike – dislikes science – a science
education – an education sculpture – a sculpture
experience – an experience silence – a silence
fear – a fear snow – snows
fire – a fire space – a space
football – a football speech – a speech
freedom – freedoms sport – a sport
grammar – a grammar success – a success
help – a help taste – a taste
history – a history thought – a thought
kindness – a kindness knowledge – trade – a trade
a knowledge of language – war – a war
a language water – waters
life – a life wonder – a wonder
light – a light, lights wood – a wood
love – a love work – a work
medicine – a medicine worry – a worry
noise – a noise youth – a youth

6
PARTICULAR POINT 3
When an uncountable noun means a material, its countable form denotes
an object made of this material.

cloth – a cloth iron – an iron paper – a paper


copper – a copper glass – a glass; glasses tin – a tin

PARTICULAR POINT 4
Another meaning of nouns in their countable form is “one of plenty”

coal – hair – grain – pepper – stone –


a coal a hair a grain a pepper a stone

PARTICULAR POINT 5
Two semantic groups of words “Food” and “Drinks” consist of
various nouns in their uncountable and countable forms.

Variety and sorts Portions, containers, Substance,


quantity ingredients,
part of dish
food – foods tea – a tea chicken – a chicken
flour – flours (a cup of tea) onion – an onion
oil – oils pizza – a pizza tomato – a tomato
bread – breads (a box of pizza) cabbage – a cabbage
tea – teas cake – a cake
coffee – coffees (a piece of cake)
fruit – fruits chocolate – a choco-
meat – meats late (a chocolate sweet)
ice-cream –
an ice-cream
candy – a candy
beer – a beer
wine – a wine
juice – a juice

7
PARTICULAR POINT 6
The spelling of plural form of nouns ending with -o is different.

consonant + -oes -os vowel +-os


an archipelago – an albino – albinos a bamboo – bamboos
archipelagoes an alto – altos a cameo – cameos
a domino – dominoes an auto – autos a cuckoo – cuckoos
an echo – echoes a canto – cantos an embryo – embryos
an embargo – a casino – casinos a kangaroo –
embargoes a disco – discos kangaroos
a halo – haloes a dynamo – dynamos a patio – patios
a hero – heroes a hairdo – hairdos a portfolio – portfolios
an innuendo – a kimono – kimonos a radio – radios
innuendoes a logo – logos a ratio – ratios
a jingo – jingoes a pimento – pimentos a scenario – scenarios
a mosquito – a pro – pros a studio – studios
mosquitoes a solo – solos a tattoo – tattoos
a potato – potatoes a sombrero – a video – videos
a tomato – tomatoes sombreros a zoo – zoos
a tornado – tornadoes a soprano – sopranos
a torpedo – torpedoes a tango – tangos
a veto – vetoes a zero – zeros

contract form + -os -os/-oes


a cello – cellos a buffalo – buffaloes, buffalos
a kilo – kilos a cargo – cargoes, cargos
a memo – memos a flamingo – flamingoes, flamingos
a photo – photos a ghetto – ghettoes, ghettos
a piano – pianos a mango – mangoes, mangos
a motto – mottoes, mottos
a portico – porticoes, porticos
a volcano – volcanoes, volcanos

8
PARTICULAR POINT 7
The spelling of plural form of nouns ending with -f/-fe is different.

-fs -ves -fs/-ves


a belief – beliefs a calf – calves a dwarf – dwarfs,
a chief – chiefs an elf – elves dwarves
a gulf – gulfs a half – halves a hoof – hoofs, hooves
a handkerchief – a knife – knives a scarf – scarfs,
handkerchiefs a leaf – leaves scarves
a proof – proofs a life – lives a staff – staffs, staves
a reef – reefs a loaf – loaves a turf – turfs, turves
a roof – roofs a sheaf – sheaves a wharf – wharfs,
a safe – safes a shelf – shelves wharves
a serf – serfs a thief – thieves
a wife – wives
a wolf – wolves

9
PARTICULAR POINT 8
Words of foreign origin (Greek, Latin, French, etc.) have a specific plural
form in the English language.
-us →-i/-a/-es -is → -es -ex/-ix → -ices
an abacus – aba- an axis – axes an apex – apex-
cuses/abaci an analysis – analyses es/apices
an alumnus – alumni a basis – bases an appendix – ap-
an apparatus – ap- a crisis – crises pendices
paratus/apparatuses a diagnosis – di- an index – in-
a cactus – cacti agnoses dices/indexes
a calculus – cal- an ellipsis – ellipses a matrix – ma-
culi/calculuses
a hypothesis – trices/matrixes
a census – censuses
a focus – foci/focuses hypotheses a vertex – vertices
a fungus – fungi/ an oasis – oases
funguses a paralysis – paralyses
a hiatus – hiatuses a parenthesis –
a hippopotamus – parentheses
hippopotamuses/ a synthesis – syntheses
hippopotami a synopsis – synopses
a nucleus – nuclei a thesis – theses
a papyrus – papyri
a prospectus –
prospecti
a radius – radii
a rhombus – rhom-
buses/rhombi
a syllabus – syl-
labi/syllabuses
a stimulus – stimuli
a terminus – ter-
mini/terminuses
a corpus – corpora
a genus – genera
a viscus – viscera

10
-um/-on → а/-s -a →-ae -eau → -eаux
an addendum – an alumna – a beau – beaux
addenda alumnae a bureau – bureaus/
an agendum – an encyclopedia/ bureaux
agenda (agendums) encyclopеdia – a chateau – chateaux
an automaton – encyclopedias a tableau – tableaux/
automata (encyclopediae tableaus
a bacterium – bacteria редко)
a corrigendum – a formula –
corrigenda formulae/formulas
a criterion – criteria a nebula – nebulae
a curriculum – a vertebra – vertebrae
curricula a vita – vitae
a datum – data
a forum – fora/ an enigma –
forums enigmas/enigmata
a medium – media a stigma –
a memorandum – stigmas/stigmata
memoranda
a millennium –
millennia
a phenomenon –
phenomena
a polyhedron –
polyhedra
a stadium – stadiums/
stadia
a stratum – strata

11
PARTICULAR POINT 9
There are several irregular plural nouns.

a man – men a child – a foot – feet a louse – lice a penny –


a woman – children a goose – geese a mouse – pence
women an ox – a tooth – teeth mice a person –
oxen people

PARTICULAR POINT 10
Singular and plural forms of several nouns are the same.

Some fish and Some mammals Armament


sea animals
a fish – fish a bison – bison an aircraft – aircraft
a carp – carp a deer – deer a cannon – can-
a cod – cod a moose – moose non/cannons
a mackerel – mackerel a sheep – sheep
a monkfish – monkfish a swine – swine
a perch – perch
a pike – pike
a salmon – salmon
a squid – squid
a starfish – starfish
a trout – trout
a tuna – tuna

but:
a crab – crabs
a lobster – lobsters
a mussel – mussels
an octopus – octopuses
a scallop – scallops
a seahorse – seahorses
a shark – sharks
a stingray – stingrays

12
PARTICULAR POINT 11
Several nouns in the plural form go with a singular verb.

Sciences, subjects Sports, games


economics athletics
ethics billiards
linguistics darts
mathematics gymnastics
mechanics
optics
physics

PARTICULAR POINT 12
The nouns which are used only in the plural form go with a plural verb.

Parts of a whole Pairs


annals binoculars
archives breeches
arms briefs
belongings fetters
bowels forceps
clothes glasses
congratulations jeans
contents panties
customs pincers
dregs pliers
goods pyjamas
groceries scales
imports scissors
intestines shorts
outskirts spectacles
premises tights
proceeds tongs
remains trousers
savings tweezers
thanks
troops
wages

13
PARTICULAR POINT 13
The possessive case (‘s) can be partly omitted.

Fixed phrases Offices


Achilles’ heel Woolworth’s Department Store
Jesus’ crown of thorns Harrods
Moses’ basket Barclays Bank
Ulysses’ journey
for goodness’ sake

for conscience’s sake


for appearance’s sake

PARTICULAR POINT 14
Some inanimate nouns can take the possessive form.

Geographical names Transport house/office/shop


Africa’s area the ship’s crew at the doctor’s (office)
London’s parks the plane’s engine to the baker’s (shop)
the ocean’s coast the bike’s design at McDonald’s
(restaurant)

world/country/city Celestials Time


the world’s cham- the sun’s rays this month’s events
pionship the planet’s orbit night’s dew
the country’s policy the moon’s surface a winter’s tale
the city’s population

PARTICULAR POINT 15
The indefinite article a/an can be put before a proper name to mean “some-
body unknown”, “one member of a certain family” or to mark the charac-
teristic features associated with the name.
A Mr. Bond called you. (unknown)
Isn’t he a Potter? (one of the Potters)
He was an Einstein of his time. (extraordinary genius)

14
PARTICULAR POINT 16
The indefinite article a/an between the verb have and some other verbs mean
short-time actions.

to have to have to have to have a try to have


a look a sleep a swim a rest

PARTICULAR POINT 17
The indefinite article a/an is used in fixed word combinations.

as a matter of fact at a time when for a while


as a result be at a loss have a good time
as a rule be in a hurry it’s a pity
at a glance for a long/short time it’s a pleasure
at a speed of it’s a shame

PARTICULAR POINT 18
As a rule names of the countries and cities are used with the zero article, but
there are several exceptions.

the Congo the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern


the Gambia Ireland (the UK)
the Netherlands the United States of America
the Republic of Cuba
the Hague the Russian Federation

PARTICULAR POINT 19
There are several cases when the zero article is needed.

Not places, but town, sea, Meals Ailments


activities in these places camp, bed
(school, college,
hospital, prison, jail)
go to school be in town have a cold
leave college go to camp breakfast the flu (influenza)
stay at hospital go out to sea have lunch a headache
be at prison go to bed have dinner pneumonia
cancer

15
PARTICULAR POINT 20
The zero article is used in fixed word combinations.

at home out of doors by chance on foot on credit


at work from morn- by mistake on holiday on business
at night ing till night at sunrise/ on sale in fact
at first sight sunset

PARTICULAR POINT 21
There are several cases when the definite article the is needed.

Family Musical instruments Parts of the day


the Browns to play the piano in the morning
the Simpsons to play the violin in the afternoon
the Windsors to play the drums in the evening
at night

PARTICULAR POINT 22
The definite article is used in fixed word combinations.

by the way on the one /other hand to tell the truth


in the country on the right/left (but! to tell a lie)
in the street on the whole to the right/left

16
PARTICULAR POINT 23
If the possessive pronoun is not followed by a noun or a noun precedes it,
then the possessive pronouns are used in the absolute form.

Absolute Form of Possessive Pronouns


Singular mine yours his
hers
its
Plural ours yours theirs

This mobile is mine.


Whose friends will come? Ours.
Those were not her parents but his.

PARTICULAR POINT 24
Some adjectives form the comparative degrees irregularly.

bad – worse – the worst late – later/latter – the latest/the last


evil – more evil – the most evil little – smaller/less – the
far – farther/further – smallest/the least
the farthest/furthest many/much – more – the most
good – better – the best old – elder – the eldest
ill – worse – the worst well (in good health) – better – the best

PARTICULAR POINT 25
Some adjectives cannot form the comparative degrees at all as the superla-
tive degree is in their meaning.

alive final perfect unique


dead main supreme universal
whole

17
PARTICULAR POINT 26
Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives.

deep – deep, deeply fast –fast


The river is quite deep here. She loves fast cars.
We walked deep into the forest. She drives fast.
They fell deeply in love.
hard – hard, hardly high – high, highly
It is a hard question. The mountains were high.
They worked hard. There was a rainbow high in the sky.
They hardly worked. She is a highly educated woman.
little – little loud – loud/loudly
They still have a little hope. There was a loud knocking
You know little what awaits you. at the door.
Don’t talk so loud.
daily – daily early – early
The Internet has become We had an early spring this year.
a part of our daily life. He got up early.
Fresh bread is delivered daily.
free – free, freely late – late, lately
You can get a free ticket to the show. I like late spring.
Buy one, get one free. He usually works late.
He freely admits he’s lazy. We’ve been reading this story lately.
low – low friendly – friendly
We offer everyday goods We had a friendly correspondence.
at low prices. The neigbours used us friendly.
The plane was flying too low.

18
PARTICULAR POINT 27
Some verbs have irregular past forms.

Form I Form II Form III

be was, were been


do did done
have had had
bet bet bet
burst burst burst
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
fit fit fit
hit hit hit
hurt hurt hurt
let let let
put put put
read read read
rid rid rid
set set set
spread spread spread
shut shut shut
upset upset upset
begin began begun
drink drank drunk
ring rang rung
run ran run
shrink shrank shrunk
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
swim swam swum
build built built
hear heard heard
hold held held
leave left left
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
sit sat sat

19
feed fed fed
lead led led
meet met met
shoot shot shot
bring brought brought
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
fight fought fought
teach taught taught
think thought thought
hang hung hung
swing swung swung
blow blew blown
draw drew drawn
fly flew flown
grow grew grown
know know known
throw throw thrown
send sent sent
spend spent spent
sell sold sold
tell told told
mistake mistook mistaken
shake shook shaken
take took taken
bite bit bitten
eat ate eaten
forbid forbade forbidden
hide hid hidden
ride rode ridden
write wrote written
keep kept kept
sleep slept slept
lie lay lain
see saw seen
shine shone shone
win won won

20
lay laid laid
mislay mislaid mislaid
pay paid paid
say said said
find found found
wind wound wound
bear bore born
swear swore sworn
tear tore torn
wear wore worn
break broke broken
speak spoke spoken
wake woke woken
drive drove driven
forgive forgave forgiven
give gave given
choose chose chosen
freeze froze frozen
rise rose risen
deal dealt dealt
feel felt felt
stand stood stood
understand understood understood
become became become
come came come
forget forgot forgotten
get got got
steal stole stolen
fall fell fallen
go went gone
have had had

21
PARTICULAR POINT 28
The auxiliary verbs do, does, did can be added in positive sentences to
emphasize the speaker’s strong feelings.
We do need your help.
Kate does like cooking.
You did speak to Jill, I know!

PARTICULAR POINT 29
The Present or Past Continuous verbs can be modified by the adverbs
“always”, “forever” to express the speaker’s annoyance or surprise.
Paul is forever sitting up at the computer deep into the night.
You were always giving us so cute gifts!

PARTICULAR POINT 30
There are verbs which can’t form the Present Continuous Tense, though
they express the specific present time. They are used in the Present Simple
tense instead.

Physical states Emotions Mental states Possession


See, hear, Love, like, adore, Know, agree, Have, possess,
feel, smell, hate, want, wish, think, forget, own, contain,
taste, etc. prefer, need, understand, consist, etc.
forgive, etc. notice, mean, etc.
I can see a man What talents
over there, he’s Look! I want I don’t think do you possess?
waving me. this dress. they’re right. Syrup consists
Do you feel that They need his care. What do you of sugar and
it’s worth it? mean? water.

PARTICULAR POINT 31
The structure have/get something done is used to say that someone else
performs the action (not the person expressed by the subject). It’s passive in
meaning, but not in form.
Ann and John had their house redecorated (by professionals) last summer.
Sam will get his lawn mowed (by the gardener) next Saturday.

22
PARTICULAR POINT 32
The infinitive without to is used in a limited list of cases.

make, let+ Infinitive had better, would rather,


would sooner+ Infinitive
Don’t make me change my mind.
Let me help you. You had better ring her up.
I’d rather go now.

PARTICULAR POINT 33
Some verbs (forget, mean, regret, remember, stop, try) change their meaning
depending on the following infinitive or gerund.

Don’t forget to write us.


I will never forget writing you those letters.

Remember to learn the poem by heart.


She remembers learning the poem last year.

They stopped to talk.


Stop talking, please.

PARTICULAR POINT 34
Some time expressions are necessary to use with certain prepositions.

She enjoys gardening at the weekend.


Harry reads at night, in bed.
I’m busy at present.
He works hard, but he doesn’t mind having a good rest at the same time.

PARTICULAR POINT 35
There are no prepositions before words each, every, last, this, next in time
expressions.

Martin watched the match last Sunday.


We visit our relatives every Christmas.
They haven’t met this month yet.

23
PARTICULAR POINT 36
Some place expressions are necessary to use with certain prepositions.

There was a long queue in the street.


You can see a nice wood in the picture.
Is anybody at home?

PARTICULAR POINT: 37
Prepositions on and by express the idea of moving by transport.

John travelled to London on the train.


John travelled in the third carriage of the train.
John often travels by train.

PARTICULAR POINT 38
Prepositions at or to after the verbs to run, to shout, to throw carry not only
the meaning of direction but have an additional meaning of positive (to) or
negative (at) attitude to the action.

Look! Little George is running to you.


Look out! George is running at you!
Betty shouted to us.
Betty shouted at us.
Jan threw a stone to me.
Jan threw a stone at me.

PARTICULAR POINT 39
Words half or part as the subject in a sentence can go either with a singular
verb or with a plural one. If the refer to countable plural nouns, then they go
with a plural verb; if the refer to uncountable nouns, they go with a singular
verb.

Half of the students are at the exam now.


Half of the cake has been left.

Part of the books were sold at a half-price.


Part of the house hasn’t been redecorated yet.
24
PARTICULAR POINT 40
Some adjectives can go after the noun.
missing, a defining adjective concerned, involved
remaining, left is defined itself
(a part of a There’s been a
subordinate There was a play tzunami wave again,
one-word clause) less interesting but there are only ten
than last time. people concerned.
There are still three After the conference,
boys missing. the organizers invited
I can see some cake the men involved
left on the plate. to the lunch.

PARTICULAR POINT 41
There is a positive tag even though the main part of a tag-question is positive
in two cases.

nothing or nobody few/little/not many/ never, hardly ever,


are the subject not much before rarely, seldom,
the subject barely, scarcely
Nobody likes this Few children
lesson, does he? will enjoy such a He seldom comes,
Nothing happened, present, will they? does he?
did it? Little help was There’s barely money
offered, was it? left, is there?

PARTICULAR POINT 42
The Sequence of Tenses rule doesn’t work if in a subordinate clause the idea
is true or universal.
The teacher said to us that water boils at 100C.
Granny noticed that it’s better late than never.

25
PARTICULAR POINT 43

The reading of English consonants and letters combinations has some pe-
culiarities.

Letter or letter
Pronunciation Particular cases
combination
a [ei]– ace, ape any [‘enı]
have [hæv]

[æ] – ant, tablet after [‘a:ftə]


ancient [‘eın∫ənt]
answer [‘a:nsə]
bath [ba:θ]
branch [bra:nt∫]
example [ıg’za:mpl]
grasp [gra:sp]
pastry [‘peıstrı]
wasp [wo:sp]
taste [teıst]
ask [a:sk]
fast [fa:st]

ar (+ consonant) [a:] – car, bark after w – [o:]


war, warm, warn

ar + vowel [eə] – care, bare are [a:]

ai, ay [eı] – paint, wait, plait [plæt]


say, tray said [sed]
quay [kı:]

au [o:] – fauna, cause, gauge [geı ]


aw straw, dawn [o] – aunt [a:nt]
sausage, Austin

augh(t) [
:] – daughter, naughty laugh [la:f]
draught [dra:ft]

26
al + consonant [
:] – walk, chalk, ball, alm [a:m]
appall, always, false, calm[ka:m]
alter, salt, already, halt palm [pa:m]
balm [ba:m]
salmon [´sæm n]
alf, alv – [a:f], [a:v]
half [ha:f]
calf [ka:f]
calve [ka:v]
halve [ha:v]

e fete [fet]
[ι:] – he, mete
leopard [´lep d]

pretty [´prιtι]
[e] – pet, press
English [´ιŋlιʃ]

e [ - ] – safe, life [eι] – in French words


café [´kæfeι]
fiancé [fι n´seι]
attaché [ ´tæʃeι]
résumé [´rezju:meι]

ea [ι:] – beat, flea break [breιk]


great [greιt]
steak [steιk]
before d, th, th – [e]
bread [bred]
wealth [welθ]
weather [´weð ]
breakfast [´brekf st]
deaf [def]
heaven [hevn]
pleasant [´plez nt]
weapon [´wep n]

ee произносится как matinee [´mætıneı]


[ı:] – see, emplyee fiancée [fı´a:nseı]

27
ei, ey [eı] – veil, rein, either [´aıð ]
eigh(t) they, convey, weight, eye [aı]
neighbour height [haıt]
foreign [´f
rın]
key [kı:]
ceiling [´sı:lıŋ]
receipt [rı´sı:t]

er (+ consonant) [ıə] – here, zero, serious there [ðe ]


where [we ]
were [w :]

er (+ consonant) [ :] – her, serpentaine sergeant [´sa: nt]


clerk [kla:k]

ear [ı ] – ear, near, hear bear [be ]


swear [swe ]
ear + consonant [ :] – learn, heard, early beard [bı d]
heart [ha:t]

eir [e ] – heir, their weird [wı d]

i, y [aı] – rice, driver, police [p lı:s]


type, cycle river [rıv ]
ski [skı:]
give [gıv]

[ı] – chill, list, myth Christ [kraıst]

ie + consonant [ı:] – piece, achieve, friend [frend]


brief, niece, thief

ign [aın] – sign, malign signature [sıgn tʃ ]

ind [aınd] – kind, find, wind [wınd]


bind, grind, wind

28
o [ u] – vote, globe lose [lu:z]
woman [wum n]
women [wımın]
tomb [tum]
other [ð ]
one [wn]
some [sm]
topic [t
pık]
novel [nvl]

[
] – not, stop son [sn]
both [b uθ]
post [p ust]
before l – [ u]
old [ uld]
cold [k uld]
onion [nj n]
wonder [wnd ]

oa [ u] – boat, load, coal broad [br


:d]

oe [ u] – toe, foe, woe shoe [∫u:]


canoe [k nu:]

oo [u:] – shampoo, poor, flood [fld]


boor, moor, good blood [bld]
[u] – book, look
oor door [d
:]
floor [fl
:]

ou [au] – house, out, route [ru:t]


loud, mouse, noun, wound [wu:nd] souvenir
sound, wound, south you [ju:]
country [kntrı]
[ u] – mould, cousin [kzn]
poultry, soul

29
ough(t) several types of borough [br ]
pronunciation cough [kf]
bough [bau]
drought [draut]
ought [
:t]
enough [ınf]
though [ðəu]
through [θru:]

ould [kud] – could, mould [məuld]


should, would

ow [au] – allow, bow, [əu]


brown, clown, crown, own [əun]
cow, down, how, bowl [bəul]
powder, town

u [ju:] – cute, abuse rude [ru:d]


flu [flu:]
super [´su:pə]
busy[´bızı]
buy [baı]

[] – but, num- bull [bul]


ber, bulb, puddle butcher [´but∫ə]
pudding [´pudıŋ]
put [put]

ui [ju:] – nuisance, suit fruit [fru:t]

build [bıld]

u+r+ vowel [ju:ə] – cure, pure, fury sure [∫uə]

bury [´berı]

30
PARTICULAR POINT 44

Consonants Pronunciation Practical cases


b [b] – bank, globe mb, bt [-]
comb [kəum]
debt [det]

c, cc before e, i, y – [s] - soccer [´s


kə]
cede, acid, juicy ancient [´eın∫ənt]
ocean [´əu∫n]
ch ache [eık]
[t∫] – chart, lunch school [sku:l]
stomach [´stmək]
machine [mə´∫ı:n]

d [d] – duel, elder graduate [´græ juət]


soldier [´səul ə]

g, gg [g] – gum, el- suggest [sə´ est]


egant, egg, foggy
begin [bı´gın]
Before e, i, y –[G] finger [´fıŋə]
gentle, gin, gymnasium, gift [gıft]
ginger, gypsy, digit

h [h] – hand, prohibit [-]


heir [eə]
honest [´
nıst]
hour [auə]
vehicle [´vı:ıkl]

lm [lm] – film, helm, realm balm [ba:m]


palm [pa:m]

mb [m] – climb, number [´nmbə]


dumb, plumber timber [´tımbə]

31
s [s] - so, bus pension [´pen∫n]
pleasure[´pleə]
sugar [´∫ugə]

basis [´beısıs]
[z] – busy, choose, crisis [´kraısıs]
design, lose, nose, re- case [keıs]
fusal, rise, season

t, tt [t] – take, interest- ballet [´bæleı]


ing, spot, trumpet nation [neı∫n]
picture [´pıkt∫ə]

th author [
:θə]
[ð] – brother, to-
gether, those, worthy

32
PARTICULAR POINT 45
In some three-consonant combinations the second letter d or t is not pro-
nounced.

castle[ka:sl] postman [´pəus(t) whistle [wısl]


Christmas [´krısməs] mæn] Windsor [´wın(d)zə]
handsome [´hænsəm] postpone windsurfing
[pəus(t)´pəun] [´wın(d)sə:fıŋ]
sandwich [´sæn(d)
wıt∫]

PARTICULAR POINT 46
There are some words with quite a specific pronunciation.

beau [b
:] courage [´krı ] moustache [mə´sta: ∫]
beauty [´bju:tı] ensemble [
n´s
mbl] naïve [naı´ı:v]
biscuit [´bıskıt] esprit [e´sprı] people [pı:pl]
bravo [´bra:vəu]
chamois [´∫æmwa:] furlough [´fə:ləu] queue [kju:]
chocolate [´t∫
klıt] indict [ın´daıt] receipt [rı´sı:t]
choir [´kwaıə] island [´aılənd] restaurant [´restər
nt]
colonel [´kə:nəl] lieutenant [lef´tenənt] routine [ru:´tı:n]
consciousness manoeuvre Wednesday [´wenzdeı]
[´k
n∫əsnəs] [mə´nu:və] yacht [j
:t]
coup[ku:] mischievous
[´mıst∫əvəs]

33
PARTICULAR POINT 47
The endings s, -ed are normally pronounced accord-
ing to rules, but there are also some peculiarities.

-s – [z] or [s]
a friend – friends [z]; a book – books [s]

but
a house [haus] – houses [´hauzız]

The ending -ed is pronounced [d] – listented [´lısnd]or [t] – looked [lu:kt]
or [ıd] – started [´sta:tıd], added [´ædıd].

but

The ending -ed of some past participles (work as adjectives), is


pronounced[ıd].

aged [´eı ıd] dogged [´d


gıd] ragged [´rægıd]
blessed [´blesıd] learned [´lə:nıd] wicked [´wıkıd]
crooked [´kru:kıd] naked [´neıkıd] wretched [´ret∫ıd]

34
PARTICULAR POINT 48
The English language is filled with homonyms which are sometimes con-
fusing words that are pronounced the same but are different in meaning.
bachelor I – a man who has never been married; II – a person who
holds a first degree from a university
ball I – a ball; II – a formal gathering for dancing
bank I – the land alongside a river; II – a financial establishment
bear I – a large mammal; II – to carry
can I – to be able to; II – a metal container
case I – an example; II – an item of luggage
coach I – a bus for long journeys ; II – an instructor
date I – the day of the month; II – a sweet dark brown oval fruit
fair I – a public entertainment; II – light, blonde
fine I – a penalty ; II – good
flat I – without hills; II – an individual residence
last I – coming after all others; II – to continue
lie I – a false statement; II – to be in horizontal resting position
match I – a small piece of wood to light a fire; II – a contest
mean I – not generous; II – to signify
novel I – a kind of prose; II – new, unusual
palm I –the inner surface of the hand; II – an evergreen tree
school I – an educational institution; II – a large group of fish
spell I – to write or name the letters in correct sequence;
II – a short period of time
train I – to teach ; II – a series of railway carriages
well I – a shaft sunk into the ground to obtain water;
II – in a good way

35
PARTICULAR POINT 49
Homographs are the words which are spelled the same but are pronounced
differently and carry different meanings.

abstract [´æbstr kt] – existing abstract [ b´strækt] – to


in thought make a written summary of
bow [bau] – to bend the bow [b u] – a weapon
head as a sign of greeting for shooting arrows
close [kl us] – very near to close [kl uz] – to cover an opening
live [lıv] – to remain alive live [laıv] – not dead
minute [´mınıt] – sixty seconds minute [maı´nju:t] – extremely
small
object [´
b ıkt] – a material thing object [əb´ ekt] – to express
disapproval
present [´preznt] – occurring now present [prı´zent] – a gift
refuse [rı´fju:z] – not willing refuse [´refju:s] – rubbish
to do sth.
row [rəu] – a line of row [rau] – a noisy quarrel
seats in a theatre
tear [teə] – to pull apart to pieces tear [tıə] – a drop of liq-
uid from an eye
wind [wınd] – a current of air wind [waınd] – to move
in a spiral course

36
Homophones are also related words that have different parts of speech.

absent [´æbsent] – not present absent [[əb´sent] – to stay away


conduct [´k
ndkt] – behaviour conduct [kən´dkt] – to behave
desert [´dezət] – a waterless area desert [dı´zə:t] – to leave
extract [´ekstrækt] – a passage extract [ıks´trækt] – to take out
taken from a text
frequent [´frıkwənt] – occurring frequent [frı´kwent] – to visit often
many times at short intervals
insult [´ınslt] – a disrespectful insult [ın´slt] – to speak
remark with disrespect
perfect [´pə:fıkt] – as good perfect [pə´fekt] – to make
as possible as good as possible
suspect [´sspəkt] – a person suspect [səs´pekt] – to think sth.
thought to be guilty to be true without certain proof
transfer [´trænsfə:] – an act transfer [træns´fə:] – to
of moving to another place move to another place
uplift [´plıft] – a mor- uplift [p´lıft] – to raise
ally evaluating influence

37
PARTICULAR POINT 50
Homophones are the words which are pronounced in the same way but
written in a different way.

ball – bawl[b
:l] hour – our [auə]
bare – bear[beə] idle – idol [aıdl]
be – bee [bı:] knight – night [naıt]
beet – beat [bı:t] know – no [nəu]
berry – bury [´berı] mail – male [meıl]
berth – birth [bə:θ] main – mane [meın]
bough – bow [bau] none – nun [nn]
break – brake[breık] plain – plane [pleın]
buy – bye [baı] rain – reign [reın]
canon – cannon [´kænən] right – write[raıt]
cereal – serial [´sıərıəl] sea – see [sı:]
coarse – course [k
:s] some – sum [sm]
currant – current [´krənt] son – sun [sn]
dear – deer [´dıə] stair – stare [steə]
die – dye [daı] tail – tale [teıl]
draft – draught [dra:ft] their – there [ðeə]
fare – fair [feə] wait – weight [weıt]
flour – flower [flauə] weak – week [wı:k]
hair – hare [heə] wear – where [weə]
hear – here [hıə] which – witch [wıt∫]

38

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