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ТЕКС Т

А Н АЛИЗ
ПЕРЕБОд,
ББК 81.2 АНГЛ. 7я73
УДК 81(075.8)=161 .1=111

Бузаджи Д.М., Ланчиков В.К


Текст. Анализ . Перевод. Практикум по письменному переводу
с английского языка на русский. - М. : Р.Валент, 2012. - 200 с .
ISBN 978-5-93439-410-4

Нас т оящее пособие представляет собой практикум по письмен­


ному переводу с английского языка на русский для высших учебных
заведений, ведущих подготовку переводчиков, а также реали зую­
щих другие учебные программы, в состав которых входит дисципли­
на «профессионально ориентированный перевод». Пособие состоит
из 20 уроков, текстов для самостоятельной подготовки и приложений.
Каждый урок представляет собой предлагаемый для перевода текст,
набор вопросов для переводческого анализа этого текста и несколько
переводческих упражнений, иллюстрирующих трудности, присутс т ву­
ющие в данном тексте и при этом достаточно характерные для перевода

с английского языка на русский вообще. Уроки расположены в порядке


во з растания сложности и расширения количества задач, которые при­

ходится решать при переводе текстов и упражнений. Таким образом,


пособие может использоваться как на начальном этапе обучения пер е ­
воду, так и на более продвинутом уровне.

Все права защищены. Любое несанкционированное использо в а­


ние про изведения, включая в том числе копирование, распространен и е

(полностью либо частично) в печатной или электронной форме и пере ­


работку, запрещено и преследуется по закону.

ISBN 978-5-93439-410-4

© Д . М. Бузаджи, В.к. Ланчиков , 2012


© И з дательство «Р. Валент » , 2012
Содержание

Структура пособия ........... 4 Урок 15 .................... 106


Характер материалов ..........4 Анализ текста .............. 107
Методические рекомендации .. 6 Упражнения ................ 108
Урок 16 ........ ........... . 113
Урок 1 ...................... 11 Анализ текста .............. 114
Анализ текста ............... 12 Упражнения ................ 119
Упражнения ................ 14 Урок 17 .................... 123
Урок 2 ...................... 18 Анализ текста .............. 125
Анализ текста ............... 19 Упражнения ................ 128
Упражнения ................. 21 Урок 18 .................... 133
Урок 3 ...................... 26 Анализ текста .............. 135
Анализ текста ............... 27 Упражнения .. .. ............ 138
Упражнения ................. 28 Урок 19 .................... 146
Урок 4 ...................... 33 Анализ текста ........ ... ... 147
Анализ текста ............... 34 Упражнения ................ 151
Упражнения ................. 35 Урок 20 .................... 156
Урок 5 ...................... 40 Анализ текста ............. . 158
Анализ текста .... .. ... ...... 41 Упражнения ................ 161
Упражнения ................. 42
Урок 6 ...................... 46 Тексты для самостоятельной
Анализ текста ............... 47 подrотовки

Упражнения ............. ... . 48 Текст 1 ..................... 167


Урок 7 ...................... 53 Текст 2 ..................... 168
Анализ текста ............... 54 Текст 3 ..................... 169
Упражнения ........... .. .... 55 Текст 4 ..................... 17l
Урок 8 ...................... 60 Текст 5 ..................... 172
Анализ текста ............... 61 Текст 6 ..................... 173
Упражнения ................. 62 Текст 7 ..................... 175
Урок 9 ...................... 67 Текст 8 ........... .......... 177
Анализ текста .............. . 68 Текст 9 ..................... 179
Упражнения .... ....... ...... 70 Текст 10 .................... 181
Урок 10 ..................... 73
Анализ текста ............... 74 Приложения
Упражнения ................. 75 Раздел 1 .................... 185
Урок 11 ........... ........ .. 79 Раздел 2 .................... 186
Анализ текста ............... 80 Раздел 3 .................... 187
Упражнения ................. 81 Раздел 4 .................... 189
Урок 12 .................... 84 Раздел 5 .......... ... ....... 190
Анализ теКста " ............. 85 Раздел 6 ............... . .... 193
Упражнения ................. 87
Урок 13 ..................... 91 Список сокращений ....... 199
Анализ текста ............... 92
Упражнения ................. 94
Урок 14 ..... ~ ~'. """""" .99
Анализ текста ........... ... 100
Упражнения ................ 103
4

ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Настоящее пособие представляет собой практикум по письменнОМУ


переводу с английского языка на русский для высших учебных заве­
дений, ведущих подготовку переводчиков (в рамках специалитета, ба­
калавриата или магистратуры), а также реализующих другие учебные
программы, в состав которых входит дисциплина «профессионально
ориентированный перевод».

Структура пособия

Пособие состоит из 20 уроков, текстов для самостоятельной подготов­


ки и приложений. Каждый урок представляет собой предлагаемый для
перевода текст, набор вопросов для переводческого анализа этого текст а
и несколько переводческих упражнений, иллюстрирующих трудности ,
присутствующие в данном тексте и при этом достаточно характ ерны е

для перевода с английского языка на русский вообще. Тексты для само ­


стоятельной подготовки не сопровождаются вопросами и упра жнен и­
ями и предназначены в качестве дополнительного материала как дл я

самостоятельной работы студента, так и при необходимости для ауди­


торных занятий.
Тексты расположены в порядке возрастания сложности и расшире­
ния количества задач, которые приходится решать при их переводе. Он и
не имеют строгой привязки к конкретным курсам и семестрам обучения
в рамках конкретных образовательных программ, поскольку использо­
вание пособия в преподавательской практике будет во многом зависеть
от специфики той или иной специальности, направления подготовки
или профиля, количества выделяемых на этот аспект перевода аудитор ­
ных часов, уровня подготовки студентов и т. п. В целом же тексты уроко в
1-10 соответствуют задачам начального этапа обучения переводу, когд а
вырабатываются базовые нереводческие умения и навыки, а тексты уро­
ков 11-20 целесообразнее использовать на следующем (промежуточном
или конечном) этапе.
Хотя структурной единицей практикума является урок, это не озна­
чает, что каждый урок рассчитан на одно занятие. Авторы предполагают,
что разбор текста и, возможно, упражнений каждого урока будет зани­
мать в среднем от трех до пяти занятий в зависимости от объема теКста
и упражнений, их сложности и УРОВНЯ подготовки группы.

Характер материалов

в качестве текстов для перевод а предлагаются статьи из газет Велико­


британии и США. Тексты не адаптировались, но в некоторых случаях
незначительно сокращались за счет фрагментов структурно самОСТО-
5

ятельнЫХ и не играющих серьезной роли для раскрытия темы и идеи


в целом. Материал для упражнений также почерпнут в основном из
англоязычнОЙ периодики (в конце пособия приведен список аббреви­
атур названий соответствующих СМИ), но некоторые ситуации заим­
ствованы из художественной и справочной литературы. Орфография
и пунктуация источников не изменялась.

Выбор публицистики как основного материала для обучения


переводу не случаен. Во-первых, публицистика обладает широким
сп ектром жанров, так что к этой категории относятся тексты весьма
разнообразные по своим характеристикам. Так, тексты первых уро­
ко в представлены информационными сообщениями, не имеющими
я рко выраженного авторского начала и созданными по относительно

жестким жанровым правилам. Тексты же второй половины, зачастую


за имствованные из авторских рубрик, отличаются гораздо большей
индивидуальностью в оценках, композиции, изобразительно-вырази­
те льных средствах и т. п.

Во-вторых, публицистические тексты в силу своей специфики


содержат информацию о самых разных сторонах действительности
(в пособие включены статьи, затрагивающие вопросы медицины, эко­
л огии, литературы, социологии, лингвистики, истории и др.) и язы­
ковые явления, характерные для самых разных стилей и регистров
общения (научные термины, стилистические приемы художественной
л итературы, разговорные обороты и др.). Таким образом, на материале
публицистических текстов студентов можно познакомить с широким
спектром переводческих задач и выработать у них универсальные на­
вы ки, полезные в любой сфере. Авторы считают, что даже при под­
готовке переводчиков для каких-либо конкретных областей, напри­
ме р перевода научно-технической или художественной литературы,
задания настоящего практикума окажутся полезными для выработки
общих навыков, без которых дальнейшая специализация невозможна.
В-третьих, публицистические тексты содержат лингвострановед­
ческие сведения о странах и культурах изучаемого языка, что помогает

студентам расширить свой профессиональный кругозор. Кроме того,


так ие тексты довольно интересны с содержательной точки зрения,
благодаря чему обучаемые ищут дополнительную информацию и вы­
полняют сам перевод с б6льшим интересом.
Наконец, практика обучения переводу на подобных текстах ис­
пользуется на переводческом факультете Московского государствен­
ного ЛИНгвистического университета в течение многих лет и дает не­

плохие результаты.

Авторы стремились отбирать тексты, чье содержание не связано


всецело с событиями сиюминутной значимости и которые, таким об­
раз ом, сохранят актуальность и понятность в течение относительно
долгого времени. В пособии встречается небольшое число текстов,
опубликованных сравнительно давно, но морально не устаревших
и ценных с методической точки зрения, поскольку они удобны для
рассмотрения целого ряда характерных переводческих трудностей.
6 Введени е

Ситуации, из которых составлены упражнения, всегда достаточ­


но автономны по содержанию. Благодаря этому для их перевода поиск
дополнительных сведений не требуется и преподаватель может исполь­
зовать их в качестве дополнительных заданий на занятиях. Кроме того,
ситуации выбирались с тем расчетом, чтобы иллюстрируемое явление
было отражено в них с разных сторон, а для перевода требовались раз­
нообразные контекстуально обусловленные варианты.

Методические рекомендации

в целом, авторы исходят из того, что преподаватели будут сами решать,


какие материалы из пособия, в каком объеме и как именно использо­
вать для преподавания. Так, вполне возможно не только проходить
со студентами последовательно все уроки от 1-го до 20-го, но и ото­
брать лишь часть из них, дополнив их другими текстами. Больше или
меньше внимания можно уделить упражнениям и т. д. Однако ниже
сформулирована методика работы, которую применяют сами авторы
и которая позволяет получить от практикума максимальную отдачу.

Перевод текстов уроков выполняется студентами в качестве до­


машнего задания, тогда как на аудиторных занятиях происходит про­

верка и обсуждение этих переводов. Объем фрагмента, задаваемого на


один раз и, соответственно, проверяемого на следующем занятии, за­

висит от ряда факторов, таких как уровень группы и этап обучения,


однако он не должен быть слишком большим. Представляется оправ­
данным устанавливать его в пределах 800- 1600 знаков с пробелами.
Полезно (особенно на начальном этапе обучения) чередовать тек­
сты, сопровождающиеся разделами «Анализ текста» и упражнениями,
с текстами для самостоятельной подготовки. Как показывает практи­
ка, студенты, еще не овладевшие навыком самостоятельного анализа

текста, поначалу нередко воспринимают вопросы к тексту как свое­

го рода подсказку, без которой они в дальнейшем не могут обойтись.


Тексты для самостоятельной подготовки дают преподавателю возмож­
ность проверить, в какой мере студенты уже умеют работать без такой
«подсказки » .

Вопросы В разделе « Анализ текста» прорабатываются студентами


самостоятельно и предназначены для того, чтобы послужить стиму­
лом для проведения необходимых разысканий , обеспечивающих ка­
чественный перевод . В начале работы с пособием важно подчеркнуть,
что вопросы следует анализировать предельно добросовестно . Авторы
не включали в уроки вопросы и задания, не имеющие прямого отно­

шения к поиску конкре т ных переводческих решений, поэтому игнори­


рование отдельных вопросов или формалис т ический поход к ответам
на них (например, при анализе контекстуального смысла слова или
выражения выбор самого первого значения из словарной статьи одно­
го-единственного двуязычного словаря), как правило, ведет к ошибоч­
ным решениям при переводе .
>
7

На занятиях преподаватель может, если сочтет нужным, попросить


студентов ответить на вопросы из «Анализа текста» (особенно пп. 1.1.
и 1.2.), чтобы убедиться, что общий смысл и идея текста верно интерпре­
тированы всеми присутствующими. Однако самостоятельного значения
как вид аудиторной работы ответы на вопросы не имеют, и если задания
были в достаточной мере проработаны дома и это отразил ось в выполнен­
Hыx переводах, то дополнительно обсуждать вопросы нецелесообразно.
При формулировании вопросов авторы стремились, с одной сто­
роны, сделать их адресными и содержательными, а с другой - избежать
подсказывания студентам конкретных вариантов перевода или, напро­

тив, рекомендаций какие-то варианты не использовать. Ряд вопросов


вполне допускает разные ответы, и их задача - сделать так, чтобы студент
умел обосновать свое переводческое решение.
Многие вопросы, особенно в пп. 1.1. и 1.2., связаны с широким кон­
текстом, и ответы на них требуют обращения к различным справочни­
кам, и в том числе к ресурсам Интернета. В некоторых случаях необхо­
димые источники включены в практикум в виде приложений. Работа
с источниками, поиск информации, необходимой для понимания и пере­
вода текста, - одно из ключевых умений профессионального переводчи­
ка, и преподаватель должен с самого начала обратить внимание студен­
тов на эту сторону их деятельности. В частности, необходимо добиваться
того, чтобы студенты указывали на конкретные источники, из которых
почерпнуты те или иные сведения, не ограничиваясь ответами вроде «из

какого-то словаря» или «из Интернета». В то же самое время необходи­


мо помнить, что поиск дополнительной информации нужен только для
выбора наиболее корректных переводческих решений и не должен пре­
вращаться в самоцель.

Упражнения, которыми заканчивается каждый урок, иллюстри­


руют те или иные встретившиеся в тексте переводческие трудности.

По возможности авторы старались расположить тексты и упражнения


в порядке возрастающей сложности: от базовых вопросов (передача акту­
ального членения, передача имен собственных и т. п.) до более специфи­
ческих (передача окказиональных неологизмов, передача ассоциативной
информации и т. п.). Однако порядок следования упражнений принци­
пиальной роли не играет, и преподаватель может, если сочтет нужным,
предлагать студентам для перевода упражнения из других уроков, если
они отражают те же трудности, что встретились в разбираемом тексте.
Тематика упражнений отражает лишь часть вопросов, обычно рас­
сматриваемых в курсе частной теории перевода. Выбор тем упражнений
обусловлен исключительно наличием явления, ставшего темой упражне­
ния, в переводимом тексте.

В ПРОцессе самостоятельной работы дома студенты должны ознако­


миться с Упражнениями, отсылки к которым даны в соответствующих
вопросах п. 1.3., и как минимум предложить варианты передачи выде­
ленных слов (выражений, содержащих выделенные слова). После этого
необходимо вернуться к фрагменту переводимого текста, содержащему
рассматриваемое явление, и дать вариант его передачи с учетом тех реше-
8 Введение

ний, которые были опробованы в упражнении. Как правило, переводче­


ские трудности выносились в упражнения в том случае, если их решения

разнообразны и всегда тесно связаны с контекстом. Поэтому основная


задача упражнения - познакомить студента с узусом того или иного яв­

ления и наглядно продемонстрировать, что для его передачи на русском

языке не существует единственного универсального рецепта.

Как использовать упражнения на аудиторных занятиях, решает


преподаватель, исходя из своих методических целей и требований си­
туации. Среди возможных способов применения - перевод упражнений
с листа или с небольшой предварительной подготовкой, когда основное
внимание уделяется передаче центрального явления и связи упражнения

с переводимым текстом. Преподаватель также может, особенно на на­


чальном этапе, задавать на дом письменный перевод упражнений (или
выборочных ситуаций из них) с последующей проверкой в аудитории l .
В целом, как представляется авторам, выбор текстов, вопросы
к ним и упражнения, с одной стороны, являются подспорьем для пре­
подавателя, а с другой - в известной мере отражают методику обучения
переводу, применяемую в МГЛУ. Большинство включенных в практи­
кум текстов было опробовано на занятиях, что позволило авторам вы­
делять трудности в соответствии с наиболее частотными ошибками,
которые студенты допускают в действительности, а вопросы форму­
лировать с учетом дискуссий, имеющих место в аудитории и приво­
дящих К выбору более удачных вариантов. Безусловно, преподаватель,
воспользовавшийся практикумом, может обнаружить, что некоторые
из выделенных явлений особых затруднений у студентов не вызывают,
тогда как в других местах, не отмеченных в пособии, тоже встречаются
ошибки. И все же, если студенты тщательно проработают все задания
урока, а преподаватель будет готов к обсуждению включенных в него
вопросов, общее качество и переводов, и аудиторной работы должно
повыситься.

Необходимо отметить, что авторы отмечали в «Анализе текста»


только те явления, к которым можно было задать более или менее кон­
кретные наводящие вопросы, не сводящиеся к формулировке: «Явление
Х трудно для перевод а - обратите на него особое внимание». Поэтому
в заданиях, как правило, нет отдельных вопросов к словам и выраже­

ниям, чье значение может быть нелегко понять или передать на русском
языке, но работа с которыми не требует от переводчика никаких допол­
нительных действий или учета дополнительных соображений. Таким
образом, объем вопросов и упражнений к тексту пропорционален не
столько его сложности для перевода, сколько количеству в этом тексте

информации, требующей проверки, и трудностей, имеющих определен­


ную степень типичности.

I Часть материалов для упражнений из настоящего пособия была заимствована


из сборников упражнений «Техника перевода» (Части 1 и П, М.: Р.Валент, 2007), под­
готовленных с участием авторов этой книги. При необходимости преподаватели могут
обратиться к этим сборникам за дополнительным и заданиями.

- -_ ........
Уроки
....
11

YpoK1

BAN DOCTORS WHO CAN'T


SPEAK ENGLISH

European doctors who speak poor English should be banned from practising
in Britain, a coroner said yesterday.
.Dr Paul Knapman called for new laws after an inquest heard that a man
died":thts1ffench private doctor struggled to make himself understood in a
lO-minute call to the ambulance service(l).
Dr Knapman, the Westminster coroner, was told that the General
Medical Council, the doctors' watchdog, does not have the power to force
doctors to take a language test.
The inquest heard that Joao Paulo Lusakumunu Kiese, 38, a lay
preacher from Manor Park, east London, visited Dr Bernard Delvigne at his
private clinic in Wimpole Street, central London, with breathing problems
last March(2).
The GP administered the steroid Kenacort to the father of three. But the
Angolan-born Mr Kiese collaps~ ~I'Z:..-
The doctor gave him an in'ection and dialled 999 for an ambulance but
the call took 10 minutes as he struggled to make himself clear(3). Mr Kiese
died before reaching hosRital.
Dr Knapman delivered a verdict of misadventure and said the 999 call
took "rather longer than would be expected, mostly due to the linguistic
difficulties of the doctor being understood".
Dr Knapman said that Dr Delvigne had problems with the nuances of the
language, including using the word "sleeping" to describe being unconscious.
He said he would write to the Health Secretary, Patricia Hewitt, to ask
her to review legislation.
Doctors from Europe have not had to prove reasonable English since
1981, when the then government abolished a language test as part of getting
on to the medical register.
Doctors from outside the European Economic Area, such as those from
South East Asia, must still take the test.
Anthony Egerton, the GMC's assistant director of registration, told the
hearing that the law "proscribes" the GMC from using a language test.
At an earlier hearing, Dr Delvigne, in practise for 41 years, said that he
could understand English but had problems with some regional accents.
He said the telephone operator had been unnecessarily pedantic. He also
asked the court for an interpreter.
When asked why he needed one, he said: "I've studied English since I
was 10 but it was Shakespeare, not English like you speak.
"I've now worked for five years in the UK and I can understand if it's
spoken slOWly.

>
12 Уроки

"1 have difficu1ty watching TV sometimes. 1 understand the Oxford


accent but not Cockney."
Daily Telegraph Reporter, Dec. 22, 2006

1. Анапиз текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. К какому жанру газетных текстов относится эта статья? Обрати ­


те внимание на построение первых двух абзацев. В чем отличие
такого построения от принципа подачи информации в сопостави­
мом жанре русской публицистики? Подумайте о возможном пере­
строении порядка информационных блоков и изменении характера
связи между ними при переводе вводных абзацев на русский язык
в соответствии с узусом переводящего языка.

2. Обратите внимание на деление этого текста на абзацы. Будете ли


вы сохранять это членение в переводе и если нет, то почему?
3. При переводе основной части текста уделите особое внимание
последовательности подачи информации (в том числе биографи­
ческого характера), ее повторам и связям между ее отдельными
блоками. При необходимости рассмотрите возможность компози­
ционно-синтаксических перестроений для обеспечения оптималь­
ного восприятия информации читателем перевода .
4. В чем заключается тема статьи? Какие более общие вопросы за­
трагиваются в связи с конкретным несчастным случаем?
5. Проанализируйте прямую речь в последних трех абзацах статьи.
Как бы вы описали эти высказывания с лингвистической точки
зрения? Учтите эти выводы и содержащуюся в тексте информацию
о говорящем при выработке подхода к созданию речевой характе­
ристики этого персонажа впереводе .

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. Что такое inquest? Кто его в данном случае проводит и почему?


Какое отношение к этому процессу имеет hearing?
2. Что представляет собой General Medical Council? В чем заключают­
ся его функции и полномочия? Проанализируйте в этой связи зна­
чение слова watchdog. Какие еще watchdogs бывают в Великобрита­
нии? Используйте найденные сведения при передаче содержащейся
в настоящей статье информации, связанной с деятельностью этой
организ ации . Найдите традиционные варианты названия этой ор­
ганизации на русском языке (при отсутствии таковых передайте это
название согласно правилам передачи подобных имен собственных).
3. Как вы понимаете значение словосочетания [ау preacher? В чем за­
ключаются обязанности этого человека?
р

Yp oKN2 11 13

4. Что представляет собой препарат Kenacort? Уточните правила на­


писания названий лекарств в русском языке.
5. Для чего в Великобритании служит телефонный номер 999?
6. Какую должность занимает человек по имени Patricia Hewitt? С
какой целью упоминаемое в статье лицо намеревается обратиться
к этому человеку? Как это связано с общей темой статьи?
7. Что такое Еuуореаn Economic Ауеа? Как это понятие соотносится
с другими организациями объединенной Европы? Уточните нор­
мативный вариант передачи этого имени собственного на русский
язык .

8. Что такое Oxford ассеn! и Cockney? В чем их особенности? Поду­


майте, как передать эти понятия на русском языке, чтобы у чита­
теля перевода сложилось верное впечатление об уровне владения
языком упоминаемого в тексте врача.

1.3. Частные языковые трудности

1. Обратите внимание на употребление герундия в функции ДОIЮЛ­


нения в первом предложении статьи и далее по тексту. Какие син­
таксические средства русского языка наиболее естественны для
его передачи? Проанализируйте упражнение 2.1. и предложите ва­
рианты передачи фрагментов, содержащих выделенные слова.
2. Анализируя логические связи в тексте, обратите внимание, по­
мимо прочего, на использование артиклей. Так, например, в пред­
ложении (1) слово inquest сопровождается неопределенным арти­
клем, а в предложении (2) - определенным. Чем это объясняется и
как может повлиять на конкретные переводческие решения?
3. Проанализируйте характер связей, выражаемых союзами after и as
в предложении (1). Носят ли эти связи исключительно временной
характер? Прежде чем сформулировать окончательный вариант
перевода этого предложения, проанализируйте упражнение 2.2.
и подберите варианты передачи придаточных предложений и обо­
ротов, вводимых союзом as 2 • Примените ваши наблюдения и при
переводе предложения (3).
4. Что в данном контексте означает struggled? Проанализируйте
определения этого глагола в толковых английских словарях и кон­
тексты его употребления, обращая внимание на те случ аи , когда он
указывает не столько на само действие, сколько на образ действия.
5. В статье содержатся личные имена иностранного (по отношению
к тексту оригинала) происхождения: Joao Paulo Lusakumunu Kiese
и Berпard Delvigne. Вспомните или уточните принципы, которы­
ми Должен руководствоваться переводчик при передаче имен соб-

2 См.: Бузаджи Д.М. Структуры и связи. О роли синтаксиса впереводе // Мосты


N2 4(16)/2007. [электронный ресурс]. - Режим доступа: http://www.thinkaloud.ru/feature/
buz-syntax.pdf.
14 YpOKI1

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BbI 6Y,ll;eTe PYKOBO,ll;CTBOBaTbcH rrpH rrepe,ll;a'le HMeHH aHrOJIbIIa?
6. KaK BbI rrOHHMaeTe B 3TOM KOHTeKCTe 06CTOHTeJIbCTBO BpeMeHH last
March (B KaKOM ro,ll;y rrpOH30IlIJIO yrroMHHaeMoe rrpoHcIlIecTBHe)? IIo-
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6JIeHHe B aHrJIOH3bI'lHblX TeKCTax 06CTOHTeJIbCTB BpeMeHH, Ha'lHHalO-
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JIOrOM OTHOIlIeHHH IIeJIH Ha PYCCKOM H3bIKe?

2. Ynpa>KHeHIIIJ'I

2.1. rePYHAVlLII B <l>YHK4V1V1 Aonol1HeHVlJ'I


1. Cambridge University is considering videotaping its selection
interviews to head off growing complaints about the fairness of its
decisions. Barry Everitt, master of Downing College, said yesterday that
the university was "appreciably closer" to recording interviews after
tiring of the annual outrage from its rejects. (T., Jan. 16,04)
2. Superman had X-ray vision, which was useful for looking through walls
when rescuing heroines and collaring villains. But beyond Hollywood,
the best that engineers have been able to come up with to see inside
buildings are devices that use radar. (E., Oct. 15,09)
3. There has been a massive surge in illegal ivory trading, researchers
warned last week. They have found that more than 14,000 products
made from the tusks and other body parts of elephants were seized in
2009, an increase of more than 2,000 on their previous analysis in 2007.
Details of this disturbing rise have been revealed on the eve of the 20th
anniversary of the world ivory trading ban. Implemented on 18 January
1990, it was at first credited with halting the slaughter of hundreds
of thousands of elephants. (Obs., Jan. 17, 10)
4. Coping with threats of terrorism without terrifying children seems
to be the more pressing concern on people's minds [in Thailand]. One
Bangkok international school discusses with its students the reasons for
having bomb and other types of drills. Another school has drills but
refers to them as fire drills. (LH.T., Feb. 22- 23, 03)
5. People in England and Wales run the greatest risk of having their car
stolen, according to a crime survey of 24 countries. (T., Apr. 20, 94)
6. The city of Glendale is imposing a ban on artificial grass. Notices are
going out to homeowners whose front yards are covered in turf. Geneva

3 CM.: EPMOJIOBI1'1 ,U.I1 . I1MeHa C06CTBeHHble: TeOpl1!! II npaKTI1Ka MeJl(U3bJKOBOH


nepe.l\a'll1. - M. : P.BaJIeHT, 2005.
>
YpOKNg11 15

Dotson says she was forced to pay crews $3,000 to rip up her brand
new front yard after receiving a notice from city hall. "There's enough
drama in life without having the city breathing down my back,"
says Dotson. "I'm very angry about it, to tell you the truth." (CBS Los
Angeles, Nov. 17, 11)
7. I am sick of being made to feel ashamed of displaying patriotism. (G.,
Sep. 15,01)
8. At this moment, however the room bore every mark of having been
recently and hurriedly ransacked. (R. L. Stevenson)
9~ Robin Cook [UK Foreign Secretary] will change the law to stop torture
equipment made in Britain from being shipped abroad, it was announced
last night. The move followed the revelations in The Independent that leg-
irons made in Birmingham were openly on sale in the United States despite
a ban announced in 1997. (Ind., Feb. 4, 00)

2.2. nplIIAaTo~Hble npeAJ10>KeHIIIR III 060POTbl,


Bblpa>KalOll\lIIe Ael7lcTBllle/cocToRHllle,
oAHoBpeMeHHoe C Ael7lcTBllleM/cocToRHllleM
B rJ1aBHOM npeAJ10>KeHIIIIII

1. Just as scientists have identified the flu strain that they expect will fell
Americans next year, a group of Australian researchers has offered some
hope for the future. They have designed two new drugs that in animals
can protect against influenza. (LH.T., Jun. 10, 93)
2. Thirty-six police and eight workers were hurt as firebombs and stones
were thrown in Ulsan, South Korea, as 3,600 police backed by bulldozers
tried to break a strike at a nylon plant. (G., Jun. 6, 01)
3. Looking out to sea from this city's [Copenhagen's] picturesque harbor,
a wall of 70-meter windmills dominates the horizon with rotors silently
spinning in the glinting sunshine as sailboats and fishing trawlers glide
past. (LH.T., Sep. 23, 03)
4. Volcanic activity intensified at Mount Etna early Tuesday as a 100-meter
(300-foot) plume of black ash and lava spewed from its crater. (LH.T.,
Sep. 16,98)
5. Markets around the world have seen panicked trading over recent days
as concern mounts that central banks and politicians are running out of
ideas to stimulate growth in their economies. (g.co.uk, Aug. lO, 11)
6. Two police cars, a bus and several shops were attacked and set ablaze
in north London on Saturday night as violence and looting erupted
following a protest demanding "justice" over a fatal police shooting.
(Obs., Aug. 7, 11)
7. A New York State trooper just finishing his night shift at 3 A.M. died when
his car flipped over after he fell asleep at the wheel. (LH.T., Jul. 6, 90)
8. A 70-year-old man was seriously hurt when he was run over by his own
car as he tried to prevent it being stolen at Hexam, Northumberland.
(Ind., Jun. 15, 94)
16 YpOKH

9. Nicole Becuwe was 12 and living in the French departament of Pas de


Calais when she overheard her father asking her mother for a divorce.
(T., May 21, 99)
10. Cuba suffered its worst hurricane in more than 50 years when gusts of
up to 125 mph battered the island, killing five people and destroying tens
of thousands of homes. (G., Nov. 10,01)
11. France yesterday blamed Britain for the illegal immigrant crisis at
the Channel Tunnel as its handling of security at the site was widely
condemned. Nicolas Sarkozy, the new interior minister, said that
immigrants continued to flock to Sangatte because of Britain's lax regime
for asylum seekers. Last week M Sarkozy became the first French minister
to visit Sangatte, when he spent five minutes there. (D.T., Jun. 1, 02)
12. A psychiatrist who had sex with a woman patient claiming it was part of
her therapy was struck offby the General Medical Council. Christopher
Dare, 65, of Dulwich, South London, had a seven-month affair with the
woman, which began when he kissed her while she was on his therapy
couch. (T., Feb. 16, 02)
13. Mr Akrich had been trying to settle in Britain since 1989 and was
deported twice before returning in 1996, when he married. (D.T., Sep.
24,03)
14. He speculated in articles ofthe first necessity, and made himself popular
by buying up grain, honey, wines, andxother produce, till there was a
scarcity, when he sold it again at enormous profits. (C. Mackay)
15. At least six people died when a bus carrying an ice hockey team crashed
and caught fire in the Via Mala road tunnel on the AB motorway, near
the Swiss border with Italy and Austria, when a car swerved to avoid
a wheel lost by another vehicle. (Obs., Sep. 17, 06)

2.3. lIenesble 060pOTbl c npe,qnorOM for


1. The Obama administration has strongly supported expanding drilling
for natural gas because it is an abundant domestic and potentially cleaner
source of electricity than coal. (N.Y.T., Aug. 10, 11)
2. KATHMANDU: Though there were maximum cases of sexual
harassment against women in society, very few ofthem have knocked the
door for justice, said National Women Commission (NWC). (Himalayan
Times, Apr. 6, 11)
3. Born in Rock Springs, Wyo. in 1900, Florabel [Muir] roughed out a
semi-frontier childhood with ten brothers and sisters. After graduation
from the University of Washington, she tried schoolteaching, dropped
it for reporting. The newspaper circuit took her to the Chicago Herald-
Examiner. (Time, Nov. 13, 44)
4. Teuila Sieni Rimoni, 25, was jailed for 18 months by Justice Vui Clarence
Nelson on Tuesday. The woman had worked as a senior accountant for
a supermarket in Apia. The Court heard that Rimoni created fictitious
purchase order forms and forged signatures on it. Once the management
Yp oKN2 U l7

approved the purchase order, the defendant prepared the cheque and
cashed it for her personal use. (Samoa Observer, Aug. 5, 11)
5. So it was refreshing to hear how Senator Jon Tester, a Democrat of
Montana, is spending his summer vacation. While other senators drove
the campaign trail, dialed for dollars or lounged on a beach somewhere,
Mr. Tester went home to his farm and harvested wheat. (N.Y.T., Aug. 10,
11)
6. "We want a world where there's distance between people; that's where
great storytelling comes from," said Kamran Pasha, a writer and
producer on "Kings," the NBC drama based on the story of David.
He says even the unfolding of the Bible would have been a casualty
of connectedness. In the Old Testament, for instance, Joseph's brothers
toss him into a pit. He is picked up by slave traders and taken to Egypt,
a pivotal development in the Exodus narrative that is central to Judaism.
Imagine if, instead, he dialed for help from the pit. "It's humorous to
think that if Joseph has an iPhone, there's no Judaism," Mr. Pasha says.
(N.Y.T., Apr. 16, 09)
7. You have to consider the fact that burglar alarms are one of the best tools
that you can install in your home to constantly monitor it for illegal
activities. There are alarms that come with cameras and sound recorders
in order for you to have eyes and ears even when you're out of your
house. This is also a great tool to monitor your babysitter if you have
any. It will tell you if they are indeed performing the job you hired them
for. (Home Technology System, Nov. 21, 11)
8. A Schuylkill County man driving a newspaper delivery van told polic~
Wednesday that another driver blocked his path, approached him for ~
newspaper, then slashed him with a knife when he wouldn't give it to him
or give him money. (Morning Call, Jun. 1, 06)
9. My 9-year old daughter, Ariana, and I were standing at the M72 [bus
number] bus stop near Broadway. A youngish, clearly tourist couple
approached us for what I assumed would be the oft-heard question at
this crosstown bus stop about which M72 would take them east versus
west. (N.Y.T., Jul. 25, 05)
10. Here are some recommendations from the Center to Prevent Handgun
Violence on how to store the guns safely. Keep them unloaded and
uncocked in a locked container. A new container, the Gun Locker from
Costello Manufacturing, comes in two models, one to be mounted on a
wall, the other to be placed inside a wall between beams. The lockers
require a four-digit electronic code entered on a push-button panel for
entry. In each model , the gun lies flat in a holster; when the door opens,
an interior light turns on and the holstered gun turns outward for instant
access. (NY.T., Mar. 30, 91)

>
18

YpoK2

EARLY RISERS GE~ AHEAD oi1 THE GAMf


P EOPLE WHO GET UP EARLY IN THE MORNING ARE SLIMMER,
HAPPIER AND HEALTHIER THAN THOSE WHO LIE IN, RESEARCHERS HAVE FOUND.

By Nick Collins

Those who fight the urge to ignore the alarm clock complete morning
~ }»~.s:llUMW ~t~~.9w.yrlier and thrive in the
workplace, research~scOriClUdea. . ,
But people who can't resist a lie in have a higher chance of feeling
depressed or stressed and becoming overweight.
r Researchers questioned 1,068 adults about their levels of happiness
~ and anxiety, their physical health and their eating and sleeping habits in an
10nline survey.
They found that "morning people" were out of bed by 6.58am on
laverage, while "evening people" waited until 8.54am to start their day.
At the weekend both groups enjoyed about an extra hour under the
covers, with early risers waiting until 7.47am to get up and night owls lying
in until 10.09am.
Dr Joerg Huber of Roehampton University said: "There are morning
peOPle and evening people, and morning people tend to be healthier and
happier as well as having lower body mass indices."
The reason early risers do better in life could be down to the fact
that getting the chores out of the way and the children out of bed in

1 good time helps people fit in better with hectic modern life, he told a British
Psychological Society conference(l).
, "Maybe morning types are just better suited to this industrial world we
are in than late risers", he said.
1 The differences between the two groups are small and there can be
', certain advantages to being an evening person, for example in jobs that
u:equire you to work late, he added.
~ The survey also found that people who watch a lot of television are
,)more likely to skip breakfast.
This could be because they snack more while spending their evening
:)ll the sJfa and are less hungry in the m9!ni!1g as a result, Dr Huber said.
Telegraph, Sep . 15, 2011
р

YpoKNQD 19

1. Анализ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. K~~~~IX текстов относится эта статья? Обрати­


те внимание на построение первых двух абзацев. В чем отличие
такого построения от принципа подачи информации в сопостави­
мом жанре русской публицистики? Подумайте о возможном пере­
строении порядка информационных блоков и изменении характера
связи между ними при переводе вводных абзацев на русский язык
в соответствии с узусом переводящего языка.

2. Обратите внимание на деление этого текста на абзацы. Будете ли


вы сохранять это членение в переводе и если нет, то почему?
3. При переводе основной части текста уделите особое внимание по­
следовательности подачи информации и связям между ее отдель­
ными блоками, в том числе на абзацы с прямой и косвенной ре­
чью , начинающиеся или заканчивающиеся словами автора типа Dr
Huberlhe saidladded. Оцените, насколько сохранение формальных
черт подобной композиции будет уместным в русском переводе.
4. В чем заключаются основная тема и идея статьи? Какие преиму­
щества один тип людей имеет перед другим и почему? Подумай­
те о существующих в русском языке способах обозначения двух
противопоставленных типов людей, описанных в статье.
5. Как вы понимаете заголовок и, в частности, входящее в него со­
четание to get ahead ofthe game? Есть ли в русском языке устойчи­
вые выражения, передающие смысл, заключенный в английском
заголовке?
6. В чем функция предложения, помещенного между заголовком и
информацией об авторе статьи? Как и насколько часто подобные
элементы статьи используются в русской публицистике? Насколь­
ко содержание этого предложения отличается от содержания двух

первых абзацев статьи?

~r~
_1_.2_.___с_в_я_з_ь_с_ш_и.!;.р.о_к_
;. и_м_к.о. ;. н..т.;. е.; к.с. ;.тO~M
..... ..... .....
1. Где находится Roehampton University? ~~-
~Проверьте наличие традиционных вариантов названия
этого учебного заведения на русском языке. При отсутствии или
недостоверности таковых предложите свой вариант передачи этого
имени собственного на русский. При этом уточните произношение
слова Roehampton, типичную структурную модель образования
названий российских и зарубежных высших учебных заведений в
РУССКОМ языке и правила употребления прописных букв в подоб­
ных названиях.
2. Что таКое body mass index? Уточните, как он вычисляется, и уточ­
ните практику передачи этого термина на русском языке.
20 Уроки

3. Что представляет собой British PsychoZogicaZ Society? Проверь­


те наличие традиционных вариантов названия этой организации
на русском языке. При отсутствии или недостоверности таковых
предложите свой вариант передачи этого имени собственного на
русский с учетом соответствующих переводческих норм и правил
русской орфографии.

tA~ V·
W\~l.з. Частные языковые ТРУДНОСТИ

1. Как вы понимаете смысл словосочетания morning chores? Про­


верьте значение слова chore в толковом английском словаре. При
выборе окончательного варианта передачи этого сочетания пред­
ставьте себе, как бы вы описали соответствующую деятельность
в своем собственном распорядке дня.
2. Как вы понимаете смысл словосочетания to pack chiZdren ojJ to
schoo!? В чем заключается цель этой деятельности? Назовите наи­
более типичные компоненты этого процесса.
3. Проверьте значение слова to thrive в английском толковом словаре
и при необходимости проанализируйте контексты его употребле­
ния в аутентичных текстах .

4. Как вы понимаете смысл слова workpZace? В чем могут заключать ­


ся его отличия от смысла словосочетания «рабочее место»? При
необходимости проанализируйте контексты его употребления
в аутентичных текстах.

5. Обратите внимание на написание числительного 1,068. Что в дан­


ном случае обозначает запятая? Совпадает ли это использование
запятой с правилами постановки этого знака при записи числи­
тельных в русском языке? Уточните правила записи десятичных
дробей и числительных с большим количеством разрядов, приня­
ifые в английской и русской традициях 4 • С тех же позиций проана­
лизируйте запись обозначений времени (б.58аm и др.).
6. Проверьте в английском толковом словаре значения слов happiness
и anxiety. Обратите внимание, что в настоящем контексте эти по­
нятия противопоставлены друг другу и обозначают душевное
(психологическое) состояние человека.
7. Как вы понимаете смысл слов~ habit в этом контексте? Проверьте
его значение в толковом английском словаре.
8. Как вы понимаете значение словосочетаний morпing/evening
peopZe? Насколько продуктивной для английского языка является
подобная модель образования сочетаний? Прежде чем определить­
ся с окончательным вариантом передачи этих сочетаний, проана­
лизируйте упражнение 2.1. и предложите варианты передачи вы-
4еленных фрагментов .

4 См.: Орел М.А. Нанофилология, или Бывают ли мелочи впереводе? // Мосты


N24(32)12011 . [электронный ресурс] . - Режим доступа: http://www.thinkaloud.ru/feature/
orel-nano.pdf.
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BaHl1e HMeHHOM <i>OPMhl C onpe,ll,eJIeHl1eM ,ll,JI5I YKa3aHI15I Ha 06beKT no
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060CHOBaTh BallIH npe,ll,nOJIO)KeHI15I. ,[(JI5I KaKI1X H3hIKOB THrrl1t.IHO HM5I
Joerg (B 3TOM I1JII1 HHOM HarrHcaHHH)? TIpoBephTe HaJIHt.IHe B PYCCKHX
HCTOt.IHHKaX 3aKperrHBIIIerOC5I BapHaHTa nepe,ll,at.IH 3Toro HMeHH.
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the children out of bed 113 rrpe,ll,JIO)KeHI15I (1) 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe Ha
5IBJIeHHe 3eBrMhl. TIpHMI1Te B paCt.IeT TO, t.ITO 3eBrMa B aHrJIHMCKOM 5I3hI-
Ke 3at.IaCTYIO 06JIa,ll,aeT MeHhllIeM 3KCnpeCCI1BHOCThlO, t.IeM B PYCCKOM
5I3hIKe 5 • TIpe)K,ll,e t.IeM orrpe,ll,eJIHThC5I C OKOHt.IaTeJIhHhIM BapHaHTOM
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BhIX Cpe,ll,CTB?

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~a.l. nepeAalla cOlleTaHLllIII TLllna


----------~~----------------
«cYll.\eCTBLIITenbHoe + person»
Aesthetically, the cat is a masterpiece. Cats also do very little most of
the time, albeit with great panache. Cat people interpret this to mean
that cats are artistic and intellectual. To dog people, it's proof that cats
are vain and lazy. Dogs, on the other hand, are sociable and respect
hierarchies. For a dog person, this makes for a loyal and loving pet. But
to the cat person, a dog's behaviour is humiliating and subservient. (G.,
May 10,03)
I haven't yet decided on the menu. The boyfriend says that I can't
inflict my eating habits on the guests - namely, no meat or fish - so
I've conceded to some sort of free-range, wild , suicidal fish as an
alternative main course. I must remember to email the cake people,
too, because I can only eat eggs from chickens that are allowed to
retire. (G., Mar. 30, 02)
3. This summer has the potential to turn even the most resolute jeans
person into a dress wearer. (g.co.uk, Jun. 24, 11)

5 CM.: JIaH'lI1KOB B.K. 3eBrMa KaK nepeBO,!l'leCKall npo6JJeMa ll COBpeMeHHble npo6JJe-


MbI 'laCTHOii TeOpl!l1 nepeBO,!la. _ M.: MIIK MfJIY «PeMa», 2010. (BecTHHK MrJIY; BbIn. 9
(588): Cep. 513bIKo3HaHHe) [:meKTpoHHbIH pecypc]. - PelKHM ,!IocTyna: http://www.thmkaJoud.
ru/sclence/lan-zeugma.pdf.
22 YpOKH

4. Listen to more classical music. I've been resolving this since I turned
fifteen with very little improvement. At some deep level, I think I
identify myself as a non-classical music person, the way you think
of yourself as a "cat person" or "someone that doesn't like cheese."
But maybe I'm missing out. At the very least, I will download some
Beethoven and Wagner. (g.co.uk, Dec. 29, 06)
5. I have always been an autumn and winter person, never happier than
when there is a bit of a nip in the air. (Obs., act. 18, 09)
6. What kind of a credit card person are you? Do you read the terms and
service agreement? Do you take the time to read the offer you get? As
a smart consumer, it is up to you to choose the credit card right for your
specific needs. (comparecards.com)
7. In a recent essay on coffee in America, essayist Julia Keller proclaimed
that there is a fundamental difference between "coffee people" and
"tea people." The difference between the two is "a cultural divide that
cuts across movies, and TV, and literature, and life .... Coffee is scraped
knuckles and bum luck; tea is an extended pinkie and inherited wealth."
(HuffpostFood, act. 21, 06)
8. PC users are older, more conservative, and suburban. Mac users are 22
percent more likely to be age 18 to 34, while PC people are 22 percent
more likely to be 35 to 49. Not surprisingly, then, 58 percent of Mac
people say they're liberal, versus 36 percent of PC users. (The Week,
Apr. 27, 11)

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1. When I turned up at her apartment, I had brought [Janet] Malcolm iced


coffee, which she turned down. "I'm a tea drinker," she said and I
ended up drinking both coffees. (G., Jun. 4, 11)
2. And then seconds later, the Oscar for best original screenplay falls
to David Seidler for The King's Speech. Seidler, if I recall, gave the
night's most heartfelt, moving speech at the Baftas [the British Academy
of Film and Television Arts award ceremony] a few weeks back, and
he's on similar form again here. "My father always said I'd be a late
bloomer," the 74-year-old writer confides. "I believe I'm the oldest
person ever to win this award. I hope that record is broken soon and
often." (g.co.uk, Feb. 27, 11)
3. Despite his naturally tiny frame - 5ft 4in and eight stone - Hanagan did
not see himself as a jockey growing up, rather he dreamed of being a
footballer for his beloved Liverpool. But his father, Geoff, who had tried
and failed to make it riding horses, eventually passed on the bug. "I was
a late starter compared to most, 12 years old. I'd never ridden a horse
before then, not even a pony. I'd probably just about been on a donkey at
Blackpool beach." (G., Aug. 24, 10)
23
?:'E 0K N2 U
4. If you have nothing much to do some days and then stay late because there
is a sudden deadline, you need better organisation. While many bosses
"blame the victim" by sending anyone who complains of long hours on
a time management course, some people do need to rethink the way they
do their work. But many managers are poor planners who are bad at
allocating work. They are the ones who need training. (G., Feb. 18,06)
5. lan Paisley, the greatest voter-getter Northern Ireland ever known,
cruised through the shoppers at Lisburn market like a latter-day Old
Testament patriarch, a larger-than-life figure who speaks directly to
the soul of the Ulster Protestant. (lnd., Jun. 3, 99)
6. "Ricky [Hatton, a boxer] is a much better fighter than before, you can see
a big difference in him," said Mayweather Sr [trainer). "He is a real fast
learner and is one of the best students I ever had. He had quality but no
one brought it out of him." (g.co.uk, Mar. 27, 09)
7. Being more of a beach-goer than a mountain climber, I'd never before
experienced altitude for any length oftime. (For a Change, Aug'/Nov., 01)
-8-.--=Sh=-'r-'-edders, this year's most popular domestic accessory, are now
~ , outselling toasters in Tesco outlets. Sales have topped 10,000 a month
since Christmas and registered a 25% increase in the last six months.
The trend has been mirrored at other supermarkets and particularly
DIY stores, where stacks of shredders are increasingly used as "till bait"
r-f.,fYl-- to attract impulse buyers. (G., May 7, 05)
---g:-- Over the past 15 months the Walkleys [family] have become obsessive
price-checkers. It all started humbly enough with a bottle of wrongly
priced Dolmio sauce at their local [Sainsbury store] in Hemel Hempstead.
Sainsbury's policy is that if there is a discrepancy between the price on
the shelf label and that charged at the check-out, you get your money
back and the product for free. The Walkleys started to find lots of errors
and, as frustrations mounted, perfected the guerilla tactic of bulk-buying
these items. (Ind., Mar. 20, 99)
10. How disappointing that the falling birth rate might be seen as a reason to
close schools. Fewer children enrolling could be the perfect opportunity
to have smaller classes, teachers who are less harassed, classrooms less
cluttered and children who are less overwhelmed by sheer numbers.
Teachers who find themselves without a class could be earmarked
successfully to help slower readers, struggling spellers, or baffled
mathematicians, and offer more demanding lessons to academically
able children or challenging opportunities to those who are adept and
practically minded. (Obs., Jun. 19, 05)
11. Obama, a smooth talker when reading from a teleprompter, is frequently
thrown by the impromptu nature of press conferences and appeared
stuck when asked what had surprised, troubled , enchanted and humbled
him in his first 100 days in office. (g.co.uk., Apr. 30, 09)
12. An Australian study had 110 v teers, men and women 45 to 80 ears
old, Spend the night in a slee laborator esearchers timed thei snorin
and usedsilltraso:§5Dto measure the extent o~ in t . . teries.
After controlling for sex, body mass index, smokm, yperten and

b
24 YpOKH

other factors, they calculated that the risk fo arotid arter narrowing
among the heaviest snorers was 10 times the ns among t ose w 0
snored the least. (N.Y.T., Sep. 8,08)
13. If you have ever worn contact lenses, the idea of wearing them to sleep
in is not just revolutionary, it is repulsive. Ask any contact-lens wearer
who has woken from a boozy night out to tl-#teH: el · gummed up
and lenses screaming to be removed fro bloodshot eye (G., Jul. 7,09)
14. Of course, not all pit bulls are dangerous. on't bite anyone.
Meanwhile, Dobermans and Great Danes and German shepherds and
Rottweilers are frequent biters as well, and the dog that recently
mau a Frenchwoman so badly that she was given the world's first face
transplan as, of all things, a Labrador retriever. (N.Y., Feb. 6, 06)
15. But oil companies won't easily abandon the lucrative promise of perpetual
fossil fuel addiction. And in a Washington dominated by the corporate
class (among whom there is no shortage of climate change deniers),
lobbying for strong climate legislation has proved an abysmal failure.
(g.co.uk, Aug. 14, 11)

2.3. nepeBo,q npe,qIlO>KeHIIILII, co,qep>Kal1.\lIIx 3eBrMY


III CIIIllllenCIllC
1. Spotting a black cab parked near his home with the keys in the ignition,
and needing to payoff a few household debts, Mr Wilks jumped in and
drove off. He worked the cab ranks of Victoria on the night shift. But
four days later and £300 the richer, the game was up. (G., Sep. 3, 90)
2. It is the ultimate incredible journey. A cat leaves home for a stroll, goes
missing and is finally reunited with it loving owner - seven years and
nearly 3,000 miles later. Yesterday Pamela Edwards was delighted to
be reunited with Cheyenne, her black cat who vanished in Florida in 1997
and was found this month strolling along a street in San Francisco. (G.,
Apr. 30, 04)
3. After six months and ten deaths, the IRA hunger strike at the Maze
prison outside Belfast seemed to be crumbling. (Nsw., Sep. 21, 81)
4. The marriage ended after five years and one child, when she ran offto
California and had an affair. (I.H.T., May 22, 01)
5. As the Armed Quick Response marksmen ran for co hot three of
them, each in a different part of the garden and th anatomy. T. Sharpe)
6. The photograph of the Labour MP Chris Bryant "weanng only a smile
and a pair of Y-fronts," which appeared on the website Gaydar,
prompted consternation. (G., Dec. 5, 03)
7. David Beckham leads the way onto his tiled patio and sits down in the
afternoon sun. He is wearing baggy red Adidas shorts, black Adidas
slides, and a cheerful grin. (VF. , Jul. 04)
8. An officer from a secretive unit of the Metropolitan police has given
a chilling account of how he spent years working undercover among
anti-racist groups in Britain, during which he routinely engaged in
-
YpO KN2 U
violence against members of the public and uniformed police officers
25

to maintain his cover. Officer A - with a long ponytail, angry persona


and willingness to be educated in the finer points of Trotskyist
ideology - was never suspected by those he befriended of being
a member of the Special Demonstration Squad (SDS), a secret unit
within Special Branch, whose job is to prevent violent public disorder
on the streets of the capital. (Obs., Mar. 14, 10)
9. Wander into this cosy restaurant any time of day and night and you'll
find the owner Patrick Rousseau racing about, sporting a bright, red
tie, spectacles and a level of energy that knows no bounds. (LH.T.,
Oct. 8,04)
10. Bengt Westerberg, the Liberal party leader, is the nice guy of Swedish
politics with home-knitted woolly jumpers and progressive views on
human rights that sometimes put him to the left of the Social Democrats.
(G., Sep. 14, 91)
11. Greenberg and Rosenberg were giants among giants - sharing drinks,
opinions and insults with painters like Jackson Pollock, Willem de
Kooning, Mark Rothko, Clyfford Still and Barnett Newman. (N.Y.T.,
May 2,08)
12. Taking advantage of the lifting of restrictions on travel into the West
during Czechoslovakia's reformist period of 1968, Petr Skrabanek was
on a camping holiday in Ireland with his wife when the Russian tanks
rolled into Prague. Despite only having two rucksacks, a small tent
and very little English they decided to stay. (T., Jun. 27, 94)
13. On hearing that Mr Profumo was away with Ms Keeler, Mr Ivanov
visited Valerie Hobson, Mr Profumo's actress wife, armed with two
bottles of vodka and a determination to discover details of the British
military machine. (G., Apr. 20, 92)
14. He [Chuck Lamb] says he always wanted to become a famous actor.
Instead, at age 47 he finds himself with six children, working as a
computer programmer for Nationwide Insurance. Mr. Lamb has ~,
creases nder his eyes, in ~s copy paper, precious litt~e~
o acting experience. Any notion he once held of becommg the
next Sean Connery died long a o. N.Y.T n. 23, 06)
15. Aunt Rosa fetched cold res se as In and the family doctor,
who after examining th oun prescribed aspirins and cold compresses.
(J. Barth)

p
26

YpoK3

ANTI-DRUG AGENCY SEEKS TRANSLATORS


FLUENT IN EBONICS

ATLANTA. Federal agents are seeking to hire Ebonics translators to help


interpret wiretapped conversations involving targets of undercover drug
investigations.
The Drug Enforcement Administration recently sent memos asking
companies that provide translation services to help it find nine translators in
the Southeast who are fluent in Ebonics, special agent Michael Sanders said
Monday.
The DEA's decision evokes memories of the debate sparked in 1996 when
the Oakland, Cali£., school board suggested that black English was a separate
language. Although the board later dropped the suggestion amid criticism, it
set off a national discussion over whether Ebonics, which some academics call
African-American Vernacular English, is a language, a dialect or neither(l).
The search for translators covers a wide swath of the Southeast, including
offices in Atlanta, Washington, New Orleans, Miami and the Caribbean, said
Mr. Sanders. He said he's uncertain why other regions aren't hiring Ebonics
translators, but said there are ongoing investigations in the Southeast that
need dedicated Ebonics translators.
H. Samy Alim, a Stanford linguistics professor who specializes in black
language and hip-hop culture, said he thought the hiring effort was a joke
when he first heard about it.
Linguists said Ebonics can be trickier than it seems, partly because the
vocabulary evolves so quickly.
"A lot of times people think you're just dealing with a few slang words,
and that you can finesse your way around it," said John Rickford, another
Stanford University linguistics professor. "And it's not - it's a big vocabulary.
You'll have some significant differences" from English.
Mr. Rickford said that hiring Ebonics experts could come in handy for
the DEA, but he said it's hard to determine whether a prospective employee
can speak it well enough to translate since there are no standardized tests.
Washington Times, Aug. 23, 2010
27

1. Анализ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. К какому жанру газетных текстов относится эта статья? Обратите


внимание на построение первых двух абзацев. В чем отличие та­
кого построения от принципа подачи информации в сопоставимом
жанре русской публицистики? Подумайте о возможном пере строе­
нии порядка информационных блоков и изменении характера свя­
зи между ними при переводе вводных абзацев на русский язык
в соответствии с узусом переводящего языка.

2. Обратите внимание на деление этого текста на абзацы. Будете ли


вы сохранять это членение в переводе и если нет, то почему?
3. При переводе основной части текста уделите особое внимание по­
следовательности подачи информации, ее повторам и связям между
ее отдельными блоками. При необходимости рассмотрите возмож­
ность композиционно-синтаксических перестроений для обеспече­
н ия оптимального восприятия информации читателем перевода.
4. В чем заключаются основная тема и идея статьи?

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. Что представляет собой Ebonics? Какова этимология этого слова?


Укажите конкретные черты этого языкового явления. Отражена ли
в тексте точка зрения самого автора статьи на его сущность? Каки­
м и словами и словосочетаниями он обозначает эту разновидность
речи?
2. Проверьте, существует ли русский эквивалент слова Ebonics. Если
он представляется вам неудовлетворительным, предложите свои

варианты.
3. Соберите сведения об упомянутой в тексте дискуссии вокруг
Ebonics, проходившей в США в 1996 г. Какие конкретные действия
организации, обозначенной как Oakland, Calij., school board, вы­
зв али эту дискуссию?
4. Как традиционно передается на русский название Stanford
University? К чему относится входящее в его состав слово Stanford?
С Учетом этого обстоятельства подумайте, насколько правилен
(с грамматической точки зрения) традиционный перевод этого
наЗвания.

~ Частные языковые трудности


1.
Кто ИМеется в виду под сочетаниемfеdеrаl agents в первом предло­
жении? Как точнее передать это сочетание с учетом последующего
КОНтеКста?
28 Уроки

2. Обратите внимание на сочетания с атрибутивными конструк­


циями undercover drug investigations и The Drug Enforceтent
Adтinistration. Подбирая варианты их передачи при переводе, про­
анализируйте упражнение 2.l. и предложите варианты передачи
выделенных сочетаний.
3. Обратите внимание на предлог aтid в предложении (1). Какое зна­
чение он имеет в данном случае? При необходимости проанализи­
руйте его употребление в оригинальных английских текстах.
4. Обратите внимание на слово acadeтics, относящееся к категории
ложных друзей переводчика. При необходимости проверьте его
значение в толковом английском словаре.
5. Как передается форма обращения тister (Mr. Sanders, Mr. Rickford)
в статьях из периодики, в официальных документах и в художе­
ственной литературе?
6. Обратите внимание на слово dedicated. Подбирая эквивалент для
его передачи, познакомьтесь с его определением в английских тол­
ковых словарях.

7. Обратите внимание на имя собственное Н Saтy Aliт. Из каких эле­


ментов состоят английские антропонимы? Как следует передавать
имена собственные, где один из элементов заменен инициалом?
8. Обратите внимание на словосочетание hiring ejJort. Подбирая ва­
рианты его передачи при переводе, проанализируйте упражнение
2.2. и предложите варианты перевода фрагментов, содержащих
выделенные слова.

9. Обратите внимание на словосочетание {о finesse your way around it,


представляющее собой при мер использования глагола в адверби­
альной функции. Подбирая варианты его передачи при переводе,
проанализируйте упражнение 2.3. и предложите варианты переда­
чи фрагментов, содержащих выделенные сочетания.

2. Упражнения

2.1.
1. ТЬе local еlесtiоп аЬstепtiопrаtе has always been high. (F.T,
Mar. 9, 90)
2. Siпgароrе's previously low hotel оссuрапсу rate is nearing its fuH
capacity as people fleeing from riot-torn Indonesia are swiftly filling
service apartments and hotels, according to industry officials contacted
Sunday. (I.н.т. , Мау 18, 98)
3. 1 believe that ТУ is the least effective war rероrtiпg medium, because
it presents images rather than а whole story. (G., Feb. 11,91)
4. At the moment, New York State agriculture laws say mushrooms picked
in the wild сап Ье sold ifthey're inspected Ьу "ап approved mushroom
idепtifiсаtiоп expert," but don't specify what constitutes expertise.
(New York, Мау 9, 05)
-
29
ypO KN2 U

5. Elementary schools in Providence, Cranston and Pawtucket have


instituted voluntary school uniform policies. Supporters of uniforms
say they build team spirit, cut down on fashion distractions and create a
more positive atmosphere. (USA T., Jan. 12, 99)
6. Michael Caine was supposed to be in Cannes yesterday to promote his
new film The Actor, written by Conor McPherson and directed by Neil
Jordan. An air traffic control computer failure kept the plane on the
tarmac for a time intolerable to the icon. (G., May 18,02)
7. A mix-up at the Lloyds Bank British Fashion Awards meant that a
top prize was presented to the wrong designers. (DT., Oct. 25, 97)
8. Tommy Morrison, the former World Boxing Organisation
heavyweight champion, scored a unanimous points win over
Sherman Griffin in Tulsa on Tuesday night. (Ind., Jun. 3, 94)
9. Worried councillors in North Wales have called a public meeting to
discuss the extent of radioactive pollution from Sellafield along the
coast. The meeting was called by Gwynnedd county council's public
protection committee after councillors heard reports of the high risk of
radioactivity in the Irish Sea. (N.S., Dec. 26, 85)
10. Andrzej Krauze, a Guardian cartoonist, has won the United Nations
Correspondents Association Ranan Lurie Political Cartoon Award
for the Year 2002-2003. The award is granted for the best political
cartoons reflecting the spirit and principles of the United Nations. (G.,
Nov. 18,03)

2.2. CnoBa w lll poKo ro ceMaHTlIIl.leCKOrO Alllana30Ha


(effort)
1. Asian governments have led a large-scale effort to prevent their
currencies from strengthening against the U.S. dollar. Doing so has
helped boost economic growth for the region. (B.W., Mar. 22, 04)
2. Anti-euro lobbyists jumped on Mr. Blair's broad vision of Britain at
the heart of Europe as another indication of what they see as a mission
creep by a prime minister who has drawn criticism at home for his high-
profile role in the war against terrorism. "Why can't he fix the bloody
hospitals instead of doing this, which we don't want in the first place?"
said Dominic Cummings, campaign director of the No Campaign, an
anti-euro lobbying effort. (LH.T., Nov. 24-25, 01)
3. On Thursday, the G20 leaders meet in Cannes, France, for a summit that
will include progress reports on each country's anti-corruption efforts,
such as protection of whistle blowers. (C.S.M., Nov. 2, 11)
4. Any government move against Google will be denounced by the many
Customers who buy the notion that Google is giving them something
for free. It's unlikely that an antitrust effort will go much beyond the
question of how fairly Google's search engine is treating Google's rivals,
and Whether it's leveraging its search dominance to starve competitive
services of traffic. (M.H., Aug. 3, 11)

z
30 YpOKII

5. It was [Alan] Turing who was chiefly responsible for breaking the
German Enigma code during the Second World War, and achievement
that helped save Britain from defeat in the dark days of 1941. Had this
been publicly known, he would have been acclaimed a national hero.
But the existence of the British code-breaking effort remained closely
guarded even after the end of the war; the relevant documents weren't
declassified until the nineteen-seventies. (N.Y., Feb. 6, 06)
6. A university has banned a student from raising more than £1,500 with
a charity swim - because of health and safety fears. Father-of-one
Lewis Herrington, 30, planned to splash through four 3ft deep campus
ponds for Children In Need. But the PhD student had to cancel after the
University of Warwick said it was dangerous. Officials said he failed
to submit a risk assessment form and the ponds could contain harmful
bacteria. The university said: "We want to support his fundraising
efforts but we have to consider his safety and his health." (Daily
Express, Nov. 19, 11)
7. There's no rest for George Clooney. He just got done campaigning for
The Ides of March, his fourth directorial effort in which he stars as
a presidential hopeful. Now he is promoting The Descendants, which
already has drummed up more Oscar buzz than it can handle long before
its Nov. 16 opening. (USA T., Nov. 2, 11)
8. Over the last decade, Mr. Chen [Guangcheng, the rights lawyer] made
a name defending farmers, the disabled and women who say they
were forced to undergo abortions or sterilizations as a part of China's
strict family planning policies. His latter legal defense efforts angered
local Communist Party officials and led to his jailing, and, advocates
say, the continuing extralegal punishment that includes isolation and
violence at the hands of thugs hired by the local government. (I.H.T.,
Oct. 24, 11)
9. These institutions have no traditions that encourage involvement in
scholarly activities. Since one's peers are not involved in research,
there is neither motivation to engage in scholarly effort nor observable
rewards for so engaging. (A., Nov., 65)
10. A lesser PR firm might be resting on its laurels at this point. But not
APCO [Worldwide]! Right now they've taken on their biggest challenge
yet: leading a giant, multi-million dollar effort to help Wall Street "earn
back the trust of the American people." (Nsw., Nov. 19, 10)
1l. Murphy called those "really encouraging results," indicating that the
multibillion-dollar effort to reduce nutrient and sediment pollution is on
the right track. (B.S., Nov. 3, 11)
12. [Lucius D.] Clay was an engineer by training and an administrator, rather
than combat soldier, by inclination and talent. His main responsibility
was the massive procurement program that underwrote the American war
effort and fed Lend-Lease aid to Allied states. (Concise Encyclopedia
of World War 11)
13. The experts are also concerned that RUTF [ready-to-use therapeutic food]
discourages breastfeeding, which they see as integral to any solution
-
Yp0!< N"g U
to long-term problems of hunger. Of course, they admit, P1umpy'nut [a
31

high-protein peanut paste used to alleviate extreme hunger] has a role


in addressing malnutrition-but it is "essential," the scholars argue, that
so-called miracle cures not be misused, or they could actually undermine
public health efforts. (New Republic, Nov. 2, 11)
14. At the First Writers' Congress in October 1947 the Soviet concept of
socialist realism was introduced as the basis of all future artistic efforts.
(Encyclopedia of Censorship)6
15. During his election campaign, Mr. Obama frequently criticized big oil
companies, expressed skepticism about offshore drilling, and pledged
to try to replace hydrocarbons with more renewable fuels. He has made
energy and environmental policy a cornerstone of both his national
security and economic efforts. (N.Y.T., Feb. 12, 09)

2.3. rnaronbl B aABep6l11anbHo~ <l>YHK4111111


1. Terrorists should understand that they cannot bomb people into
supporting their goals. (Time, Sep. 14,98)
2. A group of 16 United Technologies Corporation employees have
filed a suit charging that the company tried to intimidate them into
abandoning their plan to form a union. (Nsw., Oct. 6, 84)
3. The Welsh actor nearly drunk himself out of a career during the 1970s,
after which he struggled back to sobriety and stardom. (FT., Mar. 3, 90)
4. The ticket touts are having a rough time. The latest plan to starve them
out of business. The burger bars, sandwich sellers and tea ladies have
been asked not to serve suspicious-looking men who have a pocketful of
tickets. (T., Jun. 26, 93)
5. By early 1941, Germany's growing U-boat fleet was devastating British
shipping, sinking around sixty ships a month. Unlike Germany, Britain
was almost completely reliant on the sea-lanes for sustenance. Unless
some counter-strategy could be found , the British Isles faced being
starved into submission. (N.Y., Feb. 6, 06)
6. In the years following her stroke, Dahl bullied his wife into recovery of
her injured faculties - jeering at her, refusing to let anyone help her up
flights of stairs or, in the early days, to so much as cut her food. (LH.T.,
Apr. 20, 94)
7. As the Labour government pursues its policy of trying to tax people
Out of their cars and on to public transport by raising fuel prices in the
~I<. beyond the rate of inflation, what we spend at the pump bulks larger
In the overall cost of running a car. (ET., Nov. 14- 15,98)
8.
The very kindest of popes, Gregory the Great, while forbidding torture
and persecution of Jews, was not above bribing them into baptism.
Any Jew in Rome who converted had his rent reduced by one-third. (D.
de Rosa)

-------------------------
Cbe3~
6 Ollll16Ka B I1CTOQHfIKe: nepBbIH COlO3a nl1CaTeJIeH CCCP COCTOllJIClI B 1934 f.
YpOKH
32

9. A few months later, when Secretary of State Madeline Albright


compared the Iraqi tyrant to Hitler, she was practically laughed out of
an Ohio town meeting. (Nsw., Nov. 16,98)
10. There must in my own case be an element of vanity in agreeing readily
to a proposal that I should write a book about my life and times. Heaven
knows I had yawned through enough of the self-congratulatory tomes
of retired ministers, and most of these men and women had achieved
more than I ever would. (T., Sep. 28, 02)
11. Patients with heart failure can pedal themselves back to better health,
and the long-held beliefthat rest is better should be discarded, according
to a team of medical researchers. The "get on your bike" advice emerges
from a study of patients who took part in an eight-week programme in
which they used exercise bicycles at their homes for five days a week.
(T., Jan. 12, 90)
12. Andrew Teare, the former Rank Group chief executive who famously
smiled his way through corporate woe after corporate woe, has
turned novelist. He has penned "The Chairman", about Sir Neil Barker,
a businessman desperate for a peerage and bitterly jealous of his long-
term rival, Lord Beavis. (T., Jan, 13, 06)
13. He closed the door of the study number nine with an exaggerated
quietness and whistled his way back along the corridor. (D. Coke)
14. Alan Greenspan, who retires this week after serving eighteen years
as chairman of the Federal Reserve, is arguably the most skillful
bureaucratic survivor the nation's capital has seen since J. Edgar Hoover.
But unlike the late, un lamented director of the EB.I., who terrorized
his way to longevity, Greenspan practiced the subtler art of ingratiation.
(N.Y., Feb. 6, 06)
15. It started with lunch. I'd never really had one until I became a political
reporter. Then I was told that the best way to get a story was to eat my
way through fishcakes at Shepherd's, lobster cocktail at Wiltons and
steak tartar at the Savoy Grill with a variety of MPs. The more you
ate and drank, the more convivial the lunch and the better the gossip,
my colleagues explained. So I gave up salads at my desk and dedicated
myself to munching my way through stories. (D.T., Apr. 14,98)
33

YpoK4

HOW'S YOUR SOCIAL SECURITY?


BURGLARS MONITOR FACEBOOK AND TWITTER
TO SEE WHEN YOU'RE AWAY FROM HOME

There appears to be no bounds to the sheer amount of information we


publish about ourselves online. But it seems our daily desire to tell the world
where we are or what we are doing is seriously compromising our home's
security.
According to a survey, nearly 80 per cent of ex-burglars claim they
strongly believed social networking sites like Twitter and Facebook are being
used by current criminals to monitor when householders are away(1).
More than half said the most common mistake was placing their status
and whereabouts online, particularly with services which automatically
update your location(2).
Other faux pas include revealing that you are going away on holiday and
posting photographs that give clues to your property's location(3).
According to the report, by security firm Friedland, the average home
burglary takes just over ten minutes to commit, the time it takes to walk to
the corner shop and back.
Jonathan Lim, Security Expert at Friedland, said: 'The research has
granted us access to an elusive group in society and assisted us in learning
more about the habits of today's burglars.
'The findings have broken down some of the illusions commonly
associated with burglaries; with four out of five revealing burglary was not
opportunistic, instead returning to a property a number of times before
breaking in.'
The report also revealed the top five most common mistakes that
homeowners are making in the eyes cif the ex-burglars.
These include leaving windows open, leaving valuables in easy view of
passers-by, hiding keys by doorways and having parcels deliveries left out.
Daily Mail, Nov. 1, 2011
34 Уроки

1. Анализ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. К какому жанру газетных текстов относится эта статья? Обрати­


те внимание на построение первых двух абзацев. В чем отличие
такого построения от принципа подачи информации в сопостави­
мом жанре русской публицистики? Подумайте о возможном пере­
строении порядка информационных блоков и изменении характера
связи между ними при переводе вводных абзацев на русский язык
в соответствии с узусом переводящего языка .

2. Обратите внимание на деление этого текста на абзацы. Будете ли


вы сохранять это членение в переводе и если нет, то почему?
3. При переводе основной части текста уделите особое внимание по­
следовательности подачи информации, ее повторам и связям между
ее отдельными блоками. При необходимости рассмотрите возмож­
ность композиционно-синтаксических перестроений для обеспече­
ния оптимального восприятия информации читателем перевода.
4. В чем заключаются основная тема и идея статьи?

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. О какой стране идет речь в статье? Как отразить эту информацию


впереводе?
2. Что относится к категории, названной в статье services which
automaticaZly update your location?
3. Что такое security firm? В чем состоит деятельность таких органи­
заций?

1.3. Частные языковые трудности

1. Что означает словосочетание social security? К чему относятся сло­


ва social и security в тексте статьи? Как вы понимаете словосочета­
ние social security в заголовке?
2. Обратите внимание на лексические единицы to compromise
и opportunistic, относящиеся к ложным друзьям переводчика. При
необходимости уточните значения этих слов в английском толко­
вом словаре.

3. Соберите всю содержащуюся в тексте статьи информацию о том,


что в предложении (1) обозначено как survey. Можно и нужно ли
изменить последовательность подачи этой информации в перево­
де? Если да, то какие изменения здесь возможны?
4. Обратите внимание на синтаксическое построение придаточного
предложения в предложении (1) (social networking sites .. .). Какие
синтаксические средства русского языка позволяют добиться наи­
большей естественности для передачи указанного в придаточ-
35

HOM npe~JIO)KeHHH ~eHCTBH5I? IIpoaHaJIH3HpYHTe ynpa)KHeHHe 2.1.


H npe~JIO)KHTe BapHaHThI [lepeBO~a npe~JIO)KeHHH c Bhl~eJIeHHhIMH
COqeTaHH5IMH.
5. qTO 03HaqaeT CJIOBO status B npe~JIO)KeHHH (2)? B KaKOM H3 3Haqe-
HHH: 5IBJIeHHe, 0603HaqaeMOe 3THM CJIOBOM, n03BOJI5IeT paCCMaTpHBaTh
placing one's status online KaK yrp03y 6e30nacHocTH )KHJIHIIIa?
6. 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe Ha MeCTOHMeHHe you B npe~JIO)KeHHH (3). IIpe~­
nOJIaraeT JIH OHO 06paIIIeHHe K'IHTaTeJI5IM? HacKoJIhKO ynoTpe6HTeJIh-
HO 06paIIIeHHe K 'IHTaTeJI5IM B )KaHpe HH<popMaIIHOHHOH: 3aMeTKH?
7. qTO 03HaqaeT CJIOBOCOQeTaHHe corner shop? KaKoe 3HaQeHHe HMeeT
CJIOBO corner B ~aHHOM cJIY'Iae?
8. 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe Ha nepe~aQy npH nepeBo~e 3HaQeHH5I CJIOBa
elusive. IIpH BhI60pe 3KBHBaJIeHTa BOCnOJIh3YH:TeCh B nepBYro OQepe~h
aHrJIHH:CKHM TOJIKOBhIM CJIOBapeM. IIpe)K~e QeM onpe~eJIHThC5I C OKOH-
QaTeJIhHhIM BapHaHTOM nep~Bo~a, npOaHaJIH3HpYH:Te ynpa)KHeHHe 2.2.
H npe~JIO)KHTe BapHaHThI nepe~aQH BhI~eJIeHHhIX CJIOB.

2. Ynpa)l(HeHIIIH

2.1 . nacclllBHbl .... 3allor

2.1.1. IIaCCU6HblU 3aJl02 CYKa3aHueM Ha cy60eKm oeucm6uR

1. Before he knew it he'd been flanked by two policemen. (T. Pynchon)


2. Hated by some, envied by many, feared by his competitors,
Dr. Rosenbach was nevertheless able to exert his charm on all, no matter
what their status in society. (L. C. Powell)
3. His father says ifZelinski hadn't gone to West Point, he probably would
have been president of a fraternity. He is pathologically social, both
liked and looked up to by fellow cadets. (Time, May 30, 05)
4. On our arrival to Elveston, she readily adopted my suggestion that we
should walk together; so as soon as our luggage had been duly taken
charge of - hers by the servant who met her at the station, and mine
by one of the porters - we set out together along the familiar lanes.
(L. Carroll)
5. Some employers' organisations are reported to be upset that employees
will have the legal right to be represented by someone in the case of
any grievance or disciplinary action. That "someone" could of course be
a trade union official. (Ind., May 22, 98)
6. Football authorities are being taken to court by a supporter who claims
his enjoyment is being ruined by bad refereeing. (D.T., Oct. 21, 94)
7. They are not real reporters. I was one, once for a period during which I was
spat upon, stoned, shot at, shelled, bitten by a snake and a poisonous
spider and evacuated from a burning aeroplane. I was deported by a

h
36 YpOKH

friendly nation, jailed by an unfriendly one, and threatened with jail


by one that's never been sure. (lnd., Jan. 7, 99)
8. Do you know anyone who's had their burgled stuff found by the police?
More likely is that you know dozens of people who've been mugged or
burgled who have never set eyes on their gear again. lfwe couldn't name
a single person whose rubbish had been picked by a dustman, no one
would say: "But they do a marvellous job." (lnd., Apr. 26, 01)
9. A Kwik Save store in north Wales has successfully seen off potential
troublemakers who were hanging around the premises. The loiterers
were driven away by piped classical music. (G., Oct. 9, 02)
10. Dozens of major railway stations are to be upgraded to stop them
being overwhelmed by passengers, Network Rail said yesterday. The
decision comes after managers at some of the busiest stations have had
to draw up emergency plans to prevent dangerous overcrowding. Access
to platforms at Birmingham New Street is regularly blocked because
of the danger of passengers being pushed into the path of the trains. (T.,
Apr. 1,05)

2.1.2.lIacCUBHblU 3allOZ 6e3 YKa3aHUR Ha cy61JeKm OeucmBuR

1. Finally watches were consulted, tunics buttoned, hats donned. (e. e.


cummings)
2. Nearly four in 10 callers to 118 directory inquiry services are given the
wrong number, the phone regulator Oftel said. Only 62% of requests for
British numbers are accurately dealt with. Worst offender was 118 355,
which only provided 33% of the right numbers for residential requests.
(G., Nov. 18, 03)
3. In the Seventies feminists theorised that the patriarchy empowered men
to be the sex that looked, while women - the oppressed - were looked
at. (D.T., Mar. 24, 98)
4. As summer approaches and South Africa beaches fill up with tourists,
a highly charged debate is raging over the upsurge in shark attacks. "A
77-year-old swimmer and a fisherman have been eaten alive7 a British
surfer and a False Bay lifeguard have been maimed," said surfing-lodge
owner Paul Botha. "At least three surf skis and a surfboard have been
bitten, dozens of wave riders have been bumped or terrified, sharks
have tried to jump into boats and attacked a seal in Kalk Bay harbour."
(Obs., Sep. 17, 06)
5. The DSC [Dangerous Sports Club] belonged to a point in history when
the bulk of geographic exploration had either been done, or was now
open only to those who could rely on government chequebooks. Both
poles had been reached, the sound barrier breached, Everest climbed
and the Moon walked on. (D.T., Apr. 15, 98)
6. Even when life was less chronically violent, the association between
drink and aggression was a fixture of British proletarian life. You drank
to get drunk, and you got drunk to fight. To be seen staggering or
37

unconscious in the street, or even to be caught committing criminal


damage or assault under the influence, was not a matter for shame or
disgrace. It was just a necessary form of initiation. Being drunk and
therefore (inevitably) belligerent was not a problem - it was just part of
growing up, to be indulged or even encouraged by your elders. (D.T,
Oct. 16,06)
7. If nothing is done, the problem will acquire the momentum it has in
the United States, where senior executives are paid so much more than
workers that fundamental questions of equity and even decency are
being widely discussed. (G., May 12,92)
8. After a period in which several television programmes have been
shown to have been hoaxed by members of the public - most notably
by a couple who posed as a near-incestuous father and daughter in a
Channel 4 documentary - there is merely a small additional shock in
being told that the shows may have deliberately misled the audience. (G.,
Feb. 13,99)
9. Police fired rubber bullets at a group in southern Brazil engaged in the
local Easter practice of ox-baiting, a traditional spectacle now classed
as crime except in special areas. An ox is released into the streets, then
chased until it collapses from exhaustion. The animal is then ritually
slaughtered. Eleven people were arrested and released after paying
a fine. (G., Apr. 13,98)
10. It is a terrible thing when innocents, doing their best to make the world a
better place, are accused of malevolent intent. Accusations fly around,
heads are shaken, reputations tarnished. This is the moment when
friends of the accused must rush forward to defend their reputation. It is
our duty. (T, Jan. 14, 03)

2.2. KOHTeKCTyanbHble 3Ha~eHIIIR cnOBa elusive


1. All I ever want for Christmas is a flash of that intense openhearted joy
that sometimes comes during the holidays. But the Christmas spirit is
elusive. To catch it, you have to be in the right place at the right time.
(C. T, Dec. 22, 02)
2. Let's face it, Apple has life and death power over the apps it harbours in
its store. Its approval system it completely opaque, left at the discretion
of an elusive army of people working at "undisclosed locations." (g.co.
uk, Nov. 14, 11)
3. Jimmy Ellis [a boxer] was fast and elusive, and kept Frazier [Joe Frazier,
a heavyweight boxing champion] at bay for the opening two rounds.
But a brutal left hook in the third rocked him sideways, and his attempt
to outslug Frazier in the fourth ended with him being knocked down
by another left before being pulled out by his trainer Angelo Dundee.
(g.co.uk, Nov. 8, 11)
4. Joe Cole! The most elusive English footballer of his generation, albeit
perhaps not in the sense of the word he would have hoped for. What

?
38 YpOKII

exactly is Cole best at? And when, exactly, is he going to start doing
it? These are still the dominant questions surrounding the golden boy
now grown to peripatetic maturity. (g.co.uk, Nov. 8, 11)
5. His [L. Carroll's] comedy here [in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland"],
as in "The Hunting of the Snark," diffuses rather than confronts such
terribly serious issues as the limits of knowledge and the elusive purpose
of life. (R. Kelly)
6. The recent seizure of a stateless ship in international waters 2,600 miles
off Alaska's coast has spotlighted the challenge that the U.S. and other
nations face in trying to crack down on illegal fishing, an activity that
accounts for up to $23.5 billion a year in global economic losses. Still,
statistics are elusive as to whether enforcement actions are having
a significant impact on the problem. (Anchorage Daily News, Oct. 10, 11)
7. Although 250,000 people join the labour market every year [in Zambia],
the number of salaried jobs in the state and private sectors has remained
stagnant, at about 450,000, since the mid-1970s. Even with a degree,
regular employment can prove elusive, with many employers demanding
a minimum of two years' experience, says Dr Deborah Potts, an expert
on Zambia at King's College, London. (g.co.uk, Nov. 21, 11)
8. After the last failed attempts at negotiations in 2002, the government's
all-out war on Farc guerrillas has now lasted almost a decade. But victory
remains elusive and the president [of Colombia], Juan Manuel Santos, has
therefore not dismissed a return to peace talks. Lessons from Sri Lanka
and Chechnya show that pushing for a full military victory comes at a
high cost in terms of democracy and human rights. (g.co.uk, Nov. 8, 11)
9. Bad news for British gourmands - the truffle hunters of Italy are in
despair. Their famously elusive prey has been rendered even more
difficult to unearth this autumn following a baking summer when
temperatures hit record levels. As truffles thrive in damp conditions,
the arid months of July, August and September have meant this year's
harvest threatens to be one of the poorest in decades. (Obs., Nov. 6, 11)
10. One of the UK's oldest and most elusive herd of wild animals is to
be tracked by satellite after surviving in little-known circumstances
for at least 5000 years. Electronic collars have been fitted to six goats
from a dynasty that has roamed a remote area of the Cheviot hills
on Northumberland's border with Scotland since escaping from farms
in Neolithic times. (g.co.uk, Oct. 20, 11) ·
1l. Is there a phenomenon more elusive to the stage than the functional
family? With the exception of a few absurdist comedies, it's difficult
to conjure a list of canonical plays in which kin interact politely, speak
civilly and resolve conflict without recourse to threats and weaponry.
(g.co.uk, Oct. 19, 11)
12. A lost network of rivers is buried beneath the roads of modern London.
Most are now sewers, but all have left their mark on the world above.
Tom Bolton, author ofthe recent book London's Lost Rivers: A Walker's
Guide, will show you how to read the landscape and spot these ancient
watercourses - from the slopes of nearby roads to tell-tale street names.
>
39

His next trek, on 8 October, follows the elusive River Neckinger, which
rises in Southwark and drains into the Thames in Bermondsey. (g.co.
uk, Oct. 6, 11)
13. Because Washington's forests are deteriorating so quickly, the state
commissioner of public lands last week said he' ll appoint an emergency
panel of scientists and foresters to seek ways to stabilize or reverse
the decline. But solutions may prove complex, expensive, politically
difficult or elusive. (S.T., Nov. 20, 11)
14. Most Maryland school systems have some kind of alternative program -
evening course offerings or a wing of a school - for students who have
not succeeded in traditional academic environments. About half have
distinct schools for the youngsters with the rockiest of backgrounds and
the most volatile histories of classroom conduct. Along the way, many
of these teens shake their reputations as hoodlums and troublemakers,
gain role models, conquer addictions al}d manage to earn that otherwise
elusive diploma or transfer back to their home school. (B.S., Sep. 5, 03)
15. W hen we look around the globe, we see that climate action is very much
on the minds of policymakers - and not just in developed countries. China
is taking a leadership position on reducing carbon intensity and India
is moving along the same lines. In the developed world, Australia has
recently committed to a carbon tax while the UK has increased its
" resolve to lower emissions. And Germany's recent decision to forego
nuclear power will have a huge impact on the acceleration of clean energy
demand. Yet despite these gains, cohesive action on a multilateral scale
remains elusive. (g.co. uk, Nov. 21, 11)
1

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40

YpoK5

D'OH! GERMAN BROADCASTER PULLS


'NUCLEAR' SIMPSONS EPISODES

BERLIN - The German broadcaster of "The Simpsons" said Monday it has


decided not to show any episodes of the US cartoon series showing nuclear
disasters in light of Japan's atomic emergency.
"We are checking all the episodes and we won't show any suspect ones,
but we won't cut any scenes," Stella Rodger, a spokeswoman for the private
broadcaster Pro7, said. "We haven't postponed any yet," she added.
The nuclear plant in the Simpsons' hometown of Springfield is a key
element in the long-running show, with the hapless Homer in charge of safety
despite a slapdash approach evident from the opening credits onwards(1).
Previous episodes have shown nuclear waste dumped in a children's
playground, plutonium used as a paperweight, luminous rats and three-eyed
mutant fish, as well as near-meltdowns.
"Of course we can't completely change the entire content," the
spokeswoman said.
Surveys show that people in Germany are particularly uneasy about
the dangers of nuclear power, with shipments of radioactive waste regularly
attracting angry protests(2). On Saturday, tens of thousands of people took
part in demonstrations around Germany protesting against nuclear power in
light of events in Japan.
Chancellor Angela Merkel announced earlier this month a three-
month moratorium on plans to extend the operating times of Germany's
nuclear plants and ordered that the seven oldest reactors be shut down(3).
The issue was a decisive factor Sunday in a key state election defeat for
Merkel's conservatives, with the anti-nuclear Greens doubling their share of
the vote(4).
New York Post, Mar. 28, 2011
41

1. Анализ текста

1.1 . Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. Сформулируйте тему статьи. Как вынесенный в заголовок инци­


дент связан с более широким контекстом? Как можно охарактери­
зовать общие настроения в Германии по данному вопросу (в том
виде, в каком они поданы в статье)?

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. Что представляет собой мультипликационный сериал


The Simpsons? Найдите основные сведения о нем: содержание, пер­
сонажи, роль в культуре. Какое отношение к содержанию сериала
имеет nuclear plant и кем там работает Homer? Почему в характе­
ристике этого персонажа использованы такие слова, как hapless и
slapdash? При необходимости ознакомьтесь с тем, что в тексте на­
звано opening credits.
2. На какое событие указывают слова Japan's atomic emergency? При
необходимости найдите необходимые сведения, исходя из даты
публикации статьи.
3. О чем идет речь в предложении (2)? Что представляют собой
shipments 01 radioactive waste и с какой целью они производятся?
4. Найдите основные сведения о человеке по имени Angela Merkel.
Какую партию она представляет, чем характеризуется ее полити­
ка, как на момент написания статьи ее оценивает общественное
мнение? При необходимости найдите дополнительную информа­
цию о ее решениях, упоминаемых в предложении (3).
5. О чем идет речь в предложении (4)? На какое конкретное событие
указывает выражение key state election de1eat? Наведите необходи­
мые справки.

1.3. Частные языковые трудности

1. В чем коммуникативная функция междометия d'oh? Как оно было


введено в популярный обиход и с чем ассоциируется? Прежде чем
определиться с окончательным вариантом передачи этого междо­
метия или принять решение опустить его, разберитесь, какую роль
оно играет в данном заголовке. Проанализируйте упражнение 2.1.
и предложите варианты передачи выделенных междометий.
2. Как вы понимаете контекстуальный смысл слова suspect? Уточни­
те его значение в английском толковом словаре. По какой причине
ГОВОРящий характеризует episodes таким прилагательным?
3. Что в данном контексте означает существительное show? Проверь­
те значение этого слова в английском толковом словаре и проана-

ь
42 YpOKH

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2. Ynpa>KHeHII111

2.1. Me>KAOMenUI
1. The one tangible thing I had from my father [who was killed in World
War I] was a picture of a train that he drew for me while he was under
fire . So when I went to school and began to draw, the teacher said, "Oh,
he draws such wonderful engines." That was in memory of my father.
(G., Nov. 12, 11)
2. The NY Times reported that Americans throwaway 1/3 of the food we
buy. Now we cleared out the gross packaged food, buy more farmer's
market veggies and have decided to cook a good meal at least five times
a week. We're much healthier and happier, and the small amount of stuff
we toss is used for soil to grow our own food. Oh, and our garbage bag
is almost empty every day now. (g.co.uk, Nov. 11, 11)
3. Go back thousands of years to the early Homo sapiens who lived at
Cheddar Gorge, and gnawed bones found in the cave suggest the kind of
mealtimes that were enjoyed here. Oh, some of those gnawed bones are
human by the way. And a cup formed from a human skull has also been
found . (g.co.uk, Nov. 9, 11)
4. According to Richard Ladds, editor of the MG Owners' Club magazine,
Enjoying MG, the new car [a new model under the British brand MG
built in China] is "very good, very capable, very competent .. . it's not a
BMW but it's not a low-rent car either". Nor is he bothered about where
the car is mainly built. "It's a bit like an Apple computer: I think, ' Oh
that's a lovely Apple computer', I don't think, 'Oh it's built in China'."
(g.co.uk, Apr. 12, 11)
5. I visit her [the writer's mother, who suffers from Alzheimer's] every
weekend for at least an hour with my partner, and nowadays it is the
simple things that make me happy - like if she remembers me. Last
~oKN2U 43

week she surprised us by recognising my girlfriend after an hour. "Ob,


it's you," she said, somewhat surprised. (g.co.uk, Jun. 1,08)
6. "I was walking up the street and some guy comes up and looked shocked
and he went, 'Gazza? [the nickname of Paul Gascoigne, the famous
British football player]' and I said, 'Yeah' and he went, 'Ob! It's in the
paper you're dead. There's just been a news flash.' I went, 'Oh, am I?
Ah well, never mind' and I just carried on. You've got to understand the
press are never going to write Paul Gascoigne looks well. They want to
sell papers." (g.co.uk, Oct. 7, 11)
7. "Before the match, I said to the lads I was going to ask Princess Diana
for a kiss, but they didn't believe me. Then it came to my turn. "Can I
have a kiss, your Majesty?" I didn't really know how to address her. She
said yes, so I made a bit of a move to get in there, but she stuck out her
hand. Oh, well, better than nothing." (g.co.uk, Oct. 7, 11)
8. Can't we accept - as nature does - that unpredictable things can happen,
and sometimes the self-set plant is more beautiful than any other in our
perfectly sculptured backyard? It is the same drive to control everything
that leads us to complain bitterly when a squirrel eats nuts she has found
in our gardens! Since they are delicious and have been left within her
reach, why would she not take them? It's a perfectly sensible thing to
do. Quite simply, if we don't want squirrels in our gardens, we shouldn't
entice them with bird feeders. Ah, but we want pretty little birds but
no squirrels and, while we're at it, no big, squawking crows or magpies
either, right? Well, that's tough, because the natural world is varied and
beautiful, unpredictable and wild. (g.co.uk, Oct. 24, 11)
9. Wayne Rhatigan, a 19-year veteran of the New York police department,
was on patrol on his horse, Miggs, when two street vendors, Lance
Orton and Duane Jackson, flagged him down to point out puffs of smoke
coming from a Nissan Pathfinder. "I saw the ignition running and the
hazard lights on. It was kind of parked haphazardly," Rhatigan, 46, told
New York's Daily News. "I said, 'Ub-ob, this is a little bit more than just
a parked car and a cigarette in the ashtray.'" (g.co.uk, May 3, 10)
10. My university friends idealised humanity. Not my neighbours. They had
a low opinion of almost everyone in the neighbourhood. What are you
studying? The old woman I was renting my room from asked me one day,
and I told her: History? What kind? European, I replied. Aha, she said
with a knowing look in her eye. The kings, the priests, the people being
led by the nose, all scum. (g.co.uk, Sep. 2, 10)
11. You do this job because at the end of the day you love it. Science doesn't
always go the way you want it - experiments fail, often for a very long
time, you work long hours and some of it is a grind (grants, ethics and
admin), but every now and then you have a magic moment where you get
a result and you say a-ba! (G.P., Mar. 14, 11)
12. The "killer in the mirror" shot: This is the easiest shot for the amateur
to have a crack at. Get your victim to preen themselves in the mirror,
blissfully unaware, while your psycho-monster in a Halloween mask
crouches low, out of shot. Victim opens bathroom cabinet mirror-door to

>
44 YpOKH

get toothbrush and actor playing psycho-monster stands up into position


where he will be reflected. Then victim closes cabinet mirror and -
yikes! - horrible psycho-monster appears in reflection behind her. You
could even dub in a violin shriek for a little extra terror... (G., Jan. 26, 08)
13. Investing in employee wellbeing used to mean a bowl of fresh fruit and
a gym membership. Now you can add corporate yoga to the list, as a
growing numbers of employers ask their staff to swap their business
suits for tracksuits during lunch hours, after hours or - yikes! - bonding
holidays. If the prospect of spending any more time with your work
colleagues already fills you with dread, having to take a seven-day break
in a villa, pagoda or teepee studying yoga with them will probably tip
you over the edge altogether. (G., Jan. 21, 08)
14. Your relative goes into hospital. "Phew", you might think, "they'll get
the care they need." (g.co.uk, Oct. 10, 11)
15. Josh Kay, 18, achieved AABD in his A-levels in English literature
and language, sociology, history, and German at Stourport school in
Worcestershire. "Phew," was Josh's reaction when he got to school and
discovered he'd met the conditions of his offer to read international
relations and politics at Manchester University. (g.co. uk, Aug. 22, 11)

2.2. A6c0l11OTHble KOHCTPYK4J.1J.1, BBOAJ.1Mble


npeAl1oroM with
1. The number of airlines is likely to shrink - with the weak going to the
wall - but not the number of passengers. (Ind., Nov. 18,01)
2. The events of September 11 have cast a long shadow over the preparations
for [UK Chancellor of the Exchequer] Gordon Brown's pre-budget
report. With the impact of terrorism deepening the recession in the
United States and Japan and bringing the stuttering German economy
to a standstill, the seven figures that counted in yesterday's speech were
9/11 /2001. (G., Nov. 28, 01)
3. Peter Rain, the [UK] Europe minister, claimed that sterling could find it
impossible to survive alongside the euro as the new currency began to
circulate yesterday. With 300 million people starting to use euro notes
and coins in 12 European Union countries, Mr Rain dismissed the idea
that Britain could run a "parallel currency economy," with the pound and
the euro both in use. (D.T., Jan. 2, 02)
4. The euro enjoyed one of its best days on foreign exchanges yesterday,
with traders relieved that the switch to the new currency had gone
without any major glitches. (D.T., Jan. 3, 02)
5. Indian winters are hot and dry, with the monsoon winds blowing from
the North East carrying little moisture. (T., May 28, 02)
6. Crucial talks aimed at tackling world poverty ended in anger last night,
with environmentalists branding them as a 'fudge'. The UN international
conference in Bali, designed to produce a global development blueprint
for the next decade was condemned as a wasted opportunity that had
failed the world's poor. (Obs., Jun. 9, 02)
r
7. Much commentary has been devoted to the rise in house prices over
45

the past year, but average prices are not yet unsustainable in relation to
average incomes, and there are signs that the London market - usually
a leading indicator - has already turned down. With many of the latest
statistics ambiguous, it makes sense to wait and see what shape the
economy is really in. (lnd., Jun. 7, 02)
8. In 1941 when I was 15, I was encouraged to join the Royal Navy by the
Barnardo's [a British charity] organisations. With the war on and the
Nazis threatening to invade, it looked like the right thing to do. (D.T.,
May 30, 02)
9. Looking out to sea from this city's [Copenhagen's] picturesque harbor,
a wall of70-meter windmills dominates the horizon with rotors silently
spinning in the glinting sunshine as sailboats and fishing trawlers glide
past. (I.H.T., Sep. 23, 03)
10. The Government has admitted that soaring house prices have left people
on average incomes, such as teachers and nurses, locked out of buying
their first homes across large parts of southern England, including
London and most of the South East. A spokeswoman for the Deputy
Prime Minister, John Prescott, admitted last night that there was now an
effective "housing apartheid," with people in their own homes pulling
further and further from those yet to get on the property ladder. With
house prices rising at between 15 and 20 per cent a year, incomes, which
are rising at between 5 and 10 per cent a year, cannot keep up. (Obs.,
Mar. 7, 04)
11. France is bracing for a week full of protests that threatens to disrupt
buses, subways and trains, with the biggest planned for Thursday. On
Tuesday, students plan to demonstrate against a major revision of the
education system, with protesters saying the changes would favor the
privileged. (I.H.T., Jan. 27, 05)
46 YpOKll

YpoK6

CLIMATE CHANGE SCIENTIST


FACES LIE DETECTOR TEST
FEARS OF US WITCH-HUNT OVER WILDLIFE RESEARCHERS
WHO HIGHLIGHTED THE DEATHS OF POLAR BEARS

By Michael McCarthy

It's the next step in "Polarbeargate" - one of two scientists whose report
on dead polar bears in the Arctic helped make the animal a potent symbol
of climate change has been asked to take a lie detector test as part of an
investigatione by US agents(l).
The 2006 report from American wildlife researchers Jeffrey Gleason
and Charles Monnett told of dead bears floating in the Arctic Ocean in
2004, apparently drowned, and focused attention on the vulnerability of
the animals to the melting of the Arctic ice, which they need for hunting(2).
Widespread references were made to the dead bears and they figured in the
film An Inconvenient Truth, made by Al Gore to highlight the risks of global
warming.
But earlier this year, allegations were made within the US Department
of the Interior that acts of scientific misconduct might have been committed
in relation to the report, and the Department's Office of Inspector General
(OIG) began an inquiry.
Mr Monnett, who works for the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management,
Regulation and Enforcement, a Department of the Interior agency, became
the focus of the inquiry and was interviewed several times by OIG agents; in
July he was suspended.
The OIG said the suspensions followed concerns about a research contract
he had been involved in awarding, and not his polar bear article(3). But some
pressure groups alleged the episode represented political interference with
science and was a witch-hunt, or at least an attempt to intimidate researchers
whose studies might affect the politics of climate change. The issue became
known in some quarters as "Polarbeargate".
Kassie Siegel, director of the Climate Law Institute with the Centre for
Biological Diversity, a charity that campaigned to have the polar bear listed
as a threatened species in the US, said at the time: "There's no way this can
have anything but a chilling effect on the ability of other scientists to carry
out their work."(4)
Mr Monnett has now returned to work but the investigators are now
focusing on his colleague and fellow author of the report, Mr Gleason,
who has already been interviewed, earlier this year. This week Mr Gleason
was interviewed intensively by investigators and asked if he would take a
~olygraph (lie detector) test; he responded that he would only take such a test
If the agent interviewing him took one as well.
р

47

Po1ar bears are the wor1d's 1argest 1and carnivores and it is wide1y
believed that extensive me1ting of the summer sea ice in the Arctic will
serious1y compromise the bear's ability to hunt the sea1s which are their
principa1 food. •
1ndependent, Oct. 28, 2011

1. Анализ текста

1.1 . Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. Сформулируйте тему статьи. Какое явление обозначено в данном


тексте сочетанием climate change? Найдите контекстуальный си­
ноним для его обозначения. Как в связи с этим понимать выраже­
ние politics 01 climate change? Прочитайте статью policy, politics,
p olitician в мнс.
2. Восстановите для себя хронологическую последовательность со­
бытий, упоминаемых в статье. С чего началась и как развивалась
эта история?
3. В чем заключается идея статьи? Какие последствия может иметь
описанный в статье инцидент? Исходя из содержания статьи и
общих сведений о ситуации в мире, укажите , в чем заключается
резкое расхождение во взглядах на указанную в статье проблему
в двух разных лагерях и кто входит в эти лагеря.

4. Обратите внимание на последовательность подачи информации


в этой статье (в том числе информации , раскрывающей преды­
сторию описанного инцидента), ее повторы и связи между ее от­
дельными блоками. При необходимости рассмотрите возможность
композиционно-синтаксических перестроек для обеспечения оп­
т и мального восприятия информации читателем перевода.

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. Как вы понимаете значение слова Polarbeargate? Из каких слово­


образовательных элементов оно состоит? В чем значение элемента
-gate, на какое выражение он указывает и ассоциации с каким со­
бытием вызывает? В чем связь между тем событием и описанной
в статье историей?
2. Проверьте, на какой именно тип текста указывает слово report в
данном контексте.
3. Кто такой Аl Gore, какова роль этой личности в современной куль­
туре и какое отношение он имел к фильму "Ап Inconvenient Truth"?
4. ЧТО Представляет собой US D epartment 01 the lnterior, Office 01
lnspector General, Bureau о10сеаn Energy Management, Regulation
and Enforcement, Climate Law lnstitute, Centre 10r Biological
48 Уроки

Diversity? Проверьте наличие традиционных вариантов названий


этих организаций на русском языке. При отсутствии или недосто­
верности таковых предложите свой вариант передачи этих назва­
ний на русский с учетом соответствующих переводческих норм и
правил русской орфографии.
5. Как вы понимаете в этом контексте выражение acts 01 scientific
тisconduct? В чем подозревают ученого (при необходимости на­
ведите дополнительные справки)?

1.3. Частные языковые трудности

1. Какое значение имеет слово agents в предложении (1)? Какие эле­


менты последующего контекста помогают уточнить его словарное

соответствие?
2. Какое значение имеет слово apparently в предложении (2)? Рассма­
тривая варианты его передачи, ознакомьтесь со статей аррауеn!
в мне, а также про анализируйте упражнение 2.1. и предложите
варианты передачи выделенных слов.

3. Обратите внимание на конструкцию а research contract he had


Ьееn involved in awarding, and not his polar Ьеш article в предложе­
нии (3). Какая ее часть является ремой предложения? Рассматри­
вая варианты ее передачи при переводе, сперва проанализируйте
упражнение 2.2. и предложите варианты перевода предложений
с выделенными словами.

4. Обратите внимание на конструкцию (о have the polar Ьеау listed (as


а threated species) в предложении (4). Рассматривая варианты ее
перевода, сперва проанализируйте упражнение 2.3. и предложите
варианты передачи выделенных фрагментов.

2. Упражнения

2.1. Утверждение с определенной степенью


вероятности, задаваемой вводной
конст кцией

1. А retired German dip!omat and four members of his fami!y were


kidnapped in Уеmеп yesterday, apparently Ьу tribesmen seeking the
release ofprisoners. (О. , Dec. 29,05)
2. Autobiography, like biography, manifests а wide variety of forms,
beginning with the intimate writings made during а life that were not
intended (or apparently not intended) for publication. (Е.В.)
3. That month, Mr Bush's approval ratings hit а new !ow of 36%, though
they have since recovered somewhat, after ап upbeat December оп
the stock market and ап apparently successfu! Iraq e!ection. (О.,
Dec. 29, 05)
49

4. Scientists in Bristol have discovered that fat people are more cheerful
than their thin peers. I thought this was just a revivification of the
ancient (well... maybe 25-year-old) wisdom that says you shouldn't
go on a totally fat-free diet because your brain needs its fat surround
to keep from crashing against your skull. That makes you depressed,
apparently. (G., Dec. 28, 05)
5. President Putin insists the law is needed to stop terrorists and spies
undermining the state - an argument he has deployed to justify scrapping
elections for regional governors and restricting media coverage. The
truth is that he is stifling free debate while apparently working to bring
all aspects of Russian life under Kremlin control before parliamentary
and presidential elections in 2007-08. (G., Dec. 27, 05)
6. Dinosaurs have broad public, as well as scientific, interest partly because
they are extinct. It is widely believed that all dinosaurs died out at the
same time - apparently quite suddenly at the end of the Cretaceous
Period. This belief is not entirely correct. (E.B.)
7. Dr Woo-suk Hwang was forced to quit his post at South Korea's
leading academic institution, Seoul National University, following an
investigation into his apparently pioneering work on human cloning.
(G., Dec. 24, 05)
8. Ellis is one of the few British artists who can combine daftness and
depth, whose work comes across as irreverently anarchic at the same
time as culturally well-informed. Ellis makes poetic assemblages out
of apparently mundane found objects that are imbued with a touching
anecdotal potency. (G., Dec. 24, 05)
9. As violent and unscrupulous as most of the other Merovingian rulers,
Theodoric was arguably the most vigorous and effective of Clovis'
sons. (E.B.)
10. Maltodextrin is a sweet polysaccharide made from corn. Arguably,
it has no real nutritional value beyond that of sugar as it is as rapidly
absorbed as glucose. It is used primarily to give body, flavour and
viscosity to foods like packaged desserts and crisps as well as having a
nice 'mouth feel'. (Obs., Aug. 20, 06)
11. Nonetheless, this book [Non merci, Oncle Sam! by Noel Mamere] contains
a large number of anglicisms which seem quite simply unnecessary.
These include: 'les telespectateurs zappent' (p. 10), '[ils] surfent sur le
Web,' 'le lobby agroalimentaire,' 'de confortables portefeuilles de stock-
options,' 'les gangs russes.' There is no a priori reason why all these
anglicisms - even where italicised or put in quotation marks - could not
have been replaced by genuine French words or phrases. Arguably, the
presence of these anglicisms can only be understood as a manifestation,
on an unconscious or semi-conscious level, of precisely that submission
to US mass-cultural hegemony which, on a conscious level, the two
authors reject, and opposition to which is actually the raison d'etre of
their book! (C. Rollason) . .
12. [James] Cain himself resented anyone who lumped hIm With Hammett
and Chandler as the leaders of a "hard-boiled school" of fiction. He
50 YpOKM

claimed never to have read either writer. Eventually - and - Cain's


reputation would be eclipsed by the other two, whose relatively brief
careers offered a compact and cohesive body of work. Cain, on the other
hand, outlived the mainstream vogue for his work, but kept on writing,
producing fiction that showed less and less of the original power.
(Encyclopedia of Pulp Fiction Writers)
13. Much of the film's ["Hunting for Red October"] action takes place
on the submarine among a homogeneous Russian-speaking group of
characters. In the same way as the film's set represents the interior
of a submarine, the nonnative Russian spoken in some early scenes
represents native Russian speech. (In this case, the quality of set
construction and casting is arguably better than the quality of Russian
construction, as native speakers tell me that they find the Russian in
this opening section of the film impossible to follow without reference
to the English subtitles.) (C. O' Sullivan)
14. No discussion of 19th-century Russian literature in English translation
would be complete without considering Constance Garnett. In the first
half of this century, she was arguably the most famous and influential
of all English translators of Russian literature, having translated, as she
did, 72 volumes. (Translation Review, 02)

2.2. Y4eT Me>KbR3bIKOBbIX pa3m14111~ B cnoco6ax


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B COnOCTaBI.'lTel1bHbIX KOHCTPYK4I11RX.
OTHOWeHII1R nOI1HOrO 11111111 4aCTII14HOrO
B3all1MHOrO II1CKI1104eHII1R

1. Mechanics, not microbes, are the menace to civilization. (N. Douglas)


2. Consumers the world over want Italian olive oil because it is supposed to
be the finest, redolent of dolce vita. In truth, Italy does not grow enough
olives to meet even its own demand, let alone foreigners'. Spain, not
Italy, actually, has the world's largest olive harvest. (LH.T., May 8- 9, 04)
3. Nato and not the EU has been responsible for the relative peace in this
continent over the past 50 years. (T., May 21, 99)
4. The attacks on America exposed both the shortcomings and the
unexpected virtues of new media over old. Although many Americans
were at work when the assaults took place, it was to the television set,
which they could watch together, not the solitary computer screen, that
almost everybody turned. Only 3% of those connected to the Internet
actually used it as their chief source of news. (E., Sep. 29, 01)
5. It was senior officials at the Department of Energy, not the Clinton White
House, who opposed a tougher search for Chinese spies in America's
nuclear laboratories, said a top department intelligence officer. (E.,
Apr. 17, 99)
6. In democracies, communities with varying beliefs about ultimate
questions can live together in a spirit of respect, if not always in amity -
-
5]
YpO KN2 U

even when different belief imply different individual choices. (E.,


Apr. 9,05)
7. "Sense and Worth", as the pamphlet is titled, argues that society no
longer expects children to think independently, logically or analytically,
and that able children are often isolated rather than encouraged. (T.,
Nov. 18,99)
8. Butter was originally made by churning the whole milk, but by the
16th century butter much more like our own was obtained by using
cream rather than milk. As well as being valued as a cosmetic, butter
was originally used as a medicine rather than food. A 10th-century
Anglo-Saxon treatise advised pounding up butter with yarrow to apply
to swellings. In the 17th century, it continued to be despised as food,
Thomas Muffet in 1655 calling it "the chief food of the poorer sort." (L.
W. Cowie)
9. It seems astonishing that the world is still watching rather than acting
two weeks after the Lebanon war began. (G., Jul. 27, 06)
10. Managing a network these days is more like gambling than business,
more like truffle-hunting than agriculture, a matter ofluck. (New York,
Oct. 3, 05)
11. Today, most of us [students of a school whose headteacher decided to
get rid of the bells announcing the beginning and end of lessons] have
forgotten what all the fuss was about. It seems inconceivable that we ever
needed those bells. The corridors are safer, calmer places between lessons;
the bell does not rip through the end of a lesson at the most inopportune
moment; people don't suffer ear damage if they happen to be standing
below it when it rings. All in all, the school feels more like a place of
learning and less like a factory or house of correction. (G., Jul. 25, 06)
12. The Western tradition of the isolated heroic genius toiling away in a
lab or study is based on myth as much as fact, she added. That model
has had a powerful impact, helping to discount the more collaborative
aspects of innovation, but it is "completely dated," Ms. Baldwin said.
(N.Y.T., Feb. 9, 11)

2.3. Cll0}KHOe AonollHeHLlle,


o603HallalOI1.\ee L113MeHeHLlle
COCTOflHLllfI, C npeALIIKaTLIIBHblM lI11eHOM,
Bblpa}KeHHblM HellL11l1HblMLII <j>opMaMLII
rnarOlla (complex object)
1. An attempt by Bern to have city employees set a good example and
leave their cars at home has been blocked in court. Bern officials had
hoped that the symbolic sacrifice by city workers would bolster support
for public transit. But federal judges ruled that city employees have
private lives like everyone else. (I.H.T., Jun. 2, 94)
2. As an early Christmas present, my friend paid for me to have my
horoscope done by a fortuneteller. (lnd., Dec. 23, 95)

b
52 YpOKH

3. A Nazi collaborator accused of rounding up British secret agents and


having them deported to a death camp has been arrested in Germany.
(D.M ., Jan. 20, 04)
4. Lloyd George was believed to have had the beer diluted in pubs near
centres of ammunition-production during the first world war, in order to
keep the wheels of the home front turning without a hiccup. (T., Jun. 9, 93)
5. His [Michelangelo's] world was transformed by Lorenzo de' Medici, the
de facto ruler of Florence who recognised the young man's talent and
had him educated in his own household. (D.T., Apr. 17, 99)
6. Sandwich may have derived its name from John Montague, fourth Earl
of Sandwich (1718-92), who is said to have had slices of cold beef
placed between slices of toast brought to the gaming table to enable him
to go on playing cards without leaving off for a meal. (L. W. Cowie)
7. Reginald slid a carnation of the newest shade into the buttonhole of his
latest lounge coat, and surveyed the result with approval. "I am just in
the mood," he observed, "to have my portrait painted by someone
with an unmistakable future . So comforting to go down to posterity as
"Youth with a Pink Carnation" in catalogue-company with "Child with
Bunch of Primroses", and all that crowd." (H. Munro)
8. A Michigan man who had his ice cream store torched to collect
insurance, blaming the blaze on anti-Arab sentiments stirred up by the
Gulf War, has been sentenced to 21 months in prison. Kareem Saba
Khoury, 38, and of Palestinian ancestry, admitted hiring a former
employee to set fire to the Dairy Queen in Blissfield, in 1991. (I.H.T.,
May 5, 94)
9. Pop star George Michael arrived at the High Court in London yesterday
to hear that he has lost his legal battle with Sony to have his contract
ruled unenforceable. (F.T. , Jun. 22, 94)
10. The father of a millionaire missing since he was kidnapped nine years
ago has won the first round in a legal fight to have his son declared
dead, Hong Kong newspapers reported yesterday. (T. , Sep. 24, 99)
11 . This month Sainsbury followed Tesco's lead by launching a home
shopping service which enables customers to order groceries by phone,
fax or over Internet and have them delivered direct to their homes.
(D.T. Apr. 14, 98)
12. The miracles that get saints canonised usu ally involve the curing of
a serious physical illness in a way that defie s medical explanation. (G. ,
May 18, 02)
53

YpoK7

TEACH FIVE-YEAR-OLDS TO BEWARE OF ADVERTISING,


SAYS GOVERNMENT INQUIRY

By Jessica Shepherd

Children as young as five should be given lessons in how to deal with the
onslaught of adverts hurled at them, a government inquiry has found.
The inquiry into the commercialisation of childhood revealed that
firms spend at least £lOObn each year advertising to children in the UK. It
said children are increasingly bombarded by brands, advertising slogans and
commercial messages.
Even children in primary school need lessons in becoming media-
savvy consumers, according to the inquiry by Prof David Buckingham, an
international expert on children's consumption of the web, TV and adverts.
Companies increasingly use schools and playgrounds to conduct their
market research, distribute free samples of their products and advertise their
logos, the inquiry, commissioned by the Department for Children, Schools
and Families, found(l). Some companies offer schools free classroom exercise
books that carry adverts from soft drink companies and pop bands, while
others speCialise in placing advertising posters in schools(i). A growing
number of schools are sponsored by or managed by firms(3).
Companies such as Nestle and Kellogg's sponsor school awards, while
Tesco and Cadbury have encouraged pupils and their parents to collect tokens
in exchange for computers and sports equipment(4).
Buckingham said: "One could argue that the growing involvement
of commercial companies in education has made available a range of new
products and services that might not otherwise have been provided. Yet
whether or not they meet the needs of children, parents and teachers, and
whether or not they make a positive contribution to learning is more debatable.
Many of these developments have been invisible to the general public and
thus not open for wider scrutiny or debate."
Some online marketing techniques ask children to recommend products
to their friends or target children who have bought certain products in the
past, the inquiry found. This "raises some ethical concerns about potential
deception and threats to privacy ... existing regulation is insufficient in some
respects," Buckingham said. "While children can generally recognise the
persuasive intentions of television advertising at a fairly young age, this is not
necessarily the case with other forms of marketing and promotion '" used
In new media."(5) Buckingham said that pupils in primary and secondary
schools needed lessons in "media literacy."
" ~ae Burdon, chief operating officer of the Advertising Association, said:
WhIle there are risks and a need for appropriate safeguards, the commercial
world and the media offer children great opportunities for learning, social
development and enjoyment."
Guardian, Dec. 14, 2009
54 Уроки

1. Анализ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. Сформулируйте тему статьи. Почему рассматриваемая в статье


проблема представляется настолько важной, что требует вмеша­
тельства государства?
2. Исходя из содержания статьи, укажите, в чем заключаются две
противоположные точки зрения на указанную в статье проблему.
Какие аргументы при водятся в защиту одной и другой позиций?
3. Что именно явилось информационным поводом для написания ста­
тьи? Какая информация о проведенном исследовании содержится в
статье? При необходимости рассмотрите возможность композици­
онно-синтаксических перестроек для обеспечения оптимального
восприятия читателем этой информации.

1.2. (ВЯ3Ь С широким контекстом

1. Что представляют собой Department for Children, Schools and


Families и Advertising Association? Существуют ли общеупотреби­
тельные русские эквиваленты этих названий?
2. В чем состоят функции человека, занимающего пост chiefoperating
ojJicer? Существует ли общеупотребительный русский эквивалент
обозначения этой должности?
3. В статье упоминаются advertising, marketing и promotion. В чем
различия между этими понятиями? Для ответа на этот вопрос про­
анализируйте их определения в английских толковых словарях и
при необходимости их употребление в оригинальных английских
текстах.

1.3. Частные языко вые трудности

1. Обратите внимание на словосочетание as young as five. Какое зна­


чение передается здесь конструкцией as ... as ... ? Подбирая экви­
валент для передачи этого оборота, проанализируйте упражнение
2.1. и предложите варианты перевода фрагментов, содержащих вы­
деленные сочетания.

2. Что означает словосочетание media-savvy consumers? Какими ка­


чествами обладает эта категория людей? При необходимости про­
анализируйте значения и характер употребления других определе­
ний типа . .. -savvy.
3. Обратите внимание на глагол to use в предложении (1). Выбирая
синтаксическую структуру для перевода этого предложения, про­

анализируйте упражнение 2.2. и предложите варианты передачИ


фрагментов, содержащих выделенные слова.
55

-
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4.
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CHHTaKCHlJecKYlO CTpyKTypy )JJI5I rrepeBo)Ja :noro rrpe)JJIO)l(eHH5I, rrpo-
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<pparMeHToB, cO)Jep)l(allIHX BbJ)JeJIeHHbIe CJIOBa.
5. l.JTO 03HalJaeT CJIOBOCO'IeTaHHe to sponsor school awards? 03HaKoMb-
TeCb co 3Ha'IeHHeM rJIarOJIa to sponsor BaHrJIHMCKOM TOJIKOBOM CJIOBape.
6. l.JTO 03Ha'IaeT B )JaHHOM KOHTeKCTe CJIOBO token? KaKHe pYCCKHe 3KBH-
BaJIeHTbJ MO)l(HO HaMTH )JJI5I 0603Ha'IeHH5I 3Toro 5IBJIeHH5I?
7. l.JTO rro)Jpa3YMeBaeTC5I rro)J CJIOBOCO'IeTaHHeM new media?
8. l.JTO 03Ha'IaeT CO'IeTaHHe social development B rrOCJIe)JHeM
npe)JJIO)l(eHHH?
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CJIe)JHeM rrpe)JJIO)l(eHHH TeKCTa. KaKHe BH)JbJ cHHTaKCH'IeCKOH CB5I3H OH
BbJpa)l(aeT B Ka)l()JOM H3 3THX CJIY'IaeB?

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paccToRHIIIR III T. n. Bblpa>KaeT BblCOKYIO CTeneHb
nplll3HaKa, Bbl6paHHoro AilS! cpaBHeHIIIS!

l. Education has also become such a middle-class obsession that some


parents are paying for children as young as three to be coached to
ensure they get a good nursery school place. (D.T., Jan. 2, 02)
2. Is it safe for children, especially the very young, to be riding on the
back of Mo m or Dad's motorcycle? Some parents admit to allowing their
children as young as four years old to ride with them. (Seaway News,
Sep.29, 11)
3. Five youngsters, who appeared to range from as young as 7 to as old
as 14, were caught on a video surveillance tape burglarizing a nonprofit
Riverside thrift store, where they stole candy and clothes at midnight
Friday. (Buffalo News, Oct. 12, 11)
4. Russian business is strangled by bureaucracy, with as many as 50
signatures required to establish a limited company. (T., Oct. 9, 02)
5. At least 3,000 people - and perhaps as many as 10,000 - died after a
cyclone hit the coast of Bangladesh bringing a tidal surge five metres
high. (E. , Nov. 24, 07)
6. In the fog of war, or peacetime catastrophe, it is, of course, impossible
to know how many people have died or been hurt, yet readers want an
estimate. Yet journalist seldom reduce their estimates as time goes by.
The first figure - "as many as 100" - soon becomes "about 100," and
then "at least 100" and often then "perhaps 1,000". (E., Oct. 16, 99)
7. Some restaurants and takeaway businesses in Manchester and Newcastle
have seen trade drop by as much as 40 per cent since reports emerged
56 YpOKI1

that the Chinese community was linked to the outbreak of foot-and-


mouth [epidemic]. (T., Apr. 9, 01)
8. South Korean parents will spend the equivalent of a month's salary on
monthly tuition at English-language kindergarten and as much as $50
an hour for tutors. (LH.T., Apr. 8, 02)
9. American doctors are preparing to ban blood donations from people
who have visited Britain for as little as six months, to guard against the
spread of the human form of "mad cow disease," Bovine Spongiform
Encephalopathy (BSE). (lnd., Jun. 3, 99)
10. There are good treatments for many biological weapons, but in some
cases they must be administered quickly to do any good. Antibiotics, for
example, can effectively treat anthrax, but only if they are administered
before symptoms occur, which could be as soon as a day or two
after exposure. An antidote exists for botulinum toxin, but it, too must
be administered before symptoms begin, which could be as soon as 12
hours after exposure. (W.S.J.E., Oct. 1, 01)
11. An earthquake smashed windows and brought down chimney pots in
Manchester yesterday. It was the fifteenth tremor to rock the city in 24
hours. The seismologists said that the quakes were caused by geological
pressures originating as far away as Iceland. (T., Oct. 23, 02)
12. We live with the residues of a religious mindset that sees any suicide as
a sinner. As recently as the 1950s in Britain, people were still sent to
prison for attempting "self-murder." (G., Jan. 17,04)
13. For so many of the most influential members of the [G.W.]
Bush administration, the obsessive desire to invade Iraq preceded
the September 11 attacks. It preceded the Bush administration.
The neoconservatives were beating the ward drums on Iraq as far back
as the late 1990's. (NY.T., Aug. 8,05)
14. Before we can embark on any study of Roman education we have to go
back a little - chronologically, perhaps not as far back as 753 B.c.: I
don't suppose the reader will expect me as clever as Plutarch and describe
the education that was current in the time of Romulus - but at least as
far back as the sixth century. (H. Marrou)
15. The world's population will reach 7 billion by the end of October,
according to the latest projections from the United Nations. For the firs t
time the UN has attempted to look as far ahead as 2100, using various
assumptions about how fertility and mortality rates might change
over the years. The average of these estimates suggests that the global
population will cross 10 billion by 2085 (E., May 13, 11)

2.2 rllaroll to use C LIIH LIIHLIITLIIBOM

1. An electric chair once owned by pop artist Andy Warhol yesterday sold
at auction for £4,800. The all-steel chair was once owned by California'S
Department of Penal Correction. Warhol acquired it later and was said
to have used it to watch horror films at home. (Ind., Sep. 11,97)
ypoKN~Q~II~___________________________________________________
57
.-:---
Allegations that hackers hijacked the Fox News Twitter feed Monday and
2.
used it to tweet incorrectly that President Obama had been assassinated
have showed the dark side of social media. (C.S.M., Jul. 5, 11)
[In "The Image: What Happened to the American Dream",] Mr Boorstin
3.
looked at profiles of people in a sample of popular American magazines
and newspapers. After 1922, well over half of the people profiled came
from entertainment. Many of these people had as much interest in
being written about as newspapers had in using them to fill their pages.
(E., Sep. 6, 97)
4. The concept of using test-tube technology to create a future US president,
or a future chess grandmaster, has been around since the early 1980s,
when a San Diego businessman called Robert K. Graham founded the
Repository for Germinal Choice. The repository was a sperm bank with
a difference: only Nobel prizewinners or other "geniuses" could donate.
(T., Dec. 11 , 07)
5. Prosecutors and defense lawyers for James Earl Ray will meet Friday
in Memphis to discuss procedures for more tests of Ray's rifle, which
prosecutors say was used to kill the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. (USA
T., Jul. 15, 97)
6. People working in the flood-affected areas [in Pakistan] say the official
efforts are inadequate. "The 'repatriated' people are living in temporary
shelters, primarily tents, they have no means of recovery," says Rind.
Those who got the Rs. 20,000 handout used it to survive and move back
home; most do not have funds to reconstruct their homes. (Newsweek
Pakistan, Sep., 2, 11)
7. During the First World War, Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales,
eschewed the use of Daimler because "the cars of the brass hats honked
infantrymen off the road." Rather, he preferred the use of a green Army
bicycle, which he used to cover hundreds of miles in his role as a roving
morale booster. (D.T., Mar. 3, 98)
8. Tregaron [a town in Wales] does not have a castle but it does have a
church tower that was used in times of trouble to watch for approaching
enemies and as a place of sanctuary it'they attacked. (ET., May 23- 24,
98)
9. Wildlife officials used helicopters and nets to snare 200 antelope in
Utah so the animals can be transplanted into Arizona. (USA T., Dec. 16,
98)
10. My own great-grandfather kept a goat on the landing of a tenement
building in East London in the early part of the century. He milked it,
used it to pull a cart carrying my grandfather andhis brothers, and they
all eventually ate it. (G., Feb. 27, 99)
11. In the fight against any crime the real danger come when spies and
policemen start relying on video and satellite cameras and stop using
their instincts to find criminals. (D.T., Oct. 11 , 01 )
12. A part-time bikini model was fined £200 yesterday after she was caught
using both hands to apply m ake-up while driving. Donna Maddock, 22,
of Mold, North Wales, was videotaped by police holding her eyeliner in
58 Yp°1(11

one hand and a compact in the other as she passed an accident blackspot
behind the wheel of her Vauxhall Astra. (T., Mar. 9, 06)
13. Because of his inside knowledge of the German astrological scene
and Hitler's astrologer Karl Ernest Krafft, he [Louis de Wohl] was
recruited by British intelligence and served with the rank of captain,
taking part in psychological warfare projects that used astrology to
further the Allied cause. One of the special projects on which de Wohl
worked was a fake edition of the prophecies of Nostradamus, used
to spread subversive rumors in Germany. (Encyclopedia of Occultism
and Parapsychology)
14. A soldier was jailed for six months after being convicted of cruelty to
badgers. Sergeant Craig Trevelyan, 32, of the Royal Welch Fusiliers,
who denied the charges, was seen by a member of the public using dogs
and spades to unearth badgers in the Royal Forest of Dean, magistrates
in Gloucestershire were told. (T., Feb. 2, 06)

2.3. OAHopo;qHble lmeHbl, Tpe6YIO~lI1e


B PYCCKOM R3blKe pa3Horo ynpaBl1eHII1R
1. I remember talking with and being charmed by Che Guevara. (H.M. ,
Apr., 69)
2. After a quarter century in his city [Washington, D.C.] as editor, reporter
and columnist, he knew, was respected by and had access to almost
every major figure of our era. (Nsw., Jun. 3, 74)
3. You'd never had take him for the little white-headed snipe that the girls
used to order about and make fun of. (0. Henry)
4. As it had been at earlier turning points, it was the students who rose up
against the government in a country where leaders are revered and
rarely challenged [Indonesia]. (I.H.T., May 25, 98)
5. "I very much hope this new prize will encourage and draw attention
to artists working in the North [of England]." (Obs., Feb. 2,03)
6. Social activists often target companies to draw attention to and raise
money for their causes by using what is probably the cheapest means
out there. (D.T., Oct. 2, 06)
7. The Arab world, already prone to distrust America as an imperial
successor to the British, now tends to focus on - and sometimes fear -
the export of American culture. (A., Jan.lFeb., 06)
8. There have been dozens of smaller cases around the world in which
personal data have been lost by, or stolen from credit-card companies,
on line retailers, government departments and banks. (E., Nov. 24, 07)
9. Nothing in his [L. Carroll's] diaries or his letters suggests that his interest
in the scores of little girls he told stories to, played with at the seaside
and loved to take very formally to the theatre, when mothers allowed,
was other than innocent. (N.Y., Mar. 3, 80)
10. There is much here to be proud of, grateful for and even, cautiously,
optimistic about. (T., Dec. 14, 93)
ypoKN~QJII~_________________________________________________5_9
-=--
Isn't it better for an ancient pot dug out on some farm in Sicily to end
11· up in a museum like the Metropolitan where it can be studied, widely
e seen and cared for than to become a booty in some billionaire's safe in
s Zurich, Shanghai or Tokyo? (N.Y.T., Dec. 13, 05)
12. At present nearly 200,000 American engineers and scientists spend
:) all their time making weapons, which is a comment on, and perhaps
I explanation for, the usual statement that more scientists are now alive
:l than since Adam and Eve. (P. Goodman)
13. His skill and application included interest in, and familiarity with, the
national economic institutions in the widest sense as well as the activity
) of Britain's business community. (lnd., Sep. 29, 94)
14. The problem of getting along with outsiders is secondary to, and
sometimes in conflict with, having an inside, a people, a culture, a way
of life. (A. Bloom)
60

YpoK8

PRODUCT PLACEMENT: ON BROADWAY


How TO HEDGE A TOE-TAPPING, FINGER-SNAPPING, BIG-BUDGET GAMBLE

Putting on a Broadway show is one of the bigger gambles in America's


entertainment industry, with investments running into the millions
of dollars with little assurance of a return. It can take at least two years fo r
a successful show to pay back its original investment, and only one out of five
shows manages even that, according to the League of American Theatres and
Producers(l).
Given the dicey economics of the New York stage, especially fo r
musicals (which can cost around $lOm to put on), it seems understandable
that producers are becoming more creative in how they raise funds. This
creativity resulted in a fairly controversial move in May, when a Broadway
revival of Neil Simon's "Sweet Charity" tweaked a line of dialogue that had
referred to whiskey: "Grand Centenario, the tequila?", a waiter now asks(2).
Mr Simon himself agreed to this change, which mentions a sponsor, and the
tequila's logo decorates the set. This bold move came not long after Yahoo!
and Hormel Foods, maker of Spa m, sponsored the triumphant Monty Python
musical, "Spamalot", and Turtle Wax endorsed (but was unable to save) the
ill-conceived "Good Vibrations".
While sly marketing strategies have long inhabited film and
television - to the dismay of Jonathan Adelstein, a commissioner at the
Federal Communications Commission, who has called for a probe of more
covert pitches - many have taken an "is nothing sacred?" attitude to the
brandishing of brands on stage.
Marketing companies claim to be exercising (relative) restraint - though
for how much longer? "We are extremely careful not to go out of our way
to take a product and squeeze it into the show," says Tanya Grubich of the
Marketing Group, which manages marketing campaigns for such Broadway
shows as "Wicked", "Avenue Q", and "The Producers". Instead, they claim,
they search scripts for items that can be sponsored, typically through a
donation, and contact businesses to arrange partnerships and product tie-ins.
(Cash deals are rarer than barter arrangements, although some have netted
a production as much as $lm.) Baz Luhrmann's "La Boheme" involved a deal
with Montblanc, a maker of fine pens, to feature an antique company sign on
stage in exchange for window displays and a special pen in Montblanc stores.
Alas, the 2003 show still lost around $6m.
Economist, Jul. 28, 2005
уро~N~2~1I.;L-_____________________________________________
61
:-;--

АналиЗ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

Сформулируйте тему статьи.


1.
Какова функция подзаголовка статьи? Сравните его с подзаго­
2.
ловками к статьям "Early Risers Get Ahead of the Game" (урок 2)
и "Climate Change Scientist Faces Lie Detector Test" (урок 6). Одина­
ковы ли функции подзаголовков в этих трех случаях?
Сравните этот текст с текстом на сходную тему "Teach Five-Year-
3.
Olds То Beware Of Advertising, Says Government Inquiry" (урок 7).
В чем состоит их стилистическое отличие? В каком из них сильнее
проявлено индивидуальное авторское начало? Различаются ли они
по наличию/отсутствию авторской оценки?

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. Что такое product pZacement? Какой русский эквивалент для обо­


значения этой практики можно предложить, не прибегая к заим­
ствованию из английского языка? При подборе эквивалента следу­
ет учесть соотношение этой практики с понятиями, обозначенны­
ми в русском языке как «скрытая реклама» и «косвенная реклама».

2. Существуют ли традиционные переводы названий упомянутых


в статье бродвейских спектаклей?
3. Что представляют собой League 01American Theatres and Producers
и FederaZ Communications Commission? Существуют ли общеупо­
требительные русские эквиваленты этих названий?
4. Дайте правильную русскую транскрипцию названий упомянутых
в статье компаний и производимых ими марок товаров.
5. В чем состоял договор, упоминаемый в последних двух предложе­
Ниях текста? Какую выгоду получала каждая из сторон?

1.3. Частные языковые трудности


1. Обратите внимание на синтаксическую структуру предложения
(1). Обдумывая синтаксическую структуру соответствующего рус­
Ского предложения, проанализируйте упражнение 2.l. и предло­
жите варианты перевода предложений, содержащих выделенные
СОчетания.
2. Проанализируйте определение слова controversiaZ в английских
ТОЛКОвых словарях и подберите русский эквивалент, руководству­
ясь этими определениями .
3.
Обратите внимание на выражение предшествования (использова­
ние Past Perfect) в предложении (2). Проанализируйте упражнение
2.2. и Предложите варианты перевода предложений, содержащих
выделенные слова.
06panfTe BHHMaHHe Ha 060pOT an "is nothing sacred?" attitude. IIpe-
)K.n;e qeM rro.n;6HpaTb cpe.n;CTBa era rrepe.n;aqH B rrepeBo.n;e, rrpoaHanH3R_
pYHTe yrrpa)KHeHHe 2.3. M rrpe.n;nO)KHTe BapHaHTbI rrepe.n;aqH BbI.n;eneli-
HbIX <pparMeHToB.
B KaKoM 3HaqeHHH yrroTpe6mreTCH B .n;aHHOM KOHTeKCTe cnOBO script?
IIo.n;6epHTe PYCCKHH 3KBHBaneHT 3Toro cnOBa, yqHTbIBaH, qTO peqL
H.n;eT 0 TeaTpe.
KaKHe pYCCKHe 3KBHBaneHTbI TepMHHoB tie-in M window display cyru:e-
CTBYIOT B PYCCKOM H3bIKe? IIo.n;6epHTe KOHTeKcTyanbHo rrpHeMneMbIJI
BapHaHT rrepeBo.n;a. B cnyqae He06xo.n;HMOCTH YTOqHHTe orrpe.n;eneHRj!
3TH X TepMHHOB B aHrnHHCKOM TonKOBOM cnOBape.
qTO 03HaqaeT cnOBOCOqeTaHHe fine pen? IIo.n;6epHTe KOHTeKcTyanbHo
rrpHeMneMbIH PYCCKHH 3KBHBaneHT. IIPH He06xo.n;HMOCTH 03HaKOMb-
TeCb c orrHcaHHeM rrpo.n;yKU:HH yrroMHHYTOH B TeKCTe KOMrraHHH.

Ynpa)f(HeHIIIH

2.1. nepe,qa4a 3Ha4eHIIIIII KOHCTPYK4111111 to take (smb/


smth) ... to do smth
1. It took him two days to get over this heartsickening disappointment.
(u. Sinclair)
It has taken them three years, but Mark and Wendy Sheriff have been
able to reclaim a 100-year-old abandoned orchard just in time for this
fall's harvest. (Maine Business, Sep. 12,08)
A Winnipeg woman says she's furious after snow-clearing crews buried
a fire hydrant during snow-clearing operations - and was told it could
take weeks to uncover it. Eva Galambois said snow-removal crews
working Sunday morning on Eaglemere Drive in the East Kildonan area
buried the hydrant. She said her husband called the city's 311 service
three times that day to complain but was told it would take the city 14
days to respond. "Maybe two minutes he piled up the snow, ignoring
completely the fire hydrant," Galambois said. "And it takes them two
weeks to do something about it. I think that is ludicrous," she said. (CBe
News, Feb. 2, 11)
On Friday, top U.S. Democratic lawmakers said they saw little difference
in the regulatory reform bills passed by the two chambers of CongresS
and believe it will not take more than a month to reconcile the two.
(R., May 21, 10)
It did not take more than 40 minutes before the plane touched
down in Abuja, but guess what? Passengers were prevented from
disembarking and were not allowed to use their mobile phones and other
communication gadgets. (Business Day, act. 28, 11)
It takes hard work to take care of yourself so that one might "age
suc:es~ful1y." By this I mean to be mentally flexible to adapt and change
one s hfestyle to match the needs of their condition so that age becomes
ypo~N2~1I.:L-____________________________________________6_3
~

Je- something that we manage rather than something that manages us.
3H:- (Roanoke Times, Aug. 16, 11)
During a personal growth training we took in the United States
7.
years ago, a trainer once famously said to his class about one of the
participants who was said to have suicidal tendencies: "Who are you
to think that you have the right to rob him of that experience?" It took
some effort to digest the true meaning of this remark. Now we know
that everything people do in their life, and with their life, comes down
to choices. (Today, Nov. 18, 11)
8. Finding a dish that's easy to make, nutritious and something the kids will
eat isn't always easy. That's where Chicken Enchiladas come in. It takes
little effort and time to roll chicken in tortillas. You can make the filling
with any leftover cooked and shredded chicken. (S.T., Oct. 19, 10)
9. A number of professional guitarists admit they need to give it their all
to perfectly grasp the art of playing the guitar. It took them a great
deal of dedication and endurance to learn that is the finest crucial to
studying, not simply a guitar but any other kind of instrument. (Article
Alley, Oct. 4, 11)
10. It has taken him a lot of patience, hard work, discipline and focus
to reach the highest level any athlete would aspire to achieve. (AllAfrica.
corn, Jun. 20, 11)
~nt. 11. "The biggest challenge was that we had a great product but we had
no idea how to break into the market. It took us a lot of travelling,
;:en market feedback and patience to finally make inroadsc" (Indian
his Womenpreneurs, Nov. 12, 11)
12. "Sunil (Chettri) is already an established [football] player and the best
ied Indian striker but this did not happen in a few weeks or months. It has
llld taken him a lot of matches. (Times ofIndia, Oct. 30, 10)
:ws 13. Scotland [football] manager WaIter Smith believes veteran defender
r ea David Weir has been a significant factor in the national team's improved
'ice results. Smith said: "It must have taken him a lot of thinking to
14 give up playing for Scotland. I know him and he wouldn't have made
ing that decision without a relevant reason." (D.M., Sep. 5, 05)
:WO 14. The two hacker groups collaborated to steal the RSA [encryption
BC company] intellectual property, the company's president Tom Heiser
said in a speech at the conference. "The adversaries were seen to switch
nee connective techniques, malware and origin during the connection,"
'es s Heiser said. "There were two groupsxinvolved. Both groups were known
wo. to authorities, but they had never been known to work together before.
It took them a lot of co-operation to put this together," he added.
hed (ZDNet UK, Oct. 11 , 11)
'o!1l
:hef

age
nge
u eS
64

2.2. CornaCOBaHlt1e BpeMeH.


rpaMMaTIt1~eCKOe Bblpa>KeHlt1e npeAwecTBOBaHIt1f1

1. He was already Dean of Edinburgh when in 1962 he went to Birminghall)


as Bishop of Aston. He had suffered the painful loss of his wife froll)
a brain tumor, and later remarried, and both he and his new wife were
very reluctant to leave Edinburgh. (Ind., May 27, 93)
2. In 1952 Elia Kazan appeared before the House of Representatives
Committee on Un-American Activities. There he not only stated that
he had once been a member of the American Communist Party but also
named eight other people who to his knowledge had also been members.
(T., Mar. 22, 99)
3. In Aberdeenshire, a curious piece of school furniture known as "queelin"
or cooling stone was in use in many schools until the beginning of the
19th century. When a boy had been flogged he was made to sit upon
a smooth, flat stone. It is uncertain whether this was an act of mercy
designed to assuage his pain of part of the punishment. (S. 1. Curtis)
4. Not long before he died in 1973, my wife and I visited Noel Coward
in Switzerland because we had been neighbours in the village of
Aldington. (D.T., Jan. 7, 02)
5. Without a word he led me to the picture gallery and stood simply pointing
to an empty picture frame. He told me that the frame had contained one
of the rarest and most valuable pictures in England - in the world - the
original Velasquez. (E. W. Hornung)
6. It had to happen sooner or later. The president ran out of guests to
entertain on Martha's Vineyard. Every man, woman and child had been
invited to a presidential event, and with school starting, there was no
one left to break bread with the president. (LH.T., Aug. 28, 97)
7. In 1927 Kitty married Malcolm Muggeridge. He had shared a rooIU
with her brother Leonard at Cambridge and had recently returned
from teaching in Alwaye in India. (Ind., Jun. 26, 94)
8. In 1983 Gilmore was moved to Kuala Lumpur, to become High
Commissioner to Malaysia. It was a less demanding job than those he
I' had held and was to hold in London, but he took it on at a difficult time.
(T., Mar. 22, 99)
9. Marrying in 1945, [Patrick] Heron moved to London and resumed painting.
He showed at the Redfern Gallery from 1947 to 1958; it was at this gallery
that he had seen Matisse's painting The Red Studio, which he said was for
him the most influential single painting of his career. (T., Mar. 22, 99)
10. The term "feminism" (or rather j eminisme) was first used in France if}
the 1880s, and almost immediately became the subject of competing
definitions. The social movement it described had, in fact, beef}
gathering momentum for a century, and had always been a collage of
differing viewpoints rather than a monolithic entity. Back in the 19tb
century, some radical women preached free love while most emphasised
sexual purity, some emphasised women's contribution in the home while
others sought to expand their opportunities outside it. (E., May 25, 02)
: ____________________________________________________
ypoKN2~1I. 65
~

Be pushed open a door. The place inside had been his room. It was a
11-
mess. (T. Pratchett)
12. Mildred's old nursery was at the other end of the long corridor. No one
lIt)
explained who Mildred was or had been. (A. Byatt)
lIt)
!re 13. The Greek and Portuguese health services are much worse than ours -
but their populations have, or have had, a healthier diet and lifestyle
than us. (G., Dec. 10, 01)
'es
lat 14 . On Saturday January 17 I was waiting in Miami Airport for my flight
to London. I had been on a three-month holiday in the US with my
So American boyfriend and I needed to get back to the UK to renew my
rs. visa. (G., Feb. 19, 04)
n"
he 2.3. <l>pa30Bble aTplll6YTbl
on
cy 1. Anyone who supposes that Edwina Currie's amazing first novel is the
usual sort of kill-an-hour-on-the-beach codswallop had better think
lrd again: it is much, much worse than that. (lnd., Feb. 4, 94)
of 2. In February 1989, the TV network CBS broadcast a terrifying report,
based on NRDC [National Resources Defense Council] research, that
ng called Alar [apple-ripening chemical] "the most potent cancer-causing
ne agent in our food supply." Now 11 apple growers are bringing a suit
.he against CBS and the NRDC. The apple growers' case is that the NRDC's
studies were of the familiar stuff-the-mouse-with-the-chemical-till-
to it-bursts type. (WS.J., Dec. 21-22, 90)
en 3. What is hot on the shelves on this side of the water [in Britain]? Dark
no jeans and humidors for the guys and soft fabrics for the ladies. And
as usual a single toy has emerged as the must-have-but-nowhere-to-
)iU be-found item for parents desperate to please their offspring. Made by
ed Hasbro, it is a fluffy robot that goes by the name of Furby. (lnd., Nov. 28,
98)
gh 4. Halloween has always been the season when Hollywood unleashes some
he of its most suspenseful and supernatural offerings. When I was a child
le. in the late '60s and early '70s, the horror slate was a splendid array.
But this mostly imaginative crop devolved to the dime-a-dozen, cut-
19· 'em-up-and-watch-'em-bleed movies, of which "Friday the 13th" is
:rY perhaps the most famous example. (N.Y.T., Oct. 23, 09)
fof 5. During the School Board's September meeting, I almost fell out of my
chair when United Teachers ofDade President Karen Aronowitz lamented
i!1 the fact that the U.S. public education system is not more like Finland's,
pg which often ranks among the top nations in international student
ell assessments. I don't think that it was a fair or constructive comparison.
of SUch an apples-to-oranges comparison leads to misrepresentations of
HP the quality of our education. (M.H., Nov. 11, 11)
6.
;ed Over the last decade or so, there has been a general trend in western
j le societies towards mass populism, "rabble" democracy, and a "consumer
Z) is king" cultural mentality. (G., Oct. 5, 02)
66

7. Singapore needs a little bit of "chaos" to achieve some of the vibrancy Of


cities like Hong Kong and New York, Singaporean business executives
have suggested. While the city-state remains tops in terms ofthe quality
of life, it is still considered a "boring" place, the executives said in a
report to a state-appointed committee set up to explore ways of making
Singapore more competitive economically. Singapore lacks Hong
Kong's entrepreneurial "anything goes" attitude and New York's
"can do" spirit, they said in their report quoted by Straits Times on
Friday. Singaporeans' adventurous and "dare-to-fail" spirit should be
nurtured by allowing a bit of "chaos" and "creativity" among the people
known for their reluctance to tread unchartered ground because of the
fear of losing. (I.H.T., Dec. 7- 8, 02)
8. The Jewel Tea Company set up "splurge counters" in many of its
supermarkets after it was found that women in a just-for-the-heck-of-
it mood will spend just as freely on food delicacies as they will on a new
hat. (V. Packard)
9. To anyone of a glass-is-half-empty mentality, the music industry as
we know it is on Death Row. Nothing sounds new. But then there are
the glass-is-half-full merchants, for whom the charts are an ever-
changing pageant of new talent and record sales are defiantly buoyant.
(T., Sep. 4, 98)
10. The most damaging result of the [computer] virus panic of the 1990s
is that any data loss can now be blamed on a mystery virus attack,
Smith says, potentially ignoring real software malfunctions or simple
theft. "Blaming everything on viruses is the-dog-ate-my-homewor k
excuse," he says. (G., Feb. 12, 98)
11. The emphasis on religion in the [presidential] race to date exceeds
anything America has seen this century. We are not talking about "look-
at-me-I'm-holding-a-Bible" photo-ops in a church, but an explicit
revelation of personal faith, a holier-than-thou tit for tat couched in an
evangelical language not heard since born-again Jimmy Carter bared his
beliefs. (T., Sep. 4, 99)
12. Other than the Cuban missile crisis, the CIA (created out of the Pearl
Rarbor, if-we-had-only-known syndrome) has not anticipated a single
one of the many outbreaks of war and armed confrontation in the past
twenty-five years. (H.M., Jan. 74)
13. Rheingold Breweries, in Brooklyn, threw a party a few days ago which
we can only describe as a thank-Godwedidn't-go-out-of-busines s-
after-all party. (N.Y., Apr. 22, 74)
14. [In "King Arthur", directed by Antoine Fuqua,] Guinev ef
(Keira Knightley) has exactly one love scene with Arthur, and it's shot
in that lyrical what-part-of-body-am-I-Iooking-at? mode that seems
to be fashionable today. (New York, Ju!. 12, 04)
67

Of
-es
ity
l a HOW HUCK FOUND HIMSELF IN THE DOCK
ng
ng By Ben Macintyre
( 's
On Next week, in the house where Samuel Clemens, better known as Mark Twain,
rote seven of his books, a group of concerned American high school teachers
be
)ie :i1l be given a crash course on how to defend that author's greatest work, The
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, against charges of racial prejudice.
he
Indeed, the course offered by Mark Twain House will go a step further,
its by educating teachers "on how to use this book to combat racism," in the
)f. words of the museum's education director. Mark Twain, in short, will be
shown to be politically correct.
The problem with Huckleberry Finn may be encapsulated in a single
as word, "nigger," which appears in Twain's text more than 200 times. So
Ire charged has the epithet become in America's febrile racial atmosphere that
er- many educators would rather ban the book than expose their pupils to it. Last
nt. spring the National Catholic School, a highly regarded private academy for
girls in Washington, elected to drop Twain's masterwork from its compulsory
'Os reading list, the latest in a long line of institutions to conclude that the
:k, language of Huckleberry Finn is simply too controversial for impressionable
Jie young minds(l).
rk Huckleberry Finn was attacked from the moment it was published
in 1884. The book was banned from the Concord, Massachusetts, public
:ds library on the ground that vulgar, ill-educated, pipe-puffing Huck was an
,k- unacceptable role model. In 1902 Denver public library called it "immoral
cit and sacrilegious", and in 1976 New Trier High School in Illinois banished it as
an "degrading". No less a figure than Louisa May Alcott condemned the author
his for polluting American youth: "If Mr Clemens cannot think of something
better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses, he had better stop writing for
arl them," she thundered.
~Ie Ernest Hemingway took the opposing view, proclaiming that "all modern
aS t A.merican literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry
Flll n ." (2) He was right, yet it says much about the polarised state of American
ich ~~ademic discourse that the only apparent way to defend Huckleberry
SS' d~nn against being demonised as a racist tract is to laud it as anti-racist
lssertation(3). Huckleberry Finn is neither, of course, but instead a work of
~ique lyrical power, the literary qualities of which are being obscured by
t e obseSsive modern urge to scour the written word for political "messages"
o be praised or condemned. Some have tried to defend the book by pointing
~ut that the word "nigger" was common parlance in the 1840s, while other
aVe trawled for proof that the author was an ideological opponent of slavery.
h As the critic Harold Bloom pointed out, the vogue of political correctness
pa~_ turned the pursuit of literary messages into a cult. Bizarrely, a book's
o lhcal import has become more important than whether it is any good.
68 YpOKi1

Twain himself had confidence in the discernment of his young readers.


When Brooklyn Library banned Huckleberry Finn in 1885, this master of iroll}'
1 ,
wrote: "The mind that becomes soiled in youth сап never Ье washed clean."(4)
Тimes, Aug. 20, 1995

1. Анализ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия пер~вода

1. Найдите основную энциклопедическую информацию о Марк е


Твене, обратите внимание на годы жизни автора и оценку напра в ­
ления его литературной деятельности .
2. Найдите основную информацию о главном герое книги "The
Adventures of Huckleberry Finn". Как вкратце можно охарактери зо ­
вать характер и поведение этого персонажа?
3. Как вы понимаете выражение febrile raciaZ atmosphere? Наведи те
необходимые справки и составьте представление о том, как в совре­
менной американской культуре воспринимаются вопросы расов о й
дискриминации, каково отношение в обществе к американским н е ­
грам, что подразумевается под термином poZiticaZ correctness.
4. Наведите справки о слове nigger в английском языке. Как меня л ­
ся узус этого слова и отношение к нему в американском вариан т е

английского языка со времен М. Твена до наших дней? Вспомните


типичные русские варианты передачи слова nigger, насколько они
соответствуют слову nigger с точки зрения оценочности? Поду­
майте, будут ли различаться переводческие решения при передаче
этого слова в книге времен М. Твена , в современной книге в ре ч и
белого человека и в современной книге в речи негра? Выберите
оптимальный, на ваш взгляд, способ передачи слова nigger в кон ­
тексте этой статьи с учетом его неоднозначности в американском
речевом обиходе.
5. Как автор текста относится к описываемой проблеме? Что он ду­
мает о книге "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" и о характере
современной литературной полемики? Найдите в тексте слова
и выражения , на которых вы основываете ваше суждение, отг ра ­

ничивая авторскую оценку от оценки л юдей , на которых автОР


ссылается. Переводя текст, убедитесь, чт о вы не искажаете и J{e
утрируете авторское отношение к теме статьи.
6. Сформулируйте идею статьи .

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. Под каким названием книга "The Adventures of Huckleberry Fi nn"


известна на русском языке? Кто автор наиб олее известного н а се'
годняшний день ее перевода?
урок N~2JiI.
·L-________________________________________________6_9
:..:---
~rs . Найдите основную энциклопедическую информацию о следую­
2.
щих лицах: Louisa Мау Alcott, Ernest Hemingway, HaroZd Bloom .
уточните традиционное написание их имен в русском языке (если
имеется). Чем известны эти люди?
Работая над переводом цитаты (2), обратите внимание на статью
3.
о М. Твене в «Большой советской энциклопедии».
Как вы понимаете мысль, высказанную в предложении (3)? В чем
4.
суть описываемого автором статьи парадокса? Какое предс;гшше­
ние о American academic discourse должен извлечь из этого пара­
докса читатель статьи? Какой еще парадокс автор приводит в тек­
сте статьи?
рке

5. Ка к вы понимаете смысл цитаты (4)? Что хотел сказать этими сло­


' ав -
вами М. Твен и зачем их приводит в конце статьи журналист? Най­
дите более полный контекст, из которого была заимствована эта
rhe
фр аза.
[зо -

ите

:ре ­ 1.3. Частные языковые трудности


вой
1. В каком значении употребляется слово problem в первом предложе­
не-
ни и тр етьего абзаца? Какие русские контекстуальные эквиваленты
этого слова вы знаете? Переводя это предложение, попробуйте по­
[ял -
до бр ать варианты с принципиальным изменением его синтаксиче­
.яте
ской структуры.
ит е
2. Проанализируйте значение слова charged. Как бы вы перевели со­
они
четание а politically charged subject?
щу -
3. Обратите внимание на значение слова epithet, относящегося к раз­
(аче
ряду ложных друзей переводчика. Уточните его значение в тол­
ечи
ковом английском словаре и ознакомьтесь с соответствующей
Iите
статьей в мнс. Проанализируйте уп р ажнение 2.1. и предложите
(О Н -
вариан ты передачи выделенных слов. Примите во внимание ваши
коМ
выв оды при работе с другими встречающимися в данном тексте
ло жными друзьями переводчика.
д у-
4. Обратите внимание на слово expose. С какими явлениями оно
г ере
обычно используется при описании негативных, неприятных,
!Ов а
вр едных событий?
г ра- 5. Обратите внимание на атрибутивный оборот, относящийся
iTOP
к National Catholic School и начинающийся со слова the latest,
" f{e
в пр едложении (1). Какое синтаксическое оформление соответ­
СТВующей русской фразы обеспечит естественную его передачу?
Прежде чем определиться с окончательным вариантом перевода,
проанализируйте упражнение 2.2. и предложите варианты пере­
дачи фрагментов , содержащих выделенные слова .
6.
Выработайте общую стратегию передачи названий упоминаемы х
inn" в теКСте школ и библиотек. Как произносится слово Trier в назва­
1 с е' нии New Trier High School? Чтобы убедиться правильноСТИ своей
версии, выясните, что отражено в названии школы .
70 Ypo ~ ~

7. IIpoaHaJIH3HpywTe 3HaqeHHe CJIOBa degrading. IIo.n;YMawTe, B KaKOl\1


CMblCJIe OHO MOrJIO 6bl xapaKTepH30BaTb BJIHHHHe KHHrH M. TBeHa Ha
.n;eTew.
8. KaK Bbl nOHHMaeTe CO'leTaHHe academic discourse? KaKHe 061>eKTbJ,
npou;eccbI H HBJIeHI1H MoryT BXO.n;I1Tb B 06JUYlO KaTerOpl11O discourse?
9. IIpoaHaJII13HpywTe 3HaqeHI1e CJIOBa lyrical. IIo.n;YMawTe, B KaKOM CMbIC_
JIe OHO MOrJIO 6bI xapaKTepl130BaTb KHl1ry M . TBeHa (Y'lI1TbIBaH ee co-
.n;ep)l(aHHe, xapaKTep repoeB 11 T. n.)?
10. IIpoaHaml3HpywTe 3Ha'leHHe CJIOBa message. KaKYIO l1.n;eoJIOrl1'lecKYIO
HarpY3KY OHO HeceT?

2. Ynpa>KHeHIIUI

2.1. J10>KHble APY3bR nepeBOAl.IHKa

1. There is a deep cultural conflict in the United States. It is waged between


the 15 to 20 percent of the country that is both profoundly religious and
staunchly conservative and the 15 to 20 percent that is both profoundly
secular and staunchly liberal. There is no doubt that these two groups
exist, have very strong feelings , and on the whole can't stand each
other. They regularly toss epithets across their divide. The godly attack
the ungodly. The tolerant attack the intolerant. Moralists attack the
permissive. (A. , Jan.lFeb., 06)
2. In the general election, Thompson also has advantages against
Bloomberg that his rival lacks. In an era when "career politician" is
a lethal epithet, Thompson's detour through Wall Street might blunt
efforts by Bloomberg to paint him as a lifelong pol. (New York,
May 3, 04)
3. After a caller to [Roward] Stern's [breakfast] show used a racial epithet,
John Rogan, the head of Clear Channel, said the show was "vulgar,
offensive, and insulting, notjust to women and African Americans but
to anyone with a sense of common decency." (T., Feb. 27, 04)
4. Then commenced along the whole line of the Missouri River, that fitful,
sanguinary strife, which earned for this region the mourning epithet of
Bleeding Kansas. It lasted six years, and was a prelude to the Civil War.
(W.H. Dixon)
5. "Ill-fated" was the epithet applied by the press to the Anderso n
expedition to the Parima and upper Uraricoera region of Brazil. Every
stage of the enterprise from the preliminary arrangements in London
to its tragic dissolution in Amazonas was attacked by misfortune. (E·
Waugh)
6. Michelangelo, the Renaissance artist and sculptor renowned for hiS
stinginess, was much richer than his rivals and may have been one of the
wealthiest artists in history, according to a new book by an American
academic. During a long career, which produced icons of western art
such as the statue of David and the Sistine Chapel ceiling fre scoeS,
yp o~N2JII.
·L- _____________________________________________
71
~

hi
Michelangelo accumulated a fortune which would be worth more than
la £30m today. The estimate has been calculated by Rab Hatfield, a professor
of art history at the University of Siracuse in Florence, who published The
>1,
Wealth of Michelangelo after stumbling across two previously unknown
? bank accounts belonging to the artist. (G., Nov. 30,02)
c- Drugs, like oil, can produce piles of cash in a hurry. And in several
7.
J-
Mexican cities, there are massive homes with domes that have an Arabian
flourish. In fact, while Islamic touches have often signified wealth in
IQ
Mexico, some academics who study the culture of Mexican crime say
the domes, or cupolas, have become visual shorthand for the drug trade's
enduring appeal: it offers a way to move up. (N.Y.T., Jan. 18,12)
8. There's no clear legal standard for an "adequate" weighing of costs and
benefits of financial regulations, since both are so difficult to measure.
And putting the question into the laps of federal judges gives the [Wall]
Street a huge tactical advantage because the Street has almost an infinite
amount of money to hire so-called "experts" (some academics are not
~n
exactly prostitutes but they have their price) who will use elaborate
1d methodologies to show benefits have been exaggerated and costs
ly underestimated. (C.S.M., Jan. 11 , 11)
ps 9. Reflecting the problems of the interdisciplinary MM [multimedia]
;;h production team, where collaboration goes through an often painful
;;k learning process, it is interesting to notice how academics and scholars
he will have to go through a similar learning process, probably even more
painful, if they want to keep up with this new reality and be able to study
1st this new object of study in an adequate way. (P. Catrysse)
is 10. The decision earlier this year by Pfizer, the pharmaceutical giant, to
nt close its research facility at Sandwich in Kent sent shockwaves through
·k, the industry - and through Whitehall, too. Only a few weeks earlier,
David Cameron had waxed lyrical about the critical importance of hi-
et, tech industries, and specifically the pharmaceutical sector, in leading
:lf, Britain back to economic health. Pharmaceuticals account for more than
JUt a quarter ofUK industrial research and development spending; but after
many years raking in massive profits, the industry is facing tougher
ul, times. (D.T., Feb. 5, 11)
of 11. There was a time in America when sports writers sat back, puffed a stogie,
ar. and conjured truly lyrical sobriquets. Great nicknames, even for not-so-
great players, abounded: the Big Train, the Yankee Clipper, the Fordham
011 Flash, Charlie Hustle, Big Poison and Little Poison, Peanuts Lowrey
:fY and Pretzels Getzien, Ice Box Chamberlain and Piano Legs Hickman.
011 (Youxcan't nickname someone "Piano Legs" in these politically correct
B· days without incensing the gout-ridden.). (B.S., Oct. 30, 11)
12. In 2003 a little-known author named Dan Brown published a sensitive,
lyrical literary novel called The Da Vinci Code, which achieved critical
succ~ss but only modest sales. (Time, Sep. 4, 09) .
13. [!n h IS book "Bob Dylan in A merica," historian Sean] WIlentz has no
time for critics who accuse Dylan of lyrical and melodic theft. (Nsw.,
Sep. 10, 10)
72 YpOK I1

14. For more than 20 years now, Harrison has been principal of Harrison
Architects, a firm that specializes in "lyrical sustainable design,"
a phrase Harrison coined that means his work focuses on conserving
energy and resources, reducing costs, and incorporating healthier
finishes and materials. (A., Oct. 21, 11)

2.2. BblpameHlI1e oTHOWeHII1J11 o4epeAHOCTII1


1. The Korean Fair Trade Commission raided the Seoul office of Google
Inc. in connection with allegations of unfair trade in South Korea's
mobile-search-engine market, a person with direct knowledge of the
matter said, the latest in a series of probes into Google's operations
globally. (W.S.J., Sep. 7, 11)
2. The announcement by the World Economic Forum was just the latest
in a spate of bad economic news for the Obama administration, and
it comes a day before President Barack Obama is scheduled to make
a major address with proposals to spur jobs and economic growth.
(Newsroom America, Sep. 7, 11)
3. Austria coach Didi Constantini will leave when his contract ends in
December following the team's failure to qualify for Euro 2012, the
latest in a long line of disappointments for the national side. (R., Sep. 7,
11)
4. Fighting between pastoralists over grazing land in drought-ravaged
northern Kenya on Wednesday killed seven people, the latest in a string
of deadly clashes this year, officials said. (R., Sep. 7, 11)
5. The founders ofCarlyle Group have become the latest of their generation
of private equity pioneers to prepare the ground for their retirement,
announcing yesterday that they plan to float their company on the US
stock market. (lnd., Sep. 7, 11)
6. Nearly 300 Cambodian workers passed out in clothing factories last
week in the latest of a spate of mass fainting attributed to poor working
conditions, prompting an investigation by the clothing chain H&M.
(lnd., Aug. 29, 11)
7. Brantford banned shark fin products in May, becoming the first Ontario
municipality to do so. (Toronto Star, Sep. 7, 11)
8. The hotly-anticipated Karl Lagerfeld collection has hit Macy's stores,
the third in a series of designer collaborations that the Federated
department-store chain initiated in February as part of a strategy to
reinvent and rebrand itself as a trendy fashion destination. (L.A.T. ,
Aug. 31, 11)
9. In a first-of-its-kind decision, a National Labor Relations Board judge
has ruled a New York nonprofit must re-hire five employees who were
fired after complaining about their jobs on Facebook. (Inc. Magazine,
Sep. 7, 11)
10. Hmm, the 1980s are definitely back. Conan the Barbarian is yet another
of the decade's cult movies to be given a makeover. (G., Sep. 1, 11)
73

n
"
g
r EEYORE VERSUS TIGGER
CFOs CEOs ARE ENTHUSIASTIC,
ARE MISERABLE AND THANKFULLY

There are two types of person: gloomy Eeyores and bouncy Tiggers. If the
e results of a new survey for CFO Europe magazine are to be believed, many
S chief financial officers cast themselves in the role of Eeyore working for -
e Tigger. Only five per cent of CFOs regard themselves as more optimistic than
S their chief executive officers, while almost half are more pessimistic.
Why? Some of the explanations that CFOs offer are misery itself.
t "CEO is a moron." "CEO lacks strategic imagination or long-term vision;
j substitutes hope and blind optimism." Evidently, for some CFOs, the boss is
e the sort of person who will grab the tartar sauce before leaping into a tank
of piranhas(l).
Perhaps CEOs and CFOs should swap jobs in an effort to appreciate each
other's perspective. The CFO would learn that the glass is half full of milk; the
CEO would learn that the milk is sour(2). Yet the combination of cheerleading
boss and depressive bean-counter may be a winning combination, like salt
and pepper or peaches and cream(3).
Gloominess is a worthy attribute for a financial officer. Some psychologists
talk of "depressive realism," citing evidence that clinically depressed people
may turn out to have a firmer grasp on reality than cheerier folk. That is
perhaps taking things too far, but we would certainly advise against having
a downcast CEO and a Panglossian CFO. The boss would be paralysed by
pessimism while the CFO spun sunny lies to shareholders.
Eeyore once grumbled of his companions: "They haven't got Brains, any
of them, only grey fluff that's blown into their heads by mistake, and they
don't Think." That is scepticism appropriate to a CFO, but if CEOs tried to
Think, how would anything get done?
Financial Times, Mar. 10,2007
74

,. Анализ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. В чем заключается основная идея текста? Что рекомендует и liе


рекомендует его автор? Какая картина распределения ролей в выс­
шем руководстве компаний нарисована в этой статье? На чем ее ав_
тор основывает свои выводы? Как вы понимаете заключительнуlO
фразу статьи?
2. Кто такие Eeyore и Тigger? Почему эти персонажи выбраны в каче_
стве символов двух противоположных типов людей?
3. В каком переводе истории о Винни Пухе знакомы большинству
русских читателей? Как там переданы имена этих персонажей? Ка­
кие еще фрагменты из этого перевода могут быть использованы
при переводе этой статьи?
4. Найдите в статье синонимические ряды со значением СЕО, CFO,
optimistic и pessimistic. Подумайте, какие русские синонимы воз ­
можны в каждом из этих случаев. При переводе текста обратите
особое внимание на то, чтобы при передаче различных синонимов,
объединенных общим контекстуальным значением, не произошло
искажения смысла и/или коннотации.
5. Как можно охарактеризовать стиль изложения в данной статье? Как
ее автор относится к предмету обсуждения? Найдите в тексте ста­
тьи слова и выражения, на которых вы основываете свои выводы.

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. Кто такие chiej executive officer и сЫе!jinancial officer? В чем з а­


ключаются обязанности людей, занимающих эти должности? при
выборе русских вариантов для передачи их названий посмотрите
соответствующую статью в мнс.
2. Какой феномен обозначен термином depressive realism? Вчем з а­
ключается его суть? Выбирая русский вариант для его переда ч и ,
выясните, как это явление принято называть в специализирован­
I I ных русскоязычных источниках.

1.3. Частные языковые трудности


1. Как вы понимаете сочетание misery itselj? Какую функцию в HeNf
Выполняет возвратное местоимение itselj?
2. Что такое vision в контексте деловых отношений и политики? ПрJ4
необходимости проанализируйте случаи употребления этого сло­
ва в оригинальных английских текстах . Посмотрите соответстВУ­
ющую статью в мнс.

Что такое tartar sauce? К чему его обычно подают? Какую фунI<'
цию указание на этот соус имеет в построении данной метафорьr1
урок N2~~.'L-____________________________________________7_5
~

Какая сторона понятия tartar sauce оказывается наиболее значи­


мой в этом контексте? Выбирая функционально эквивалентный
вариант перевода, проанализируйте упражнение 2.l. и предложи­
те варианты передачи выделенных фрагментов.
liе Что автор статьи хочет сказать о типичном СЕО метафорой (l)? Ка­
4.
Ic_ кие стороны характера должен символизировать - в утрированном

1В _ в иде - описанный в ней поступок? Подумайте, насколько предла­


11{) гаемый вами вариант перевода этого предложения подходит для
в ыражения этой идеи. Прежде чем определиться с вариантом пере­
le- дачи союза before, проанализируйте упражнение 2.2. и предложи-
те в арианты передачи этого союза в приведенных там ситуациях.

' ву Почему, как вам кажется, в некоторых ситуациях употребление со-


~a- юза «прежде чем» не будет уместно?7
'{ы 5. Обр атите внимание на синтаксическую конструкцию оборота in
аn effort и его связь с остальной частью предложения . Проанализи-
'0, руйте упражнение 2.3. и предложите варианты передачи выделен-
)з - ны х фрагментов.
[те 6. Уточните в толковом английском словаре значение слова
)в, perspective. Посмотрите соответствующую статью в мнс.
ло 7. В чем смысл высказывания (2)? Как вы понимаете его метафори­
че ск ую основу? Что в этом высказывании заимствовано из общего
:ак речевого обихода, а что является авторским?
га- 8. Как вы понимаете значение словосочетания winning combination?
Какое значение слова winning в нем реализуется? Убедитесь, что
пр едложенный вами вариант перевода логично сочетается с при­
веде н ными далее примерами таких сочетаний.
9. Проанализируйте два примера сочетаний (3). Почему предложе-
за- н ы именно такие сочетания (почему сведены вместе salt и pepper,
ри peaches и cream)? Проверьте свою гипотезу поиском по источни-
: те к ам . Вызывают ли те же ассоциации у русского читателя соответ-
ствующие сочетания русских эквивалентов этих слов? Выбирая
за- функ ционально эквивалентный вариант передачи этих сочетаний,
IИ, сперва проанализируйте упражнение 2.l. и предложите способы
lll- передачи выделенных фрагментов.

2. Упражнен ия

~. Передача ассоциативной информации


1.
рИ ~unday mornings and breakfast out fit together like peanut butter and
[0- JelIy. (fl.oridatoday.com, Sep. 9, 11)
'':/-
----------------------
.N"~ l~ ?".: Бузаджи Д.М. Структуры и связи. О роли синтаксиса впереводе
4 // Мосты
Ь и ( ) 2007 [электронный ресурс] . - Режим доступа: httр://www. thшkаlоud . гu/fеаtuге/
Z-sупtах·Рdf.
76

2. Why not update your CV on Christmas Day? Why not upload it to the web
for employers to see on iProfile or any number of similar sites (including
the Guardian Job's site). Heck, why not email a few job applications while
you are still digesting your brussels sprouts? (g.co.uk, Dec. 24, 08)
3. Collective worship in school is a chance to promote spiritual and ethical
virtues and the social and cultural development of pupils. Someone this
week described it as like Brussels sprouts - you don't enjoy them at the
time but you know they do you good. (Sun, Sep. 8, 11)
4. Ever wondered why you have a hankering to drive a Prius and drink lattes?
Or why you read the Guardian and scrupulously put it in the recycling?
There might be a gene for that - with a little help from your friends.
Researchers at the University of California and Harvard University have
identified a specific gene variant that they say predisposes those carrying
it to liberal political ideology - with the findings quickly seized on by the
US media as uncovering "the liberal gene." (g.co.uk, Oct. 28, 10)
5. Often, when you arrive at middle age, you realise you have inadvertently
crossed the political spectrum. Many young socialist workers end up
playing golf with their business buddies, while young fogies find
themselves meditating in an ashram somewhere. Political beliefs, like
hairstyles, take a long time to change, and many people continue to sport
their socialism/mullet long after the rest of their lifestyle has moved on.
(G., May 5, 07)
6. When it comes to their values and life goals, Chris and Jen say they've
always been on the same page, 100 percent. "We both want a fami ly.
We're very white-picket-fence kind of people," Chris explains.
(richmondmagazine.com, Nov. 23, 08)

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1. Just before his speech [at the UN], President Ronald Reagan got stuck in an
overloaded elevator for nearly a minute before a security guard employed
by the United Nations could pry the door open. (I.H.T., Sep. 29, 86)
2. The Seven Years' War was the only truly decisive European war of the
messy 18th century, and in some respects determined the balance of
power for the 19th. More than 70 years passed before France endeavoured
to rebuild a great colonial empire, and then it would be based on the
Mediterranean and the Far East, not the Atlantic. (Spectator, Feb. 10,01)
3. This is the third successive European championship in which England
has taken part where violence has erupted. In 1980 police had to fire
teargas into fighting fans before peace was restored at the opening
match. (G., Jan. 19, 92)
4. '!' U:S. government surveillance plane flying over northern Peru
ldentIf\ed a small aircraft carrying American missionaries as a possible
drug fllght and passed the information to the Peruvian Air Force shortl),
~
ypoKN2~~.' 77
___________________________________________________
::..;--
before a Peruvian fighter jet shot it from the sky, U.S. sources said. A
woman and her 7-month-old daughter were killed by rounds of fire from
the Peruvian plane on Friday. (LH.T., Apr. 23, 01)
The cost to the flora and fauna of this magnificent island has been
5. immense; much of the essential tussock grass and other plant life
lCal
:his flattened into a morass of gooey mud, nesting sites destroyed, fish stock
decimated, many other beautiful beaches dangerously inaccessible. The
the
balance of nature must be restored before further catastrophic damage
es? occurs. (T., May 21, 99)
ng? 6. During extreme events, up to 70% of the ozone layer can be destroyed,
lds. before it recovers months later. (g.co.uk, Oct. 3, 11)
aVe 7. Apemen had begun to scavenge for meat from carcasses of prey killed by
lUg
leopards, cheetahs and other carnivores. Armed with sharp blades, they
the could cut off chunks of antelope or deer and escape quickly before being
eaten themselves by an enraged lion, they discovered. (Obs., Oct. 2, 11)
ltly 8. The problem with being a trendsetter is that there will always be a period
up of vulnerability, before the trend is set, when you are out front, on your
ind own, looking weird. (Obs., Oct. 2, 11)
ike 9. As he [Charles Dickens] aged, his earning power increased, and so too
ort did the number of people dependent on him - his large and feckless
on. family and numerous friends and beneficiaries relied on him for financial
support. He was probably never richer than in the last years before he
've died. (Obs., Oct. 2, 11)
ily. 10. Sometimes, the web can be very aptly named. Before you know it, you
ns. are caught in it, stuck on an endless treadmill of checking tweets, work
email and personal email accounts, with multiple tabs open in your web
browser as you try and keep up to date with the masses of content being
generated. (G.P., May 10, 11)

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,ed
1. On 28 June 1914, in an event that is widely regarded as sparking the
the outbreak of World War I, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-
of Hungarian empire, was shot to death together with his wife by Bosnian
'ed Serb Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia. (history.co.uk)
2. The Republican party has taken back control of the House in a victory
:he
) 1) that shows how US voters are undecided over how to fix their country's
nd most troubling problems. (F.T. , Nov. 2, 11)
3.
ire In a development w ith implications for the touring business, debate
ng about the U.S. drinking age has fired up again, sparked by a Vermont-
based group that supports lowering the legal drinking age from 21 to 18.
(R., Sep. 1,08) .
4.
In a Significant shift for their party, key congressional Repubhcans
propOsed Wednesday to make it easier for hundreds of thousands
78

of people who entered the United States illegally before 1982 to gain
permanent U.S. residence. Republicans also proposed issuing as many
as 600,000 special new visas over three years to foreign-born spouses
and children of legal immigrants in an initiative to help families stay
together in the United States. (C.T., Oct. 26, 00)
5. In a discovery that has stunned even those behind it, scientists at a
Toronto hospital say they have proof the body's nervous system helps
trigger diabetes, opening the door to a potential near-cure of the disease
that affects millions of Canadians. (National Post, Nov. 16, 11)
6. Diamonds are no longer a girl's best friend. Single young women in India
have earthier tastes and believe in serious asset-creation, which perhaps
explains why an increasing number of those below 35 are investing in their
own homes before marriage in a trend that many believe is a reflection of
our changing socio-economic landscape. (Economic Times, Nov. 12, 11)
7. In a move that demonstrates an incredible amount of either customer
care or procrastination, Apple has issued a recall for the first generation
iPod Nano. (TechCrunch.com, Nov. 12, 11)
8. Over 20 animals were found abandoned and starving to death in
Tarkington Prairie on Monday, Nov. 14, in a case of animal cruelty
Liberty County Sheriff Henry Patterson says is the worst he has ever
seen. Reported by an anonymous caller, deputies arrived on the scene
to find the severely neglected dogs - most of them pit bulls, but at least
one blue heeler mix - in horrific conditions. (East Montgomery County
Observer, Nov. 14, 11)
9. The 30-year-old reality TV star [Kim Kardashian] and 26-year-old
professional basketball player [Kris Humphries] will be married Saturday
evening in the exclusive Montecito area near Santa Barbara, California,
in a ceremony that will be televised as a two-part special on the E! cable
television channel in October. (Associated Press, Aug. 21, 11)
10. In a reversal oflong-standing marital patterns, college-educated young
adults are more likely than young adults lacking a bachelor's degree to
have married by the age of 30. (R. Fry)
11. Mahmoud Abbas, the Palestinian leader, is due to submit his formal
proposal to the United Nations calling for Palestinian statehood, in a
bid that has already been deemed to fail. (Huffington Post, Sep. 23, 11)
I I 12. In a ruling that could affect the rights of thousands of unmarried
couples involved in property disputes, the [UK] Supreme Court has said
that a man is not entitled to half the value of the house he shared with his
I I former partner nearly 20 years ago. (D.T. , Nov. 9, I I)
13. In a decision that is already having an impact on medical marijuana
access, a California appeals court ruled Wednesday that cities and
counties can lawfully ban medical marijuana dispensaries. (Stop the
Drug War.org, Nov. 13, 11)
14. In a trial that is likely to be watched closely by local residents, NicholaS
County Sheriff Leonard "Dick" Garrett is scheduled to be tried th iS
week on felony charges of theft and abuse of public trust. (kentuckY·
corn, Aug. 1, 11)
79

ty BEATING THE JARGON


D EPRESSING JARGON

This week's installment in our occasional series on the use and abuse of
'argon ["Beating the Jargon"] focuses on "doomology". Events in Brazil have
~evived the market in economic gloom. Newspapers are again warning
of global recession, slump, or even depression. But when does a recession
become a depression? A cynical answer is: when your neighbour loses his job
it's a slowdown (or, if you dislike him, a correction); when you lose yours, it's
a recession; when an economic journalist loses his, that's a depression.
er The duller textbook definition of a recession is two consecutive quarters
m of declining output. But recession can also be used to describe any period in
which GDP growth falls below an economy's trend growth rate (the sum of
III labour-force growth and productivity gains).
ty Another complication is the definition of a world recession. Should the
er world economy expand by less than 1.5% this year, as seems likely, that would
1e by past standards count as a recession. During the past three "world reces-
st sions" (1975, 1982 and 1991) output rose by an average of 1.5%: the decline
ty in GDP in rich economies was offset by growth in developing economies(1).
Even in its worst post-war recession, in 1974-75, America's GDP fell by
Id only 3.7% from peak to trough(2). In contrast, a slump is where output falls
lY by at least 10% - as in Finland in the early 1990s; a depression is an even
a, deeper and more prolonged slump - such as that now being experienced in
le Indonesia. Indonesia's economy shrank by 14% last year, and output may fall
by a further 4% this year. In the Great Depression of the early 1930s America's
19 output fell by 30%.
to But the word "depression" should be used sparingly. A world recession is
Possible this year, but surely not a depression. In the 19th century, downturns
al were more often called depressions, but the term got a bad name in the 1930s
a and "recession" was coined(3). That relabelling may not be the last. Alfred
I) Kahn, one of Jimmy Carter's economic advisers, was once rebuked by the
;d p~esident for scaring people by talking of looming recession. Mr Kahn, in
id hl~ next speech, substituted the word banana for recession. Today's writers
is might copy his approach, and start fretting that Brazil has left us on the verge
of as' enous banana.
Economist, Jan. 23, 1999

)s
is
y.
80

1. Анализ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. Статья опубликована в рубрике (occasiona! series) "Beating the


Jargon". Что такое jargon и почему эта категория лексики, как ясно
из названия рубрики, может рассматриваться как отрицатеЛЬНОе
явление? Почему эта рубрика появилась в журнале, посвященном
вопросам экономики?
2. Как можно охарактеризовать стиль изложения в данной стать е?
Как он меняется на протяжении всего текста?
3. Найдите в тексте синонимы рассматриваемым в статье терминам
(depression, recession, slump). При переводе текста обращайте вн и­
мание на терминологическую точность в их передаче .

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. Что означает термин correction? Как его выбор связан с отношен и­


ем говорящего к соседу? Какой русский эквивалент с этой точ к и
зрения представляется наиболее приемлемым?
2. О какой войне идет речь в предложении (2)? Как в связи с эт им
точнее передать сочетание post-war?
3. О каких событиях 1930-х годов идет речь в предложении (3)? Как
отразить эту информацию в пер,еводе?

1.3. Частные языковые трудности

1. На чем основана игра слов в заголовке статьи?


2. Является ли слово doomology термином или авторским (окказио ­
нальным) образованием? Что оно означает? Предлагая вариан ты
его перевода, проанализируйте упражнение 2.1. и предложите ва­
рианты передачи выделенных слов,

3. Что в данном контексте означает сочетание market in smth.? Что в


данном случае о значает gloom? Чтобы лучше уяснить связь ме жд у
первыми тремя предложениями, проверьте значение фразеологиз­
ма doom and gloom.
4. К какому существительному относится определение duller в соче­
тании the duller textbook definition?
5. Как можно перевести сочетание declining output с учетом того, что
Описывается процесс? Выбирая возможны е в арианты , проана ли З J1-
руйте упражнение 2,2. и предложите варианты передачи фрагме!-l­
тов, содержащих вы деленные сочетания.
6. При переводе предложения (1) обратите внимание на вид русского
глагола, выбранного как эквивалент глагола (о rise. Как измен итСЯ
Смысл предложения в зависимости от того, какой вид глагола бу­
дет выбран?
~.UI ______________________________________________
81

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he? To the thinly concealed glee of the British polocracy the high point of
1.
the polo calendar [the Cartier International Polo day] attracted the one
hot new celebrity that no amount of money can buy: Prince William.
(W.T., Jul. 28- Aug. 3, 99)
2. Turkey and Iran can't really be described as failed states, and the rule of
Iran's mullocracy, now much loathed by most Iranians, arose not from
some deep religious rage but from a modern revolutionary movement,
supported initially by many Iranians who were not especially religious.
(N.Y., Jun. 14, 04)
fU !-
3. In the cradle of democracy [Athens] thousands of South Africans
!KH
struggled yesterday to vote in their first election that abolishes the
pigmentocracy of apartheid. (G., Apr. 27, 94)
HM
4. Interest groups of any kind clog Washington offices, seeking not to lobby
politically but also to advance their issues in the media. They buy TV ads
to get public opinion behind these issues, then commission polls to prove
that public opinion is behind their issue, then they thwack these polls on
the desk of quaking congressmen, who must toe the generally supported
line or face the consequences at election time. Many Americans long to
curb mediocracy with some kind of reform. (E., Aug. 29, 98)
5. Anniversaries have their uses . They make good copy for the media.
10 - Politicians can play statesmen in telegenic locations. But is there any
Th] deep point for jubilee-itis? In June 1994, are we making too much fuss
Ba- about D-Day? (lnd., Jun. 3, 94)
6. The education secretary, Charles Clark, has failed to cure his department's
) B
"initiative-itis", the Tories said last night as they released a list showing
llY how it has issued one policy announcement a week since he took office.
,13-
(G., Jun. 12, 03)
7.
Higher education is not alone in its obsession with money. As BBC's
le- prodUcers calculate the likely cost of sticky tape and light bulbs for
their next series, hospital consultants sweat ov~r their predictions of
how many ingrow n toenails they will excise in 1998, and at what price.
Cashitis, or inflam mation of the wallet, is now a national disease. (lnd.,
8. Sep. 11,97) .
During 2005 the average American household tuned in to TV for eight
.ro hours and 11 minutes per day - a daily sit-a -thon that was 2.7 per
'c!l cent longer than the previous year, 12.5 per cent longer t~an ten yea~s
>Y- ago, and, for good measure, the longest reported since Nielsen Media
Research began monitoring such things in the 1950s. (T., Apr. 18,06)
82

9. The planet's largest annual trade show, photo op and schmoozathon,


Cannes [Film Festival] this year welcomes movies from Cambodia and
Korea, Hungary and Kurdish Iraq. (Time, May 30, 05)
10. So perturbed is Mr Blair that he has summoned New Labour's brightest
Ministers and sharpest pointy-heads to spend this weekend with him and
Bill Clinton at a hotel in Buckinghamshire where they will ponder how
to rescue social democracy. A paper for Mr Blair's wonkathon prepared
by Anthony Giddens, the professor of the Third Way, argues that centre.
Left governments are being toppled because of 'an inability to modernise
I enough.' This is the standard Blarite analysis. (Obs., Jun. 9, 02)
11. "Los Angeles Plays Itself" is a one-of-a-kind documentary -
I a rumination on the ways in which "the most photographed city in the
world" has appeared in the movies. Director Thorn Andersen covers
the gamut from disaster flicks to crime thrillers, hippie freak-a-thons,
avant-garde, even porn. (New York, Jul. 26- Aug. 2, 04)
12. It became increasingly hard to support him [George Michael] in public
as he schmoozed with [Princess] Diana and joshed with Elton, taking
his place in pop's smug chariterati. (G., Apr. 8, 98)
13. Harlem was then the most vibrant spot in America. It its speakeasies
celebrities danced the nights away to the music of the likes of Willie
(the Lion) Smith, Fats Wailer and Duke Ellington, and its "New Negro"
poets, novelists and dramatists, the mockingly self-styled niggerati,
were the literary rage. (E., Aug. 29, 98)
14. People who grew up hating their school uniforms are now going out
to buy new ones to visit such shrines as the nightclub School Disco
and its ilk. For a supposed nation of non-conformists, we British just
cannot resist identifying ourselves as members of a tribe, even if only
on a night out. The military look has long been favoured. The Sixties
abounded with fashionable shops selling ex-service togs to the new
poperati. Sgt. Pepper remains the most famous psychedelic platoon
shot of all. (Ind., Apr. 19, 02)

2.2. np~4aCnlJR ~ np~l1araTel1bHble B cpaBH~Tel1bHoliI


CTeneH~ KaK cnoc06 0603Ha4eH~R npOl~ecca

1. Ours is the age, among other things, of the automobile and of the
rocketing population. (A. Huxley)
2. The widening net of immunisation and better primary health care are
improving the lives of children in developing countries, while growi ng
violence in industrial societies is leading to a worsening in their security,
according to a United Nations report published yesterday. (F.T., Jun. 22, 94)
3. David Cutler, a leading health economist at Harvard University,
concludes that about a third of the future growth in medical spending
by the U.S. will be due to an ageing population, with the rest resulting
from a continuation of the trend toward greater medical spending at
each age on new equipment and procedures. (B.W., Mar. 22, 04)
ypoKN2~~~______________________________________________
83
:.:--
I, Microsoft's chief financial officer, an instigator of recent cost-cutting
4.
d drive, is to quit the company. Mr Connors presided over sweeping
financial changes in the past two years as the software giant grappled
;t with slowing growth and demands from Wall Street for greater
d fin ancial accou ntability. (F.T. Jan. 12, 05)
N The best protection against the global warming is global prosperity.
5.
d Wealthier, healthier people are better able to deal with higher
fo od prices, or invest in new farming techniques, or move to another
city or country, than poor ones. (E., Nov. 27, 10)
6. Global warming looms, in many people's minds, as one ofthe biggest
threats facing the planet. Rising temperatures are capable of causing
le great economic harm - though a lot depends not just on how big future
rs rises prove to be but also on how quickly they happen. (E., May 1, 04)
s, 7. Gordon Brown appealed to parents, web service providers and media
regulators to work together to stop children watching pornography and
le violence on the internet. Stricter controls and more effective filtering
Ig are likely to be proposed in a review into whether new rules are needed
on the advertising and sale of some products to youngsters. (T., Sep. 5,
~s 07)
le 8. Some might even ask if the new countries are wise to be joining
such a troubled club [the European Union]. Fortunately, their arrival
ri, should change it for the better. Their economics are relatively small,
but all are growing faster than existing members'. That means bigger
ut and m ore dynamic markets for Europe's companies. And lower
;0 wages, benefits and taxes of the new countries are also good, not bad
st for Europe. As with all competition, they offer a powerful stimulus to
ly existing members to renew efforts to cut costs, trim benefits and reform
es economies. (E., May 1, 04)
:W 9. Home office criminologists say that r ising consumer spending and
)n grow ing numbers of young men are putting immense upward pressure
on the crime rate and could bring a dramatic end to the record six-year
fall in crime figures. (G., Nov. 30, 99)
10. East Asia's plunging currencies and shrinking economic growth
prospects result in a new wave of exports to the United States, increasing
political pressures for protectionist measures, analysts in the region
and U.S. officials said Monday. (LH.T., Nov. 25, 97)
11. The involvement of tenants in design and management of their own
housing can save money by leading to improved maintenance, fewer
void properties, less rent losses and reduced vandalism. (Ind., May
27,93) )
12. Having sent a questionnaire to pupils last year, asking them what
improvements they would like to see in their schools, Mr A\1ege [French
EducationMinister] is under pressure to deliverreforms. Smaller classes,
mor e teachers, improved working conditions, a shorte~ ~i~e~able,
better-eq uipped science laboratories and a greater fleXibility In the
choice of options are what the teenagers want. (Ind., Qct. 10, 98)
84

YpoK12

FOR THE BUSY FAITHFUL,


THE GREATEST STORY EVER TOLD - IN 100 MINUTES

By Ed Vulliamy
They may be the words of the Lord(1). But there are simply too many of them
for the modern attention span. That, at least, was the reasoning behind the
launch yesterday of a more "user-friendly" edition of the great work.
The WO-minute Bible was published at the cradle and headquarters
of British Christianity, Canterbury cathedral. It is a 57-page pocket-sized
edition, the latest in the long and often turbulent legacy of the Holy Book,
from Hebrew through Greek and Latin to Martin Luther, the glorious King
James edition and various recent English translations(2). Entire cycles of
frescos by medieval and renaissance painters may have derived from a few
poetic sentences in the Bible, but the harsh reality of modernity suggests
people just do not have the time to concentrate on the book any more(3).
The man who had the responsibility for condensing the Bible was the
Rev Dr Michael Hinton, who spent two years on the task. "We have sacrificed
poetry to clarity," Mr Hinton told people attending the launch. "Those who
want a sense of the glorious poetry in the Bible will have to look elsewhere, but
anyone who wants a sense of the story and the argument will find it here.(4)
"This is a gateway to the Bible for everybody. We have to face the fact we
live in an overwhelmingly secular society and must do all we can to present
people with the story and what Christianity is about."
The Bible is summarised in elegant prose, without slang, and is not split
into testaments. The Gospels are, said Mr Hinton, "central to the document,"
with the Old Testament dealt with chronologically, "incorporating the
prophetic books into the story and dealing with a few books such as Psalms
separately." They and Moses get a page each, for instance, as do the crucifixion
and resurrection(S).
The publisher of the book, Len Budd, a former chairman of the deanery at
Canterbury, said: "Is it a dumbing down of the Bible? Yes, but that's the world
today. Although we as Christians love the Bible it is very user-unfriendly.
People just don't have time to read it. If this book means more people can
answer pub quiz questions on the Bible, so much the better."(6)
It was "not an evangelical document," he said, but a version aimed at
"interested outsiders," espeCially "young people who, quite honestly, don't
know anything about the Bible, the story, or Christianity at all."(7) He added
that it had been written in a style to encourage page turning but lacked
"literary gimmicks".
Tony Washington, a youth officer for the cathedral diocese, said he
hoped the new edition would "open the door for young people who these dayS
just don't get to know the story."
Guardian, Sep. 22, 2005
85

1. Днаnиз текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. О каком событии идет в речь в статье? Чем было продиктовано из­


дание такой версии Библии? Как к нему относятся упоминаемые
в статье лица? Каковы плюсы и минусы этого издания? Почему оно
охарактеризовано как lOO-тinutе? Проявляет ли автор статьи свое
отношение к этому событию и каким образом?
2. Какую тенденцию в мировой культуре отражает выход этой кни­
ги? Найдите в тексте слова и выражения, на которых вы основыва­
ете свое мнение .

3. Как вы понимаете заголовок статьи? Что означает и откуда проис-


~ ходит выражение the greatest story ever told?
f 4. Проанализируйте структуру первого абзаца. Почему автор начи­
нает статью именно так? Чье мнение он выражает в первых двух
предложениях?

1.2. (вязь с широким контекстом

1. Какова роль Библии в западной культуре (не только религиозной)?


Найдите в тексте фрагменты, слова и выражения, указывающие на
эту роль. Какие выражения использует автор статьи для указания
на Библию (помимо слова Bible)? Какие русские слова и выражения
можно использовать в переводе, чтобы избежать излишних повто­
ров слова «Библия»?
t 2. В процессе перевода обратите особое внимание на корректную пе­
редачу религиозной (в том числе библейской) лексики : Gospels, Old
Testaтent, Psalтs, prophetic books, Moses, deanery, diocese и т. д.
При необходимости обратитесь к специализированным словарям и
1
другим источникам 8 , а также к самому тексту Библии .
3. Что такое Canterbury cathedra!? Почему этот объект назван the
t
cradle and headquarters o/British Christianity? Кто такой Archblshop
:1
о/ Canterbury?
'. 4. Что имеется в виду под выражением long and often turbulent legacy
1
о/ the Holy Book в предложении (2)? Наведите справки об истории
переводов Библии . Что такое King Jaт es edition и почему эта вещь
.t
сопровождается определением glorious? Най д ите основную энци­
't
Клопедическую информацию о человеке пб имени Martin Luther.
:i
В какой связи он упоминается в этом контексте?
:i 5. Какое противоречие содержится в предложен ии (3)? О каком виде
ИСКУСства идет речь в этом предложении и почему?
е

е 8 См. , !lаnример, Ермолови'l Д.И. Англо-русск и й И русско -англи йский словарь


5 р ЛИГИОЗнои и ВОзвышенной л ексики . - М. : Р.Валент, 2004.
86 YpOK~

6. Найдите информацию о человеке по имени Michael Hinton. Что оз­


начают предшествующие его имени слова Rev и Dr? Как подобная
информация выражается по-русски?
7. Найдите информацию о человеке по имени Len Budd и его дея­
тельности. Что означает chairman 0/ the deanery? В чем суть этой
должности?
8. Что такое рuЬ quiz? Какое отношение это мероприятие имеет к
теме данной статьи?
9. В чем заключается работа человека по имени Топу Washington?

1.3. Частные языковые трудности

1. Обратите внимание на модальный глагол mау в предложениях (1) и


(3). В каком значении он здесь употреблен? Какими средствами рус­
ского языка можно выразить то же значение? Прежде чем опреде­
литься с окончательными вариантами перевода этих предложений,
проанализируйте упражнение 1.2. и предложите варианты синтак­
сического оформления предложений с выделенными словами.
2. Что означает и из какой сферы пришло словосочетание attention
span? Какие черты в образе современного человека подчеркивает
употребление этого выражения?
3. Что означает и из какой сферы пришло прилагательное user-(un)
/riendly? Какой стилистический эффект создает его употребление
в этом контексте? Какими средствами русского языка можно вос­
произвести этот эффект впереводе?
4. Является ли во второй части сложного предложения (3) подлежа­
щее (reality) агентом действия и, если нет, какую фактическую
функцию оно выполняет?9 Сформулируйте и рассмотрите вариан­
ты перевода, в которых русский эквивалент сочетания harsh reaZity
не будет занимать в предложении позицию группы подлежащего.
Проанализируйте в этой связи упражнение 2.2. С тех же самых по­
зиций разберите первую часть сложного предложения (6).
5. Как вы понимаете смысл слова argument в данном контексте?
Уточните значение этого слова в толковом английском словаре
и соотнесите его с содержанием Библии.
6. При переводе предложения (4) и предложений, предшествующих
ему и следующиХ за ним, обратите внимание на оформление пря­
мой речи. Уточните правила оформления в русском языке прямой
речи, разделенной словами автора, а также прямой речи, охватыва­
ющей более одного абзаца. Чем они отличаются от правил оформ­
ления прямой речи в подобных случаях в английском языке?
7. Уточните в английском толковом словаре значение слова
overwheZmingZy. Подумайте над различными синтаКСическими ва-

9 См.: Бузаджи Д . М. Структуры и связи . Еще раз о роли синтаксиса впереводе //


Мосты N2 2(18)/2008 [электронныи ресурс]. - Режим доступа: http://www.thinkaloud.ru/
feature/buz-syntax.pdf.
ypoKN::J2~~__________________________________________~87
;..:..--

риантами оформления русского варианта, передающего смысл со­


четания overwhelmingly secular.
Как вы понимаете смысл выражения to Ье аЬоu! в рамках фрагмен­
8.
та what Christianity is about? Прежде чем определиться с оконча­
тельным вариантом перевода этого предложения, проанализируйте

упражнение 2.3. и предложите варианты передачи выделенных слов.


9. Как вы понимаете смысл слова elegant в данном контексте? Про­
верьте его значение в английском толковом словаре и проанализи­
руйте его употребление в аутентичных текстах в сочетании с таки­
ми словами, как prose.
10. Как бы вы описали тональность предложения (5)? Прокомменти­
руйте использование оборота get а page each в контексте библей­
ских событий и персоналиЙ.
11. Что означает dumbing down (to dumb down)? Найдите оригинальные
современные английские тексты, содержащие эти слова, и проана­
лизируйте типичные контексты их употребления.
12. Как вы понимаете смысл словосочетания evangelical document в
этом контексте? Уточните в толковом английском словаре значе­
ние cfIoBa evangelical. Проанализируйте нюансы его употребления
в английских оригинальных текстах (в том числе не имеющих от­
ношения к религии). В чем смысл противопоставления (but) в пред­
ложении (7)?
13. Как вы понимаете смысл слова gimmick в этом контексте? Уточните
значение этого слова (а также слова gimmicky) в английском толко­
в ом словаре. При необходимости проанализируйте нюансы употре­
бления этого слова в нетехнических контекстах.

2. Уп ражнения

2.1. Глагол mау в уступительном значении

1. The Celestica пате mау not теап much to уои but as опе ofthe largest
electronics manufacturing services (EMS) companies in the world ,
апуопе who uses а computer or апу other electronic gizmo needs its
products to make the equipment work. (G., Nov. 24, 01)
2. Mr. Fischer [а musician] mау not have Ьееп а househo!d пате, but the
respect he earned across а broad musica! spectrum was evident in а flurry
of Twitter posts that foJlowed the news of his <jeath. (NYT, Feb. 2, 12).
3. Honesty mау well Ье the best policy, but it often deserts us when по опе IS
watching, psychologists report today. Experiments with ап honesty ~юх to
collect payments for hot drinks revea! that реор!е are better at paYlllg ир
when under the watchfu! gaze of а pair of eyes. (G., Jun. 28, 06)
4. Voters mау say that they oppose big government, but t~e ~rograms t~at
actually dominate federa! spending _ Medicare, Меdlсюd and Sосшl
Security _ are very popu!ar. So how сап the public Ье persuaded to
accept large spending cuts? (NYT, Feb. 21 , 10)
88 Yp01{11

5. "Do you know how many children there are in care under the age of one?
3,660. And how many children under the age of one were adopted in Our
country last year? Sixty. This may not seem like the biggest issue facing
our country, but it is the biggest issue for these children." (G., Oct. 5, 11)
6. La Fucina, which opened in the Portuenese neighbourhood in southern
Rome in 20q9, serves pizza a degustazione. That is, patrons each order a
pizza and the pies arrive pre-sliced one at a time so diners can share. This
may not seem like a revolutionary concept, but it completely diverges
from the traditional Italian approach of each person ordering his or her
own personal pizza, which arrive at the same time, unsliced. (g.co.uk,
Jul. 13, 11)
7. The Red Cross counted only 125 dead from the 13 sites it confirmed,
with 53 of those found in a hangar near Tripoli's airport. While the
rebels may not have died in the numbers their side has claimed, there is
no doubt that many were killed, often horribly, after having been taken
prisoner. (N.Y.T., Sep. 16, 11)
8. Celebrities may be fond of choosing adventurous monickers for their
offspring but most British parents are still opting for solid, old-fashioned
names, according to a survey released yesterday. For the ninth year in
a row Jack was the favourite boys' name while Chloe was the most
popular for girls for the sixth successive year. (G., Jan. 1,04) .
9. Our experience is that while New Yorkers may not be the smiliest bunch,
they are ready, even eager, to assist a stranger. (N.Y.T., Jan. 30, 12)
10. Tecumseh [a great American Indian leader] may have failed to build a
grand pan-Indian confederation, his life may have been cut short, his
actions may have led directly to war and to the deaths of many innocent
people on both sides. Yet who would not say that he had made the nobler
choice? (N.Y.T., Apr. 19, 98)

2.2. nOAne>Kal1.\He C 06cToflTenbcTBeHHblM 3Ha4eHHeM


(suggest, mean)
1. It's not so grim up north for many of England's wild birds, with new
figures suggesting that some populations there are faring well, despite
the overall UK decline in numbers. (g.co.uk, Sep. 22, 11)
I I 2. Kevin Friery, clinical director at employee assistance provider Right
Corecare, says: "One of the myths about work is that people are mostly
motivated by money. If this were true, the current squeeze on pay would
be accompanied by lower performance and engagement at work, yet the
evidence suggests this is not what is happening." He believes people are
just as motivated to do their jobs well because, in the absence of pay,
work still (largely) provides a place where people can use their skills,
judgment and expertise. (g.co.uk, Oct. 11, 11)
3. News broke on Thursday night that physicists working in a lab under a
mountain in Italy have been getting some truly extraordinary results.
For the past three years, they have been recording the arrival times of
neutrinos sent by the Cern particle physics laboratory 730km away, and
ypoKN:.--2Jiji~__________________________________________~8~9
:-:--

ne? their data suggest the subatomic particles are travelling through the
OUr Earth faster than the speed oflight. (g.co.uk, Sep. 23, 11)
mg 4. Beginners [a film] , as its title suggests, is about that favourite
11) American theme of new starts, of reshaping the self, of embark ing on
ern fresh adventures after crises and life-changing experiences, and it is
~r a apparently closely autobiographical. (Obs. , Jul. 24, 11)
his 5. Research suggests that poor and middle-class Nigerians pay
ges proportionally more in taxes than the rich and big corporations. Urgent
her action is needed from the Nigerian government and the international
uk, community to change this unsustainable situation. (g.co.uk, Oct. 11 , 11)
6. Rapid growth in world trade means that the [Panama] canal is suffering
ed, congestion. (E., Oct. 21,06)
the 7. Mr Dobson apologised and said the computer failure meant his statement
~ is could not be typed up. (Ind., Nov. 14, 98)
~en 8. More than a million pounds will be spent this year on organic meat,
fruit and vegetables as consumers increasingly shun food additives
eir for healthier alternatives. The trend has spread to country pubs and
led metropolitan brassieres, where organic dishes are among the more
in expensive items on the menu. The quest for a healthier lifestyle means
ost most people are willing to pay extra. (Obs., Jun. 9, 02)
9. We [humans] are the only species which extracts resources from the
ch, ground via mining or quarrying. Failing to curb our enthusiasm for just
about all earth's resources, including fresh water, fish stocks and virgin
j a forests, means that between 10 and 30 per cent of the world's species
his face extinction. (Obs., Apr. 12, 05)
~nt 10. For some Russians, the idea of reform is unsettling. Ludmila Svirova,
ler 50, and her husband, Andrei, a retired military engineer, have a monthly
income equivalent to $448, and they worry that any reform of government
services will mean higher prices. (I.R.T., Mar. 13- 14, 04)

2.3. KOHTeKcTyanbHble 3Hal.JeHIIIR Bblpa>KeHIIIR


~w
to be about
ite
1. The relaxed Spanish style of home-dining is tak ing over from formal
~ht
dinner parties in Britain: it's all about s\ mplicity. Friends and family of
tly all ages get together for lazy weekend lunf hes, where lively conversation
!Id and a sense of togetherness are the main ingredients. (g.co.uk, act.
he 15, 11) . .
Ire
2. It's October. Up and down the country, thousands of CyC~l stS ~re bemg
struck with nausea dizziness, shortness ofJt:,reath, burnmg lImbs and
l Y,
Is, blurred vision. Thi; is not some weirdly selective early winter ~irus .- all
these symptoms are self-inflicted. October is the month for h Il I clImbs
ra
and sUffering is what hill climbs are all a bout. (g.co.uk, Oct. 11, 11)
3. Government is all about statistics. But life is about peopl~, .and the
ts.
disjunction between the two explains a lot about the cymclsm and
of
nd disaffection with politics. (g.co.uk, Oct. 11, 11)
90

4. The first few weeks at university are all about being thrown together with
a hotchpotch of people, and this show [TV series], Fresh Meat, is good at
getting that across. We see an assortment of first years arriving in their
shared house, making those awkward introductions. (g.co.uk, Oct. 09, 11)
5. "For years, Chilean youth have been consumed by a neo-liberal model
that highlights personal achievement and consumerism; it is all about
mine, mine, mine. There is not a lot of empathy for the other," said
Vallejo [Camila Vallejo, a Chilean youth activist] in her office, decorated
with a large photograph ofKarl Marx. (g.co.uk, Oct. 08, 11)
6. It's all about photons. Two main things determine what you can learn
from a new telescope array such as the Alma telescope in Chile. How many
photons will it collect, and what is their wavelength? (g.co.uk, Oct. 03, 11)
7. The company [Unilever, a multinational producer of foodstuffs and
cleaning and personal care products] has also set itself some stretching
targets. By 2020 it aims to help more than a billion people take action to
improve their health and wellbeing, halve the environmental footprint of
its products, source 100% of its agricultural raw materials sustainably,
and link more than half a million smallholder farmers and small-scale
distributors to its supply chain. The billion people target is not just
about reaching people with socially beneficial products such ·as soap,
toothpaste and safe drinking water. It is about helping people to change
their behaviour so that healthy habits such as brushing teeth twice a day
become part of everyday living. (g.co.uk, Oct. 05, 11)
8. September's Moscow Festival of Food, held in Gorky Park, was a perfect
example. Some 12,000 Muscovites, mostly well-heeled professionals
rather than the super-rich, gathered to sample local beers, smoked duck
breasts, and cheeses. Alexei Zimin, editor of a food magazine called
Afisha Yeda that has become a bible for middle-class Muscovites, gave
cooking master classes in an open-air kitchen. The festival was all about
quality rather than quantity, about how to make the best of simple things,
about joining the food culture of the world. It was about having a great,
civilized life on a normal, professional salary - and that you don't have to
be an oligarch to enjoy the finer things in life. (Nsw., Nov. 14, 11)
9. In May 2009 UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown invited Dame
Stephanie Shirley to become the UK Ambassador for Philanthropy,
a position that she held for a year but which was not renewed by the
Coalition government that came to power in May 2010. In March 201 0
the web site AmbassadorsForPhilanthropy.com was launched. Over the
last few months, people all over the world have been receiving an email
inviting them to become ambassadors for philanthropy. Many have nO
idea what it is all about. (Alliance, Jan. 1, 12)
10. My housemate the actuary turned to me a few nights ago and announced
that he wanted to get into poetry, but he was afraid he wouldn't understand
what it was all about. At school, he explained, they were always talking
about what poetry meant. What did he need to know, he asked, to be able
to understand it? (litro.co.uk, Jan. 22, 12)
91

TO YOU, IT'S M S WAGNER

By Erica Wagner

Sorry, do I know you? I stare at the letter on my desk, racking my brains.


"Dear Erica," it begins, and proceeds to ask me for a job. I scrutinise the
accompanying Cv. There is nothing on it - no place or person - that I
recognise, but surely a stranger wouldn't address me by my first name? Ms
Wagner, yes, Erica Wagner, OK too, but just "Erica"? Easy to imagine the
addition "01' buddy, 01' pal". Hmmm.
It's not that I feel the need to stand on ceremony, don't get me wrong.
Charles Dickens, who would have referred to his own wife as "Mrs Dickens"
(yes, even ifhe' d liked her) was so startled when a dinner guest referred to her
by her first name that he leapt from the table, lay on the floor and waggled his
legs in the air with astonishment (memo to self: next time feel need to express
astonishment, try this)<1).
But I like to know where I stand, and in general the people who call
my firs t name are the people who know me well, and the people who call m e
something else - Ms Wagner, Erica Wagner, or Oil You! - are people with
whom I am rather less familiar, so to speak. But perhaps not for much longer.
The Times 's venerated expert on such matters of decorum, Philip Howard,
assures me I am making a fuss over nothing. "IT DOES NOT MATTER," he
types in capital letters in response to my plaintive e-mail. "What matters is
what they are trying to tell you. One should address people as they wish to
be addressed." The trouble with this advice, of course, is knowing just how
that might be - as Mr Howard, or Phil to his friends , well knows . He points
out that many "older women" (draw the line where you like) detest "Ms", for
instance - but just how to know if they are Miss or Mrs? Or Dr? Or Prof?
He speculates that the cult of first-naming origin ated in the US; as a
native, I am forced, reluctantly, to agree. Certainly we had those "Hello! My
name is:" stickers before you chappies did, and I don't imagine the inventors
intended anyone to write in "Miss Smith" or "H. Jones, Esq." in the blank
space. The advantage of first-naming is that everybody is, presumably, equal
(something we Americans like to think we know a lot about)<2).
So when the Prime Minister talks to "John" on the Today programme,
he is letting us know that, despite the grilling he's getting, afterwards he and
his questioner might just pop out for a latte to/ether - subtext: you're not
really serious, John. But note that John doesn't call his victim "Tony", thereby
letting us know that yes, he is indeed serious(3).
Of course, long gone are the days, and good thing too, of hus~ands and
Wives who might easily have fo rgotten each other's names and their partner
be none the wiser, and of friends who called each other "Wit hersp oon" or
"Fotherington" and appended "Mr" only for their tradesmen.
92 YpO l<11

And naming rituals could get even more obscure. Simon Winchester, in 5
his new book The Map That Changed the World - about Michael Smith and
the first geological map - tells of fossil-hunting when he was a schoolboy c
and being educated by the Sisters of the Blessed Order of Visitation.
The sisters' regime forbade the use of names, so little Simon was 'i
simply "46", like a character in the television series The Prisoner; to this day
there are boys whose numbers he remembers, but not their names. I'm not
sure that's the way forward.
But all the same, Tony's "John" always grates on my nerves a little, just
like "Dear Erica" from a stranger. It's not a question of requiring respect; it's a
question of presuming a closeness that doesn't exist.
My tendency is to err on the side of formality and be pleasantly surprised.
The first time I spoke to the late Anthony Storr on the telephone, I addressed
the eminent psychiatrist and writer as "Professor Storr". "Oh!" he laughed.
"I am not a professor! Just plain doctor! And please - call me Anthony!"
Times, Jun. 14, 2001

1. AHanlll3 TeKCTa

1.1. TeMa, IIIAeH III o6~aH cTpaTerlllH nepeBoAa

1. 0POPMYJIllPYHTe TeMY CTaTbll. HaCKOJIbKO cymecTBeHHbIM YKa3aHll-


eM Ha perllCTp 06meHll}! II oTHOIIIeHll}! rOBOp}!mllX }lBJI}lIOTC}l cjJOPMbI
06pameHll}l? I10qeMY aBTop CTaTbI1 06pamaeTC}! K :nOH TeMe? YKa-
)KllTe MeCTa B TeKCTe, r).l;e rOBOpI1TC}! 0 ee Ba)KHOCTI1.
2. KaKoBa TOQKa 3peHI1}! aBTopa CTaTbI1 Ha paCCMaTpI1BaeMYIO TeMY? YKa-
)KI1Te MeCTa BTeKCTe, r).l;e aBTop rrp}!MO BbIpa)KaeT CBoe OTHOIIIeHI1e KHeH.
3. KaK MO)KHO oxapaKTepll30BaTb CTI1JIb cTaTbll? O).l;HOpO).l;Ha JIll ee CTll-
JIllCTllKa llJII1 MeH}!eTC}I no XO).l;y rroBecTBOBaHI1}1?

1.2. CBfl3b C WIllPOKIIIM KOHTeKCTOM

1. lIeM BbI3BaHa oroBopKa: Yes, even if he'd liked her B npe).l;JIO)KeHI1JI (I)?
2. HaBe).l;llTe crrpaBKH 06 aBTope ).l;aHHoH CTaTbH H yrroMHHaeMoM B Hell
)KypHaJIHCTe rro I1MeHH Philip Howard. I103HaKoMbTeCb C pa3).l;eJIOM 1
rrpHJIO)KeHH}! (oTBeT yrrOM}!HYToro )KypHaJIHCTa Ha Borrpoc O).l;HOrO H3
QHTaTeJIeH).
3. lITo 03HaQaIOT cjJOpMbI 06pameHH}I Miss, Mrs, Ms? I10QeMY, rro CJIO-
BaM aBTopa CTaTbH, "older women detest Ms" ? B CB}l3H C QeM rro-
}IBHJIaCb :na cjJopMa 06pameHH}!, KaK OHa yrroTpe6JI}!eTC}I 11 C QeM OHa
aCCOll,HHpyeTC}!?
4. lITo TaKoe "Hello! My name is" stickers H B KaKHX CHTya.ll,ll}lX OHJ1
yrroTpe6JI}lIOTC}!? KaK B CB}!3H C 3THM MO)KeT rrepe).l;aBaTbC}! rrpHBeT-
CTBHe Hello!?
ypoKN_2.ug------------------------____________________~93
;..:.---

Что обозначает сокращение Esq. и в каких обстоятельствах оно


5.
употребляется?

6. Наведите справки о программе Today и ее ведущем и о сериале The


Prisoner.
Почему премьер -министр Великобритании получил прозвище
7.
"Call Ме Топу" Blair? Насколько широко используется практика
обозначения первых лиц государства в прессе уменьшительными
именами в Великобритании и США?

8. Наведите справки об упоминаемой в статье книге "The Мар That


Changed the World". Какую неточность допускает автор статьи, го­
воря о ее содержании? Следует ли отражать эту неточность в пере­
воде или внести поправку? Обоснуйте свое решение.
9. Наведите справки об упоминаемом в последнем абзаце человеке по
имени Anthony Storr. Какое значение в этом абзаце имеют слова
doctor и professor?

1.3. Частные языковые трудности

1. Подберите соответствующие описанным в тексте ситуациям экви­


валенты речевых формул Do 1 know уои? и Dear Erica. Каким реги­
страм общения они соответствуют? Каковы русские эквиваленты
этих формул?
2. Как передать малоизвестную читателям форму обращения Ms?
Укажите , где в тексте ее передача необходима, а где она может
быть опущена или заменена. В случ ае ее передачи обдумайте, ка­
кие существуют способы пояснения этого слова и связанных с ним
ассоциаций. Обратите внимание на неприемлемость сочетания
в одном тексте англоязычной и русской традиций обращения (<<ми­
стер », «миссис», «мисс» - «господин», «госпожа»).
3. Какие ассоциации вызывает выражение Оnе should address people
as they wish to Ье addressed? Как отразить эти ассоциации в перево ­
де? Предлагая варианты перевода, проанализируйте упражнение
2.1 .10 и предложите варианты передачи фрагментов, содержащих
выделенные сочетания.
4. Кому адресовано обращение chappies? Насколько употребительно
слово chap (chappy) в американском и британском вариантах ан­
глийского языка в настоящее время?
5. Обратите внимание на авторскую оценку в предложении (2). Со­
гласна или не согласна автор статьи с содержащиМОО: в нем утверж­
дением? Какими средствами выражается ее отношение и как от­
разить его впереводе?
6. Чему уподобляется ситуация интервью в абзаце (3)? Какие лекси­
чеСКие единицы создают эту развернутую метафору? Прежде чем

10 СМ.: l<Люкина т.п. Особенности употребления и перевода английс~их и рус­


ских библеИЗМQВ // столпотворение N 8/9. - М.: Вагриус, 2003 [электронныи ресурс].
- Режим ДОСТУпа: http://www.thinkaloud.ru/science/klyuk-bibl.doc.
94 Ypo ~~

orrpe~eJIHTbC51 c OKOHqaTeJIbHbIM BapHaHToM rrepeBo~a : n oro a63aJ~a ,


rrpOaHaJIH3Hpyi;iTe yrrpa)l(HeHHe 2.2. H rrpe~JIQ)KHTe BapffaHTbI rrepeBo_
~a rrpe~JIO)l(eHHH, co~ep)J{aUl,HX BbI~eJIeHHble CJIOBa H COqeTaHH5I.
7. KaKHe aCCOUHaumf BbI3bIBaIOT I1MeHa Witherspoon , Fotherington?
B JIHTepaTypHbIX rrpoH3 Be~eHI151X KaKoH JIffTepaTypHoH Tpa~I1UI1I1
(cTpaHa, : m oxa) MO)J{HO BCTpeTI1Tb repoeB c rro~06HbIMI1I1MeHaMI1? lIc-
XO~51 113 : n oro, orrpe~eJII1Te, KaKoe 3HaqeHI1e I1MeeT CJIOBO tradesmen.
8. 06paTI1Te BHI1MaHl1e Ha MOP<POJIOrI1QeCKI1 pa3Hopo~Hble O~HOpO~H hle
QJIeHhI fossil-hunting 11 being educated. IIo~6I1pa51 BaprtaHTbI rrepe-
Bo~a, rrpOaHaJII1311pYHTe yrrpa)J{HeHl1e 2.3. 11 rrpe~JIo)J{I1Te Bapl1aHThI
rrpe~JIO)l(eHI1H , co~ep)l(aUl,Hx BbI~eJIeHHble COQeTaHI151.
9. LITO 03HaQaeT CJIOBO Visitation B Ha3BaHI1H the Blessed Order of
Visitation? K KaKoMY 6116JIeHCKoMY 3rr1130~y OHO OTHOCI1TC51 11 KaK 060-
3HaQaeTC51 )TO C06hITHe B rrpaBOCJIaBHOH Tpa~HUI1I1? HaCKOJIbKO cYUl,e-
CTBeHHO TOQHOe Ha3BaHI1e op~eHa ~JI5I co~ep)J{aHI151 CTaTbH 11 KaKl1e B
CB5I311 C 3THM B03MO)J{HbI Bapl1aHThI ero BocrrpoH3Be~eHI151 B rrepeBo~e?
10. KaKl1e QYBcTBa Bblpa)l(aeT Me)l(~OMeTl1e Oh! B rrOCJIe~HeM a63aQe? Ka-
KI1MI1 JIeKCI1QeCKI1MH cpe~CTBaMI1 pYCCKoro 513bIKa MO)J{HO rrepe~aTb Te
)J{e QYBcTBa?

2. Ynpa>KHeHIIUI

2.1. blll6J1elll3Mbl

1. In the beginning, the networks created television in their own image.


And Marshall McLuhan saw that it was good. The people did not know
the difference. The critics who did know were aghast but fecklessly
covered their eyes and typewriters. (H.M., Aug., 69)
2. We live in an apathetic age in which people are too scared or too stupid
to have an opinion about anything, for fear of being "offensive." To
these timid airheads, consumed with their own narcissistic and moral
"New Age" religions, healing crystals, astrology, and other primitive
hocus-pocus , the idea of having unswerving belief - well, one that
does not involve self-worship - is incomprehensible. They have but one
commandment: thou shalt not be judgmental. (T., Apr. 10, 04)
3. In the time of dinosaurs, mammals were the meek that had yet to inherit
the earth. They were small creatures, many no bigger than mice, and
essentially nocturnal, feeding mainly on insects and cowering in holes
and underbrush from the terrible tread of the reptilian lords of the land.
This lowly image of early mammals, supported by most fossil evidence
and long the reigning view of science, is not the whole truth. (LH.T.,
Jan. 13,05)
4. And thus it did come to pass that The Mummy [film] prospered, and
begat The Mummy Returns, wherein the crowds did rejoice at American
wrestling champion The Rock. The producers saw that it was good,
and upon this Rock did they build a spin-off, and The Scorpion King
____________________________________________~95
ypoKN=-2.~
;...:.---

was its name. And lo! the special effects did create an almighty chaos
of sorcery around The Rock, and righteously did he smite his enemies
for thus was it written: one sequel passeth away and another sequel
cometh. (lnd., Apr. 19,02)
5. Loving thy neighbor can be a lot harder to do when you live in one
of the deceptively cozy "twin" houses that are visibly proliferating in
Swiss countryside. Take the case of Robin Newmann, a former British
staff member of a Geneva-based international organization, and his
neighbor Martine Dromond, a Swiss teacher. For three years they shared
a semidetached house, which is called villa jumelle in French because
the two sides are usually identical. (W.S.J.E., Nov. 27-28, 98)
6. My son and daughter live and move and have their beings in that
windowless, clockless pleasure dome known as Las Vegas. I'm pleased
to report that in May, in a packed room at Binion's Horseshoe Casino in
downtown Vegas, they placed sixth and seventh in the seven-card stud
competition, the only sibling pair ever to reach the finals in the World
Series of Poker in the same game. (LH.T., Sep. 28, 98)
7. Bad spelling is a sensitive topic for a daily journalist. Typos are the
elements in which we slapdashers of print live, move and have our
bieng. (T., Mar. 13, 98)
8. The resulting trade imbalances will unwind themselves in later years
without the need for misguided policy interventions at the behest of
analysts who regard current account of deficits by English-speaking
countries as a sin against the Holy Ghost. (F.T., Nov. 20, 97)
9. Children do not live by education alone. The most popular [Web] sites
among the kids themselves include those about their favourite toys,
sentimental Hollywood movies and music. (E., Apr. 19,97)
10. Accompanied by the wailing and gnashing of teeth of its 15 regular
reviewers, the satellite powers that be have just announced the end of
Sky One's football soap Dream Team. After this series it will be no
more, its silly excesses deemed neither sufficiently silly nor excessive.
(D.T., Apr. 20, 06)
11. As I listened to Mr. Gaidar credibly extol Washington and Moscow for
"managing this first phase of NATO expansion without inflicting severe
damage to their strategic relationship," this puzzle occurred to me: He
sounds right. But then why is American influence on Russian actions
declining so precipitously? Have the Russians swallowed the camel to
choke on something else? (LH.T., Nov. 11, 97)
12. In our social relations, the race is not to the swift'but to the verbal.
(S. Pinker)

2.2. Pa3sepHYTble MeTa<l>opbl


1. Argentina's new president, Gen. Roberto Viola, who in .March climbed
into the saddle calmly vacated by an impeccable rider Gen. Jorge
Videla, is in danger of being overthrown. Argentina's economy has
96

been bucking like crazy: in four months, the value of the peso has
fallen by two thirds. (E., Ju!. 25, 81)
2. When Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado came to power two years ago,
Mexico was in deep trouble. Since then the technocrat-turned-president
has wrapped a tourniquet of austerity measures around Mexico's
hemorrhaging economy, reduced the country's deficits and inflation
and earned high marks from his creditors. (Nsw., Sep. 10,84)
3. Google and Yahoo!, once the outlaws and now marshals of the internet
wild west, are both working on video search engines. (T, Jun. 12,05)
4. Sport has long been part of television's premier league. Pay-TV
operators have seen rights to top sporting events as a sure-fire way to
attract subscribers. Yet difficulties in recouping the cost of bids for the
most popular events have thrown several media companies into the
financial sin-bin. (F.T., Feb. 22, 02)
5. Mr Corbett lost the seat by 187 in February; then seven months later won
by 485. He thanked the voters for his landslide, and five years later was
buried in what was less of a landslide and more of an avalanche. (G. ,
Apr. 2, 97)
6. With trade liberalization and global warming on the menu, one might
expect President Bill Clinton to take a break before heaping another
difficult-to-digest economic issue on his plate. In fact, the White
House is close to making a decision on whether to add Social Security to
his agenda. (LH.T., Oct. 24, 97)
7. The general [de Gaulle] arrived in power in 1958 amid sharpening East-
West conflict after the Soviet intervention in Hungary, the creation of
the Common Market and the loss of the French empire, culminating
in Algerian independence. Like many other astute leaders de Gaulle
drove his country into history while keeping the voters' eyes riveted
on the rearview mirror with his talk of "the greatness of France."
(I.H.T., May 7, 90)
8. To the cynical British observer there has always been something rather
creepy about America's ability to worship at the feet of rapacious,
egotistical industrialists. But, in spite of the cultural gulf, it's been difficult
not to admire the US for its ability to keep the gas pedal to the floor in
the industrial fast lane. In particular, its willingness to climb behind
the wheel after any crash or scrape. This, after all, is the nation that
views personal bankruptcy as a scar of capitalist war, to be flaunted with
a perverse form of pride, not hidden in shame. (G., Aug. 10,02)
9. They [The Vines rock band] have one classic song, a debut single as
incredible as "Supersonic" by Oasis. "Highly Evolved" breaks and enters
your skull without wiping its feet, shakes some serious Nirvana~
meets-T.Rex action, and after just one minute and 31 seconds,
scarpers out again before the police arrive. (Ind., Apr. 14,02)
10. Logica, the computer software company, was once the darling of the
stock market, but the market has always been a fickle friend. Even
yesterday's 29p rise to 669p couldn't disguise the fact that the love
ypoKN_2Jgg--------------------------________________~9~7
:..:---
affair w~s over. The company has seen its stock crumble from more
than £19 10 a year. (D.T., Jan. 3, 02)
11. There is absolutely n.o doub~: A.merica is smitten with Tony Blair.
There used to be pohte admiratIOn, but the relationship is now so
close that Tony could probably rest his hand under America's
sweater, as long as he didn't try anything too hasty in the bra-
strap area. (T., Nov. 11 , 01)
12. It ["Great Harry's Navy: How Henry VIII Gave England Seapower"
by G. Moorhouse] is a rich fruitcak~ of a story, laden with plums,
but readers may find , as the author himself seems to have done, that
it is hard to digest the whole book. The crowded prose, overloaded
with detail, obscures the story, and Moorhouse shies away from the
big question implicit in the title. Did Henry VIII really give England
seapower - and what exactly might "seapower" mean in that age? (G.,
Oct. 15,05)

2.3. Mop<t>ollorVl4ecKVI pa3HopoAHble


OAHOpoAHble 411eHbl
1. Scratch an anti-American in Europe, and very often all he wants is a
guest professorship at Harvard or to have an article published in
the New York Times. (LH.T., Dec. 10, 02)
2. What present-day reformers really want is a written constitution
with the citizen's rights and obligations clearly stated, and to have it
available like the Highway Code, for not more than £1 (T., May 24, 93)
3. [After R.Nixon's death] Mr Clinton ordered a day of national mourning
and for flags to be flown at half-mast for 30 days. (T. , Jun. 26, 94)
4. He [Jeffry Archer] had taken Daily Star to court for libel over
its allegations that he had sex with a prostitute, Monica Coghlan. Three
weeks after arriving for the opening of the hearing, he left £500,000
richer and with his reputation restored after a jury awarded what
were then record damages against the tabloid newspaper, plus £700,000
in costs. (D.T., May 13, 01)
5. In 1984 - my final year of high school - I was hitchhiking home from a
pub in Kalk Bay, Cape Town. That night I got a lift almost right away.
The driver looked stoned and I was amused by the fact that his car had no
windscreen. Cubes of shattered glass decorated the dasllboard. Perhaps I
should have been alarmed, but I was 18 and drunk. (G., Nov. 2, 02)
6. There were 3,000 girls in the Biggest Store. Masie was one of them. She
was eighteen, and a saleslady in the gents' gloves. (0. Henry)...
7. The idea came to Howard Stapleton when he was 12 and vISltmg a
factory with his father, a manufacturing executive in London. (N.Y.T.,
Dec. 19,05) d
8. A Church of England school has complained to the U.S. amba~s~ o~
after five members of its choir were barred from entering the mte
98

States, reportedly because offears they could become illegal immigrants.


The choir director, Colin Walker, said five singers, who are 16 and 17
and from China, were denied tourist visas because officials believed
they could have been planning to settle in the United States. (LHoT. ,
Jan. 27, 04)
9. The echoes of resurgent , Russian imperialism ring out with every
blow of Dilmorod's hammer. Aged 26 and from Uzbekistan, he
is one of hundreds of migrant workers and conscripts tearing down
one of Moscow's most ubiquitous landmarks, the Rossiya Hotel. (G.,
Mar. 31 , 06)
10. Like most things created in Japan, this book is sturdy, well-designed
and a good buy. (N.Y.T. Book Review, Oct. 20, 85)
ll . Being ladies and old-fashioned, they had drunk almost no w ine.
(A. Huxley)
12. Joe DiMaggio was tall, handsome, splendidly talented, and
a champion. (LH.T., Mar. 11 , 99)
99

.ts.
17
ed
T., THIS COLUMN WILL CHANGE YOUR LIFE

:ry By Oliver Burkeman


he
Nn Almost everyone hates meetings, and yet the idea of doing away with them is seen
~

J.,
as revolutionary, or ridiculous(l). Tim Buckmaster, chief executive of the hugely
successful website Craigslist, has a simple policy - "No meetings, ever"(2) -
ed but if you're a manager, you're probably already thinking of reasons why you
couldn't do the same(3). An important new book, Why Work Sucks And How
le. To Fix It, proposes a total shift in how we think about office life, but one part
is considered so startling, it's Singled out on the cover: "No meetings." Senior
od executives find at least half of all meetings unproductive, studies show. Yet still
they happen. "Meetings," writes the humourist Dave Barry, "are an addictive,
highly self-indulgent activity that corporations and other large organisations
habitually engage in only because they cannot actually masturbate."(4)
Why Work Sucks And How To Fix It reports on an experiment I
mentioned here during its earlier stages, at the US electronics chain BestBuy:
a "results-only work environment", in which staff could work where and when
they liked, so long as their jobs got done. The first casualty was meetings.
"Why do we spend so much of our business life talking about the business we
need to take care of?" the authors write.
There are several reasons why meetings don't work. They move, in the words
of the career coach Dale Dauten, "at the pace ofthe slowest mind in the room,"(S)
so that "all but one participant will be bored, all but one mind underused."
A key purpose of meetings is information transfer, but they're based on the
assumption(6) that people absorb information best by hearing it, rather than
reading it or discussing it over email, whereas in fact, only a minority of us are
"auditory learners." PowerPoint presentations may be worse. The investigation
into the 2003 Columbia space shuttle disaster(7), caused by a fuel tank problem,
suggested that Nasa engineers might have been hampered in addressing it
sooner(8) because it was presented on PowerPoint slides, forcing the information
into hierarchical lists of bullet points(9), ill-suited to how most brains work.
The key question for distinguishing a worth-while meeting from
a Worthless one seems to be this: is it a "status-report" meeting, deSigned fo r
employees to tell each other things? If so, it's probably better handled on email
Or paper. That leaves a minority of "good" meetings, whose value lies in the
meeting of minds itself, for example, a well-run brainstorming session.
Countless books advise managers on how to motivate staff. But
motivation isn't the problem . Generally, people want to work; they gripe when
things like meetings stop them doing SO(lO). Indeed, a 2006 ~tudy sh~wed
there's only one group of people,;vho say meetings en~~nc~,thelf wellbemg ~
those who also score low on accomplishment stnvmg. In other words.
People who enjoy meetings are those who don't like getting things done.
Guardian, Aug. 16,2008
100 УР Окц

1. Анализ текста

1.1.
1. Найдите другие статьи этого автора , опубликованные в рамках
той же рубрики . Что их объединяет? Как бы вы определили жанр
э той статьи? При выборе окончательного варианта перевода за­
головка постарайтесь дать такой вариант, который мог бы испол ь­
зоваться как модель для перевода з аголовков всех статей э т ой
рубрики.
2. Как вы понимаете значение слова meeting в этом контексте? Про а­
нализируйте различия между русскими вариантами «встреча», «с о­
брание», «совещание», «митинг» и др . Заду майтесь о своих асс о­
циациях с тем или иным русским словом, обозначающим этот ти п
мероприятий. Какие каждый из этих вариантов предполагает: цели
мероприятия, количество и состав участников, характер обмена
информацией, характер затрагиваемых вопросов и т. д. Выберите
вариант, наиболее точно соответствующий тому, что описывается в
данной стат,ье.
3. В чем основная идея статьи? Кратко сформулируйте для себя аргу­
менты , которые при водит автор статьи в поддержку основной иде и .
4. Най дите в тексте статьи слова и выражения, которые представ­
ляются вам выделяющимися своей экспрессивностью . Это слов а
автора статьи или цитируемых им людей? Подумайте , насколько
жанр данного текста допускает употребление подобных выраже­
ний. В дальнейшем при переводе текста обратите особое вниман ие
на стилистическую цельность , уделяя особое внимание резки м
стилистическим стыкам в вашем переводе .

1.2. Связь с широким конте кстом

1. Почему, на ваш взгляд, автор делает утверждение (1)? Как вы объ­


ясните использование в данном контексте слов revolutionary и
ridiculous? Обратите внимание в этой связи на предположение (3).
Поставьте себя на место среднестатистического начальника и по­
думайте, почему автор статьи ожидает, что вы воспримете выс ка­
занную выше идею именно таким образом .
2. Найдите сведения о следующих лицах: Лm Buckmaster, Dave
Barry, Dale Dauten. Обратите особое внимание на характер их де­
ятельности и, исход я из собранной вами информации, выберите
наиболее точные и ПОНЯТНые для русскоязычного читателя в а­
рианты передачи сЫе/ execиtive 0/ the . .. website, humorist, careef
coach .
3. Найдите сведения о книге "Why Work Sucks And How То Fix н" ·
Обратите внимание на оформление ее обложКИ . Проверьте, оп у­
бликована ли эта книга на русском языке.
101

4. Ознакомьтесь с характером творчества Дэйва Барри. Характерна


ли для него приведенная в статье цитата (4)?
5. Соберите сведения об эксперименте под названием "results-only
work environment". Подыскивая вариант для передачи этого назва­
ния по-русски, четко сформулируйте для себя, в чем заключалась
суть эксперимента.

6. Из какой тематической области заимствовано сочетание auditory


learners? Какие еще типы людей предполагает эта классификация?
Проанализируйте тексты по сходной тематике на русском языке и
подберите адекватный вариант передачи этого термина.
7. О какой катастрофе идет речь в высказывании (7)? Внимательно
изучите материалы об этой катастрофе и переведите последу­
ющий фрагмент текста, сверяясь с найденной вами информаци­
ей. Насколько корректно автор статьи указывает причину этого
происшествия?
8. При переводе фрагмента (9) вспомните типичный слайд, выпол­
ненный в программе «ПауэрПоЙнт». Как в нем представлена ин­
формация? Почему, как вам кажется, этот метод подачи информа­
ции подвергается критике?
9. Прежде чем предлагать вариант для передачи сочетания
accomplishment striving, наведите справки об этом понятии в ан­
глийском языке. В какой тематической области оно употребляет­
ся? Кратко сформулируйте для себя описание черты характера, на
которую указывает этот термин.

1.3. ЧаСТНblе ЯЗblКОВblе ТРУДНОСТИ

1. Что собой представляет ресурс Craigslist? Подумайте о том, как ло­


гично для русского языка связать понятия website и chief executive.
2. Проанализируйте функцию ever в цитате (2). К какому стилю от­
носится эта фраза? Подумайте, есть ли, на ваш взгляд, смысловая
и/или стилистическая разница между английскими высказывани­
ями типа "No ... " и русскими высказываниями типа «Никаких .. !»?
3. В чем разница между словом manager в английском язы­
ке и заимствованным «менеджер» в русском языке? Можете
ли вы привести случаи, когда manager не может быть пере­
дано при помощи «менеджера» и/или наоборо!'? Подбери­
те английские варианты для передачи сочетании «менеджер
по туризму», «менеджер по работе с клиентамИ», «ваш персональ-
ный менеджер». ?
4. Как вы понимаете слово important в данном контексте. Пре~де
~ ревода проанализируите
чем выбрать окончательныи вариант пе ,
упражнение 2.1. и предложите вариантЫ передачи этого слова в
преДСтавленных в упражнении ситуациях.
5. НаЙдите в тексте случаи использования в качестве ~одлежащего
ПОНЯТия, не являющегося фактическим агентом деиствия (типа
102 Yp OKI1

book proposes, studies show, investigation suggested и др.) Можно лl1


говорить о том, что эти подлежащие по значению близки к обсто _
ятельствам места и причины , и если да, то как вы это понимае те?

Подумайте, в каких случаях при переводе этих предложений воз­


можны, желательны или необходимы синтаксические перестр о ­
ения. Проанализируйте упражнение 2.2. и предложи те вариантыl
перевода предложений, содержащих выделенные сочетания .
6. Какие два разнородных занятия автор цитаты (4) парадоксально
приравнивает друг к другу, характеризуя оба как addictive, highly
seif-indulgent activity? Переводя этот фрагмент, убедитесь, что
предложенный вами вариант перевода подходит для характеристи ­
ки этих явлений и логика шутки сохраняется.
7. Проанализируйте характер связи, выражаемой союзом so long as
в данном контексте. Можно ли считать ее временн6й? Прежде чем
выбрать окончательный вариант перевода этого сложного предло ­
жения, проанализируйте упражнение 2.3. и предложите вариан ты
передачи фрагментов, содержащих этот союз, в представленны х
в упражнении ситуациях .

8. В каком значении употреблен глагол to work в первом предлож е­


нии третьего абзаца? Как бы вы по-русски выразили противоп о­
ложную мысль ("Meetings work")?
9. Что означает slow в цитате (5)? В каком смысле meeting может
совершать действие, выраженное по - английски словом 10 move?
При выборе варианта перевода представьте себе функционально
сходные ситуации, когда один человек так или иначе задержива ет

остальных. Уделите особое внимание выбору стилистически ко р ­


ректных вариантов при переводе этого высказывания .

10. При выборе варианта для передачи выражения (6) подумайте, что
означает выражение Meetings are based оп the assumption . .. Можете
ли вы обнаружить некое логическое звено, отсутствующее в этой
фразе, но необходимое/подразумеваемое в русском переводе?
11. Обратите внимание на выводы исследования (8). Какова модал ь ­
ность этого высказывания (насколько категоричны эти выводы)?
Найдите в э том предложении слова, являющиеся показателем этой
модальнос ти .

12. Выбирая вариан т для передачи сочетания status report, вниматель­


но ознакомьтесь с представленным в тексте объяснением этого п о­
нятия . Как , исходя из этого контекста, вы бы сами назвали под о б­
ный тип мероприятий?
13. В чем заключае т ся сущность процесса, названного brainstorming?
Отражает ли ее кал ька « МОЗГОвой штурм»? Как бы вы своими сло­
вами описали ситуацию, в которой имеет место brainstorming?
14. В чем основная мысль преДложения (10)? Пр оан а л изируйте з аклЮ­
ченное в нем про тивопоставление. Подумайте, стоит ли и если стО­
ит, то как подчеркну т ь это Противопоставл ение впереводе.
15. В каком смысле употреблено в этом контексте слово wellbeing?
В чем может заключаться wellbeing офисного СОТРУДника?
103

Ynpa)l(HeHllUI

2.1. KOHTeKcTyallbHble 3Ha4eHIIIR CllOBa important


1. One of the most important personal accounts of war that I have ever
read. I believe that it will become a classic, and will be read and cited as
long as the Pacific campaign is rememb.ered (l Keegan on "With the Old
Breed", a war memoir by E. B. Sledge)
2. Cornwell [Patricia Cornwell, an American crime writer] can, within reason,
negotiate whichever contract she likes. If she says she's only going to write
a book every other year, her publisher will simply acquiesce, or watch one
of their most important authors jump ship to a rival. (G., Jun. 11,08)
3. When you're reading at normal speed, it's nice to pause at the end of a
chapter. The maximum number of pages people will read to get to the
end of a chapter is five. Which is why weaker authors have a new chapter
every four pages to encourage you to keep moving. Important, serious
authors sometimes forget to have chapters altogether, and you then have
to mark your place in the book. (G., Apr. 5, 03)
4. A real limousine came at ten minutes to eight and took them to the
theater. It drew up under the marquee at exactly the right time, after the
big stars and the director and the author and the governor and the mayor
and some less important stars. (F. O'Connor)
5. The hero engineers of the early railways were George Stephenson and his
son Robert. In 1829 they developed the locomotive known as the Rocket.
Robert Stephenson went on to supervise construction of many rail lines.
Another important developer was Isambard Kingdom BruneI. BruneI
built tracks 7 feet apart, so the locomotives and cars could be wider and
steadier. (S. Mitchell)
6. Criticism is still principally a matter of expressing a personal taste that
needs no other justification than that it is considered to be a superior
taste; an impressionistic account of the cr;tic's immediate response to
a film is still the characteristic method; no critical vocabulary has been
developed; amateurism is still a matter of pride. There is no agreement
as to who are the important artists, no consensus about critical method,
no agreement about the crucial relationship between the artist and the
industrial system of which he is a part; film critics even lack the social
cement of a university community. (A. Lovell)
7. Mr Hunstman has been willing to say the unsayable about the Republican
party in the United States, namely, that it is becoming the "anti-science
party." This is an enormously important development. And it should
terrify us. (G., Sep. 4, 11)
8. It's not true that Oprah Winfrey's book club was the most important
development in the history of literacy. For instance, there was the
invention of the written word. Then there was movable type. So Oprah
comes in third. (Time, Apr. 15, 02) .
9. While both potentially offensive, obscene language and .swea~lllg
were not the only causes of potential linguistic offence III thIS penod.
104

Blasphemy, as will be discussed in this chapter, was an important


source of offence, too. (T. McEnnery)
10. New radio tagging technology is enabling scientists to follow for the first
time the migration paths of the largest marine animals - fish, mammals
and reptiles - for thousands of miles across the open oceans. Results of
the tagging show it would be possible to protect endangered and over_
exploited species by setting up a new type of open ocean reserve. Reserves
on land and along coasts are defined by specific geographical features,
said Larry Crowder of Duke University Marine Laboratory in North
Carolina. "In a terrestrial system you can just draw a boundary around an
important place and you have a park. In the open ocean it's different - the
habitats are three-dimensional and moving." (F.T., Feb. 14-15,04)

2.2. nOAl1e~al1l~e C 06cToflTe11bcTBeHHblM 3Ha~eH~eM

l. The last few weeks have seen the deaths of two of the longest lived and, in
their way, most influential modern designers in Britain. (F.T., Aug. 19,96)
2. Work is about to start on the country's [South Africa's] first Hollywood-
standard studio complex, near Cape Town. It will have eight stages,
employ 8,000 people and cost some 500m rands. (E., Mar. 6, 04)
3. A severed telephone cable crippled long-distance phone service Friday to
and from the New York area, halted trading at some financial markets and
delayed hundreds offlights at East Coast airports. (I.H.T., Jan. 5- 6,91)
4. The main block [of the boarding school] houses the boys' dormitories,
dining rooms, common rooms and exercise room. (G., Qct. 1,91)
5. While there is evidence that people are being relatively conservative in
their borrowing, figures published today by comparison site Confused.
corn suggested worrying levels of consumer debt. Research by the
firm showed that on average for every £1 earned an individual will owe
£1.02. (G., May 27, 09)
6. During the last three years, the popular actor has seen his salary
jump from £7,000 to £50,000. (Ind., Aug. 30, 97)
7. Some restaurants and takeaway businesses in Manchester and
Newcastle have seen trade drop by as much as 40 per cent since reports
emerged that the Chinese community was linked to the outbreak of foo t-
and-mouth [epidemic]. (T., Apr. 9, 01)
8. Six month of research and two years of filming have gone into th is
important new [TV] series, which follows the couples as they try to
become adoptive parents. (T., Sep. 19,00)
9. Pro- and anti-single-currency forces are about to embark on the longest
and most expensive campaign for public opinion that Britain has ever
seen. (Nsw., Sp. issue, Nov. 98-Dec. 99)

2.3. C~HTaKc~~ecK~e CBfl3~ B CI10>KHOnoA~~HeHHOM


n eAl1o~eH~~ (COlO3 so Ion as)
1. Put differently, so long as people believe that the world and its resources,
organic and inorganic, were somehow made for their indefinite exploitation
105

tl.t and delectation, current rates of damage to the environment will probably
continue. (FT., Sep. 9, 11)
'st 2. So long as terrorism remain s a threat to the American population and
Is way of life, September 11th will never be too far from mind for many
of Americans and for New Yorkers in particular. (The Johns Hopkins
T· Newsletter, Sep. 8, 11)
~s 3. Then we killed Osama bin Laden, and people across America suddenly
s, celebrated the death of another man; apparently executions are OK
th so long as it is one of the well-Iabeled bad guys. (Iowa State Daily,
tn Sep. 9, 11)
le 4. In essence, religious leaders are at liberty to preach from the pUlpit in
favor or in opposition to political issues and upcoming legislation so
long as specific candidates are not endorsed. (American Independent,
Sep. 8, 11)
m 5. Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as
i) it is black. (H. Ford)
j. 6. Currently, each Maryland school system can set its own academic
s, standards for student-athletes, so long as they can ensure that the
student-athletes "are making satisfactory progress toward graduation."
:0 (Education Week, Dec. 7, 11)
ld 7. Forget any nonsense you hear about baseball being threatened by
competitive imbalance, performance-enhancing drugs, or labor strife.
s, Americans have shown over and over that we don't care one whit about
stufflike that just so long as the game is fun to watch. (A., Apr. 15, 10)
n 8. Good news for the genie, but too bad for the seven dwarfs . Disneyland
1 has lifted its 55-year ban on beards - so long as they're shorter than a
quarter of an inch. The theme park has a notoriously strict dress code,
and the rules still forbid visible tattoos, body piercings, and "extreme"
hairstyles. (Nsw., Jan. 24, 12)
y 9. A new Harvard University stooy finds that women could pave the way
for healthy aging by imbibing one alcoholic drink a day - as long as it's
d just one, no more, no less. (Ind., Sep. 9, 11)
:s 10. As long as reporters remain craftsmen instead of professionals; as long
t- as they are principally attracted by the charms of associating themselves
with the world of events; as long as the generalist is the dominant figure
is instead of the subj ect-matter professional expert; as long as reporters
o think of themselves as "creative" people engaged in a "creative" process
and thereby make themselves deaf to critical analysis; and a s ~ong a s
;t reporters, in their search for criteria of obj ectivity, must rely ch?efly ?n
r thextechnique of trimming among the views and interests of their maj or
"clients"; and finally, as long as newspapers insist that t~e focu s of
stories be the specific concrete event and that reporters turn III one s.t ory
a day - as long a s all these conditions hold true, the New York Tzmes
(and all other papers) cannot break out of the limits of,~raft',~nd ca~not
provide what A . M. Rosenthal has encouraged: really hard reportlllg.
(New York, Jul. 1, 68)
"n
106

YpoK15

MOUSE IN THE MOLECULE

Eureka! Welcome into the lab, Jan Hendrik Schon. You join the notable band
of tricksters in the steps ofDaedalus, Michelangelo, Franz Mesmer and Jeffrey
Archer(1). Your computer the size of a molecule is an invention as engaging as
the Trojan Horse, the philosopher's stone, animal magnetism, the engineless
car and pyramid selling. Your ticket to Stockholm in order to receive the
Nobel Prize may have been cancelled. But you have won a niche in the hall of
shame for great frauds, hoaxers and forgers. And these are more fun and
more intelligible for the masses of humanity than bona fide scientists, who
have sailed into a black hole beyond the ken of all but their peers.
Dr Schon was working on miniature computers at Bell Labs in New
Jersey, which takes its name from Alexander Bell, the Scotsman named
and shamed for inventing the telephone. Schon claimed to have created his
transistor - the electronic switch that makes up the brain of a computer - out
of a single molecule. In an interesting regression to medieval metaphysics,
he asserted that ten million of the little demons could dance on the head of
a needle. This was the logical end of miniaturisation. He had reached the
farthest shore of matter(2).
However a panel of prominent scientists has discovered that a set of
identical charts has appeared several times in Schon's work, even though the
experiments were different. They conclude that this is "a clear, unambiguous
case of scientific misconduct." Schon has been sacked. And the miniaturisation
of electronics has retreated from its last frontier(3). Scientists, especially at Bell
Labs, are baffled and deeply disappointed.
But that is no reason for the rest of the world to be disappointed. Those
who are baffled by laptops the size of typewriters murmur, "For this relief
much thanks." They do not (yet) have computers ten million times as small as
a contact lens to crash and smash. One of the uses for nanocomputer was to
embed tiny mobile phones in the human body. Another was to put computers
within a patient's body to control and monitor the amount of drugs released
into it. The first use would have added an intolerable new horror to the rush
hour. The second would have turned patients into Frankenstein's druggy
puppets.
Conspiracy theorists can excite themselves with the superstition that some
secret of the Universe is being hushed up by the Establishment. Reactionaries
can complain that miniature computers are an elite extravagance, when most
of the world has never even made a phone call. And everybody can smile at
the spectacle of the panjandrum of science stumbling over the mole-hill of
professional credulity no bigger than a molecule(4).
Times, Sep. 28, 2002
107

А нализ текста
1.

1.1 . Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. Предлагаемый для перевода текст - передовая статья, т. е. редак­


ционный комментарий к событию, упомянутому в газете. Какое
d
событие стало предметом комментария? Какие его стороны ком­
У ментируются в статье?
.s
2. В чем состояло «изобретение», о котором упрощенно говорится в
;s
статье, и какие возможности для развития техники оно открывало?

3. Какие явления можно считать объектами авторской иронии? Ка­
If
кими средствами она создается? Во всех ли случаях ирония в ста­
d тье предполагает отрицательную оценку явления?
о

N
1.2. Связь с широким контекстом
d
s 1. Что объединяет лиц, упомянутых в предложении (l)? Почему они
It характеризуются как а notabZe band о/ tricksters? Почему упомина-
3, ние в этом ряду человека по имени JejJrey Archer создает комиче-
Jf ский эффект?
е 2. Какие ассоциации вызывает фраза "ten million of the little demons
could dance оп
the head of а needle"?
Jf 3. К кому чаще всего относится имя Frankenstein в массовой культу-
е ре и в романе М. Шелли "Frankenstein, ог the Modern Prometheus"?
.5 Какой персонаж имеется в виду в данном случае?
n
II
1.3. ЧаСТНblе ЯЗblКОВblе ТРУДfiости
е
1. Как вы понимаете смысл заголовка статьи?
:f 2. Что означает словосочетание pyramid selZing?
S 3. Какое устойчивое словосочетание напоминает выражение hall о/
о
shame? Как передать эту игру слов в переводе? При подборе вари­
'S
антов следует иметь в виду возможность замены исходного образа
d впереводе.
h 4. Обратите внимание на слова одного семантического поля /rauds,
У hoaxers, jorgers. В чем сходство и в чем различия значений этих
слов? Подбирая варианты перевода, проанализируйте упражнение
е
2.1. и предложите варианты передачи выделенных слов.
S 5. Что означает выражение to пате and shame? Какова особенность
;t
его употребления в данном контексте?
It 6. Обратите внимание на единство образной основы в предложениях
,f
(2) и (3). Как можно сохранить эту образую связь в перев~де?
7. Каков источник выражения "For this relief much thanks ? Сохра­
2 няет ли оно в даннОМ случае ассоциативнуЮ связь с первоначаль­
ным КОнтекстом или употребляется как фразеологизм? Прежде
108

qeM onpe.L\eJUlTbCll c OKOHqaTeJIbHbIM BapHaHToM ero nepe.L\aqH, npo_


aHaJIH3Hpyihe ynpa)l<HeHHe 2.2. H npe.L\JIO)l(HTe BapHaHThI nepeBOn,a
npe.L\JIO)l(eHHM c Bbl.L\eJIeHHbIMH COqeTaHHlIMH.
8. B qeM COCTOHT pa3HHIIa B ceMaHTHKe rJIarOJIOB, 06pa3ylOIIIHx COqeTa_
HHe to crash and smash? IIoqeMY OHH HCnOJIb3YlOTCll KaK O.L\HOP0.L\Hhle
qJIeHbl? KaKOBa CTHJIHCTHqeCKall CPYHKIIHlI 3Toro COqeTaHHlI H KaK OT-
pa3HTb ee B nepeBO.L\e? KaKOBa rpaMMaTHqeCKall CPYHKIIHlI HHCPHHHTI1_
Ba to crash and smash H KaK OTpa3HTb ee B nepeBO.L\e?
9. C KaKHMH C06bITHlIMH H rrepCOHa)l(aMH onHcaHHoro B CTaTbe rrpOI1C-
llIeCTBHlI COOTHOClITClI o6pa3bl, BKJIlOqeHHbJe B pa3BepHyTylO MeTacpo_
py B npe.L\JlO)l(eHHH (4)?
10. 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe Ha COqeTaHHe mole-hill of professional credulity,
rrpe.L\CTaBJIlIlOIIIee C060M reHHTHBHYlO MeTacpopy (of-metaphor). Ha-
CKOJIbKO pacrrpocTpaHeHo yrroTpe6JIeHHe CJIOB mole-hill H «KPOToBHHa»
B nepeHocHoM 3HaqeHHH B PYCCKOM H aHrJIHMCKOM 1I3b1Ke? I1pe)l(.L\e qeM
.L\aTb OKOHqaTeJIbHblM BapHaHT rrepeBO.L\a, rrpOaHaJIH3HpYMTe yrrpa)l(He-
HHe 2.3. H rrpe.L\JIO)l(HTe BapHaHTbl rrepe.L\aqH Bbl.L\eJIeHHbIX COqeTaHHM.

2. Ynpa>KHeHIIUI

2.1. CeMaHTIII4ecKIII CMe>KHble eAIIIHIII4bl B OAHOM


KOHTeKCTe

1. The Duchess of York's financial problems have received a fair amount


of publicity over the past years. However, the reports of her "debt crisis"
did not emanate from her bankers. When a client - the term customer
is not used because it sends the wrong signals - signs up with a private
bank they also gain complete discretion. (W.T., Apr. 1-7,98)
2. Accounting systems are designed mainly to provide information
that managers and outsiders can use in decision making. They also
serve other purposes: to produce operating documents, to protect the
company's assets, to provide data for company tax returns, and, in some
cases, to provide the basis for reimbursement of costs by clients or
customers. (E.B.)
3. Robert Zemeckis is a slick, commercial, unfailingly on target. He makes
movies, not films . More cash cow than artiste, Zemeckis has surpassed
even Steven Spielberg on occasion in his ability to produce the "right"
seasonal blockbuster. Zemeckis is the personification of what, for most
people, Hollywood means. (Encyclopedia of Hollywood)
4. It [Woody Alien's movie "Sweet and Lowdown"] is a tongue-in-cheek
homage to Emmet Ray, a little-known - why mince words, utterlY
obscure - jazz guitarist who flourished briefly in the 1930s. (W.T., Jul.
28- Aug. 3, 99)
5. Pisarro is the smoother, more seamless painter. His landscapes are
prettier, than Cezanne's (which is not the same thing, of course, as
109

more beautiful) and describe the countryside more exactly. (New York,
Ju!. 18, 05)
6. The construction of harbours and sea works offers some of the most
unusual problems and challenges in civil engineering. (E.B)
7. While most of America wrestled with election issues like schools taxes
and health care last week, the good people of Newport, Main~, kept
their eyes focused - riveted, even - on a far more vital concern topless
mowing. Perhaps prompted by a spirit ofClintonian tolerance, Newport
citizens voted by a robust margin of775-283 against a proposed ordinance
to punish women for baring their breasts in public, The Associated
Press reports. The row started this summer when Desiree Davis began
mowing her lawn without a shirt. (M.T., Nov. 14,98)
8. In France the strike is not merely a cherished right, but also a hallowed
right. (T., Jan. 2, 99)
9. The most extravagant preparations for the street decorations were made,
and everything that was antique (and a lot of that was just old) was
trundled out and put on display to contribute to the great glory of the
Medici pope. (D. Madsen)
10. "We must teach you to speak, to read and to write." - "I know how to
talk already," I said, a little chagrined. "Everybody knows how to talk,
but how many truly know how to speak? Talking a physical ability,
speaking is art. You must learn to know what you want to say, and how
best to say it." (D. Madsen)
11. "Does the family still live here?" That is the most frequently asked
question at the ticket offices of stately homes open to the public. The
visitor is keen to know whether the house, whatever it may lack in
stateliness, is still a home, inhabited by the descendants of the people
who built it. (Sun. T., Jun. 17,01) J
12. Although kava-kava [soothing drink similar to tea made of a substance
taken from a Polynesian shrub] is regularly drunk by millions of people
all over the world, the officials can only come up with 70 "possible" or
"probable" cases of supposed adverse reaction associated with its use,
four of which are claimed to have been fatal (none in the UK). (D.T., 11
May, 03)

2.2. WeKcnVlpVl3Mbl

1. The media love a good shareholder-meeting fracas, even if it is only one


or two professional protesters who own a few shares who happen to be
generating all the sound and the fury. (D.T., Oct. 2, 06)
2. Wikileaks' big revelation was weak on sound, low on fury and signified
nothing - although the left tried to pretend it was the My Lai massacre
on steroids. The phony fuss faded away. (N.Y.P., Jun. 8, 10)
3. An idiotic tale ["The Saint"] full of sound effects and furious chases
takes simple Simon [Templar] from Moscow to Oxford and back. (Obs.,
May 20, 97)
110
---------------------------------------------------------
~

4. There is a tide in the affairs of men, and Vladimir Putin has taken it
at its flood. Within three months of September 11, the Russian president
has persuaded Nato to set up a new body for its dealings with Moscow
which will engage in joint consultation, joint decisions and joint action.
(D.T., Dec. 8, 01)
5. If there is a tide in the affairs of Westminster, Gordon Brown
[Chancellor ofthe Exchequer] would be forgiven today for believing it is
flowing his way. In the past months, he has eclipsed the Prime Minister
in the opinion polls for the first time. Now the latest reshuffle has seen
the promotion of several of his prominent allies, at the expense of the
dwindling band of Blair supporters. (D.M., May 30, 02)
6. The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) has appointed
a counsellor to help the censors battle through the strain and tedium.
It should be a fascinating job for any therapist. After all, if anybody is
going to be depraved by too much screen sex and violence, it should be
the people who watch it all the time. And what are the remedies? "Old
Jones has got that lean and hungry look in his eye again, let's put him
on a month of Disneys." Or, in extremis: "Send for The Sound of Music."
(Sunday T., Aug. 4, 02)
7. A more lasting danger is that it will erode support for the political
process. The Democrats charge that the congressional hearings [on
President Clinton's fund-raising abuses] are cynical attempts to keep a
Republican hold on Congress during a popular Democratic presidency.
Many Americans will agree with that analysis, which implies an
electorate plague on both political houses. (E., Dec. 6, 97)
8. Some molecules have all the luck. DNA - the stuff that genes are
made of - attracts thousands of scientists, billions of research dollars
and endless ethical debate. And all DNA does is sit in a cell's nucleus,
waiting for other molecules to do its bidding. (E., Jun. 6, 98)
9. The most obvious [option] of course is to take advantage of one of
Russia's wonderful natural winter facilities - the snow - which makes
sledding and skiing a cheap and easy kiddies activity. If you have skates
you can hunt around your neighborhood courtyards for a small ice
rink before it thaws, and if you don't, then go to some place like Gorky
Park. Skates rental only costs 10 rubles - and the park is your oyster.
(Moscow Times, Mar. 13,98)
10. [Betty] Friedan founded the National Organization for Women in
1967. For a quarter century, she earned and got the applause of all of
us who believe in equal opportunity and equal treatment for women.
Now, at age 77, she risks losing it all by carelessly taking up the cause
of a 52-year-old man [Bill Clinton] who used and abused a 23-year-old
woman [M. Lewinsky] and then lied about it to the judge, the jury, hi S
family and the world. Politics, sex and age do indeed make strange
bedfellows. (USA T., Dec. 18, 98)
11. English literature A-level students at a leading independent school have
suffered the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune. After monthS
diligently studying Hamlet the 26 pupils from King Edward's School,
111

Bath, entered their Shakespeare paper and suffered the heartache and
the thousands natural shocks that flesh is heir to. Instead of questions
on the Prince of Denmark the paper was all about The Tempest. They
had been taught the wrong text. (D.T., Jun. 7, 01)
12. "Just like my great influence, Muhammad Ali, I will go down in
history. Like him, at the end of the day I transcend boxing." The words
of "Prince" Naseem Hamed, who lost his world featherweight title on
Saturday night, and did so as noisy as ever, telling the world that all great
boxers get beaten, and like a great boxer he will come back. Methinks
the lady doth protest too much. Naseem is good but not great, and for
some people this is the hardest thing in the world come to terms with.
Off he goes: and I am happy enough myself to say good night, sweet
prince. I only wish I could add that the rest is silence. (T., Apr. 9,01)

2.3. reH~T~BHafl MeTa<t>opa (of-metaphor)


1. [Chancellor of the Exchequer] 1. Lawson's aim was entirely political; to
stop the steady erosion of the Tory vote. His fig leaf of economic theory
was that his measures were, a continuation of Tory policies designed to
create "an enterprise culture." (N.S., Mar. 21, 86)
2. Exact translations between languages are literally impossible,
because every word in every language is encrusted with barnacles of
connotations and history. (T., Apr. 27, 90)
3. Sammy Davis Jr was a tiny atomic bomb of a man who worked so hard
and expended so much energy on stage that he left audiences awestruck.
(I.H.T., May 18, 90)
4. Most of my weekend has been spent in Washington, that lovely, devious
whited sepulchre of a city. (Express, Feb. 2, 98) ,J
5. And the end of all things was that Agnes married him, and wrote a
tempestuous whirlwind of a letter to Phil, and said she would never
know a happy moment all the rest of her life. (R. Kipling)
6. At one point this beanstalk of a business [Shaheen, a grocery company]
reached the dizzy heights of £6 billion in value. But this week the shares
were closer to seedcorn at 12 cents each. (T., Apr. 19,01)
7. Another alternative for Washington [in its war on drugs] - trying to
persuade the cocaine-producing nations to take action on their own -
is seldom effective. The standard argument is that drugs are a yanqui
problem: if Americans weren't coke crazy, no one in the Andes would
produce it. U.S. officials try to change this thinking by dangling
the carrot of financial aid. (Nsw., Jan. 26, 87)
8. As the Western Europeans should already know, the carrot of
cooperation, not the punitive stick of ostracism, has always been the
best way to encourage not only economic reforms, but effective border
control policies in the East. (W.S.1.E., Mar. 2, 99)
9. After two years of promoting Ike for president in Time's pages, Henry
[Luce, the magazine's proprietor] explained to disgruntled staffers: "1
am biased in favor of God, the Republican Party, and free enterprise.
112 Yp OK I1

Time will not allow the stuffed dummy of impartiality to stand in the
way oftelling the truth as it sees it." (New York, May 3, 04)
10. Remember when we were a peaceful nation? A big, overgrown kid of
a country, too large for our youth, too gentle for our size - a boyish
grinning Gary Cooper of a country? Violence was other countries.
(R.D., Dec., 74)
11. No question about it, Jonathan Munby's riotous staging of 'The Venetian
Twins' at the Watermill is a wonderfully silly joy to behold. Goldoni's
spaghetti-tangle of a farce gets superheated to just the right degree of
bubbling mania by a 12-strong ensemble. (D.T., Jun. 2, 04)
12. Saturday [at the Reading Rock Festival] is quite extraordinary: the
line-up consists entirely of stars. Although their "slow numbers" are
rather like watching five hyperactive boys trying to push an elephant
of intention through a tiny letterbox of execution, when the beats go
over a hundred a minute, Asian Dub Foundation are a glorious thing.
(T., Sep. 4, 98)
113

I'M NOT SURE IT'S MY COLOUR


How YOUR PHONE BECAME MORE IMPORTANT THAN YOUR TRAINERS

By Jess Cartner-Morley

For a few years now, phones have been small enough to fit easily in a shirt
pocket. Funny, that(l). Because walk into most trendy bars and you'd never
guess it: at many tables, each occupant will have placed his - sometimes her,
but usually his(2) - mobile in front of him, next to his lager. Among all-male
groupS, each table looks uncannilY' similar: three men, three pints, three
phones. And there is more than practicality at work here(3). Even those
phones with vibrating alerts, which in a noisy bar can easily be felt in a pocket,
are proudly paraded(4). The purpose of a modern mobile is to be seen, as well
as heard(S).
The roots of mobile mania are technological; they have achieved their
present ubiquity by being phenomenally useful gadgets(6). But for such a tiny,
personal item they have a high visibility - on pub tables, with designer snap-
on covers, trilling intentionally irritating ringtones. In embracing them as a
fashion accessory, we have lifted mobiles above the strata of fax machines and
tumble dryers(7).
In the 1980s, the trainer became a key cultural accessory: the means
by which the owner pronounced his or herself to be au fait with the modern
world. Trainers embodied a new post-nine-to-five culture which embraced
elements as disparate as rave culture and gym culture(8). They achieved this
broad-brush appeal by being rooted in practicality, and therefore hard to
dismiss(9).
What a mobile phone says is that you are too indispensable to the big,
wide world to be allowed out of reach, but that you are "doing your own
thing."(lO) You are independent, yet in demand; busy, but not tied down(l1). If
the mobile has a predecessor in technology, it is the wristwatch, which spans
the same territory between fashion accessory and functional item. Having an
Outsize diving watch was the precursor of haVing the newest, tiniest phone;
the smart metallic phone cover has replaced the gold Rolex. Now that mobile
phones display the time, wristwatches have been usurped in more ways than
one(12).
As in all cultural phenomena, it's important to keep ahead of the
g.am e(13). This is where design comes in. As recently as seven or eight years ago,
SImply haVing a mobile phone marked you out as an early adopter; as they have
become more common, it has been increasingly important to have not just any
Phone, but the right one(14). And in response, mobiles have moved on in design
Illore in the past 10 years than landline telephones have in the past 30.
Whereas most cult fashion accessories are must-haves only to a
relatively small number of shopaholic women, and most cult techno
114

toys of interest only to a small band of men, the mobile has found a broad
catchment area. Builders, taxi drivers, schoolchildren and politicians alike
are suckers to the charms of the latest model; like trainers, mobiles have a
rare unisex appeal.
Still, a mobile's most attention-grabbing characteristic is not how it
looks, but how it sounds. The novelty ringtone, which began as a specialist
subject for internet whizz kids, took off with the success of the Eminern
"Stan" tune, and has become a premium-rate telephone line fixture, found in
all the tabloid back pages(15). The ringing phone, in all its melodic guises, is
now a soundtrack to bars, supermarkets and cinema foyers(16).
What the Finnish academic Timo Kopomaa called the "culture of
interruption" created by the mobile is resented far more by older generations.
Older age brackets are more likely to be censorious about "inappropriate"
phone use than teenagers. To the traditionalist, the mobile fosters rude
behaviour: it has eroded the art of making an arrangement and sticking
to it; and breaking off a conversation to answer a ringing phone is the
modern equivalent oflooking over people's shoulders at cocktail parties(17)·
However, even among the apparently uncouth, mobile-obsessed young,
there is an unspoken etiquette. Researchers have found that customers
are far less likely to put their phone on the table in an establishment with
tablecloths.
Guardian, Nov. 11, 2002

1. AHanlll3 TeKCTa

1.1. TeMa, IIIAeR III 06111aR cTpaTerlllR nepesoAa


1. B lfeM 3aKJIlOlfaeTC5I H)J,e5I TeKcTa? C<p0PMYJIHpyiiTe )J,JI5I ce65I OCHOBHOH
Te3HC, KOToPblH aBTop CTaTbH nbITaeTC5I )J,OKa3aTb.
2. KaK, no MblCJIH aBTopa, MeH5IJIaCb pOJIb M06HJIbHbIX TeJIe<poHoB H no-
lfeMY? KaKHe <paKToPbI B ou.eHKe nOTpe6HTeJI5IMH M06HJIbHbIX TeJIe<po-
HOB co BpeMeHeM CTaJIH 60JIee Ba)KHbIMH, lfeM paHbme?
3. KaK BbI nOHHMaeTe BbICKa3blBaHH5I (10) H (ll)? qTO, no MbICJIH aBTOpa,
BJIa)J,eJIeu. cTpeMHTC5I npo)J,eMoHcTpHpoBaTb HaJIHlfHeM M06HJIbHOr a
TeJIe<poHa?
4. KaK BbI nOHHMaeTe 3arOJIOBOK cTaTbH? KTO, npH KaKHX 06CT05lTeJIb-
CTBax H C KaKoH HHToHau.HeH Mor 6bI npoH3HecTH <ppa3Y "I'm not sure
it's my colour"? I1pH nepeBo)J,e 3arOJIOBKa YlfTHTe B nepBylO ol.Jepe.Ll b
KOMMYHHKaTHBHYIO CHTya U.H10 H <PYHKU.HIO BbICKa3bIBaHH5I.
5. KaK BbI oxapaKTepH3yeTe CTHJIb aBTopa )J,aHHoH cTaTbH? KaKoBo era
OTHomeHHe K )J,aHHoMY BOnpocy? KaK BbI ou.eHHTe MaHepy H3JIO)KeHU}i
aBTopa no TaKHM nOKa3aTeJI5IM, KaK cepbe3HocTb/mYTJIHBOCTb, npo-
cToTa/BbIlfYPHOCTb, np5lMo)J,ymHe/HpoHHlfHOCTb, JIOrHlfHOcTb/HeJIo '
rHlfHocTb? HaH)J,HTe B CTaTbe CJIOBa H BbIpa)KeHH5I, nO)J,KpenJI5IIOIU Ue
Baruy TOlfKY 3peHH5I.
115

1.2. (вязь с широким контекстом

1. в каком году была написана статья? Соотнесите ее содержание с


культурными условиями и уровнем технического развития соот­
ветствующей эпохи.

2. При выборе варианта для передачи слова pint обратите внимание


на то, в какой стране опубликована эта статья. При необходимо­
сти найдите информацию о том, как в этой стране обычно подают
пиво.

3. При переводе . абзаца, содержащего предложение (8), сначала


вспомните или наведите справки о том, какие ассоциации связаны

в общественном сознании с эпохой 80-х годов ХХ века. Какие из­


менения в культурной жизни (в том числе в музыке и одежде) про­
изошли в это время в западных странах?
4. Что называется (или могло бы называться) nine-to-.five сиltиrе? Что
можно сказать о работе и досуге людей, живущих в рамках этой
культуры? Исходя из этого, как можно интерпретировать смысл
выражения post-nine-to-.five сиltиrе? Какие ее элементы упоми­
нает сам автор статьи? Найдите дополнительную информацию о
массовой культуре соответствующей эпохи. При выборе русского
варианта для передачи jJost-ninе-tо-fivе сиltиrе в первую очередь
вычлените в этом понятии аспекты, представляющие наиболь­
шую важность в данном контексте.

5. Что такое rave сиltиrе и gym сиltиrе? Почему эти вещи названы
disparate? Убедитесь, что логика этого противопоставления в ва­
шем переводе не пропала.

6. Что такое diving watch? Какие конструкционные, функциональные


и внешние черты характерны для этого прибора? При необходимо­
сти уточните, кто и зачем их покупает (покупал во время написа­
ния статьи). В этой же связи уточните, какой продукцией известна
компания «Ролекс».
7. Что такое early adopter? Найдите информацию о том, как опреде­
ляется и какое культурное значение имеет эта категория людей .
8. Что такое сиlt fashion accessories и сиlt techno toys? Приведите
примеры вещей из этих категорий. Что означает в данном случае
определение си lt (проверьте в английском толковом словаре и ори­
гинальных текстах)? В чем и почему, по мысли автора, телефон
превосходит вещи этих двух типов?
9. Что такое Eminem "Stan" tиnе? Какое отношение это явление имеет
к мобильным телефонам?
10. При переводе заключительной части предложения (15) уточните,
что означает рrеmiиm-rаtе в контексте телефонов. При чем тут
tabloids? При окончательной правке перевода предложения убеди­
тесь, что его части логично друг с другом согласуютсЯ с позиции
сочетаемости.
11. Найдите основную информацию о человеке по имени Тimo
Коротаа. Чем он занимается и чем известен? Как пишется его имя
116 Yp°1(11

rrO-PYCCKI1? KaK Bbl rrOHHMaeTe culture of interruption? IIpoBepbTe,


cooTBeTcTByeT JIH rrpe.D,JIO)KeHHbIll BaMI1 BapHaHT rrepe.D,aql1 :noro Co-
qeTaHIUI Hall.D,eHHOll BaMH HH<poPMallHI1 H 3ByqHT JIH OH .D,OCTaTOqBo
TepMI1HOJIOrHQHo.
12. KaK Bbl rrOHHMaeTe rrpe.D,JIO)KeHHe (17)? KaKoe OTHOllIeHHe I1Mee"]"
M06HJIbHblll TeJIe<poH K rpy6ocTH, K TOMY, qTO Ha3BaHO sticking to
arrangements? B qeM CMblCJI cpaBHeHlUI, cO.D,ep)KaIllerOCH BO BTOP O\i
qaCTI1 rrpe.D,JIO)KeHHH? qTO TaKoe (B TOM qHCJIe C COIIHaJIbHO-<pYHKIlI1-
OHaJIbHOll TOqKH 3peHI1H) a cocktail party? KaKoe .D,ellCTBHe ()KeCT)
rrpHrJIaUleHHOro Ha 3TO MeporrpHHTHe 3.D,eCb orrHcaH? B qeM <PY HK-
IIHOHaJIbHblll CMbICJI 3Toro .D,ellCTBHH (rrOQeMY OHO rrpe.D,CTaBJIHe TCj{
HeBe)KJIHBbIM)?

1.3. 4acTHble Sl3blKOBble TPYAHOCTIII

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Ha BaUl B3rml.D" HHOCTpaHHoe C·JIOBO MO)KeT/.D,OJI)KHO 6bITb 3aHMCTBO-
BaHO, a B KaKHX lleJIecoo6pa3Hee rrepe.D,aBaTb era .D,pyrHMH crrOC06aMl1
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CpaBHI1Te BaUlI1 peUleHHH C TeMI1 BapHaHTaMI1, KOTopble MO)KHO HallTI1
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06paTI1Te oco60e BHHMaHHe Ha TO, KaK OHa CBH3bIBaeT rrpe.D,bI.D,YIllee M
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aHrJlHllCKOM TeKCTe rrpl1TH)I(aTeJIbHbIX MeCTOI1Memdi ,[IJIH 0603HaQeHMli
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4. qTO IfMeeTCH B BIf.D,Y B rrpe.D,JIO)KeHHHX (3) H (4)? IIpM Heo6xo.D,HMOCTM
rrpoBepbTe 3HaqeHlfe BbIpa)Kem"lH at work B TOJIKOBOM CJJOBape If opM-
rHHaJIbHbIX aHrJIHllCKI1X KOHTeKCTax. B 'leM aBTOp BH.D,HT rrpoTHBO-

11 CM. JIaH'IHI(OB B.K. CeMb 3a6nYlKAeHHH OTHOCHTen&HO 3aH MCTBOBaHHH II MoCTbl


N2N2 3(7)- 4(8)/2005. - M.: P.BaneHT, 2005 [3neI(TpOHHbIH pecypc). - PelKHM AOCTyna: http://
www.thinkaloud .ru/ feature/la n-borrowlngs.doc.
117

peqH:e B npe,1l)10)l(emm (4)? KaKOe rrOBe):J;eHlle nOCeT llTe JIeM 6hlJIO 6 hl


60JIee JIOrllqHhIM C TOqKll 3peHll~ npaKTHqHOCTH?
5, l.JTO ~BJI~eTC~ peMoM B npe):J;JIO)l(eHllll (5)? 06paT llTe BHHMaHHe Ha pac-
npe):J;eJIeHlle TeMaTllqeCKOrO II peMaTllqeCKOrO :meMeHTOB B KOHCT PYK-
Ullll C as well as. 03HaKOMhTeCh C COOTBeTCTBYIOmeM CTaTheM B MHC.
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KOHTeKcTyaJIhHbIM CMhICJI . Y6e):J;H:TeCh, qTO YKa3aHH:e Ha npOllCXO)l():J;e-
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n . Ha KaKoe Ka'leCTBO YKa3hIBaeT onpe):J;eJIeHlle designer?
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embrace? I1poBephTe ero 3Ha'leHHe B TOJIKOBOM aHrJIHMCKOM CJIOBape II
npll He06xo):J;HMOCTll npOaHaJIH:3wpYMTe oc06eHHOCTH: ero ynoTpe6JIe-
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MO)l(HO 06paTH:ThC~ K COOTBeTCTBYIOllleMY pa3):J;eJIY B ex.
10. KaK BhI nOHllMaeTe CMhICJI npe):J;JIO)l(eHllH (7)? B qeM 3aKJIIO'laeTC~ onH-
caHHa~ B HeM MeTaMop<p03a H B qeM ee npllqHHa? I1PH BhI60pe OKOH-
'laTeJIhHOrO Bap"aHTa nepeBO):J;a paCCMOTpHTe B03MO)l(Hhle BapHaHThI C
ll3MeHeHHeM nO):J;JIe)l(alllerO npe):J;JIO)l(eHH:~.

1l. l.JTO TaKoe tumble dryer H KaK 3TO YCTPOMCTBO pa60TaeT? ECTh JIll npH-
'lHHhI ):J;JI~ nepe):J;a'lH: 3Toro nOH~TH~ B ):J;aHHOM KOHTeKCTe <PYHKUHO-
HaJIhHhIM aHaJIOrOM H KaKlle?
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3Toro CJIOBa B TOJIKOBOM aHrJIHMCKOM CJIOBape H npOaHaJIH3H:pYMTe
KOHTeKCThI ero ynoTpe6JIeHH~ . KaKa~ MeTaciwpa JIe)l(llT B OCHOBe 3 Toro
3Ha'leHH~?
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y~CHllTh ce6e CMhICJI Ka)l():J;oro ero 3JIeMeHTa . YTOq HHTe B TOJIKOBOM
aHrJIHMcKOM CJIOBape 3HaqeHlle CJIOBa dismiss. I1pHMHTe B paC'leT TO,
'lTO Bhlpa)l(aeMOe 3TH M rJIarOJIOM ):J;eMCTBHe B ):J;aH H OM CJIY'lae MO)l(eT
OTHOCHThC~ He TOJIhKO K TeM , Y Koro 6hIJIH trainers.
14. KaKHM COqeTaHHeM ~BJI~eTC~ big, wide world: cB060)J,HhIM llJIll <pp a-
3eOJIOrllqeCKll cB~3a HHhIM? KaKHe nOCJIe)J,CTBll~ OT BeT Ha 3TOT Bonp oc
6Y)J,eT HMeTh ):J;JI~ BhI60pa BapHaHTa nepeBo)J,a ?
15. l.JTO 0 3HaqaeT H: KaK ynoTpe6JI~eTC~ Bhlpa)l(eHlle to do one's own thing?
Y6e):J;HTech , 'lTO npe)J,JIO)l(eHHhIM BaMll BapHaHT nepe Bo):J;a <PY H KUHO-
HaJIhHO cooTBeT c TByeT a HrJIH:MCKOMY BhIpa )l(eHHIO.
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y qeJIOBeKa M06 H JIhHOrO TeJIe<poHa? 06b~CHllTe ce6e, n OqeMY a BTop
np"XO):J;HT K TaKOMY BhIBO):J;Y· I1pe)l():J;e qeM n p e):J;JIaraTh OKOH qaTeJIhHhIM
118

BapHaHT rrepe.n;a'fH KOHCTPYKIJ,HH C Hape'fHeM too, rrO.n;YMaHTe Bcer _


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CTHJIHCTH'feCKOM OTHOIlleHHHX 3KBHBaJIeHTOM 3Toro Hape'fHH. IIpo_
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KOHCTPYKIJ,HH C Bbl.n;eJIeHHblMH CJIOBaMH.
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PYHTe CTPYKTYPY rrpe.n;JIo)J(eHHH (11). Ha KaKHX rrpoTHBorrOCTaBJIeHfI_
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CJIOBape 3Ha'IeHHe CJIOBa usurp. IIO'feMY pe'fb H.n;eT 0 more ways than
one? qTO, eCJIH rOBopHTb B 06IlleM, M06HJIbHble TeJIe<j:>oHbI c.n;eJIaJIH C
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(B)? IIPH He06xo.n;HMOCTH YTO'fHHTe KOHTeKCTbI era yrroTpe6JIeHHH.
qTO B .n;aHHOM cJIY'Iae BKJIIO'faeTCH B O.n;HH pH.n; C .n;pyrHMH cultural
phenomena?
20. KaK Bbl rrOHHMaeTe rrpe.n;JIo)J(eHHe (14)? IIo.n;YMaHTe, B 'feM 3aKJIIO'fa-
eTCH pa3HHIJ,a Me)J(.n;y 'fHCTO YTHJIHTapHbIM rrpe.n;MeTOM H rrpe.n;MeTOM ,
Ba)J(HOH xapaKTepHCTHKOH KOToporo HBJIHeTCH .n;H3aHH. B 'feM pa3HHll.a
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rrpH60p H3 Y)J(e norrYJIHpHOH Ha pbIHKe TOBapHOH KaTeropHH?
21. IIPH rrepeBo.n;e npe.n;JIo)J(eHHH (15) CHa'IaJIa onpe.n;eJIHTeCh C BapHaHToM
rrepe.n;a'fH CJIOBOCO'feTaHHH novelty ringtone. qTO B .n;aHHOM cJIY'Iae
03Ha'IaeT novelty? IIpoBepbTe 3Ha'feHHe 3Toro CJIOBa B TOJIKOBOM aH-
rJIHHCKOM CJIOBape. HaH.n;HTe npHMepbl yrroTpe6JIeHHH 3Toro CJIOBa B
aYTeHTHqHhlX opHrHHaJIbHbIX TeKCTax II 06paTHTe BHHMaHHe, rro OT -
HOIlleHHIO K KaKOH KaTeroplIH BeIlleH OHO 06blqHO yrroTpe6JIHeTcH. Co-
OTHeCHTe HaH.n;eHHYIO BaMH IIH<j:>opMaIJ,HIO C TeM, qTO BaM H3BeCTHO 0
MeJIo.n;HHX 3BOHKOB H HX 3BOJIIOll.HII.
22 . KaKIIMI1 xapaKTeplIcTIIKaMII 06JIa.n;aIOT JIIO.n;II, Bxo.n;HIllHe B KaTero-
pHIO internet whizz kids? CooTHeclITe rrpe.n;JIaraeMblH BaMII BaplIaHT
nepe.n;a'IlI 3 Toro COqeTaHl1H C KOHTeKCTOM npe.n;JIo)J(eHHH (15): KaKIIM H
3HaHl1HMlI II YMeHIIHMII .n;OJI)J(HbI 6bIJIlI 06JIa.n;aTb 3TH JIIO.n;H, 'IT06bI CO -
BepIllaTh YKa3aHHhle .n;eHCTBI1H?
23. Ha KaKoe, BepoHTHO, 3HaKOMoe BaM HBJIeHlIe .n;eHcTBHTeJIhHOCTII YKa -
3bIBaeT npe.n;JIo)J(eHlIe (16)? MO)J(eT JII1 C TOqKH 3peHHH JIOrlIKH PYCCKO -
ro H3hIKa M06lIJIhHblH TeJIe<j:>oH 6blTb Ha3BaH soundtrack II 'ITO TaKoe,
no CyTII .n;eJIa, soundtrack to bars, supermarkets and cinema foyers?
IIo.n;YMaHTe 0 B03MO)J(HhIX JIeKCIIKO-CHHTaKClIqeCKHX nepeCTpoeHlIlI X
.n;aHHoro npe.n;JIO)J(eHlIlI nplI nepeBo.n;e Ha PYCCKIIH.
24. KaKoH CMbICJI B :nOM KOHTeKCTe l1MeeT CJIOBO inappropriate? IIOqeMY,
KaK BaM Ka)J(eTClI, OHO npl1Be.n;eHo B KaBblqKax? I1plI He06xo.n;HMOCTH
YTOQHHTe era 3HaQeHHe B TOJIKOBOM CJIOBape II nOCMOTpl1Te COOTBeT-
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119

2. Ynpa>KHeHIIUI

2.1. HeocBoeHHble 3ali1MCTBOBaHIi111

The competition hasn't yet matched Apple's marriage of hardware and


software, so elegant, easy to use and playful. But the sense of style that
Apple made so popular increasingly permeates the electronic devices
we use today, no matter who makes them, and that trend seems likely to
continue. (G., Oct. 6, 11)
2. lle60KcapcKaH MOnO)W)I(b YBneKnacb rrOMCKaMM BTOPOH rronoBMHKM B
CKOPOCTHOM pe)l(MMe. B EBporre M ClllA 3Kcrrpecc-cBM..a;aHMH ..a;aBHO
rrpeBpaTMnMcb B MO..a;HbIH TpeH..a; - MX rroce~alOT «3Be3..a;bI» MrroKa3bl-
BalOT B KMHO. (KoMcoMonbcKaH rrpaB..a;a - Ka3aHb, 10 OKT. 2011)
3. Nevertheless, the changing age profile of Facebook is interesting. It
confirms something I've noticed: the slightly desperate enthusiasm among
some parents to develop their online profiles. It's one thing to be doing it
as a way of spying on their children (not admirable, but understandable).
It's quite another, unnatural and mildly cringe-making, when the middle-
aged say they love nothing better than Twitter, or demand that you become
their "friend." Thank you, but no. If I want to tell you what I've been
doing, I'll tell you. If I want to show you some pictures, we'll meet for
coffee. And I've got plenty of friends, as opposed to "friends." Friends
in my book are people I meet in real life because I enjoy their company.
Middle-aged cybermania, by contrast, is just people trying to boast about
how wonderful their lives are now. (g.co.uk, Aug. 9, 09)
4. IIpaBMTenbcTBo rrpoBMHIIMM EpMTaHcKaH KonYM6MH, HarrpMMep, c 1
OKTH6pH 2011 ro..a;a 6y..a;eT 6ecrrnaTHo cHa6)1(aTb KypMnb~MKoB, )l(enalO-
~MX rrOKOH'fMTb c Bpe..a;HoH rrpMBbI'fKOH, cpe..a;cTBaMM 3aMecTMTenbHoH
HMKOTMHOBOH TeparrMM. «XanHBa» rrpo..a;nMTcH 12 He..a;enb, TO eCTb rrpM-
6nM3MTenbHo..a;0 PO)l(..a;eCTBa. B HOBbIH ro..a; rro..a;orre'fHbIe rocy..a;apCTBeH-
Horo 3..a;paBooxpaHeHMH ..a;on)l(HbI 6y..a;YT nM60 BOHTI1 CB060..a;HbIMI1 OT
CI1rapeTHoH MaHMM, nI160 rrpo..a;on)l(I1Tb pea6MnI1TaIIMIO 3a CBOH C'feT.
(bcm.ru, 3 OKT. 2011)
5. Most men now know what bag works for them - satchel, briefcase,
rucksack. So there's a new accessory focus in menswear: fancy things to
house gadgets, such as laptop sleeves and phone covers. (G., Oct. 11, 11)
6. B CIlIA Ha6I1palOT rrorrynHpHocTb aBTOMaTI13I1pOBaHHbIe TepMI1HanbI
rro rrpI1eMy rro..a;ep)l(aHHbIX M06I1nbHbIX Tene<poHOB I1nI1 mp3-rrneepoB.
C I1X rrOMO~blO MO)l(HO c..a;aTb YCTapeBrrII1H ra,[(meT 11 cpa3y )l(e rrony-
'fMTb ..a;eHbrM. (vesti.ru, 12 OKT. 2011)
7. The Russian rescue operation to save crew members trapped in the Kursk
submarine was doomed from the start because the navy did not have a
deep-sea diving team, it was disclosed yesterday. (G., Aug. 21, 00)
8. TYPH3M, BKnlO'faH ,[(aHBHHr, HBnHeTCH rnaBHbIM HCTO'fHI1KOM ..a;OXO..a;OB
MapmaJIJIOBbIX OCTPOBOB, Ha KOTOPbIX )l(HBeT TonbKO 68 TbICH'! 'feno-
BeK. (IIpaB..a;a.py, 7 OKT. 2011)
120 Yp o~~

9. The days of labelling women as rampant shopaholics could be


numbered - it is men who have been spending their way through the
recession, according to a report today. (g.co.uk, Aug. 11, 09)
10. CaMoe pacnpocTpaHeHHoe onaceHHe Ha'IHHaJorn:ero HHTepHeT-llIo_
nOrOJlHKa - B,npyr MOllIeHHHKH yKpa,nyT MOH ,neHbrH? TaK, MHO-
rHe MOH 3HaKoMble rOBopHT 0 TOM, 'ITO cKyrrHJIH 6b1 Bce, 'ITO eCTi,
Ha caihe, HO 60HTCH OCTaBJIHTb ,naHHb1e cBoeM 6aHKOBCKOH: KapTbl.
(fashiontime. ru)

2.2. Y~eT Me)KbR3blKOBblX pa3m"~1II17I B cnoco6ax


aKTyal1bHoro ~l1eHeHIIIR. npeo6pa30BaHIIIR,
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B conOCTaBIIITel1bHblX KOHCTPYKL\IIIRX.
OTHoweHIIIR cocYl1.\eCTBOBaHIIIR

1. The sea is potentially a source of vast amount of electrical energy, as


well as haddock. Scientists predict that some day, possibly as early as
next week, whole cities would be powered by the sea. (D. Barry)
2. Environmental regulations have stifled exploration, as well as power-
plant and refinery construction, electrical lines and gas pipes are
bottlenecked. The entire West, as well as states like New York, faces
energy crises and blackouts. (lnd., May 19,01)
3. "The UNESCO declaration [making Tarragona a world heritage site]
has been a tremendous boost for Tarragona," says Sr Mejuto. " For
many locals it has awoken a new pride in their history. Many of them
are ashamed that they know so little about their home town's past. So
guided tours are being arranged for the local community as well as for
tourists." (T., Apr. 23, 01)
4. "Marriage is no longer for having children - pre-martial sex is the norm ,"
explained Dr Reibstein. "Nowadays, marriage is when we commit to
fidelity, when we have found the person who will mean everything, who
is our best friend as well as our lover." (Ind., Apr. 15, 01)
5. In an attempt to appeal to movie fans as well as thrill seekers, the neW
park [Disneyland Paris] has an artistic and educational side. There is a
vast cinema showing a compilation of classic movies, including many
European favourites as well as American ones. (Ind. , Mar. 16,02)
6. He [Bill Clinton] has become the world's most celebrated public figu re -
treated as much like a rock star as an elderly statesman on multiple
continents, from poverty-stricken areas of Africa to the counsels of the
British Labour Party to business kingpins. (LH .T., Sep. 25, 06)
7. We believe that Br itain now needs to succeed where it has historicaily
failed - to shape, as well as be shaped by, Europe's development. (Ind .,
Apr. 9, 02)
8. NASA chiefs were last night accused of presiding over a culture of
complacency which compromised safety and contributed to February 's
catastrophic loss of the space shuttle Columbia. Weak management was
l21

"as muc.h a cause:' of the disaster as the craft's technical failings, said
the officIal report mto the destruction. (D.T., Aug. 27, 03)
9. Human beings have a hard time dealing not just with pain, but also
with long-term problems, especially ones that don't necessarily show
immedi~te effects. Whe~her it's planning for retirement or losing weight,
we find It too easy to dIsregard very clear science - and disregard our
long-term health - in order to satiate our immediate desires. There's no
excuse for the sort of half-fictions and outright lies that too often make
up the climate-change-denial machine, but it's human psychology _
as much as politics - that's preventing us from dealing with one of the
greatest threats the species faces. (Time, Qct. 04, 11)
10. The most famous wines are invariably excellent, but prices reflect cachet
and scarcity as much as quality. Buyers are often wealthy collectors
who have no intention of drinking them, or speculators who plan to sell
at a handsome profit five or ten years hence. (N.Y.T., Times Topics)
<;>

2.3. KaY3aTIIIBHble KOHCTPYK4111111,


COAep>Kal1lllle YKa3aHllle Ha CTeneHb Ka4eCTBa
IIInlll Konlll4eCTBa. ,lJ,ocTIII>KeHllle onpeAeneHHoliI
CTeneHIII Ka4eCTBa/KonIll4eCTBa
npeAonpeAenReTHeB03MO>KHOCTb
>KenaeMorO/O>KIIIAaeMOro AelilCTBIIIR
l. Doctors in central London have complained of a bureaucratic nightmare
over a scheme to refund the congestion charge to patients who are
too ill to take public transport to surgeries. Under rules drawn up by
mayor's office, doctors can approve a refund if patients are poor enough
to get means-tested benefits, sick enough to need regular therapy and
too weak to take the bus. (G., Feb. 14, 03)
2. Most of the light from stars and other objects like planets in the universe
is doubly invisible. It comes in the form of infrared, or heat radiation,
with wavelengths too long for our eyes to pick up. (N.Y.T., Dec. 7, 09)
3. No man is ever too old to look at a woman, and no woman is ever too
fat to hope that he will look. (H.L. Mencken)
4. According to a survey published yesterday, more than a half of all British
children under ten say that they feel 'stressed out.' There is, of course, only
one solution to the problem: antidepressants from birth, prophylactically
as it were. This would gratify the pharmaceutical industry no end, boost
share prices and prove what psychiatrists have said all along, that you are
never too young to be miserable. (T., Feb. 27, 04)
5. In an unusual self-imposed moratorium, chefs at some 25 top restauran~s
along the East Coast and into Texas are dropping swordfis? from then
menus. The reason: fears that overfishing of North AtlantIc swordfish
could leave the species too rare to be worth hunting: (LH.T., Ja?-. 22, 98)
6. The television set is no longer the cutting-edge object of ~e~lre that It
used to be. Impossible to integrate into the stylish modern Slttmg-room,
122 YpOl(l!

----
it more often than not squats like a large toad in the corner of yOUr
living space - too big, too black and too damn bulky to be anything
other than a complete eyesore. (lnd., Mar. 6, 99)
7. Paris: The state railway SNCF must pay damages of about £1,000 to two
anti-smoking groups because no-smoking signs at a Lyon station were
"too discreet" to keep smokers informed. (T., Sep. 24, 99)
8. World stock markets are falling, but some ofthose most skilled at playing
them become too rich to care. (D.T., Mar. 31, 01)
9. A primary school on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, decided earlier this
week to change its pupils' uniforms from red to blue and yellow. The
school had discovered, after conducting a research project, that red was
too aggressive a colour to have as a school uniform. (lnd., Jun. 7, 01)
10. A former bus driver who took more than 100 driving tests on behalf of
learners too hopeless to pass themselves was jailed for nine months
yesterday. (G., Jan. 17, 04)
11. Television, people now routinely say, is terrible. We don't like watching
stupid people doing stupid things, as in Big Brother and his oafish
cousins, and we don't like watching clever people doing stupid things, as
in most current documentary shows. Most mainstream British television,
most of the time, is now too awful even to consider watching, even if,
occasionally, one finds oneself seeing it. (Sunday T., Jun. 12, 05)
12. We live in an apathetic age in which people are too scared or too stupid
to have an opinion about anything, for fear of being "offensive." (T.,
Apr. 10,04)
13. She was gorgeous, with a caramel-colored mane and the face of a forties
pinup girl, almost too beautiful for anyone to pay attention to what
was coming out of her mouth. (New York, May 3,04)
14. As an avid listener and composer of electronic music, I find it regrettable
to see the genre commonly portrayed as either pretentiously aloof or too
closely associated with commercial music forms for it to merit any
intellectual consideration. (G., Oct. 13, 01)
15. When he ran Sharp'S [Sharp Corp.] television business in the 19805,
[Katsuhiko] Machida says the firm had trouble competing because it
didn't manufacture the most important TV component, the cathode-ray
tube. Forced to cobble together parts bought from competitors, Sharp
was essentially an assembler, cranking out televisions that were always
a little too expensive and too poorly engineered to attract many
customers. (Time, May 9, 05)
123

) STUDENTS DON'T GO ON DEMOS - OK?

By Toby Harden
)
~

Remember those aimless student days? A week's work completed, there would
be six whole days to waste until the next caffeine-fuelled all-nighter known
as the Essay Crisis(!}. Afternoons would be spent drinking in a dank college
bar, followed by earnest conversation into the early hours. We would then
emerge, blinking in the sunlight at lunchtime, and do it all over again(2).
f For most of us in the Oxford of mid-1980s, life consisted of frequent
parties, much preoccupation with sex and the occasional demo against
Thatcher's education cutS(3).
Today's predicted anti-capitalist demonstrations would have been an
ideal excu se to trek to London for protest(4). The coolest thing a fellow student
achieved in my time was to be pictured on the Guardian front page being led
away by the police after a show of solidarity with striking miners(S).
Alas, this familiar portrait of student life could soon be a historical
phenomenon. According to David Brooks, who identified the Bourgeois
Bohemians - "bobos" - as America's new elite(6), Ivy League universities are
crammed with bright, earnest, respectful workaholics. And what happens in
the USA today is likely to cross the Atlantic tomorrow(7).
Brooks, who has just conducted a pop-cultural study of students at
Princeton, New Jersey, was shocked by what he found. In the latest edition of
Atlantic Monthly, he reports that the militant protesters, alienated cynics and
fraternity house party animals have been replaced by the "Organisation Kid."
OKs "create and join organisations with great enthusiasm,"(8) he says.
"They are responsible, safety-conscious and mature. They feel no compelling
need to rebel - not even a hint of one. They not only defer to authority; they
admire it."(9) Princeton lecturers even said they had trouble getting students to
call them by their first names(lO).
A typical OK's daily routine, Brooks discovered, could include rowing at
dawn, classes in the morning and afternoon, duty as a student adviser, tutoring
disadvantaged children, singing practice, a prayer session, gym training and a
few hours of study before bed(ll).
One OK who went to bed at 2am and rose at 7am explained that she could
afford so much rest because she had perfected a way of studying in her .sleep.
Before dropping off, she would recite a math problem, then dream about It and
find out it had been solved when she woke.
OKs are so busy they have to programme time fo~ c~atting to friends.
When Brooks sent them e-mails before going to bed at mIdlllght, he would get
up to find they had all replied - at l.lSam, 2.S9am and 3.~3a~. .".
"Sometimes we feel like we're just tools for processmg mformatlOn, saId
one student. "It wasn't rational to buck authority once you found out what the
penalties were,"(12) said another, explaining why he had never been to a protest.
124

And sex? Forget it. The OK just hasn't got the time. Discussions about
issues not on the curriculum are scheduled on Palm Pilots. Some OKs have
"friendship with privileges" (ie, with sex) but these relationships are nOt
likely to become serious until years later, when careers are safely on track.
The OK is about to hit Britain when the third series of The Sopranos
the acclaimed television drama about a New Jersey Italian-American Mafi~
family, is shown this year(13). Meadow Soprano, the mob boss's daughter, is
starting at Columbia and meets Noah, her first boyfriend.
Noah turns out to be the ultimate OK. When Meadow's angst-ridden
friend sits in Noah's room pouring out her problems to him, he flunks his
class paper(14). His response? He rings his lawyer father and gets a restraining
order slapped on her so she won't affect future grades.
But Meadows shows that the old student spirit is not yet dead. After
being dumped by Noah(lS), she becomes recklessly unOK, getting drunk,
popping an ecstasy pill, running off with a new boyfriend's car keys, writing
off his Mercedes and then sleeping with him.
True, that may not have been common behaviour during my student
days - but it was the kind of thing which we all aspired to.
Daily Telegraph, May 1, 2001
125

1. Анализ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. Какова тема статьи? Какие явления противопоставляет автор в на­


чале и в конце статьи? К какой группе он относит себя? Какое мне­
ние можно составить из его слов о его соБСтвенном поколении?
2. Как автор относится к социальному типу organisation kid? В ка­
ких конкретно словах и выражениях проявляется авторское

отношение?
3. Какой текст по сути пересказывает автор в своей статье?
4. Как вы понимаете сущность социального типа organisation
kid? Найдите и внимательно про читайте статью Д. Брукса The
Organization Kid. Ответьте для себя на следующие вопросы: в ка­
ких социальных условиях складывался этот тип? Каково отноше­
ние этих молодых людей к работе, учебе, государству и трудовой
этике? Как они относятся к риску? Как они взаимодействуют друг
с другом? В дальнейшем при возникновении вопросов относитель­
но смыслового содержания статьи не забывайте обращаться к тек­
сту Д. Брукса .
5. Откуда , на ваш взгляд , произошло и чем объясняется название
organisation kid? Найдите сведения о происхождении и значении
понятия organisation тап.
6. Подумайте о том, как вы будете передавать центральный термин
статьи - organisation kid. Прежде чем определиться с окончатель­
ным вариантом, назовите пять-шесть основных характеристик

этого типа людей (см. вопрос 4): в варианте перевода вам пред­
стоит отразить наиболее существенные из них. Важно ли, что в
оригинале organisation kid дает аббревиатуру ОК? Если ваш вари­
ант передачи organisation kid будет состоять из двух слов, стоит
ли стремиться к тому, чтобы они давали графически ту же аббре­
виатуру? Приведите аргументы за и против такого решения. Если
вы выбрали вариант перевода, дающий ту же аббревиатуру, как вы
собираетесь ее использовать в тексте статьи? В любом случае про­
верьте , звучит ли предложенный вами вариант перевода достаточ­
но оригинально, чтобы претендовать на роль наименования вновь
открытого явления (в противном случае читателю будет неясно,
создает ли автор новый термин или просто использует привычное
слово (словосочетание)). Если вам сразу не удастся найти удачное
решение, подберите окончательный вариант передачи organisation
kid в процессе перевода статьи или по его окончании.

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. Прежде чем дать окончательный вариант перевода предложения


(1), ВЫЯсните, как обстояло дело с домашними заданиями там, где
126 УР О!(\1

----
учился автор статьи . Что такое в этом контексте essay? ПровеРЬТе
по толковому словарю значение слова «эссе». Опишите для се бjj
хронологию типичной недели сверстников автора в студенчеСК Ие
годы . С чего начинался и чем заканчивался недельный цикл?
2. Прежде чем дать окончательный вариант перевода предложе_
ния (2), опишите для себя типичный распоря док дня сверстников
автора в студенческие годы . Убедитесь , что и з вашего перевода Чи­
тателю понятно время, место и последовательность упоминаем ых

в предложении занятий.
3. О каких аспектах политики М. Тэтчер идет речь во фрагменте (3)?
4. О каком событии идет речь в предложении (4)? Обратите внимаН ие
на дату публикации статьи . Что в западной культуре связано с этой
датой?
5. Найдите основную информацию о Д. Бруксе. На какую его раб о ­
ту ссылается автор статьи (6)? Как вы понимаете смысл термин а
Bourgeois Boheтians? Чтобы оценить нюансы его значения , най­
дите сведения о понятиях bourgeois, boheтian, «буржуа» и «б о ­
гема» в английском и русском языках соответственно. Уточните
историю их развития и характеристики социальных групп, к кот о ­

рым они относились В разное время. Также наведите дополнител ь ­


ные справки о социальном типе, получившем название bourgeois
boheтians.
6. Как вы понимаете смысл фразы (7)? О какой закономерности гово­
рит автор? С чем она связана?
7. Наведите справки об учебном заведении под названием Princeton.
Что сообщает о нем в своей статье Д. Брукс?
8. Что TaKoefraternity в американских университетах? Как с течени­
ем времени менялась деятельность этих объединений? Чем зан и ­
маются и какими чертами обладают члены типичного современно­
го fraternity ? Обратитесь за сведениями к А и другим источникам .
9. Соотнесите смысл утверждений (8) и (9) с тем , что вы выяснили о б
organisation kids. При необходимости еще раз сверьтесь со стать ей
Д. Брукса .
10. В чем именно заключалось затруднение, описываемое в пред ло­
жении (10)? Как вы понимаете продемонстрированный этим пр и­
мером конфликт м ировоззрений нового поколения студентов и
преподавателей?
11 . Переводя пр едложение (11), задумайтесь над тем, что объединяет
почти все пер е числ енные здесь занятия . Поч е му, на ваш в згля д ,
так получилось? Если у вас возникают сомнения по поводу с о­
д ержания тех и ли иных занятий , обрат ит есь к статье Д. Бр укс а
и другим источ н ик а м , описывающим жи з н ь с тудентов в СШ А
В том числе выясни те, чем занимается student advis er ичто в дан­
ном контексте означает futoring disadvan taged children. Как ие
дети относятся к этой категории? Почему им требуется tutoring?
Наведите справки о том , как, кем и зачем ос у щеСТВляется эта де ­
ятельность в СШ А .
127

12. Переводя высказывание (12), установите его контекст в ста Д


тье .
Брукса. Обратите внимание, как высказывание, изначально от-
носящееся к конкретному инциденту, при цИтировании в статье
приобре'IJает характер более общего утверждения. Постарайтесь
сохранить ту же двуплановость впереводе.

13. Найдите дополнительную информацию о сериале, упоминаемом


во фрагменте (13). Наведите справки о главных героях, сроках
трансляции и восприятии фильма в современной американской
культуре. Что вы знаете о судьбе этого сериала в России?
14. Постарайтесь найти сведения о содержании серии, пересказывае­
мой автором. Соотнесите ваш перевод предложения (14) с найден­
ной информацией.
15. Что такое restraining order? Кто его выдает и как он действует?

1.3. Частные яз ыковые труд ност и

1. Что такое colZege bar? Найдите в Интерне те описания типичных


заведений этого ти па и учтите эти сведения при выборе варианта
перевода. На какую атмосферу в этом заведении указывает при­
лагательное dank?
2. При переводе предложения (3) обратите внимание на согласование
однородных членов с управляющим ими словом . Насколько мор­
фологически еди нообразны однородные члены в вашем переводе?
3. При переводе предложения (5) обратите особое внимание на мо­
дальность высказ ы вания. Описывает ли автор воображаемое или
реальное событие? Подумайте о возможностях синтаксической
перестройки предл ожения.
4. Выбирая вариант для передачи глагола identify, еще раз вспомни­
те, что связывает Д. Брукса и понятие Bourgeois Bohemians. В чем
именно была новаторская роль Д. Брукса?
5. Что такое Ivy League? Наведите справки, в том числе в А. Какой
способ для передачи реалий вы выберете? Чем мотивирован ваш
выбор? Проанализируйте упражнение 2.1. и предложите способы
передачи выделенных реалий.
6. Как вы понимаете прилагательное pop-cultural? На что оно указы­
вает: на объект или на характер исслеДОJ!'ания? Что такое popular
culture? Что конкретно исследовал Д. Брукс?
7. Для выбора корректного варианта передачи названия издания
Atlantic Monthly наведите о нем справки (в том числе в А).
8. Как вы понимаете причастие alienated? проверьте значение гла­
гола, от которого оно образовано, вхтолковоМ английском слова­
ре . Какой типаж оно помогает создать вкупе с существительным
cynic?
9. Почему описываемые в тексте студенты охарактеризованы как
safety-conscious? Уточните, правильно ли вы поняли это определе­
ние, обратившись к статье Д. Брукса. В чем разница между safety
128

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2.1. nepeAal.la peallllllll

2.1.1. Peanuu-anmpononuMbl

1. Technological advance and greater global economic integration are


simply realities. To oppose them is to oppose the tide, which worked out
poorly for King Canute. (I.H.T., Oct. 13, 97)
2. It was not all champagne receptions and £30-a-head meals for government
ministers in Brighton. Virginia Bottomley, the health secretary, polished
her Florence Nightingale image by touring a local hospital while most
top Tories enjoyed late-night parties. (T., Oct. 11, 92)
3. The myth of clean-cut GIs fighting clean John Wayne-esque wars died
on March 16, 1968, when Lieut. William Calley and members ofCharlie
Company ran amok in the Vietnamese village of My Lai, slaughtering
more than 500 unarmed civilians, mostly elderly people, women and
children. (D.T., Mar. 16, 98)
4. People hate Microsoft even more than they hate the government. Mr.
Gates has gone from Horatio Alger similes to virus similes. Frederic
Warren Boulton, another antitrust expert, told The New Yorker: "Gates is
like smallpox. You have to go in there and you have to nail it. If you leave
it lying around, it will just come back." (LH.T., Jan. 22, 98)
5. I was waiting in the checkout line, zoning out as usual, when I had a Rip
van Winkle moment at the magazine racks. Emerging from my coma, I
12 CM.: oY3a.L\lKH ~.M. CTPYKTYPbl H CBl\3H. 0 POJlH CHHTaKCHCa B lIepeBO.L\e /I MOCTbl
N2 4(16)/2007 [::JJleKTpOHHbIM pecypc]. - PelKHM .L\OcTYlIa: http://www.thinkaloud.ru/ feature/
buz-syntax.pdf.
129

hazily scanned the faces on the covers of the celebrity mags and realized
I didn't have a clue who most of them were. CVF., Aug., 04)
6. E~bryonic stem cells are tho~ght to be the ~eligs of human biology _
miraculously capable of renewmg themselves mdefinitely and taking the
traits of any other cell in the body. (New York, Jan., 3, 05)

2.1.2. PeaJluU-mOnoHuMbl

1. Never trust a fat man in a thin country, says an ancient Central Asian
proverb of modern relevance. It was hard not to recall the proverb this
week, after the publication of photographs of Saddam Hussein's Sijood
palace. Neither the White House nor 10 Downing Street nor even the
Elysee Palace compares in ostentation to Sijood. (LH.T., Dec. 7~8, 02)
2. [Barry] Goldwater wrote that he had been "better equipped,
psychologically" for military life than for politics. "If I had my life to
live over again, I'd go to West Point," he said in his autobiography.
(New York Review of Books, May 17,01)
3. One by one, icons of the French way of life are under attack. The
government is to ban smoking in public places, threatening an end to
the smoke-filled cafe beloved of students. Speed cameras on motorways
are bringing to a halt the annual August carnage as families rush to the
beach. Now it looks as if "Liberation," a newspaper founded by Jean-
Paul Sartre that is the bible of the left-bank intelligentsia, could be
heading into history. What is happening to France? (E., Oct. 21, 06)
4. Dr Carey grew up in Dagenham and is proud of the fact that he can call
himself a true Cockney, born within earshot of Bow Bells. (lnd., Mar. 6,
97)
5. If the DTI [Department of Trade and Industry] sword were to fall on
every businessman who had been economical with truth about his
assets, the City would shrink to Square Inch. (T., Feb. 13,99)
6. Alabama, the steely buckle on America's Bible belt, made it a law this
week that every child must start school with a minute's silence. It is
a way of resuming morning prayers 35 years after the Supreme Court
banned them. (D.T., May 2, 98)

2.1.3. PeaJlUu (pa3Hoe)

1. The Bush team grasped that key swing groups, such as suburban "soccer
moms" - for whom Ms Hughes [George Bush's communication director]
has a particular good feel - disliked the harsh tone of the Gingrich
Republicans during the Clinton impeachment hearings. "Talk sweet,
and you can make then do almost anything," was the quiet message to
disgruntled Right-wingers. ~D.T., Dec. 8, 01) .
2. Living in the United States m the nineteen-thirties, or fifties, one would
have to be Amish not to know about [stripteaser] Gypsy Rose Lee. (N.Y.,
Feb. 28, 05)
130

3. Ian Pierpoint, of specialist researchers Vegas, who carried out the research
for the RBI [Research Business International], said: "11 September was a
JFK moment for Britons. The question ' Where were you when ...?' will
be asked for many years because the attacks made a carefree generation
wake up to the fact that life can suddenly end." (Obs., Dec. 9, 01)
4. As we show on the Guardian's fashion pages today, shorts are a serious
mistake. They may be all right for Andre Agassi on the Centre Court.
But for the most men there is one simple rule on wearing shorts: Don't.
Why is it that men seem to have this incurable urge to get out of trousers
on hearing the first cuckoo? (G., May 27, 98)
5. Britain's high child custody rate demonstrates three kinds offailure: two
attributable to the public sector and one for which we must all take the
blame. First, the public sector gives disproportionate attention to policing
children, rather than to improving childhood. Second, the system
rewards "charge of the Light Brigade" initiatives. Media attention and
political rewards come from doing the glorious but ineffective, rather
than the dull but long term. (G. , Sep. 25, 08)
6. Flash mobs are Python-esque street theatre events organised by email.
Big crowds of strangers suddenly materialise at a predetermined
location, act out a series of actions and then melt away, leaving
bystanders bewildered and amused . (G., Aug. 7, 03)
7. Globalised free trade is eating itself. It was billed as a way of spreading
wealth throughout the world, by out-sourcingjobs, so that back home we
could benefit from cheap goods while simultaneously providing money
to the world's poorest. Inevitably, however, those who would have been
doing those jobs in developed countries don't even have the wherewithal
to consume the cheap stuff. D'oh! (G., Aug. 10, 11)

2.2. nepeAa4a onpeAeneHlII1II Tlllna


«c ~ecTBIIITenbHoe/Ha e4111e + conscious»
1. His [referring to Anders Dahlvig, the former CEO of Ikea] response to
criticism that Ikea is encouraging consumerism is that as long as people
want home furnishings it is better that they are sold by a company that
produces them in the most environmentally and socially conscious
way. (g.co.uk, Jan. 19, 12)
2. Recently, members of the Congressional Black Caucus urged the
president to adopt more race-conscious policies to redu'Ce black and
Latino unemployment rates, which are at 16 percent and 11 percent,
respectively. (N.Y.T., Sep. 21, 11)
3. N~w year's resolutions take many forms, but a good number have to do
WIth eating better and getting more exercise. Both goals can be pursued
at health clubs with on-site cafes that serve food geared to fitn ess-
conscious patrons. (N.Y.T., Dec. 30, 11)
4. In March 2011 , Starbucks marked its 40th anniversary with a redesigned
logo and a spate of new products, including a new line of calorie-
131

conscious food and two types of coffee that will be marketed for a
limited time. (N.YT. , Mar. 11 , 11)
5. The airline [Ryanair], which says it has picked up business as cost-
conscious European consumers move to lower-cost airlines, expects
passenger numbers to grow to 80 million from 76 million (G., Jan. 17, 12).
6. Thanks to the employees, the factory 's energy consumption is kept to a
minimum; staff will only turn lighting and heating on when and where it
is really necessary and as a result, it is hardly used in the summer months.
Ecover also stimulates energy-conscious behaviour outside the factory
walls; employees are encouraged to travel to work regularly by bicycle or
car share and are remunerated for their efforts. (g.co.uk, Jan. 14, 12)
7. The taste among mainland Chinese consumers for luxury brands is
nothing new. Louis Vuitton first set up shop in Beijing in 1992, and now
has almost 40 outlets inside the country; within a few years Burberry
will have 100. More notable is the current effort being expended by UK
stores to target high-spending Chinese tourists who will - they hope -
plug the gap left by austerity-conscious Britons. (g.co.uk, Dec. 27, 11)
8. Brand-conscious Brazilians love to use their money - cash, above all -
ranking first per capita in spending among the top 10 groups of foreign
visitors to the United States, a list that includes the French, British and
Germans. (N.Y.T., Dec. 27, 11)
9. This year also showed, however, that even if people know enough
to fores ee and prepare for climate-related hazards, they can still be
taken unawares by geophysical forces. Japan is the most earthquake-
conscious society on the planet, its engineers are the most sophisticated.
Tsunami - all too often generated by seismic shock - is a Japanese word.
And yet the magnitude 9 Tohoku earthquake that hit Japan in March
took both a nation and its scientists by surprise: the violence was 100
times greater than anything anyone had expected. (g.co.uk, Dec. 2 6, 11)
10. These are body-conscious times, but compared to women, men are still
the timid sex when it comes to intimate appareL Most men don't even buy
their own briefs, their wives and mothers do it for them. (N.Y.T., Jan. 13, 99)

2.3. IJpIIIAaTo4Hble npeAl10>KeHlllfI III 060POTbl,


Bblpa>KalOl1.\lIIe npeAweCTBYIOl1.\ee AelilcTBllle/
COCTOflHllle
1. Russia faced financial chaos last night after the rouble collapsed and
long queues formed at banks as people withdrew their savings. (D.T.,
Aug. 27, 98)
2. The golfer lan Woosnam, who won the US Masters ~itle t,:o yea.rs ag?,
)

:l has been charged with drink-driving after an acc~den~ l~ h1ch hIS :v


£75,000 open-topped Mercedes was written off and hIS WIfe 1.nJured. The
accident occurred near Shrewsbury, Shropshire, abou~ 15 mmutes after
j he had flown in from Jersey in his private aircraft. pohce ~o~firmed that
Mr Woosnam was arrested on Tuesday evening after glvmg a breath
test and was charged after further tests at Shrewsbury police station. He
132

is due to appear before Shrewsbury magistrates on July 5. Mr Woosnalll


was driving near Myddle, a village north of Shrewsbury, after landing
at Sleap airfield. The car left the road on a sharp right-hand bend and
demolished a 43ft hedge. Mr Woosnam, 36, escaped unhurt but his wife
Glendryth, 32, suffered minor rib injuries and shock. (T., Jun. 26, 93) ,
3. An 18-year-old man who made a hoax bomb threat to Heathrow
International Airport within days of the Sept.11 attacks in the United
States was sentenced Friday to two years in a young offenders'
institution. The youth, Alexander Waiters, admitted making the hoax
call to Heathrow - one of the world's busiest airports - after the police
traced it to his mobile phone. (LH.T., Nov. 24- 25, 01)
4. A 92-year-old woman died after she tried to rescue her car after her
television set blew up and started a fire at her home in Alhampton,
Somerset. A verdict of accidental death was recorded on Cynthia Curtis
Rowland at an inquest in Wells. (G., Aug. 9, 02)
5. Nigel Dempster, the veteran Daily Mail gossip columnist, was branded
a liar by a judge yesterday after losing a two-year legal battle against a
drink-driving charge. Dempster, 61, who was arrested in February 2001
after crashing his car into a lamppost after drinking a bottle of wine,
was banned from the road immediately. (T., Jun. 11, 03)
6. He [Saddam Hussein] and six co-defendants are accused of killing 143
people after an unsuccessful assassination attempt on him in 1982.
(G., Oct. 19, 05)
7. After much fanfare, the world's biggest passenger plane, the Airbus
A380 superjumbo, landed at Heathrow airport today, completing its first
commeroial flight to Europe. (G., Mar. 18, 08)
8. Officials at Dover Air Force Base in Delaware, the entry point for the
nation's war dead, retaliated against four employees after they raised
concerns about the mishandling of service members' remains, according
to an independent agency that investigates whistle-blower complaints in
the federal government. (N.Y.T., Jan. 31 ,12)
9. The plea for congressional hearings on the military's efforts to prevent
hazing was highly personal for one lawmaker. Rep. Judy Chu's nephew
killed himself in Afghanistan last year after hours of beatings, repeated
pushups and mouthfuls of sand. Three Marines aliegedly punished
21-year-old Lance Cpl. Harry Lew after he was caught sleeping on duty.
(Newsday, Feb. 2, 12)
10. A new audiotape emerged Thursday of the first contact between Livorno
port officials and the Costa Concordia - and the captain is heard
insisting that his cruise ship only had a blackout a full 30 minutes after it
had rammed into a reef. Capt. Francesco Schettino, who was jailed after
he left the ship before everyone was safely evacuated, is under house
arrest, facing possible charges of manslaughter, causing a shipwreck and
abandoning his ship. (Washington Times, Jan. 19, 12)
133

ypOK18

IT'S NOT TRUE ABOUT CALIGULA'S HORSE-


BRITANNICA CHECKED '

By Michael J McCarthy

past the security guards, tucked away on the fourth floor of the Britannica
Centre in Chicago, a corporate think tank is busy whittling down a stack of
scholarly riddles(1).
Did Martin Luther really nail his 95 Theses to the door of a German
church?(2) Was Houdini born in Wisconsin, as he long claimed, or in
Budapest? Did Emperor Caligula actually make his horse a Roman consul?(3)
Is Pluto a major planet or, as astronomers are starting to say, more of a moon
or asteroid?(4)

A Fixtu re

Those are some of the 2,000 queries received each year at the complaint
department of the venerable Encyclopaedia Britannica. A fixture in the
homes of generations of Americans and Europeans, the 32-volume library has
for m any people become simply a nostalgia thing - a reminder of homework
all-nighters or pushy door-to-door salesmen(S).
But the 231-year-old Encyclopaedia Britannica, which had been on
the verge of obliteration by the Internet, leaped onto the Web in 1994 and
remains one of the few online reference works that command a fee - about
$50 an nually. More than 70% of four-year college students in the U.S. have
access to Britannica online, with their schools forking over about 45 cents per
head (at discounted rates)(6).
To survive on what often seems like the misinformation
Superhighway(7), privately held Britannica must offer a reliable, authoritative
archive. "If you have a computer and can fog a mirror, you can post anything
on the Internet," says Lars Mahinske, a senior researcher for Britannica. "We
try to be an oasis from the anarchy out there."(8)
And the weighty job of keeping the 44-million-word Encyclopaedia
Britannica updated and factual falls to a panel of 7,000 professors and
egghead contributors world-wide(9) along with a handful of bookworm
sleuths in the complaint department. Britannica has just begun a massive,
three-year overhaul of its entire database. When it is completed, editors
anticipate about half the articles - nearly 22 million words - will have been
tWeaked, simplified, overhauled or tossed(lO).
Some of the revisions will result from the mountain of quibbles sent in
by professors, assorted busybodies and nuts(11). Many of those don't pan
out. One example is a 1997 obscenity-filled rant from a Texas ~an accusi~g
~ritannica of bias against the Ostrogoths, a medieval populatIOn that dIS-
banded in the Dark Ages(12).
134 Ypo"l1
----
Melting Myths

But more substantive communications to the complaint department


prompt permanent revisions in the revered publication, whose contributors
have included Einstein, Freud and Henry Ford(13). A March 1995 letter from
New Zealand, for instance, put Mr. Mahinske, the senior researcher, on paper
trail that ultimately melted a myth long carried under Britannica's entry
"Luther, Martin."
On opening the letter, which asked whether Luther's famous theological
arguments were nailed to one or more doors(14), Mr. Mahinske says, "My fi rst
inclination was, 'Don't you have a life? '(lS)" But after a few weeks of digging,
he says, Britannica decided to revise its Luther article. The best historical
evidence, a researcher's special note now says, is that the theologian wrote
the theses in 1517, and circulated them among friends, but never mentioned
nailing them to any church door, or doors(16).
The debate on the birthplace of Harry Houdini (nee Erich Weiss) was
resolved three years ago by obtaining a photocopy of his 1874 birth certificate;
it says Budapest.
Britannica editors say the tale about Caligula's naming Incitatus, his
horse, to government office, fell apart on close inspection of ancient records,
which show the ruler gave his prized stallion an ivory manger and a marble
stall but no title(17).
Britannica, which is now thinking of phaSing out the complaint
department and turning questions directly over to the editors, has a long
history of running down matters of reader interest(18). In 1936, it formed the
Library Research Service as a promotion to help its traveling salesmen. At
about $130 a set, the books were a hard sell in a country struggling to pull
out of the Depression. (Today, a set runs $1,250, and traveling salesmen are a
thing of the past.) So purchasers for many years were also given a bonus of 150
coupons, which could be mailed to the library. From all over, coupons poured
in, asking about everything from the proper care and feeding of worms in
captivity to the number of cat and dog cemeteries in African countries. Only
1% of queries stumped the department.
Protecting the vaunted Britannica text over the years was never harder
than the time it was purposely sabotaged. On one frightening day in 1986,
Britannica insiders discovered that a laid-off editor had tampered with the
computer database, changing, among other things, all mentiops of "Jesus" to
"Allah."
When you are the Encyclopaedia Britannica, even honest mistakes can
bring a flood of bad publicity. A decade ago, a reader in Virginia notified
Britannica that its "Rappahannock River" article refe rred to a dam that didn't
exist. Checking into it, the editors yanked the reference, but not before word
leaked out, and newspapers had a field day. One headline read: "Britannica
Makes Another Dam Mistake."(19)
Wall Street Journal Europe, Apr. 27, 1999
135

1. Анализ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. Что такое Encyclopaedia Britannica? Какова культурная роль это­


го издания? С каким трудностями оно сталкивалось в прошлом и
в момент написания статьи? Можно ли сказать, что некоторые из
этих трудностей обусловлены репутацией издания и почему?
2. Каково отношение автора статьи к этому изданию? Найдите в тек­
сте слова и выражения, на которых вы основываете свой вывод.
3. Каким образом Encyclopaedia Britannica использует возможности
современных информационных технологий, в том числе Интерне­
та? Что по этому поводу говорят сотрудники издания? Чем обосно­
вана их точка зрения?
4. Что такое в данном случае compZaint department? В чем основная
цель его работы?
5. Прежде чем переводить заголовки отдельных частей статьи, пере­
ведите те части, к которым эти заголовки относятся.

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. Что такое Britannica Centre? Прежде чем передавать название это­


го места, а также название самой энциклопедии, наведите справ­
ки о стоящем за этим изданием юридическом лице. Кто, где и как
издает энциклопедию? Передавая имена собственные, связанные
с энциклопедией, уясните для себя, с какой категорией имен соб­
ственных вы в данный момент имеете дело, и при необходимости
уточните правила оформления подобных имен собственных на
русском языке .

2. Найдите или уточните основную энциклопедическую информа­


цию о Мартине Лютере: годы жизни, страна проживания, роль в
истории. О каком его поступке идет речь в вопросе (2)?
3. Найдите или уточните основную энциклопедическую информа­
цию о Гудини: годы жизни, страна проживания, роль в культуре.
4. Найдите или уточните основную энциклопедическую информа­
цию о Калигуле: годы жизни и правления, роль в истории. О ка­
ком его поступке идет речь в вопросе (3)? Здесь и далее при необ­
ходимости наведите справки об этом императоре в исторической
литературе.

5. Уточните, к какому классу небесных тел относят Плутон в совре­


менных работах по астрономии (4). Обратите внимание на лексику,
используемую в русских специализированных текстах.
6. Как вы понимаете предложение (5)? Что и почему изменилось в ста­
тусе/восприятии энциклопедии? О чем она напоминает многим аме­
риканцам и европейцам? Что значат и какое отношение к Энцикло­
педии ИМеют homework aZZ-nightеrs? На какоЙ типаж и род занятий
136 УРО КI1

указывает сочетание pushy door-to-door saZesmen? Наведите спра в_


ки о том, что такое в англоязычной культуре encycZopedia saZesman.
7. Что имеется в виду, когда речь идет о Jour-year college students?
При необходимости наведите справки об образовательной системе
США и определите самую важную в этом контексте составляю_
щую этого понятия.

8. Переводя предложение (6), убедитесь, что вы понимаете упомяну_


тую в нем схему оплаты и она представляется вам логичной.
9. Кто входит в группу лиц, упомянутых во фрагменте (9)? Найди­
те информацию об организации работы энциклопедии и перепро­
верьте свои предположения. Вспомните, по отношению к кому в
США употребляется слово proJessor.
10. При переводе предложения (12) уточните, кто такие Ostrogoths
(русское название, исторические сведения). На какой период ука­
зывает сочетание Dark Ages? Проверьте по специализированным
источникам научные и обиходные наименования исторических
эпох в русском и английском языках.
11. Кто такие Einstein, Freud и Неnуу Ford (13)? Убедитесь, что вы пра­
вильно представляете себе отношение этих лиц к энциклопедии.
12. При переводе предложения (17) руководствуйтесь рекомендация­
ми из п. 4.
13. Что такое Library Research Service? Как вы понимаете цель соз ­
дания и характер деятельности этой службы? При необходимости
найдите дополнительную информацию об услугах, которые она
оказывала (см. раздел 2 приложения) .
14. На какое событие указывает слово Depression? Найдите основные
сведения об этом событии (сроки, исторический контекст).

1.3. Частные языковые трудности

1. Что такое think tank? Проверьте значение этого словосочетания в


английском толковом словаре и проанализируйте его употребл е ­
ние в оригинальных англоязычных текстах. К чему в статье оно
относится?
2. Внимательно посмотрите на построение предложения (1). Зрител ь ­
но представьте себе изображенную в нем картину. Что она вам на­
поминает? Переведите предложение с учетом того, что оно откр ы ­
вает собой статью и должно привлечь внимание читателя.
3. Как вы понимаете в этом контексте слово fixture? Подбирая вар и­
ант для его передачи, соотнесите его с тем, что вы ранее узнали о
роли энциклопедии в европейской и американской культурах.
4. Обратите внимание на разговорное употребление Слова thing в
конструкции nostalgia thing. Проанализируйте упражнение 2.1 ·
и предложите варианты передачи фрагментов , содержащих вы­
деленные слова. Переводя предложение (5), убедитесь, что пред­
ложенные вами русские варианты передачи 32-volume library
и nostaZgia thing логически друг с другом согласуются .
W
---
ypOKN2 137

5. Как вы понимаете выражение misinformation superhighway? Что и


с какой точки зрения оно обозначает? Проанализируйте происхож­
дение, смысл и употребление выражения information superhighway.
При передаче конструкции (7), вводимой конденсированным отно­
сительным словом what, проанализируйте упражнение 2.2. и пред­
ложите варианты передачи конструкций с выделенными словами l3 .
6. В чем заключаются дословное и переносное значения выражения
(о fog а mirror? Какую функцию оно выполняет в данном случае?
Каких качеств, по мнению сотрудника энциклопедии, достаточно
человеку, чтобы разместить информацию вИнтернете?
7. При переводе предложения (8) проанализируйте характер упо­
требленной в нем метафоры. Что хотел сказать этим сравнением
сотрудник энциклопедии? Насколько оригинальна эта метафора?
Если предлагаемый вами вариант перевода содержит метафору,
обратите внимание на логичность и легкость интерпретации ис­
пользованных в ней образов.
8. Какова модальность слова egghead' в сочетании egghead
contributors? Соотнесите предлагаемый вами вариант передачи
этого сочетания со смыслом и настроем всей остальной статьи .
Также тщательно проанализируйте смысловую и оценочную со­
ставляющие выражения bookworm sleuths и варианта, которым вы
предполагаете его передать. Не появился ли в вашем переводе не
предусмотренный оригиналом оттенок презрения?
9. Проанализируйте перечисления (10) и (11). Каковы внутренние от­
ношения между понятиями tweak, simplijy, overhaul и toss в первом
случае и professors, assorted busybodies и nuts во втором? Переводя
предложения, содержащие эти перечисления, примите в расчет не

только значения отдельных элементов перечислений , но и логику


построения перечисления в целом l4 •
10. При передаче сочетания more substantive communications разбери­
тесь, с чем здесь подразумевается сравнение (почему использована
сравнительная степень) и чем мотивирован сою з but, с которого на­
чинает предложение. Предложите вариант перевода с учетом этой
внутритекстовой связи.
11. Является ли в предложении (13) подлежащее (communications)
агентом действия и если нет, какую фактическую функцию оно
выполняет? Сформулируйте и рассмотрите вариант ы перево-

13 См.: Маганов А . с. Передача англ ийских конструкций с придаточными пред~


ЛОжениями , вводимыми сочетанием « предлог +
союз what», при переводе на русскии
язык (на материале прессы и художественной литературы): Дис .... канд ..филол. нау к.
- М. , 2003. - ]62 с. [электроннЫЙ ресурс]. - Режим доступа: httр://www.thшkаlоud.гu/
SСlепсе/mаg-d i ssег.dос .

14 См.: Сеноедова Е. А. Переда~а перечислений при перев~де (на материале ~epe­


Вода с английского языка на русскии отрывков из книги Б. Браисона «Супергерои с
Пл анеты Эле ктро, или повесть о моем детстве») : Дипломная работа, подготовленная
на кафедре перевода английСКОГО языка переводческого факультета МГЛУ - М., 2011
[электронный ресурс]. _ Режим досту па: http://www.thinka]oud.ru/grad/sen-grad.pdf.
да, в кот орых русский э квивалент сочетания тore substantive
coттunications не будет з анимать в предложении поз ицию груп _
пы подлежащего. Проанализ ируйте в этой связи упражнение 2.3.
Учтите все вышесказанное и при переводе следующего преДЛОЖе_
ния (А March 1995 Zetter.. .).
12. В чем именно заключался вопрос (14)? Почему он вызвал у сотр уд_
ника энциклопедии такую реакцию (15)? Учтите при анализе пр ед_
ложение (16).
13. В чем конкретно заключается смысл слова best в предложен ии
(16)? Прежде чем давать окончательный вариант перевода, про ана_
лизируйте упражнение 2.4. и предложите варианты для передачи
выделенных слов.

14. Прежде чем определиться с вариантом передачи клички !ncitatus,


проверьте, существует ли традиционный способ ее передачи в рус ­
ской литературе. При обнаружении различных вариантов проанали­
зируйте качество источников, содержащих те или иные варианты .
15. Как предложение (18) согласуется с предыдущим и последующи м
содержанием текста? Ответив на этот вопрос , обратите особ ое
внимание на актуальное членение этого предложения: что являет­

ся его ремой?
16. Проверьте в английском толковом словаре значения слова bonus.
Какие русские варианты, исключая слово «бонус», вы могли бы
предложить для их различных контекстуальных реализаций?
17. Как вы понимаете сочетание honest тistakes? С какими други ми
ошибками они сопоставляются (почему сказано even)?
18. Выясните значение сочетания (о have а jieZd day. Учитывая кон­
текст статьи и ваши фоновые знания, ответьте на вопрос, почему в
данном случае newspapers had а jieZd day.
19. Как вы понимаете каламбур (19)? Каково дословное и подразуме ­
ваемое значение з аголовка? Учтите, что, если вы постараете с ь
передать этот каламбур в переводе, он должен звучать понятно и
естествен но , в противном случае комический эффект будет утеря н.
Если вы реши л и отказаться в переводе от каламбура, посмотрите,
насколько кон цовка статьи будет соотв етствует смыслу послед не­
го абзаца (fiood о/ bad publicity, had а jieZd day и т. д.). В случае
необходимо сти попробуйте предложить вариант заголовка, произ­
водящий сходный коммуникативный э ффект, но построенный на
основе других слов (понятий).

2. Упражнения

2.1. Конкретизация слов неопределенно-широкого


семантического диапазона (thing)

1. ТЬе Russian есопоmу is а sad, shrunken thing, and it will make litt!e
difference to British lives whether the current crisis shrinks it stil !
further. (D.т. , Aug. 27, 98)
139

z. Organic farming is less a coherent set of instructions for growing things


than an ideology, part of an overall philosophy of life that emphasises
the place that mankind occupies in nature. (G., Apr. 2, 01)
3. Too many Americans, including me, believe in their guts that removing
Saddam Hussein was the right thing to do, even ifthe intelligence on the
nasty weapons called WMD [weapons of mass destruction] was wrong.
(I.HT., Feb. 4, 04)
4. Why do we feel we must own our home in the first place? Ask an Italian,
a Frenchman or a Spaniard about their mortgage and they'll look puzzled:
don't you rent your home? Everyone on the continent does. Less hassle,
less worry, less baggage. Home ownership is an Anglo-Saxon thing.
(Obs., Jun. 9, 02)
5. Whether SDI [Strategic Defense Initiative} was feasible or not, it played
a significant part in ending the cold war. It was "the perfect bargaining
chip," former President Richard Nixon said at'-the time, because the idea
was better than the scientific prospects. Talk of the thing brought the
Soviets into arms reduction talks and treaties. (I.HT., May 25, 05)
6. Every disaster sparks an inquiry these days; so do political ructions,
murders and, increasingly, other inquiries. This week, the Public
Administration Committee thrashed out what as literary critic might
call a meta-inquiry: an investigation into how and why the government
calls so many of the things. (E., Feb. 14,04)
7. "I'm a firm believer in giving your children as much opportunity as you
can afford to, to try different things. Children should be exposed to
as many different activities as possible, but it's important they are not
pushed into things." (Obs., Sep. 17,06)
8. The more you read and observe about this politics thing, you got to
admit that each party is worse than the other. (W. Rogers)
9. The thought of Macca writing a children's book has given rise to fear,
envy and nausea. Oh no, not another celeb doing the kid book thing,
they cry. Charles Windsor, the Duchess of Windsor, Queen Madge
and some better known comedians have all given it a go. It's nice for
publishers. The publicity is all paid for. (G. , Mar. 22, 05)
10. One of the problems with men's fashion is the lack of bargains on the high
street. Everyone knows that Topshop is fantastic for low-cost spangly
gear: buy it Friday lunchtime, wear it Saturday night, then banish it to
the depths of your wardrobe. But that's a girl thing. For us guys, buying
something cheap and cheerful that you're only going to wear once is a
bad purchase. (Obs., Oct. 13, 02)
11. Wine sales are growing in India at about 30 percent annually, and a younger
generation of newly cosmopolitan Indians are eschewing the evening peg
of whiskey in favor of something a little lighter. "It is a generational
thing. People are becoming more health conscious; red wine is seen to be
more healthy than whiskey soda," Rajeev Sarnant, founder of Sula, one
of the most popular wineries in India, said. (I.H.T., Mar. 16,07)
12. My seven year old son has a "thing" about buttons, almost a phobia. He
somehow made it clear from the age of about 18 months that he would
140

not wear certain clothes and why, and has stuck to it ever since. Be
is generally OK with other people wearing buttons but will sometimes
remark that he doesn't like an adult "because they were wearing buttons."
(G., Jun . 20, 09)
13. This week it has emerged that Robbie Williams, among various
dependencies that have prompted him to go into rehab again, has a thing
about double espressos. He supposedly downs 36 a day. (G., Feb. 15, 07)

2.2. npIIIAaTo~Hble, BBoAIIIMble KOHAeHclllpoBaHHblMIII


OTHOCIIITenbHblMIII CI10BaMIII (KOC)

2.2.1. IIpuoamo'lHoe, 6600uMoe KOC, 6 ljJYHKlIrUU 6blpa:»eeHUR MOOaJlbHO-


emu
-------------------------------------------
1. A police traffic motorcyclist stopped a man he believed to be a disqualified
driver in what was probably a stolen car. (Morning Star, Sep. 19, 85)
2. Astronomers Bradford Smith of the University of Arizona and Richard
Terrile of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory took stunning photographs
of what might be planets forming around the star. (Nsw., Nov. 24, 84)
3. Foreign investors are prohibited from buying more than 25 percent of
the stock of any U.S. airline or from having what in effect could be
considered control over any such carrier. (I.H.T., Jan. 25, 91)
4. Archeologists working in Israel's Nahal Hemar cave, a Neolithic site
south of Jerusalem, have found pieces of fabric that may be the earliest
known example of linen. The cave also yielded what may be the oldest
known samples of woven baskets in the Middle East. (N.G., Jan., 89)
5. In what could be a setback in the war on terror, a court [in Bern] has
given Swiss prosecutors until the end of May to either pursue a criminal
case against an alleged terror-finance network or end the investigation.
(Nsw., May 30, 05)

2.2.2. IIpuoamo'lHoe, 6600uMoe KOC, 6 ljJYHKlIrUU a6empazup06aHUR om


npeOMema pe'lU
1. German companies are regaining their nerve after what was, in effect,
not that deep a recession. (T., Jun. 27, 94)
2. Quite a lot of work has been done already on what is, after all, a global
problem. (lnd. , Jan. 4, 00)
3. The [London] Tube runs much deeper than the New York subway,
and passengers routinely find long lists of stations to avoid because of
"escalator problems." One Saturday last year, I found myself caring
a stroller and baby up what felt like a thousand steps. (N.Y, Feb. 9, 04)
4. With what felt like a roar, but mUst really have been a pig-squeal, I leapt
at the nearest boy and hit him squarely on the nose. (W. GOlding)
141

5. At around. five o'clock one morning last week I was jolted awake by
what felt lIke someone blastlllg a tape recorder loudly into my ear. (Ind.,
Sep. 28, 95)

2.2.3. IIpuiJamo'lHoe, 660i)uMoe KOC, 6 pyItKl(UU a6cmpaZUp06altUH C KOIt-


Kpemltoii CCblJlKOii Ita UCmO'lItUK Ol(eItKU

1. Archeologists have discovered what they be!i:,eve to be the largest


prehistoric "man-made" cavern in the world, deep inside a peninsula in
North Wales. (T., Apr. 24, 03)
2. In what scientists in Pakistan are hailing as one of the most exciting
discoveries in recent years, paleontologists have unearthed what they
believe to be the world's largest fossil of a land mammal. (G., May 11, 99)
3. For some time now UNESCO, the educational branch of the United
Nations, has been protesting what it sees as Western bias in international
news. (Nsw., Jun. 8, 81)
4. Her name was Olga; she kept what she hoped and believed to be a fox-
terrier, and professed what she thought were Socialist opinions. (H. Munro)
5. Non-figurative art - drawing or painting which doesn't describe the
physical world - has never much interested me, and [Jackson] Pollock's
fame now seems to owe as much as to his life as the stuff he painted.
He was what, in this century, we feel an "artist" should be: troubled
alcoholic, and not shy of publicity. (Ind., Mar. 20, 99)

2.2. 4. IIpui)amo'lltoe, 660i)uMoe KOC, 6 pyItKl(UU 0603lta'leItUH npei)Mema


UJlU nOItHmUH, cmamyc UJlU COCmOHItUe Komopozo KaKUM-Jlu60 06-
pa30M U3MeltUJlUCb

1. At dawn, I returned to what was once my house. All now a mass of


ashes. (R.D., Jan. 91)
2. Hawke in enmeshed in what is rapidly becoming one of Australia's
biggest political scandals. (Nsw., Oct. 23, 84)
3. On the second front in the east, Nato planes could be heard overhead in
Brega as rebels patrolled what has become a ghost town. Smoke was
seen rising from the industrial area as fighting raged. (G., Aug. 16, 11)
4. Returning home from a Saturday afternoon walk with the dog, I did what
has become almost a reflex action and checked Twitter. (G., May 16, 11)
5. In what is becoming the hippest environment meeting of the year,
presidents, politicians, intellectuals, scientists and Hollywood stars will
join more than 15,000 indigenous people and thousands of gr~ss roots
groups from more than 100 countries to debate climate change III one of
the World's poorest nations. (G., Apr. 13, 10)
142 YpOl( 11

2.2.5. llpUOamO'lHOe, 6600uMoe KOC, 6 PYHKU,UU 3MpamU'leCK020


6blOeJleHUR

1. "Sixty per cent of the population use libraries. What we want is more
books and longer opening hours. What we get are cuts in book funding
and staffing." (Ind., Oct. 18, 95)
2. As an atheist I do not believe in marriage for any religious reason. What
marriage does is make it harder to walk away. I take my pledge to my
wife seriously and I am happy that the world knows this. (T., May 28, 02)
3. If there's any area where the United States should have an advantage
fighting terrorism, it's the Internet - yet Islamic extremists sometimes
use it to recruit and train terrorists and to communicate with each other
in sophisticated ways. What is clear is that Islamic extremists are not
the troglodytes Americans think they are. (N.Y.T., Jan. 10,06)
4. Einstein once tried to warn off biographers by saying that what is
essential in the life of a scientist is "what he thinks and how he thinks,
and not what he does or suffers." (G. Sep. 21, 02)
5. Cape Town is a popular venue for visiting film-makers because of
its sandy beaches, blue sea, jagged mountains, nearby desert and
vineyards, and streets that can double as London or San Francisco.
But what the [film] industry needs is more home-grown achievement.
It is rare for a local firm to earn big money or critical acclaim, let alone
both. (E., Mar. 6, 04)

2.3. nOAne>Ka~lIIe C 06cToRTenbcTBeHHblM 3HayeHllleM


(prompt, encourage)
1. Croatia's return to stability has prompted a sharp rise in hotel prices.
(FT., Oct. 19, 97)
2. For the past 16 years I have vacationed in Maine during the summer. The
notion of escaping to a beautiful, unspoiled landscape was one of the
things that first prompted my annual journey. (LHT., Aug. 12, 97)
3. Until recently, MI5 had a staff of2,100. Worries about Islamic terrori sm
prompted the government to fund an expansion expected to bring the
total to about 3,100. (W.S.J.E., Oct. 6, 04)
4. Walking with my daughters to school, we passed the third roadworks to
spring up at the end of our road in as many months, prompting my five-
year-old to say: "Oh, look, they're building a new traffic jam!" (T., Apr.
23, 01)
5. Jails in England and Wales will hit full capacity within days , prompti ng
emergence plans to house prisoners in police and court cells. (Obs. , Mar.
7, 04)
6. When Patrick Demarchelier turned 17, his stepfather gave him a Kodak,
sparking his interest and prompting him to take a job outside Paris
printing and retouching passport photos. After 10 years of assisti ng
photographers, Demarchelier moved to New York in 1975 to launch a
career that now spans four decades. ·(VF. , Aug., 04)
143

7. Science has yet to identify whether the brains of the Twitter generation
are any different from the rest of ours, but today's culture of one-click
shopping and instant messaging doesn't merely satisfy our desire for
instant gratification, it encourages it. (Nsw., Nov. 7, 11)
8. Two standardized forms of Breton [language] were developed in the mid-
20th century to encourage the literary development of the language;
but the French government encourages the use of French rather than
Breton, and the number of Breton speakers is declining. (E.B.)
9. The pirates' main trade was in people, taken for ransom or slavery.
Women might avoid domestic slavery by being taken as wives by wealthy
Muslims or Christians, or allocated to harems where their greatest
hardships were probably boredom and over-eating (concubines were fed
bread soaked in syrup to encourage rotundity). (D.T., Jan. 7, 02)
10. This presumed connection between suicide terrorism and Islamic
fundamentalism is wrongheaded, and it may be encouraging domestic
and foreign policies that are likely to worsen America's situation. (I.H.T.,
Sep. 23, 03)
11. "Religion is seen as out of step with Britain's liberal culture," the report
says. "More than half of those questioned said it encouraged intolerance
and fanaticism." (Obs., Dec. 9, 01)
12. While some [educators] say video games can encourage collaboration
and build problem-solving skills, others argue that games are a distraction
with little learning value. (U.S.N. & W.R., Nov. 11, 11)
13. Children going into smaller classes for the new school term will gain
financially for the rest of their lives, says a study by a leading economic
think tank. Class size - measured as the ratio of pupils to teachers - has
a significant effect on future earnings at work, and the bigger the class
a child is in the less they will be paid. It seems that smaller classes help
children enjoy lessons more and encourage them to stay on at school.
(Obs. , Sep. 1, 02)
14. The House yesterday cast a symbolic vote to reaffirm "In God We Trust"
as the US motto and encourage its placement in all public buildings and
public schools. (N.YP. , Nov. 2, 11)
15. "You know that we take employee satisfaction very seriously as a
company - creating a sense of community and pride within our hotels
is a top priority. The Renaissance [hotel in] Providence actually has a
number of employee programs in place that encourage health, welIness
and employee satisfaction." (USA T., Oct. 19, 11)
16. The complex choice boils down to two main options. E.ither Obama
approves the construction of the pipeline- an e.conomlc boon and
substantial move toward energy security and stabilIty. Or he could call
off the project to appease the demands of environmentalists who are
incensed that the U.S. would encourage even more large-scale fossil-
fuel production and the spewing of more greenhouse gases into the
atmosphere. (Nsw, Nov. 7, 11) .
17. Hitler posed to the German people the Jewish QuestlOn (JudenJrage) :
What was to be done to make Germany "Jew-free" (Judenrein)? The
144
----------------------------------------------------------~
---

initial "answer" was jnternal exile, the expuision ofJews from rural
Germany, from villages and small towns, and their concentration in the
larger cities. The next "answer" was voluntary emigration abroad, which
was encouraged (but not required) by the government. (A. Axelrod)
18. Years of experience tell me that reports of violence in the streets
especially graphic reports on radio and television, tend to encourag~
more violence soon afterwards. One has followed the other too often
for there to be no connection. The important word in my statement is
"encourage." It does not mean that news reports "cause" the subsequent
violence. Other important factors need to be present. (G., Apr. 13, 98)

2.4. KOHTeKCTyanbHble 3Ha4eHIMI (nOB best III worst


1. Higher education is about nothing if not ideas. The best research is
prompted by ideas on how to analyse and explore subjects, and the best
teaching inspires new ideas in students. (G., Aug. 11, 11)
2. In the past year, 1,475 research grant applications were made to the
council, but only 279 were funded. The research councils ensure that
taxpayers' money is spent only on the best research, with the potentially
highest impact on improving human health and welfare. (G., Sep. lO, lO)
3. Drawing on the very latest and best research, Willetts [David Willets,
a politician and author] shows how the middle classes are tightening
their grip on the opportunities available for the next generation. The
professions are all but sealed off from the poor: "The competition for
jobs is like English tennis, a competitive game but largely one the middle
classes play against each other." (G., Feb. 7, lO)
4. Robert Howarth, professor of ecology and environmental biology
at Cornell University, called for a moratorium on drilling: "The best
evidence indicates widespread contamination of drinking water wells
within lkm of gas wells." (G., Sep. 23, 11)
5. There was no reason to automatically take the association of the bones as
evidence of social behavior. Even what seemed to be the best evidence
for gregarious tyrannosaurs is ambiguous. Such is the trouble with
bonebeds. Just because the skeletons of animals are found near each
other does not necessarily mean that the creatures were together when
they died or were socialising. (g. co. uk, Jul. 25, 11)
6. Human behaviour does not settle easily into statistical categories; only
birth and death can be counted as absolute. The incidents of daily
life, products of personal choice or accident, are not easily defined or
recorded. Even the best data, compiled honestly, will have flaws . The
government's belief, for instance, that in mid-2007 the population of
this country was 60,975,000 should be treated as what it is, an elegant
estimate. (G., Oct. 25, 08)
7. Equatorial Guinea is listed by Freedom House as being right down there
with North Korea and Iraq as one of the 13 worst dictatorships in the
world. (G., Feb. 27, 99)
145

8. Britons visiting France should take care oftheir credit cards. The country
leads the world in card theft, and Paris is the worst city, according to
figures from British company Card Protection Plan. (T. , Jun. 10, 94)
9. Ending perhaps the worst political crisis to face the Republican Party
since George W. Bush took office, Senator Trent Lott, beleaguered by
charges of racism, renounced his position Friday as majority leader of
the incoming Senate. (LH.T., Dec. 21- 22, 02)
10. The chief of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, site of the world's
worst nuclear accident, said Thursday that he would restart one of the
Ukrainian plant's reactors next month. (LH.T., Apr. 24, 98)
11. GERMANY: The government said yesterday it wanted to set up a
blacklist of violent computer games, giving it the power to ban them
from distribution. It is proposing the blacklist in response to the last
month's killing of 16 people at a school in Erfurt by a former student, the
country's worst post-war massacre. (lnd., May 9, 02)
12. During a single, terrible night in 1953, storm winds and a spring tide
combined to produce the worst flooding in Holland's modern history.
(Nsw., Sep. 15, 84)
146

YpoK19

IT'S IN YOUR OWN HOME AND IT'S A REAL KILLER!

By James K. Glassman

WASHINGTON - The chemical compound dihydrogen monoxide,


or DHMO, has been implicated in the deaths of thousands of Americans every
year, mainly through accidental ingestion(l). In gaseous form, it can cause
severe burns. And, according to a new report, "the dangers of this chemical
do not end there."
The chemical is so caustic that it "accelerates the corrosion and rusting
of many metals ... is a major component of acid rain and ... has been found in
excised tumors of terminal cancer patients." Symptoms of ingestion include
"excessive sweating and urination:'(2) and "for those who have developed a
dependency on DHMO, complete withdrawal means certain death."
Yet the presence of the chemical has been confirmed in every river,
stream, lake and reservoir in America.
Judging from these facts, do you think dihydrogen monoxide should be
banned?
Seems like an open-and-shut case - until you realize this chemical
compound is plain old water.
Last spring, Nathan Zohner, an enterprising 14-year-old student in
Idaho Falls, Idaho, conducted his science fair project on just this theme.
Nathan distributed a tongue-in-cheek report that had been kicking around
the Internet, "Dihydrogen Monoxide: The Unrecognized Killer" (from which
the quotes above are drawn), to 50 of his classmates.
These are smart kids who had studied chemistry; many, like Nathan,
have parents who work at the Idaho Nuclear Engineering and Environmental
Laboratory(3). Nathan simply asked them to read the report (which is
completely factual) and decide what, if anything, to do about the chemical.
In the end, 43 students, or 86 percent of the sample, "voted to ban
dihydrogen monoxide because it has caused too many deaths," wrote Nathan
in the conclusion to his project, titled "How Gullible Are We?"
I'm Sure that, if Nathan tried the same experiment on adults, he'd fin d
at least as many would want to ban DHMO. Says David Murray4, research
~lrector of the nonprofit Statistical Assessment Service(5) in Washington,
The likelihood is high that I could replicate these results with a survey of
members of Congress."
, Mr. Murray, whose organization "looks out for misleading science
that s driving public policy over a clitf,"(6) ran acrosS the Zohner story a few
months ago on the Internet. But, he writes, "we thought it sounded like an
~b~n my~h - too pat, too neat." He discovered from local press repor ts
at
It V;as mdeed true. I confirmed it too, after talking earlier this week with
N athan s mom M'
' anvene, w h 0 says that Nathan wants to b e "a scientist in the
n lie Iear field," like his dad.
147

The implications of Nathan's research are so disturbing that I've


decided to coin a term: "Zohnerism," defined as the use of a true fact to lead
a scientifically and mathematically ignorant public to a false conclusion(7).
Dow Corning was driven into bankruptcy through lawsuits over its
silicone implants - even though science doesn't support claims that they're
dangerous(8).
In the headline above an article Sunday about population growth in
rural areas, The New York Times claimed, "Hint of Racial Undercurrents Is
Behind Broad Exodus of Whites."(9) The reporter wrote that studies by a
demographer "show that of the 40 fastest-growing rural counties, virtually all
are at least 70 percent white."
Shocking? Well, according to the Bureau of the Census, 83 percent of
the U.S. population is white.
Finding Zohnerisms in the press, Congressional Record and speeches
of administration officials makes a great parlor game. One place to start is
the collected speeches of EPA chief Carol Browner, who has used Zohnerisms
masterfully to promote expensive, disruptive new standards for particulate
matter(lO) and global warming - despite evidence from scientists that is, at
best, inconclusive.
That's a shame. In a land where technical ignorance reigns and
susceptibility to Zohnerisms is high, it's the duty of politicians, journalists
and scientists to present facts responsibly and in context. After all, think
what would happen if the EPA really did ban dihydrogen monoxide.
International Herald Tribune, Oct. 22, 1997

1. AHanlll3 TeKCTa

1.1. TeMa, IIIAeR III 061!.\aR cTpaTerlllR nepeBoAa


1. qTO TaKoe dihydrogen monoxide? I1paB)J;a JII1, qTO peqh l1)J;eT 06 onac-
HOM 5!)J;OBI1TOM BemecTBe?
2. B KaKOH MOMeHT BhI )J;ora)J;aJII1Ch 0 TOM, qTO dihydrogen monoxide -
npOCTa5! BO)J;a? TPY)J;HO JII1 6hIJIO 3TO c)J;eJIaTh? 03HaKoMhTech C pa3)J;e-
JIOM 3 npI1JIO)l(eHI15!, ul1Tl1pyeMhIM B HaqaJIe CTaThl1 11 nOCJIY)I(HBIUI1M
OCHOBOH )J;JI5! 3KCnepl1MeHTa 30Hepa (J1JII1 HaH)J;J1Te 3TOT TeKCT 13 HHTep-
HeTe). ECTh JII1 B cO)J;ep)l(am J1XC 5! B HeM YTBep)l()J;eHI15!X qTO-TO npOTI1-
Bopeqamee )J;eHCTBI1TeJIhHOCTI1?
3. HaH)J;I1Te B CTaThe 11 B pa3)J;eJIe 3 npJ1JIO)l(eHI15! 5!3hIKOBhle cpe)J;cTBa
11 npl1eMhl, npl1 nOMoml1 KOTOPhIX ql1TaTeJI5! nhITalOTC5! BBeCTI1 B 3a-
6JIY)l()J;eHl1e OTHOCI1TeJIhHO npl1po)J;hI DHMO. 3a CqeT qero 06me113-
BeCTHhle cpaKThI 0 BO)J;e npe)J;cTaBJIeHhI B BI1)J;e ceHCaUI10HHhIX cpaKToB
o Hel13BeCTHOM BemecTBe? 06paTI1Te oco6oe BHI1MaHl1e Ha ynoTpe-
6JIeHI1e TepMI1HOJIOrl1QeCKOH 11 nceB)J;OTepMI1HOJIOrl1qeCKOH JIeKCI1KI1,
a TaK)I(e 3cpcpeKT KOHKpeTI13aUI111 (B CMhICJIe He nepeBO)J;qeCKOH TpaHC-
cpopMaUI1I1, a JIorl1qeCKOH onepaUJ1I1). I1epeBO)J;5! CTaThlO, 06paTI1Te
148 YpOI(f\
-----------------------------------------------------------------

особое внимание на то , что в переводе должна сохраняться та )!(е

двойственность.
4. Проанализируйте вводную части статьи (первые пять абзацев). II O
какому образцу она построена? На какой жанр намекает выра)!(е _
ние open-and-shut case?
5. Какое отношение к данной статье имеет эксперимент Зонера? BbI_
стройте для себя хронологическую последовательность собы тий,
упоминаемых в статье, и разберитесь, как журналист собирал ма­
териал для написания статьи.

6. В чем основная идея статьи? Почему автор характерИЗует


implications ofNathan's research как disturbing? Против кого и чего
направлена статья?

1.2. (вязь с широким контекстом

1. О каком широко распространенном виде смерти идет речь в вы­


сказывании (l)?
2. Какой текст имеет в виду автор, ссылаясь в первом абзаце на а new
report?
3. На какое широко распространенное явление указывает «симп­
том» (2)?
4. Что такое science fair в американских школах? В чем смысл этого
мероприятия и что требуется от его участников? Подберите рус­
ский вариант для обозначения этого понятия, который русскому
читателю даст верное представление о характере этого явления .

5. Как вы думаете, что в этом контексте может обозначать сло во


classmate? Уточните, как проходит обу.tеНие в старших классах
американской школы.
6. Найдите сведения об упоминаемой в тексте лаборатории (3). Верно
ли представлено в тексте ее название? Проверьте русские преце­
дентные тексты на наличие в них традиционного варианта пер е­

дачи этого названия и при необходимости дайте свой перевод с со­


блюдением правил передачи названий организаций. Проделайте то
же самое с названием (5). Найдите сведения о характере деятель­
ности этой организации и подумайте, что в этом контексте подр аз­
умевает собой должность research director.
7. Выясните, чем занималась компания Dow Corning (8), что с неМ
произошло и почему.

8. Что понимается под rural area/county в США? Посмотрите, как это


понятие определяет Бюро переписи населения США. Чем занима­
ется население этих областей? Подходит ли для описания этих об­
ластей сочетани е «сель ская местность»?
9. Что такое Congressional Record? Помимо других Источников , по­
смотрите толкование этого понятия в А. Подумайте, стоит ли в
эт ом контексте только указать в переводе наз вание этого изда ниЯ
или дополнить/заменить его объяснением? Чем вы мотивируете
Свой выбор?
149

10. Что такое и чем занимается ЕРА? Найдите информацию о человеке


(послужной список, взгляды) по имени CaroZ Browner.
11. Работая над передачей фрагмента (10), выясните,
что такое
particuZate тatter. Не только уточните перевод этого словосоче­
тания в специализированных словарях, но и разберитесь, что со­
бой представляет это явление в экологическом контексте. О каких
стандартах идет речь? Наведите дополнительные справки.

1.3. Частные языковые трудности

1. По какому принципу образован псевдотермин dihydrogen


тonoxide? Подходит ли он с формальной точки зрения для обозна­
чения воды? Проверьте, существует ли в русском обиходе анало­
гичный псевдотермин, отвечающий тем же требованиям. Если нет
или если найденные вами варианты представляются неудачными,
предложите свой вариант перевода, сохранив такие характеристи ­
ки английского сочетания, как наукообразие, «непрозрачность» на
первый взгляд и возможность корректной интерпретации при бли­
жайшем рассмотрении. При необходимости обратитесь за идеями
к учебникам по химии, статьям энциклопедий и т. п.
2. В чем разница между corrosion и rusting? Почему, как вам кажется,
в этом контексте использованы оба слова; насколько подобное сло­
воупотребление характерно для английского языка? Будете ли вы
сохранять конструкцию с двумя синонимами в русском переводе

и почему?
3. В каком смысле можно понимать глагол to Ьаn применительно к
упоминаемому в статье веществу? Проанализируйте различные
возможности передать этот глагол вхданном контексте (в несколь­
ких местах текста) по-русски. Учтите комический эффект, который
могут повлечь за собой некоторые варианты. Полезен или вреден
комический эффект в данном контексте?
4. Проанализируйте значение enterprising в толковом английском
словаре. Прежде чем выбирать вариант передачи этого слова, по­
думайте, за какие качества/действия автор статьи характеризует
мальчика этим прилагательным.

5. Слова student и shocking принадлежат к числу часто упоминаемых


ложных друзей переводчика. Еще раз про верьте, правильно ли вы
их передали в данном контексте. Проанализируйте упражнение 2.1.
и предложите варианты передачи выделенных слов. При работе над
упражнением обязательно проверьте значенИЯ выделенных слов в
толковом английскОМ словаре и при необходимости уточните зна­
чение сходных с нимИ по форме русских слов в русских ТОЛковых
словарях. Также прочитайте соответствующие статьи в мнс.
6. Проверьте по атласу русское название города Idaho FaZZs. Обратите
внимание на то, как обычно передаются в русской традиции ино­
язычные топонимы, состоящие из несколькиХ отдельных слов.
7. Что значит tongue-in-cheek? Какой текст автор статьи xapaKTepli_
зует этим прилагательным? Проверьте, подходит ли предлагаем ыI:j
вами вариант передачи этого слова для описания подразумеваемо_

го текста.

8. Что значит Jactual? Соотнесите выбранный вами вариант пере_


дачи этого прилагательного с характером текста, к которому 01-10
относится.

9. В чем коммуникативный смысл эллиптического придаточного if


anything? Подумайте, нужно ли его передавать сходным придаточ_
ным типа «если вообще что-нибудь делать» или можно опустить?
Аргументируйте свое решение. Прежде чем давать окончатеЛЬныj:j
вариант перевода этого упражнения, проанализируйте упражне_
ние 2.2. и предложите варианты перевода предложений, содержа­
щих выделенные фрагменты.
10. Подбирая вариант для передачи слов автора (4) при прямой речи,
подумайте, как обычно выглядят предшествующие прямой речи
слова автора в русских текстах. В чем их структурное отличие от
слов автора, разбивающих или завершающих прямую речь? Обра­
тите внимание на то, что при переводе можно поменять положение

слов автора относительно прямой речи, если на то есть стилисти­


ческие причины.

11. Работая над передачей фрагмента (6), сначала уясните, что под­
разумевается под public роису. Ознакомьтесь с соответствующей
статьей в МНС и при необходимости подробнее изучите сайт этой
организации. Затем подумайте, в чем смысл метафорического вы­
ражения drive over а clifJ в этом контексте. В чем могло бы заклю­
чаться подобное действие, проделанное с public policy? Найдите в
переводимой статье указания на примеры случаев, которые ПОД­
ходят под это описание. Только после этого определитесь с оконча­
тельным переводом фразы (6).
12. Что такое urban myth/legend? Какие истории относятся к этой ка­
тегории? Должно ли действие urban myth обязательно разворачи­
ваться в городе? Подберите вариант для передачи этого сочетаниЯ,
исходя из собранных вами сведений, а также из контекста.
13. Как вы понимаете выражение (оо pat, (оо neat? Почему David
Мипау сначала не поверил в историю Зонера? Какие русские вЫ­
ражения были бы уместны для указания на причину подобного
подозрения?
14. Проверьте в словаре значение слова science. В чем разница межДУ
ним и словом «наука» (ознакомьтесь с соответствующими статьЯ ­
ми в МНС)? Кто, по мысли автора статьи, в первую очередь ста ­
новится жертвой того, что он называет Zohnerism (7)? В чем н адо
Плохо разбираться, чтобы легко попадать на УДОчку подобнЫ Х
вещей?
15. Как произносится название компании Dow Corning? Заодно вспом­
ните, как в английсКОМ ЯЗЫке звучит название биржевого индекса
DowJones.
151

16. Что такое silicone и чем это вещество отличается от silicon? Какой
вариант передачи Silicon ValZey корректнее: «Силиконовая долина»
или «Кремниевая долина»?
17. Проверьте в словарях русского языка написание слова, которым вы
собираетесь передать implant. Примите во внимание, что в совре­
менной бытовой речи, рекламе и языке СМИ можно встретить как
минимум два некорректных варианта написания этого слова.

]8. Как вы понимаете функцию слова hint в заголовке (9)? Можно


ли назвать этот заголовок категорическим утверждением о бес­

спорном факте? Переводя этот заголовок на русский, припомните


средства, используемые в русских заголовках, если содержащиеся

в них утверждения имеют ту же степень категоричности. Учти­


те предполагаемую сенсационность этого заголовка и определите,

что является его ремой.


19. Что означает exodus о/ whites? Прочитайте в А статью white flight.
20. Что такое par/or game? Как вы думаете, это выражение использо­
вано в данном контексте в прямом или переносном смысле? С ка­
кими занятиями автор сравнивает поиск Zohnerisms? Что он хочет
этим сказать?
21 . Проверьте в толковом английском словаре значение словаdisruрtivе.
Какие последствия должны влечь за собой standards /or particulate
matter, чтобы получить такую характеристику? Подберите контек­
стуально оправданный вариант передачи этого прилагательного.
22. Проверьте в толковом английском словаре значение слова technica/
(обращая внимание не только на определения, приведенные пер­
выми) . В каком фрагменте текста автор уже упоминал нечто
п одобное?
23. Что имеется в виду, когда факты предлагается подавать responsibly
and in context? О каком контексте идет речь? Прежде чем опре­
делиться с вариантом перевода, проанализируйте упражнение 2.3.
и предложите варианты передачи фрагментов, содержащих выде­
ленные слова.

2. Упражнения

2.1. Ложные друзья пер еводч ика

1. Big, inefficient state-owned enterprises, а major drag оп the есопоту


[in China], аге aggressively trying to attract foreign technology, capita1
and management skills, offering partia! ownership and ап entry into the
domestic market in return. (т.н.т., Арг. 11, 94)
2. Despite persistent denia!s that he is not а candidate for Ye1tsin's job,
the [Moscow] тауОГ is aggressively courting regiona1. !eaders and has
conc!uded bi!atera! agreements with 66 Russian reglOns . (U.S.N. &
W.R., Мау 19, 97)
152

3. The magazine [New Statesman] is famous for its aggressive and often
satirical analysis of the British and world political scenes. (E.B.)
4. The princess's [Princess Diana's] death provided a dramatic example of
the need to withdraw advertising in response to a tragedy. (FT., Sep. 15,97)
5. Scarborough is a fine resort, with a dramatic setting, fresh sea food and
bracing air. (T., Dec. 14, 95)
6. Open season on the tax code has officially begun, with leaders of both
parties proposing dramatic - and dramatically different - changes in
the way Americans would pay taxes. (LH.T., Jan. 22, 98)
7. Economic growth had little impact on social and cultural behavior in
Kenya, but the modern medicine was cutting back the death rate rather
dramatically, especially among babies and young children. (Nsw.,
Sep. 14,84)
8. A national study is to be undertaken to find whether video games can
trigger epilepsy in children, doctors announced yesterday. Anecdotal
reports of seizures in some children have been strongly denied by game
manufacturers. (G., May 18, 93)
9. Is it all going wrong? In most respects, South Africa is set on a steady
course that gives no immediate cause for concern. But there is a reason
for the question. The commonest anecdote from South Africa these days
is no longer about the good humour and harmony that have characterised
the transition from white to majority rule, but about robbery, car jacking
and violent crime. (E., Sep. 27, 97)
10. "He was born into a world without photographs," the National Portrait
Gallery's Mary Panzer says of Matthew Brady, the complicated 19th-
century artist/entrepreneur who helped give the fledgling craft of
photography a vision based, schizophrenically, on both fancy and fact.
(LH.T., Oct. 13, 97)
11. [Jean-Luc Godard's "A1phaville" is] beautifully poised between
absurdity and brilliance, as you might expect from a genius trying
schizophrenically to accommodate a loathing of Western society with
a love ofB-movies, cops and gangsters. (T., Nov. 4, 95)
12. While bin Laden had not admitted responsibility for the September 11
bombings, his extravagant praise for the perpetrators leaves little doubt
of his complicity. (D.T., Oct. 11,01)
13. Mr Kent has a company called the Life Extension Foundation, which
sells health products and supports research intended to help people live
extravagantly long lives and maybe not die at all. (N.Y., Jan. 19, 04)
14. Given the £700,000 investment and the payback time of these things,
it will probably be 2020 before the Royal Ballet has its next chance
to beget a production of "The Sleeping Beauty" that is worth of the
magic and majesty of the most ambitious ballet ever created. (D.T.,
Mar. 1,04)
15. Our so-called world-class universities are pathetically underfunded.
Their academic staff are shOckingly underpaid. (D.M., Jan. 20, 04)
16. ~mmigration officers became the latest group of civil servants to take
mdustria1 action yesterday. An overtime ban by 3,500 members of the
153

Immigration Service Union could lead to dozens of asylum seekers being


lost, if officers refuse to carry out escort duties when private contractors
are unavailable. (D.T. , Mar. 1, 04)
17. In 1401, the unhappy city [Baghdad], always prone to disasters, suffered
another huge one: Timur-Lenk, or (as Westerners called him) Tamerlane.
This Turkic tribal leader from the vicinity of Samarkand was not
himself a Mongol, though he admired and emulated the Mongols. He
was a devout Muslim, a student of the Koran, one of the best chess
players of his day, and a remorseless general whose cruelty shocked
even the troops he led. (N.Y., Apr. 25, 05)
18. It makes more sense to carry a personal safety alarm. The ones that are
worth having are loud enough to shock and disorientate an attacker,
giving you vital seconds to get away. (G., Feb. 6,08)
19. In the US, several gun stores have started selling so-called "Barbie assault
rifles" - pink guns, marketed as a provocation to the anti-gun lobby and
to entice women to think about taking up shooting. Michigan hunting
enthusiast Arlene Minto has tried out the single-shot .22-calibre firearm
available in red, white and blue as well as shocking pink. (G., Feb. 6, 08)

2.2. 31111l11nTlIIyeCKllle nplIIAaTOYHble


npeAllo~eHIIIRyclloBIIIR

2. 2.1. IIoi)'lep«u6aHue i)eucm6UJI/«a'leCm6a Ha pOHe npei)nOJlaZaeMOZO


npomU60nOJlO~HOZO

1. The paradox of globalisation is that while it has given the appearance of


a closer world, it has, if anything, deepened the alienation between the
Muslim world and the west. (G., Sep. 22, 01)
2. Among those who knew him, Johnathan's [U.S. military policeman
J. Kephart's] death [in Iraq] hasn't changed anybody 's views on the
war in Iraq. They still support it. In fact, if anything, they support it
more now than ever. Burton believes than those who oppose it are "un-
American." (T. , Oct. 20, 04)
3. "[My novel] never says there's an afterlife, it never says this is destiny.
If anything, I'm postulating a kind of randomness and meaninglessness.
(G., Oct. 10, 05)
4. "It's crazy to be giv ing well-off people with big pensions a 40% discount
on property. How are young buyers expected to compete with that?
If anything, we're the group that it should be helping - first-time buyers
need discounts just to enable them to buy the most basic flat in this
town," he says. (G., Oct. 8, 05)
154

2.2.2. IIoo'lepKu6anue Oeiicm6URIKa'leCm6aIKOJlU'leCm6a na fjJone npeono.


JlaZaeMOZO nYJle60Z0 Oeiicm6URIKa'leCm6aIKOJlU'leCm6a (meM caMblA1
YMaJlRemCR 3na'lenUe nOO'lepKU6aeMozo 3JleMenma)

1. Organic farming has little, if any, effect on the nutritional content of


wheat, according to a study. Up to eight per cent of farm s in Europe are
managed organically, but although organic wheat costs more and may
be kinder to the environment, it contains essentially the same profi le
of amino acids, sugars and other metabolic substances as conventional
wheat. (D.T., Oct. 16, 06)
2. As prosecutors consider what action to take - if any - against Mr Horn,
his case has polarised opinion. Supporters have hailed him as a hero
while others insist he should be tried for murder. (D.T. , Nov. 30, 07)
3. William Landes of the University of Chicago and I have compiled data
on all of the multiple-victim public shootings that occurred in the U.S.
from 1977 to 1999. Included were incidents in which at least two people
were killed or injured in a public place. What, if anything, helped
prevent or reduce the severity of these attacks? (W.S.IE., Oct. 1, 01)
4. After weeks of rumour and intrigue Germany finally got yesterday what
everyone had expected - a grand coalition led by Angela Merkel. But
there were growing doubts last night about how long such a coalition
would last andwhat, if anything, it would achieve. (G., Oct. 11 , 05)
5. The foreign ministers and UN ambassadors listened politely as he [Hans
Blix, the chief United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq] spoke, but
many of them stole glances at the speeches they would deliver when he
finished, statements that were written before they arrived and changed
little if at all by anything Blix had to say. (I.H.T., March 8- 9, 03)

2.3. KOHTeKCTyallbHble 3HalleHVlH


cOlleTaHVlH co Cll0BOM context
1. The only drawback with September resolutions is that you generally
make them out of context - when you're away in a place where you
don't have to clean up or get out of bed early. A s a result, you're likely to
overestimate how much time and energy you' ll have. (G., Aug. 30, 11)
2. Silvio Berlusconi apologised yesterday for his claim that
western civilisation was superior to Islam, but insisted that his words
had been twisted and taken out of context. (G. , Sep. 29, 01)
3. Carl Wunsch, professor of physical oceanography at the Massachusetts
Ins~itute of Technology, said the film, The Great Global Warming
Swmdle, was 'grossly distorted' and 'as close to pure propaganda as
anything since World War Two.' He says h is comments in the film were
taken out of context and that he would not have agreed to take part if
he ?ad known it would argue that man-made global warming was not a
senous threat. (G., Mar. 11 07)
4. The d ' . , .
mmg room was spartan and nondescript: whIte panel floor black
tables , celTmg f:ans. Teenaged servers dressed . . '
In whIte button-up shirts
155

and black slacks looked on anxiously as guests filed in, about five or six
tables in all. Our first course was appropriately, perfectly absurd and
out of context here in southern Sri Lanka: a hot, watery, tasteless bowl
of spinach soup served with a basket of dinner rolls and tray of butter
cubes on ice. (USA T., Jan. 20, 12)
5. After the euphoria that came with the approval of the merger, AOL and
Time Warner have come back to earth with a bang. In line with promised
cost savings of £680m, the internet and TV behemoth has found itself in
the uncomfortable position of having to cut about 2,400 jobs - although
put in context, this figure is only 3% of the newly merged AOL Time
Warner. (G., Jan. 24, 01)
6. "We pretty much begin with the discovery of fire, and go from there,"
[Nathan] Myhrvold explains as he cracks the spine of the first volume
[of his book] "History and Background." The opening treatise takes the
reader from Apicius to Escoffier to nouvelle cuisine and "The Seeds of
Modernism," finishing with a 30-year timeline placing key techniques
and innovators in context. (A., Feb. 10, 11)
7. "We wanted to show young art in context," said Irena Satkeova, manager
of [the] Artbanka [Museum of Young Art]. "It brings value and you can
see the quality of young art is really high." (N.Y.T., Jan. 3, 12)
8. The urgency of slowing down - to find the time and space to think - is
nothing new, of course, and wiser souls have always reminded us that
the more attention we pay to the moment, the less time and energy we
have to place it in some larger context. "Distraction is the only thing
that consoles us for our miseries," the French philosopher Blaise Pascal
wrote in the l7th century, "and yet it is itself the greatest of our miseries."
(N.Y.T., Dec. 29, 11)
9. Gingrich also referred in the 2005 article to the threat of a nuclear Iran, but
without urging any immediate American or Israeli action. While there's
no doubt this is agraver concern than it was six years ago, Gingrich said
then that Iran was "believed by many countries to be secretly developing
nuclear weapons." He put this in the broader context of North Korea
and Pakistan already having nukes, and Gingrich calling them and a
chemical-weapon-armed Syria "hostile to Israel's existence." (Nsw, Jan.
18, 12)
10. "We've been working with elders, museum collections, we've been
documenting our language, we've been documenting pretty much
everything that has been lost," [Sven] Haakanso n [executive director
of the Alutiiq Museum] told us in the video interview. "What we've
been doing is trying to take knowledge that was taken out, and put it
into a living context back into Our community." (N.G., Aug. 1, 11)
156

YpoK20

POWERPOINT: KILLER APP?

By Ruth Marcus

Did PowerPoint make the space shuttle crash? Could it doom another
mission? Preposterous as this may sound, the ubiquitous Microsoft
"presentation software" has twice been singled out for special criticism by
task forces reviewing the space shuttle disaster.
Perhaps I've sat through too many PowerPoint presentations lately, but
I think the trouble with these critics is that they don't go far enough(l): The
software may be as much of a mind-numbing menace to those of us who
intend to remain earthbound as it is to astronauts.
PowerPoint's failings have been outlined most vividly by Yale political
scientist Edward Tufte, a specialist in the visual display of information.
In a 2003 Wired magazine article headlined "PowerPoint Is Evil" and a
less dramatically titled pamphlet, "The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint,"
Tufte argued that the program encourages "faux-analytical" thinking
that favors the slickly produced "sales pitch" over the sober exchange of
information(2).
Exhibit A in Tufte's analysis is a PowerPoint slide presented to NASA
senior managers in January 2003, while the space shuttle Columbia was in
the air and the agency was weighing the risk posed by tile damage on the
shuttle wings(3). Key information was so buried and condensed in the rigid
PowerPoint format as to be useless(4).
"It is easy to understand how a senior manager might read this
PowerPoint slide and not realize that it addresses a life-threatening situation,"
the Columbia Accident Investigation Board concluded, citing Tufte's work.
The board devoted a full page of its 2003 report to the issue, criticizing a space
agency culture in which, it said, "the endemic use of PowerPoint" substituted
for rigorous technical analysis.
But NASA - like the rest of corporate and bureaucratic America -
seems powerless to resist PowerPoint. Just this month a minority report by
the latest shuttle safety task force echoed the earlier concerns: Often, the
group said, when it asked for data it ended up with PowerPoints - without
supporting documentation.
These critiques are, pardon the phrase, on point, but I suspect that the
insidious influence of powerPoint goes beyond the way it frustrates scientific
analysis. The deeper problem with the PowerPointing of America - the
PowerPointing of the planet, actually - is that the program tends to flatten
the most complex, subtle, even beautiful, ideas into tedious, bullet-pointed
bureaucratese(S).
I experienced a particularly dreary example of this under a starry
Hawaiian sky this year, listening to a talk on astronomy. It Was the perfect
157

J1loment for magical images of distant stars and newly discovered planets. Yet,
instead of using technology to transport, the lecturer plodded point-by-point
through cookie-cutter slides.
The soul-sapping essence of PowerPoint was captured perfectly in a
spoof of the Gettysburg Address by computer whiz Peter Norvig of Google(6).
It featured Abe Lincoln fumbling with his computer ("Just a second while I
get this connection to work. Do I press this button here? Function-F7?") and
collapsing his speech into six slides, complete with a bar chart depicting four
score and seven years(7).

For example, Slide 4(8):


"Review of Key Objectives & Critical Success Factors
• What makes nation unique
- Conceived in liberty
- Men are equal
• Shared vision
- New birth of freedom
- Gov't of/by/for the people."
If NASA managers didn't recognize the safety problem, perhaps it's
because they were dazed from having to endure too many presentations like
this - the inevitable computer balkiness, the robotic recitation of bullet
points, the truncated language of a marketing pitch. Hence the New Yorker
cartoon in which the devil, seated at his desk in Hell, interviews a potential
assistant: "I need someone well versed in the art of torture - do you know
PowerPoint?"
Like all forms of torture, though, PowerPoint degrades its practitioners
as well as its victims(9). Yes, boring slides were plentiful in the pre-PowerPoint
era - remember the overhead projector? Yes, it can help the intellectually
inept organize their thoughts. But the seductive availability of PowerPoint
and the built-in drive to reduce all subjects to a series of short-handed bullet
points eliminates nuances and enables, even encourages, the absence of
serious thinking(lO). Really, why think at all when the auto-content wizard
can do it for you?
The most disturbing development in the world of PowerPoint is its
migration to the schools - like sex and drugs, at earlier and earlier ages. Now
We have second-graders being tutored in PowerPoint. No matter that students
who compose at the keyboard already spend more energy perfecting their
fonts than polishing their sentences - Power Point dispenses with the need
to write any sentences at all(Il). Perhaps the politicians who are so worked
up about the ill effects of violent video games should turn their attention to
PowerPoint instead.
In the meantime, Tufte, who's now doing consulting work for NASA,
has a modest proposal for its new administrator: Ban the use of Power Point.
Sounds good to me. After all, you don't have to be a rocket scientist to see the
perils of PowerPoint.
Washington Post, Aug. 30, 2005
]58

,. Анализ текста

1.1. Тема, идея и общая стратегия перевода

1. Что такое PowerPoint? Какие функции выполняет это приложеНие


и как выглядит типичный продукт, созданный с его помощью? Ка­
кую роль оно играет в современной культуре?
2. Сформулируйте основную идею статьи. Какие аргумен ты проти в
использования этого программного обеспечения высказывае т ав ­
тор? Чем он мотивирует свою точку зрения? Является ли высказан ­
ная в статье позиция широко распространенной или нет и почему?
3. Как можно охарактериз овать стиль этого текста? Является ли от­
ношение автора к предмету статьи нейтральным или субъектив ­
ным? Укажите на конкретные слова и выражения в тексте, на ко то ­
рых вы основываете свое суждение.

1.2. Связь с широким контекстом

1. О какой катастрофе, связанной с космосом, идет речь в стать е?


Найдите о ней дополнительные сведения и восстановите хроноло ­
гию основных событий , закончившихся катастрофой. Можно ли
утверждать, что автор рассчитывает на то, что его читателям хо ­

рошо известно, о каком событии идет речь? Чем это подтвержда ет­
ся? Подумайте о возможной прагматической адаптации при пер е­
воде в связи с разницей в фоновых знаниях читателей оригина ла
и перевода.

2. Найдите основную информацию о человеке по имени Edward Tufte.


Чем он занимается, где работает и чем известен? Почему автор ста­
тьи ссылается на него? При выборе окончательного варианта пер е ­
дачи его фамилии , постарайтесь установить , как она ПРОИЗНОСИТСЯ
в оригинале.
3. Как вы понимаете предложение (3)? Что стало предметом ана лиза
для Тuftе? Когда и з ачем было создано то, что он анализировал ?
4. При работе над предложением (4) ознакомьтесь с разделом 4 при­
ЛОжен ия и/или найдите соответствующую информацию в Интер­
нете и ответьте дл я себя на вопрос , в чем и менно СОСтояла кри ти ка ,
высказанная Tufte.
5. Что такое Columma Accident ]nvestigation Board? В чем заключа­
лись функции этого органа и каков был его состав? Передайте еГО
название с учетом найденной вами информации.
6. В тексте неоднократно упоминаются особенности представлениЯ
информации в при ложен ии PowerPoint в том числе в предложениИ
(5). Понятно ли вам, в чем заключаютс; высказываеМые претензии?
При работе над переводом примите во внимание то, что ваши ва­
рианты должны отражать, с одной стороны , реаЛЬные особенностИ
работы прилож ~
ения, а с другои - авторскую оценку Этой работы.
ypoJ< N2 'i
___---~~----------------~------------____________~1~59

7. О чем идет речь в п~едложении (6)? Ознакомьтесь с разделом 5


приложения и/или наидите соответствующую информацию в Ин­
тернете. Также уточните, кто такой Peter Norvig и на что в его слу­
чае указывает характеристика coтputer whiz.
8. Что такое Gettysburg Address? Найдите или вспомните этот текст и
выясните, какую роль он играет в американской истории и культу­
ре. На что указывают слова four score and seven years в предложе­
нии (7)'5?

1.3. ЧаСТНblе ЯЗblКОВblе т УДНОСТИ

1. Как вы будете передавать в переводе имена собственныеРоwеrРоint


Wired и Coluтbia? Какими правилами, рекомендациями и сообра~
жениями вы в этом случае будете руководствоваться? Проверьте,
соответствует ли оформление ваших вариантов правилам русского
языка.

2. В каком значении в данном контексте использовано слово тission?


Можно ли считать его примером ложных друзей переводчика
и почему?
3. Как вы понимаете выражение trouble with (these critics)? Проанали­
зируйте упражнение 2.1. (а также при необходимости другие ори­
гинальные контексты употребления выражений trouble/probleт
with) и предложите варианты передачи выделенных сочетаний.
4. Как вы понимаете в этом контексте словосочетание cognitive
style? Прежде чем определиться с окончательным вариантом его
передачи в переводе, уточните значения слов cognitive и «когни­
тивный», разберитесь, на что это сочетание могло бы указывать
в данной ситуации, и учтите стиль фрагмента, в котором оно здесь
употреблено.
5. Является ли в одном из придаточных предложений сложного пред­
ложения (2) подлежащее prograт агентом действИЯ и если нет, ка­
кую фактическую функцию оно выполняет? Сформулируйте и рас­
смотрите варианты перевода, в которых русский эквивалент слова
prograт не будет занимать в предложении позицию подлежащего.
Учтите все вышесказанное и при переводе предложения (10).
6. В каком значении реализуется слово pitch в сочетании sales ?itch?
Проверьте в английскОМ толковом словаре значение слова sllck(ly).
Прежде чем предложить окончательный вариант перевода, убеди­
тесь, что вы понимаете логику постулата, высказанного в предл~же­
нии (2). Как эта мысль соотносится со знакоМОЙ вам практикои ис­
пользования PowerPoint? По какому принципу противопоставлены
понятия slickZy produced saZes pitch и sober exchange о! inforтation?
7. Какой семантикоЙ обладает конструкция so .. . as (о ... в предложе­
нии (4)? Прежде чем определиться с окончательным вариантом

15 СМ.: Ланчиков В.К Памятник за ЯЗЫКОВbJМ барьером // МостЬ! N2 2(5)12005.


160 YpOl(1j

-------
перевод а предложения , про анал изируйте упражнение 2.2. и пр ед_
ложите варианты п ередачи выделенных конст рукций .
8. В каком значении в данном контексте употреблено слово cuZture?
Подбирая вариант его передачи, примит е в расчет то, чт о речь и де т
об организ ации.
9. Как вы понимаете значение сочетания corporate and bureaUCratic
Aтerica? Указывает ли оно на характеристику страны или на ОПре _
деленную ее часть? Проверьте в толковом английском словаре зна_
чения слов corporate и bureaucratic. Сопоставьте их значения со
значением сходных по звучанию и происхождению русских с лов .

10. За что автор извиняется словами pardon the phrase? Принимая ре ­


шение о варианте передачи этого выражения , оцените, содер жит

ли предложенный вами перевод всего предложения коммун ика_


тивно сходный повод для извинения .
11. С какой целью автор употребляет неологизм PowerPointing? Зало ­
жена ли в таком словоупотреблении какая-либо оценочность и на
чем вы основываете свое мнение? При выборе окончательного ва­
рианта передачи этого слова рассмотрите варианты как с создани ­

ем неологизма, так и без .


12. Какой стиль, регистр и ситуацию общения призваны воспроизве­
сти заключенные в скобки выражения в предложении (7)? Всп ом-
ните или представьте себе , что и как сказал бы в подобной ситу­
ации носитель русского языка. При работе с этим фрагментом
обратите особое внимание на передачу стилевых характеристик
прямой речи .
13. Анализируя текст упомянутого в статье «4-го слайда» (8), разбе­
ритесь, что он собой представляет и за счет чего призван прои зво-
дить юмористический эффект. В частности, ответьте на вопросы :
что легло в основу текста слайда? Каким образом исходный те кст
был видоизменен ? Какими средствами (включая графические) ав ­
тор создает стилистический конфликт? Как этот фрагмент ил лю ­
стрирует выск азанные автором статьи суждения оприложе нии

PowerPoint? При работе над этим фрагментом ознакомьтесь с вари­


антами перевода Геттисбергской речи на русский язык в раздел е 6
Приложения (и проверьте наличие других опубликованных пере ­
ВоДов) . Оцените их сравнительную при годность для решения сто -
ящей перед вами переводческой задачи.
14. Уточните значение слова baZkiness в толковом английском словар е
и проанализируйте его употребление в ор иг и н ал ьных англий ск ИХ
текстах, когда оно относится к устройствам типа компьютера.
15. В чем смысл предложения (9)? Что с чем в нем сравнивается и KaJ{
вы ПОнимаете причины такого сравнения? Что является ремой это ­
го предложения? Как вы понимаете смысл глагола to degrade в даН­
ном случае (9)? Проверьте все его значениЯ в английском толковОМ
Словар е. При выборе окончательного варианта перевода при мяте
в расчет то, что русские эквиваленты слов victiтs и practitioners
должны , как и в оригинале, подходи ть для одновременного обоЗ/I а -
161

чения двух разных групп людей (из семантических планов, связан­

ных как с PowerPoint, так и с


torture). Также примите во внимание,
что вариант передачи глагола [о degrade должен, как и оригина­
ле, быть уместным в отношении как группы victims, так и группы
practitioners в обоих семантических планах.
16. Как вы понимаете смысл слова availabllity в предложении (10)?
Уточните значения этого слова в английском толковом словаре и
соотнесите предлагаемый вами вариант перевода с вашими знани­
ями о данной предметной области.
17. Проверьте прямые и переносные значения слов built-in иdrive в
предложении (10). У какого объекта может отмечаться drive [о
reduce all subjects [о а series 0/ short-handed bullet points и какой
контекстуальный смысл приобретает слово drive в этом контексте?
18. Как вы понимаете смысл предложения (11)? На какую тенденцию
действительности указывает противопоставление двух занятий:
per/ecting their /onts и polishing their sentences? Подумайте, как по­
добное противопоставление мог бы выразить носитель русского
языка, разделяющий позицию автора статьи.
19. Отсылка к какому произведению содержится в словосочетании
modest proposaZ? Какую окраску придает это крылатое выражение
последнему абзацу статьи?
20. Какие прямое и переносное значения имеет словосочетание rocket
scientist? Можно ли говорить о том, что его употребление в данном
контексте создает игру слов?

2. Упражнения

2.1. Контекстуальные значения сочетания troubIe/


ргоЫеm with

1. Sir Rod [Eddington, а former chief executive of British Airways]


favoured modest road-improvement programmes to relieve the traffic
jams that waste so тисЬ of our time, raise our blood pressure and
pol1ute our air; as far as rail investment goes, Ье liked the idea of longer
platforms and longer trains in congested places. ТЬе trou.ble with those
schemes, of course, is that they are local, boring and wl11 never win а
government а single headline. (L.E.S., Aug. 3, 11)
2. ТЬе trouble with accounting, performance measurement and risk
control - and indeed the teaching of business schools - is that they
treat companies as if they are mechanical. тЬеу. assume ~roadly that
they are machines which, for а certain level of шрuts, wl11 deliver а
predictable level of outp~t. But the greater trut~, particularly .in the
modern era where talent IS the big differentiator, IS that соmрашеs are
collections of people, and they are as тисЬ biological as mechanical.
(L.E.S, Jul. 19, 11)
162 YpOl(11
------------------------------------------------------
3. The trouble with childbirth is its unpredictability. Safe, low-risk
pregnancies can quickly develop into full-blown emergencies: being in
hospital undoubtedly saves lives in these situations. (L.E.S, Jul. 15, 11)
4. Auto sales have essentially stopped and are at their lowest level since 1993
People who do have cars have trouble with the expenses of operatin~
them. In the last three months, the number of uninsured drivers increased
by 500,000, bringing the total to l.5 million. (N.Y.T., Nov. 6, 11)
5. About a quarter of an hour ago she had dealt with an extremely elegant
Italian lady professor, of about the right age - younger, but not too
young - and who spoke very good English, apart from a little trouble
with her aspirates. (D. Lodge)
6. [Hockey players Zbynek] Michalek and teammate Kris Letang were
concussed in Montreal on Nov. 26. Michalek said his symptoms were
minor but that the experience was one to remember. " I never had
problems with my head before," Michalek told the newspaper. "You
see so many head injuries in the league now. Now, I understand that it's
not so easy to go through." (S.N., Dec. 12, 11)
7. "In Europe we have a big problem with one in five 15-year-olds reading
to a very low level. Literacy is not just about reading, it is the foundation
for life." (L.E.S., Qct. 11, 11)
8. GPs, hospital consultants and private practitioners will have to renew
their licences every five years. Sir Liam will call for senior doctors to
assess others to ensure they are not putting patients at risk. Patients will
also give feedback. .. The assessments will look at prescribing habits,
adequate assessment of a patient's condition and personal issues which
may affect their work, such as a problem with drugs or alcohol. (L.E.S,
Jul. 23,08)
9. It is an article of faith that increasing globalisation of economies must
lead to a convergence of countries' taxes, so national governments will
have less and less freedom to tax as they would wish - especially iftheir
country is a member ofthe European Union. There is only one problem
with this argument: the facts do not support it. (G., Jul. 14, 03)
10. "I am taking the dubious liberty, Les, of sending you a few quills fro m a
porcupine; they may be a perfect answer to your old problem with the
softness and breakability of toothpicks." (J. Salinger)

2.2. KaY3aTIIIBHble KOHCTpYK4111111, COAep>KaL1\lIIe


Ka3aHllle Ha CTeneHb KalleCTBa IIInlll KonllllleCTBa.
AOCTIII>KeHllle onpeAeneHHolII CTeneHIII KalleCTBa/
Konlll4eCTBa npeAonpeAem'leT B03MO>KHOCTb
>KenaeMorO/O>KIIIAaeMoro AelllcTBIIIR
l. The general so far laid aside the dignity appropriate to a Confederate
officer of high rank and wide renown as to smile. (A. Bierce)
2. The edge of a colossal jungle so dark green a s t o be almost bl ack ,
fringed with white surf, ran straight, like a ruled line, far far away
163

along a blue sea whose glitter was blurred by a creeping mist.


(l Conrad)
3. Few men exhibit greater diversity, or, if we may so express it, greater
antithesis of character, than the native warrior of North America. In
war, he is daring, boastful, cunning, ruthless, self-denying, and self-
devoted; in peace, just, generous, hospitable, revengeful, superstitious,
modest, and commonly chaste. These are qualities, it is true, which do
not distinguish all alike; but they are so far the predominating traits
of these remarkable people, as to be characteristic. (IF. Cooper)
4. The Detroit Free Press headlined a letter from a reader with praise so faint
as to be damaging: "President Carter Is Doing His Best." (I.H.T., 78)
5. Although Yannis Kokkos's 1993 production [of R.Wagner's "Tristan
and Isolde" ], lamely revived by Peter Watson, is so anodyne as to be
virtually non-existent, it has the negative virtue of allowing the cast
to focus on the difficult business of singing. (D.T., Oct. 2, 06)
6. This is the first album that the Horrors [rock group] have produced
themselves, and it's a major accomplishment: Its sonic drama is at times
so intense as to be visually evocative, a long synesthetic voyage that
would certainly do the generation of LSD and The Piper at the Gates of
Dawn proud. (Slant Magazine, Aug. 6, 11)
7. There had often been other girls, other women. That was what the spats
had been about. That was what had caused my grandmother to kick
her suitor in the shins and shove him out of his own buggy and drive
home by herself with his horse. That was why she had thrown a box of
chocolates in his face. And then stamped on them, so they couldn't be
picked up and enjoyed, ifhe should be so nonchalant and greedy as to
try. (A. Munro)
8. In the dreadful 1981 comedy, Modern Problems, that air traffic controller
Chevy Chase develops telekinetic powers through contact with nuclear
waste is so grim as to be awe-inspiring in its sheer inappropriateness
as a source of humor. (L. A. T., May 7, 89)
9. Texas is the only state where participation in a workers' comp
[compensation] system is not mandatory for employers above a certain
size. (New Jersey technically has the option, but it is so strict as to be
preclusive.) (ABA Journal, Oct. 1, 11)
10. My, my, the mischief of Maxwell McGee now sounds so quaint as to be
the stuff of schoolboy innocence. Mostly, he stayed out late. He once
claimed an NFL record in breaking curfew 11 straight nights. Some
nights it got so late as to be dawn on his return to his bachelor lair. Such
as the night before the morning of the first Super Bowl, when he left his
room despite [head coach] Vince Lombardi's threat of a $5,000 fine.
(S.N., Nov. 23, 89)
1l. Autumn in Azerbaijan, and the Sun is still hot enough in Baku for
walkers to choose the shady side of the street. (G., Oct. 15, 90)
12. Congress and the American public have been confronted with revelations
that the Chinese stole important nuclear secrets from U.S. nuclear
164

weapons laboratories in the mid-1980s. They may have obtained classified


information that greatly assisted their development of warheads small
enough to be launched accurately from a single missile at multiple
targets. (I.H.T., Mar. 11 , 99)
13. Being in politics is like being a football coach; you have to be smart
enough to understand the game, and dumb enough to think it's
important. (E. McCarthy)
14. Over that summer of 1983, [arson] Welles and I saw enough of each
other at Ma Maison [restaurant] to be on nodding terms. (D.T., Apr. 17,
99)
15. Egon Ronay declares that those who fly economy class are badly fed,
and I travel enough to know that he has a point. (W.T., No. 390)
16. I should add I knew her: not too well, but well enough for us to howl
at each other over the phone when our cats were moribund, or to stand
sweating together in the corners at literary parties, hating literary
parties. (G., Nov. 10, 01)
17. ID cards were used in and after the second world war, until, in 1951 ,
Harold Muckle, a police constable, demanded that Clarence Willcock,
a north London dry cleaner, show him his papers. Mr Wi1cock refused.
The case went to the Court of Appeal, and, although Mr Wi1cock lost,
the government was embarrassed enough to abolish ID cards the
following year. (E., May 1,04)
18. Most suicides tend to be thought of as "sad." People evil enough to be
thought to deserve it are ran~. (G., Jan. 17, 04)
19. Marco had more doubts than his wife when she first suggested home
education. He was anxious that they wouldn't reach exam level in
subjects such as maths, and they'd miss out on school facilities. Now he
says he's talked to enough home-educated children to believe these
are not problems. (Obs., Apr. 12, 05)
20. Swapping outfits when you get to work [by bike] may be all right for
commuters, but what about in the middle of the day when I often use my
bike to get to meetings? On warm days, I just have to try to ride sedately
enough not to turn into a wet rag after 10 minutes. (G., Jun. 14, 06)
,

Тексты для самостоятельной


подготовки
167

TeKCT 1

NOT GETTING ENOUGH SLEEP? TURN OFF THE TECHNOLOGY

1he national penchant for watching television every evening before going to
sleep, playing video games late into the night or checking emails and text
messages before turning off the lights could be interfering with the nation's
sleep habits.
"Unfortunately, cell phones and computers, which make our lives more
productive and enjoyable, may be abused to the point that they contribute to
getting less sleep at night leaving millions of Americans functioning poorly
the next day," Russell RosenbePg, the vice chairman of the Washington DC-
based National Sleep Foundation (NSF), said in a statement.
Charles Czeisler, of Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's
Hospital in Boston, said exposure to artificial light before going to bed can
increase alertness and suppress the release of melatonin, a sleep-promoting
hormone.
"Technology has invaded the bedroom," Czeisler explained in an
interview. "Invasion of such alerting technologies into the bedroom may
contribute to the high proportion of respondents who reported they routinely
get less sleep than they need."
Baby boomers, or people aged 46-64 years old, were the biggest offenders
of watching television every night before going to sleep, while more than a
third of 13-18 year-olds and 28 percent of young adults 19-29 year olds played
video games before bedtime.
Sixty one percent also said they used their computer or laptop at least a
few nights each week.
And a propensity to stay in touch means that even people who have
managed to fall asleep, are being woken up by cellphones, texts and emails
during the night.
Sleep experts recommend that teenagers get 9 hours and 15 minutes of
sleep a night but adolescents in the study were only averaging 7 hours and 26
minutes on weeknights.
Reuters, Mar. 7, 2011
TeKCTbl A JIlI CaMOCTOllTenbHOH nOArO TOBI\i1
168
---
TeKCT 2

'TIME TRAVELLING' FRENCH PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE


RIDICULED FOR NORMANDY CLAIMS

Mr Morin, who heads the centrist Nouveau Centre party, is a rank outsider
for April's presidential elections, polling less than one per cent, is 50 years old.
In a campaign speech over the weekend in Nice, southern France, he
made the audacious claim.
"You, some of you, with white hair, you saw nearby the landings in
Provence ... I, who saw the Allied landings in Normandy, we have lived
through things much more difficult that what we have to go through today,"
he claimed.
His comments were immediately seized upon by the internet community.
"For a man born in 1961 to take part in the Allied landings of 1944 is a
great achievement," wrote Voici.fr.
His Wikipedia profile was instantly updated to describe him as a
"pioneer of time travel" following his curious D -Day claim.
Internet jesters quickly homed in on the nickname of Morin McFly, after
Marty McFly, the hero of the 1980s time travelling film Back to the Future
starring Michael TFox.
It spawned a raft of internet parodies. "I was there at the Big Bang, it was
overrated," wrote one.
"I was in Rouen when Toan of Arc was burned," claimed a second.
"You should have seen the Trojans' face when the Greeks came out of
that horse," said a third.
Faced with the deluge of ridicule, Mr Morin stood by his remark today,
saying it wasn't a mistake but a semantic "shortcut."
"It wasn't a blunder at all but simply a shortcut to something deeply
anchored in the eye of every Norman. It's our DNA, our genetic code," he told
RMC radio.
"I was brought up with the white crosses of Canadian and American
soldiers in the (war) cemeteries, of these children who died for our freedom
and thus it's a part of our common history, that's all," he said.
Taking the jokes at his expense on the chin, he wrote on Twitter: "Well
done for your humour! 1 always said the French were full of creative talent! "
Mr Morin has little to laugh about from a political perspective, however,
as two key party allies deserted him on Wednesday to come out in support of
Nicolas Sarkozy, the incumbent conservative.
Mr Morin dismissed calls for him to throw in the towel.
"I intend to go all the way," he said, predicting he would "not stay on one
per cent."
Daily Telegraph, Jan. 25, 20 /2
169

Te KCT 3

TOO YOUNG FOR SCHOOL, BUT READY FOR IRONY

By Nicholas Bakalar

When a 12-year-old's mother asks him "How many times do I have to tell you
to stop?" he will understand that the answer, if any is required, had better not
include a number. 0

But that insight requires a sophisticated understanding of ironic


language that develops long after fluent speech. At what age do children begin
to sense the meaning of such a question, and to what degree can they respond
appropriately to other kinds of irony?
In laboratory research on the subject, children demonstrate almost no
comprehension of ironic speech before they are 6 years old, and little before
they are 10 or 11. When asked, younger children generally interpret rhetorical
questions as literal, deliberate exaggeration as a mistake and sarcasm as a lie.
But there has been little research on the subject outside the laboratory.
So a group of Canadian researchers set out to record parents and children
at home as they used four types of ironic language: sarcasm, hyperbole,
understatement and rhetorical questions. It turns out that very young children
can understand and even use ironic speech, even if they cannot describe what
they have done to a researcher.
"You really see that they respond appropriately to this language in
conversation," said Holly E. Recchia, the lead author of the report. "That's not
the same as saying they can explain their understanding explicitly."
The study, published in The British Journal of Developmental Psychology,
included 39 families, each with two parents and two children whose average
ages were 4 and 6. The families were recruited using birth announcements in
an Ontario newspaper, and they were representative of the general population
in ethnic background and in parents' age and educational level.
The scientists transcribed more than 350 hours of speech, and sorted all
the nonliteral utterances into one of the four categories, each time identifying
the speaker. All the older siblings made at least one ironic remark, as did 38
mothers, 26 fathers and 37 of the younger Siblings - a total of 1,661 non literal
comments.
Although it is unclear why, compared with fathers and children, mothers
used ironic language more in negative interactions than in positive ones, and
rhetorical questions more frequently than any other form. "It may be that
mothers take on roles as teachers or managers," Dr. Recchia said. "If moms
are more engaged in conflict management, then it could be that rhetorical
questions are more effective than sarcasm."
With all the children, hyperbole and rhetorical questions were most
common. When the children were involved in a conflict, rhetorical questions
and understatement were used more, while positive interactions usually
involved sarcasm and hyperbole. Unlike their younger brothers and sisters,
TeKCTbl lIn51 CaMOCT051TenbHOM nOllrOTOBl(11
170
----
older siblings used sarcasm ("Thanks a lot - now you wrecked my collection")
more often than understatement (''I'm just a tiny bit angry with you right
now").
"It's one piece of a larger picture," said Janet Wilde Astington, a professor
of psychology at the University of Toronto who has published widely on
children's speech, but was not involved in this study. "I think it is important
insofar as they can show understanding as young as they were observing, and
I think that they do make the important point that that does stand in contrast
to expectations from experimental work."
Compared with their parents, the children were more likely to use
hyperbole, typically to emphasize grievous injustices done them by their
siblings and parents: "You never give me an allowance, even when I'm good."
Older children used more irony than their younger siblings, and while
younger ones were less likely to understand the meaning and function of the
remarks, the differences were not large.
Dr. Recchia, who is an assistant professor of education at Concordia
University in Montreal, said that even though children's understanding of
irony was limited, it could still be useful. "Parents tend to view ironic language
negatively, but it's not always negative or nasty," she said. "Sometimes it's
quite playful. It may be that humor and irony can help to defuse situations
that might otherwise cause conflict. It may be an effective tool."
New York Times, Oct. 11, 2010
171

TeKCT4

HOW TO ... READ


By Guy Browning

Books are little hand-held parallel universes. Someone reading a book is likely
to be living a far more exciting life on the page than in reality. One of the
things you don't find characters in books doing is sitting down and reading a
book for a couple of hours. Especially in thrillers. Research has shown that any
book over an inch thicK is read 15 times less than one less than an inch thick.
Readers have an instinctive cut-off point where they simply don't believe that
any story could be that long, or any character that interesting.
Hardback buyers are superior to paperback buyers in every way,
especially in the muscles required to keep half a hundredweight of paper aloft.
Never read a large hardback in the bath if your feet don't rest comfortably on
the far end. Otherwise, by the end of chapter two, you'll be underwater.
Not all books are bought new. Antique books are bought by people who
collect rather than read, while secondhand books are bought by people who
read rather than collect. A used paperback will often have notes scribbled in
the margins. This is done by the same people who talk to themselves loudly
in public. Reading their old books is like being trapped in a parallel universe
with a madman.
Apparently, there is a skill that people pay to acquire called speed
reading. This makes as much sense as taking a course in speed love-making.
When you're reading at normal speed, it's nice to pause at the end of a
chapter. The maximum number of pages people will read to get to the end
of a chapter is five. Which is why weaker authors have a new chapter every
four pages to encourage you to keep moving. Important, serious authors
sometimes forget to have chapters altogether, and you then have to mark
your place in the book. If you've had the same book marked for the past 30
years, you're probably one of the dullest people in history. That, or you're just
a titanically slow reader.
Folding the top corner of the page over is like marking your territory by
peeing on it. You know where you've been, but no one else will ever want to go
there. Occasionally, you'll find a book in which the pages have been marked
by the blood of a husband who doesn't want to read in bed and insists on
putting out the light so he can go to sleep. This is a bit harsh, because dreams
are just badly edited fiction for speed readers.
Guardian, Apr. 5, 2003
172 TeKCThl .nil}! CaMOCTOllTeilbHOH nO.nrOTOBKI1

TeKCT 5

COULROPHOBIA: HEALTH ACTIVISTS WANT TO SACK


THE WORLD'S BEST-KNOWN CLOWN

Fear of clowns is known as coulrophobia. Some health activists are so afraid


of the impact that a certain red-haired clown has on children that they want
him to retire. On May 18th several American newspapers carried ads paid
for by Corporate Accountability International (a group that helped to kill
cigarette-touting Toe Camel) in support of a shareholder resolution at the
annual meeting of McDonald's the following day urging the fast-food chain
to stop marketing burgers to children. The activists want an end to Happy
Meals, and they want Ronald McDonald to hang up his outsized shoes.
Why so timid? The activists stopped short of demanding that McDonald's
rename its fare as "Flabby Meals", or that Ronald McDonald be replaced as
the corporate mascot by Mr Creosote, the morbidly obese Monty Python
character who explodes after overeating.
McDonald's says it has no intention of throwing the 48-year-old clown
into the deep-fat fryer. He is a "force for good," says the company, which
started calling him a "balanced, active lifestyles ambassador" as long ago as
2004. Nowadays, when he appears in ads he is shown playing sports, with
nary a burger in sight. Ironically, this seems to have gone down badly with
the public; the ads have reportedly tested poorly, with many viewers finding
them "creepy."
Meanwhile, on May 17th, McDonald's hosted a special ceremony in
Fond Du Lac, Wisconsin, to celebrate a customer consuming his 25,000th
Big Mac. Don Gorske, aged 57 and slim, claimed to have low cholesterol and
recently to have been given a clean bill of health.
Economist, May 19, 2011
173

TeKCT6

LEVIATHAN'S SPYGLASS
THE TRADITIONAL CENSUS IS DYING, AND A GOOD THING TOO

God is, according to the Bible, in two minds about censuses. The Book of
Numbers is so named because of God's command to Moses that he should
count the Israelites in preparation for war. Years later when King David does
the same thing, the Lord wastes no time in smiting him for his trouble.
Perhaps God's ambivalence springs from uncertainty about whose side
He is on. Historically, rulers liked censuses, because they enable them to
conscript and tax their people. Citizens disliked them for the same reasons.
But, as governments became less malevolent, an exercise designed to extract
value from the populace became one whose purpose was to improve the
quality of administration.
Now this centuries-old tradition is slowly coming to an end. If statisticians
in Britain get their way, for instance, the census planned for next year could
be the country's last. Instead, they are considering gathering information
from the vast, centralised databases held by government, such as tax records,
benefit databases, electoral lists and school rolls, as well as periodic polling
of a sample of the population. It is a global trend, pioneered, inevitably, in
Scandinavia . .Denmark has been keeping track of its citizens without a
traditional census for decades; Sweden. Norway Finland and Slovenia, among
others, have similar systems. Germany will adopt the approach for its next
count, also due in 211.
There are two reasons for the change. The first is that computerisation
allows statisticians to interrogate databases in a way that was not possible when
information was stored on cards in filing cabinets. The second is that counting
people the traditional way is getting harder and less useful. Rising labour
mobility and the accelerating pace of societal change mean that information
goes stale more quickly than ever. Since its last census in 2001, for instance,
Britain has seen hundreds of thousands of immigrants arrive from new eastern
European members of the ED. Local governments complain that out-of-date
information ignores these newcomers, leaving schools overcrowded, budgets
stretched and houses scarce. At the same time, filling in the forms has become
more onerous: what started as a short questionnaire about who lived where
has turned into an inquisition about everything from toilet and car ownership
to race and religion. As a result, compliance rates are falling. The decline of
deference raises worries about reliability: last time, when asked about their
religious affiliation, 0.7% of Britons replied that they were Jedi Knights.

Give the shoes a rest

There is some resistance to change. America's constitution requires it to


conduct a shoe-leather censuS, which is why this year's effort is going to cost
174 TeKCTbl .1\JJil CaMO CTOllTeJ1 bHOi1 nO.1\rO TOBI(I!

----
over $11 billion. The Finns, by contrast, spent about €lm ($1.2m) on their last
one. That's about $36 per head in America and 20 cents in Finland. Historians,
and some statisticians, bemoan the impending loss of a continuous data series
that, in some cases, goes back over two centuries. Civil libertarians with an
eye on the historic misuse of census data - by everyone from the Nazis to
the Americans, who rounded up and imprisoned Japanese-Americans in the
second world war - worry about the growth of government-by-database, and
fret that a database census is another step on the road to an omniscient state.
Government misuse of data is an ever-growing danger, certainly but
one to be combated by strong rules on freedom of information and eternal
vigilance, not anachronistic and increasingly inaccurate headcounts. The
prize is the goal of every sage and seer; self-knowledge. (And, more prosaically,
better and cheaper government.)
Economist, Jul. 17, 2010
175

TeKCT7

WHAT ANNUAL REPORTS WON'T SAY

By David StaufJer
Q

Last year I competed an assignment that involved reading the 1995 annual
reports of 96 large U.S.-based corporations. Although I'd regularly written
and read annual reports for almost 20 years, the concentrated reading was
humbling. In writing letters to shareholders, I' cl had my share of hunched-
over-the-keyboard agony, trying to give a rosy glow to lackluster corporate
performance. I was, I thought, justly proud of my glittering prose.
But in the 96 reports I reviewed last year, "my" phrases appeared time
after time. In headquarters suites from coast to coast, it would seem, corporate
chieftains and their departments of vacuous messages wrestle with the same
challenges of artfully reversing the spin of negative events - and repeatedly
come up with the same confabulations.
Sameness is apparent from the outset, as most opening statements employ
superlatives: "We are the leading provider oL." or "... the dominant force in ... "
Everyone of the annual reports from long-distance phone companies said
"we're" the leader in the field. And one chairman after another reported the
completion of yet another "record year" - including heads of two companies
whose major financial indicators, depicted later in the report, had all declined
from the previous year.
So, as the spring annual report season arrives, I can offer some perspective
on what may really have happened in the back of the glowing phrases you'll be
reading in the next few months:
• What happened: Performance was flat to abysmal on all fronts, the
company was mentioned prominently in charges of shady political fund-
raising, and the founder's messy divorce was all over the tabloid TV shows.
How it's described: "The past year can be characterized by the words
of the immortal Charles Dickens: 'It was the best of times, it was the worst of
times."
• Sales were flatter than ever; expenses soared; earnings plummeted.
How it's described: "We achieved record highs in numerous measures
of corporate performance."
• The firm downsized again, imposing even more work on surviving
middle managers, who were thanked with a 3% salary increase. The chief,
meanwhile, reeled in a pay package worth a few million more than last year's.
How it's described: "Our employees are our most important asset."
• By just about every measure of corporate performance, the company
now ranks at or near the bottom for its industry.
How it's described: "We are well positioned for future growth."
• The product launch or corporate acquisition that put the company's
existence at risk fell flat on its face.
176 TeKCTbl ,ll,JUl CaMOCTOllTenbHOH nO,ll, rOT OBKI1

How it's described: "This bold initiative anticipates the competitive


realities that await all companies in the 21st century."
• The share price has languished for years, while the major stock market
indexes and competitors' share values have rocketed to one new high after
another.
How it 's described: "With perseverance, the company's extraordinary
performance in generating added value will be recognized in the marketplace."
• Thanks to the coterie of sycophants that makes sure the top guy
hears nothing negative, the company was blindsided by a shift in customer
preferences that chopped market share.
How it's described: "The adverse effects of these fundamental societal
changes are being feIt throughout the economy."
• As in everyone of the 20 years he's headed the company, the chairman
did little more than play golf in warm-weather locations around the world.
How it's described: "This portends a paradigm shift that achieves
strategic alignment with the mission and vision to which we adhere in an
innovative adhocracy of continuous learning that will lead our customer-
focused team to greater success in the emerging world of global competition."
One important caveat: A badly written annual report doesn't necessarily
indicate a nonperforming company. The worst of the 1995 reports I reviewed
was Wait Disney's. It featured an almost book-length opening letter from
Chairman Michael D. Eisner, including self-indulgent irrelevancies ("And
during this year... I had one son graduate from college, another earn his
degree from graduate school, and a third post three hockey shutouts in goal
as a 16-year-old"), hideous metaphors ("Cosmically speaking, we successfully
engineered three stellar events that will affect the future alignment of Disney's
planets") and extravagant cliches ("The Wait Disney Company is positioned
for the millennium").
Disney shareholders who don't actually read this stuff, though, have
nothing to complain about: The value of their holdings has soared. Who
needs clarity when you're rolling in cash?
Wall Street Journal Europe, Apr. 14, 1997
177

TeKCT8

INJURY INFLATION
DON'T ALWAYS BELIEVE WHAT YOU READ IN THE PAPERS

Some people take numbers seriously. Indeed, we do. Ever since August 1843,
when our first editor promised his readers the "statistics of the week," our
articles have been peppered with numbers. A subsequent editor, in 1950s,
coined the word numeracy, to describe a quality he valued. But numeracy is
nothing without accuracy - and we, like other journalists, are not infallibly
accurate. Wise readers, even of The Economist, should never forget that there
are lies, damned lies and statistics, and among the most damnable are those
relating to disasters, whether natural or man-made.
British readers may need little reminding of this. They have just endured
a week in which Britain's newspapers have revelled in a dreadful train crash.
The death toll rose almost minute by minute until, two days after it had
happened, "at least 100" were dead, according to one tabloid, and "it could
be many more, even as high as 170." The Times reckoned 70 had been killed
and 100 more missing. No wonder, for the Sun, it was "the worst peacetime
disaster." We ourselves said "at least 70" had died. In fact, after a week after
the accident, the death toll had settled at about 35 - a fact that few newspapers
reported in type so big and bold as the sort they had been using a few days
earlier.
Back in April, we reported claims by he American State Department
that 100,000 people had been killed in Kosovo. We were sceptical, but by the
end of the war in June we had swallowed, albeit with the weasel qualification
of "perhaps," the figure of 100,000 Kosovars dead at the hands of the Serbs.
Today few authorities put the correct number above 10,000
A similar downsizing is going on in East Timor, where mass killings
were widely reported to have been carried out by rampaging militias. The
rampaging took place, but the reports of the deaths were a bit like Mark
Twain's: exaggerated. A United Nations spokesman said this week, "We've
heard horrendous stories for which there's not a shred of evidence ... We
don't believe that people in their thousands have been killed and their bodies
burned or thrown in the sea."

Go forth and multiply

In the fog of war, or of peacetime catastrophe, it is, of course, impossible to


know for certain how many people have died or been hurt, yet readers want
an estimate. So the word "perhaps" is not always - perhaps - so weasel, after
all. Yet journalists seldom reduce their estimates as time goes by. The first
figure - "as many as 100" - soon becomes "about 100," and then "at least lOO"
and often then "perhaps 1,000." Journalists want to promote their stories,
editors their papers, aid workers their agencies. Even government officials
178 TeKCTbl .l\ml CaMOCTOjiTenbHOH nO.l\rOTOBKI1

may want to curry sympathy. On August 24th, the official toll in Turkey's
earthquake was an apparently precise 17,997. A day later it had dropped to the
equally precise figure of 12,514.
This points to some rules for journalists, such as: treat the claims of
interested parties with suspicion, make clear that the figure you accept is
just an estimate and, if you are subsequently proved wrong, own up to it. But
readers too should beware - of spurious accuracy, of manifest inflation, and
of journalists' persistent tendency to exaggerate. Whatever the power of the
press in general, when it comes to killing people, the pen is truly mightier
than the sword.
Economist, Oct. 16, 1999
179

TeKCT9

I AM, THEREFORE I'M RIGHT

The culture of T is everywhere you look, from the iPodliPhoneliPad to


the fact that memoir is the fastest growing literary genre. When we base
our thinking and behavior almost exclusively on personal experience,
we lose the ability to consider other views. The result? Debt impasse.

By Jim Sollisch

If you've ever been on a jury, you might have noticed that a funny thing happens
the minute you get behind closed doors. Everybody starts talking about
themselves. They say what they would have done if they had been the plaintiff
or the defendant. They bring up anecdote after anecdote. It can take hours to
get back to the points of law that the judge has instructed you to consider.
Being on a jury (I recently served on my fourth) reminds me why I
can't stomach talk radio. We Americans seem to have lost the ability to talk
about anything but our own experiences. We can't seem to generalize without
stereotyping or to consider evidence that goes against our own experience.
I heard a doctor on a radio show the other day talking about a study
that found that exercise reduces the incidence of Alzheimer's. And caller
after caller couldn't wait to make essentially the opposite point: "Well, my
grandmother never exercised and she lived to 95, sharp as a tack." We are in
an age summed up by the aphorism: "I experience, therefore I'm right."
This isn't a new phenomenon, except by degree. Historically, the
hallmarks of an uneducated person were the lack of ability to think critically,
to use deductive reasoning, to distinguish the personal from the universal.
Now that seems an apt description of many Americans. The culture of "1" is
everywhere you look, from the iPod/iPhone/iPad to the fact that memoir is
the fastest growing literary genre.
How'd we get here? The same way we seem to get everywhere today:
the Internet. The Internet has allowed us to segregate ourselves based on our
interests. All cat lovers over here. All people who believe President Obama
wasn't born in the United States over there. For many of us, what we believe
has become the most important organizing element in our lives. Once we all
had common media experiences: WaIter Cronkite, Ed Sullivan, a large daily
newspaper. Now each of us can create a personal media network - call it the
iNetwork - fed by the RSS feeds of our choosing.
But the Internet doesn't just cordon us off in our own little pods. It also
makes us dumber, as Nicholas Carr points out in his excellent book, "The
Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to our Brains." He argues that the way
we consume media changes our brains, not just our behaviors. The Internet
rewards shallow thinking: One search leads to thousands of results that skim
over the surface of a subject.
180 Te KCTbl ,[1n l! caMOCT Ol! T e n bHOM nO,[l r OTOBKI1

Of course, we could dive deeply into anyone of the listings, but we don't.
Studies show that people skim on line, they don't read. The experience has
been deSigned to reward speed and variety, not depth. And there is tangible
evidence, based on studies of brain scans, that the medium is changing OUr
physical brains, strengthening the synapses and areas used for referential
thinking while weakening the areas used for critical thinking.
And when we diminish our ability to think critically, we, in essence,
become less educated. Less capable of reflection and meaningful conversation.
Our experience, reinforced by a web of other gut instincts and experiences
that match our own, becomes evidence.
Ironically, the same medium that helped mobilize people in the Arab
world this spring is helping create a more rigid, dysfunctional democracy
here: one that's increaSingly polarized, where each side is isolated and capable
only of sound bites that skim the surface, a culture where deep reasoning and
critical thinking aren't rewarded.
The challenge for most of us isn't to go backwards: We can't disconnect
from the Internet. Nor would we want to. But we can work harder to m ake
"search" the metaphor it once was: to discover, not just to skim. The Internet
lets us find facts in an instant. But it doesn't stop us from finding insight, if
we're willing to really search.
Christian Science Monitor, Jut. 29, 20]J
181

T eKCT 10

BOO, HUMBUG!

By Michael Elliott

Ah, October. A hint of mist in the damp air, a rustle from the trees as they
shed their leaves in nature's annual striptease and, everywhere you look, ripe,
corrugated pumpkins, waiting to be turned into something delicious by a
touch of nutmeg and a hot oven. Except that the mist comes from dry ice
stuck in a grinning skull, the whisper in the trees from nylon ghosts hung
in the boughs, and the pumpkin, made of bilious orange plastic, has a gizmo
inside that groans "Whooooooo o ..." as you walk past. Halloween is upon us
again.
I hate it.
Oh, I don't hate the kids who come trick-or-treating to our house, some
of whom might almost be considered cute, even if most of the ones over 8 are
running a protection racket. And I don't hate the candymakers, the greeting-
card printers or the manufacturers - somewhere in Guangdong Province,
China, I guess - who turn out all those disgusting plastic decorations that are
beginning to disfigure suburbia and who, together, have turned an innocent
night of excitement for children into something run by and for adults. Those
in the Halloween industry are simply behaving as good capitalists should,
following the maxim of that great economist P.T. Barnum that a sucker is born
every minute, satisfying a market they have themselves created. Halloween
Express, a Kentucky-based chain, now has some 70 franchised stores in 21
states. Americans will spend about $6.9 billion on Halloween this year $2
billion on candy alone, an extra $1.5 billion on costumes and much of the rest
on decorations and doodads. Don't get me started on outfits for pets or the
move to extend the holiday into an event that runs for a whole season so that
it becomes - you'll love this - "Falloween." Only Christmas gets consumers
dipping into their pocketbooks with such happy abandon. Stretch Halloween
over the whole of October, and it may soon race into first place in the waste-
your-money-on-trash stakes.
Still, if companies want to sell even more masks, lanterns, witch hats and
the like, good luck to them . It's the gullible consumers who fall for the pitch
whom I detest - the employees who insist on decorating sensible cubicles with
orange and black streamers and littering the office with bowls of candy, the
folk who dress up and throw pumpkin parties at country clubs, the hundreds
of thousands who will come to work next week in costume. Chris Riddle is the
Halloween trend spotter at card-and-~ecorations giant .American Greetings,
which estimates that 25% of the Amencan work force wIll observe Halloween
in some fashion this year. "It's a release," Riddle says of the way people deck
out their suburban yards, "a way to say, 'I can still act like a kid.'"
That's my problem. Halloween, for me, is the gaudiest example of
the infantilization of American culture. It's up there with other classics
182 TeKCTbJ .!Imf caMOCT05lTen bHOH nO.!l rOTOBKI1

like McDonald's Happy Meals or Hollywood 's post - Star Wars decision
to concentrate on making kids' films for grownups. These aren't just the
mutterings of an old curmudgeon. I like parties as much as the next guy (so
would you if you'd grown up in a house where the Messiah was considered
light entertainment), though I've never quite seen why you needed a specific
date on the calendar as an excuse to let your hair down. There's a larger point.
In time, infantile societies become degraded, unable to meet the realities that
face them.
How did cultural infantilization creep up on us? In The Disappearance
of Childhood, a wonderful little book first published in 1982, Neil Postman,
a New York University professor who died this month, identified a shift
from a culture based on literature - on reading - to one based on the image.
In a preliterate world, there's no distinction between children and adults.
Look at a Bruegel painting, and you see adults eating, drinking, groping,
necking, together with their children. Literacy changed all that. Reading has
to be learned; it separates the world of the child from that of the adult. But
children can absorb images - from TV, say - just as easily as their elders.
Postman worried that a postliterate culture would be one in which barriers
that protected children from the perils and temptations of the outside world
would be torn down.
Halloween shows that the process works in reverse. We now have to be
worried not just about children acting like adults but about adults behaving
like children. That doesn't mean adults have to be serious all the time. It does
mean that they should recognize when it's time - and what it means - to grow
up and let the kids run their own holiday. "When I was a child, I spake as a
child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child ..." wrote St. Paul to the
Corinthians. "But when I became a man, I put away childish things." Paul had
never seen plastic pumpkins going "Whoooooooo ..." but you can bet that ifhe
had, he would have told the Corinthians to put them away.
Time, Oct. 19,2003
Приложения
185

Q. I frequently receive letters which address me as "Dear Mr Griffin, and


are then signed offwithout any indication of the title, such as "Jane Smith. "
How do I reply? "Dear Jane" feels inappropriate for someone I have not
met. "Dear Jane Smith" perhaps? Or do I just go for "Dear Ms Smith"?
I don'tfeel comfortable with any of these.
Bill Griffin, Plymouth

A. These titles of address are volatile because of our informal new society. The
change was started by feminists in America, who did not see why their title
had to declare their marital status.
We need to address people as they wish to be addressed (if we can work
it out). It is unkind (and unprofessional) of Jane Smith not to give you an
indication of how she wants you to address her in reply. But in the absence
of any other indication, I should go for "Dear Jane Smith." I am addressed
as "Dear Philip" or "Dear Phil" by strangers, usually within the flaky PR
industry. Swallowing pomposity, I reply in kind, as they would presumably
wish: "Dear Sharon."
Times, Oct. 11, 2003
186

THE NEW SC IENTIST, 15 MAY 1958

Encyclopaedia Britannica
r-rX')
The Autoritative Encyclopaedia
of the English-speaking Peoples ~ CONTRIB UTORS

of the World Some of the thousands


of Contri butors who have writte n
o r revised articles du ring Ihe '50s:
Professor E. N. da Costa Andrade
G. H .Beale
Professor Max Belolf
Over 5,600 authorities from 62 countries throughout the world have contr ibuted to this Professor J. D. Semal
great new Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica- the world's most modern , useful Eric Blom
Edmund B1unden
and practical encyclopaedia.
pro~~;~rBl~~sa:iggS
Ala n Bullock
Unequalled in size. scope and but for the mod ern world this leisurely Sir Alan Burns
scholarship, this new Ed ition editorial system is un satisfactory. The RI. Hon. R. A. Butler, M.P.
Lord Campion
co ntains 38 million words. 23 Britan ni ca's present uniqu e policy George Cansda le
thousand illustrations and over of conti nuou s revision was therefore Professor V. Gordon Childe
Professor Sir W. Le G ros Clark
600 maps in its 27 thousand pages. introduced. G.O.H .Cole
There are 41 Nobel Prize wi nners
among the 5,600 co ntributors. With The 41,000 art icles in Britannica are p;~f:-:sa~:~~b~~tU~~~Sifs~r~k
Ely Culbertson
41,000 articles and monographs, arranged in 57 major classifications- F. Fraser Darling
Britannica is so well indexed that Archaeology, Botany, Home lsaacDeutscher
each reference takes the reader to the Economics, Law, Psychology, for Professor H . J. Emeieus
Professor Dorothy M . Emmet
quarter of the page sought. example. Whole classifications Isidore Epstein
undergo complete revision in turn,
KEEPING UP TO DATE thus ensurin g that every article PS?;~:~;a~de~~k~~~t
is reconsidered periodically in a profe~~:i~~~~!JdForde
Knowing that it is important for tho se scholarly way, but any ar ticl e in any Sir Lionel Fox
Roger Fulford
who enjoy using their Encyclopaedia classification is subject to revision
Britannica to keep up to date, th e at any time. This system enables JOs~t~S~i~:~~~n~/'
publishers have arranged for the 24 Britannica to maintain a strong Sir William Ha lcrow
Sir Oscar R. Hobson
volumes to be supplemented by the editorial staff in London and Ch icago, Sir Ronald M. Howe
Britannica Book of th e Year and by the planning and printing in Great Britain Frank Howes
Sir John liunt and Wilfrid Noyce
Britannica Library Research Service. and the U.S.A. the most authoritative, Sir Ivor Jennings
readable, complete and up - to-date Sir Harold Spencer lones
BOOK OF THE YEAR encyclopaedia published to -day. Professor H . A. Krebs
Sir Ben Lockspeiser
The Rt . Hon. Hector McNeil
The Britannica Book of the Year A WHOLLY SATISFACTORY S.deMada riaga
RESULT Sir Philip Manson-Bahr
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187

BAN DIHYDROGEN MONOXIDE!

Dihydrogen monoxide is colorless, odorless, tasteless, and kills uncounted


thousands of people every year. Most of these deaths are caused by accidental
inhalation of DHMO, but the dangers of dihydrogen monoxide do not end
there.
Prolonged exposure to its solid form causes severe tissue damage.
Symptoms ofDHMO ingestion can include excessive sweating and urination,
and possibly a bloated feeling, nausea, vomiting and body electrolyte
imbalance. For those who have become dependent, DHMO withdrawal
means certain death.

Dihydrogen monoxide:

• is also known as hydroxl acid, and is the major component of acid


rain.
• contributes to the "greenhouse effect."
• may cause severe burns.
• contributes to the erosion of our natural landscape.
• accelerates corrosion and rusting of many metals.
• may cause electrical failures and decreased effectiveness of automobile
brakes.
• has been found in excised tumors of terminal cancer patients.

Contamination is reaching epidemic proportions!


Quantities of dihydrogen monoxide have been found in almost every
stream, lake, and reservoir in America today. But the pollution is global, and
the contaminant has even been found in Antarctic ice. DHMO has caused
millions of dollars of property damage in the Midwest, and recently California.

Despite the danger, dihydrogen monoxide is often used:

• as an industrial solvent and coolant.


• in nuclear power plants.
• in the production of styrofoam.
• as a fire retardant.
• in many forms of cruel an.i~al research.
• in the distribution of pestiCides.
• as an additive in certain "junk-foods" and other food products.
Even after washing, produce remains contaminated by this chemical.
Companies dump waste DHMO into rivers and the ocean, and nothing
can be done to stop them because this practice is still legal. The impact on
wildlife is extreme, and we cannot afford to ignore it any longer!
188

The American government has refused to ban the production,


distribution, or use of this damaging chemical due to its "importance to
the economic health of this nation." In fact, the navy and other military
organizations are conducting experiments with DHMO, and designing
multi-billion dollar devices to control and utilize it during warfare situations.
Hundreds of military research facilities receive tons of it through a highly
sophisticated underground distribution network. Many store large quantities
for later use.
-,;,
Dj
lA!
1:1
Review of Test Data Indicates Conservatism for Tile ID
::I
,J:o
Penetration
The existing SOFI on tile test data used to create Crater
as reviewed along with STS-87 Southwest Research data
ter overpredicted penetration of tile coating
sig . 'cantly
Initia netration to described by normal velocity
• Varie . h volume/mass of projectile (e.g., 200ft/sec for
3cu. In)
Significant energ . required for the softer SOFI particle
to penetrate the relati hard tile coating
• Test results do show t it is possible at sufficient mass
and velocity
Conversely. once tile is penetrateCi-SOFI can cause
significant damage
• Minor variations in total energy (above ~tration level)
can cause significant tile damage
- Flight condition is significantly outside of test database
Volume of ramp is 1920cu in vs 3 cu in for test

2121J03 6

rtJ-BOE'NOC
~

00
\0
190 IIpHJIo)!(eHH l!

Abraham Lincoln

11 19 18b3

• What makes nation unique


- Conceived in Liberty
- Men are equal
• Shared vision
- New birth of freedom
- Gov' t of/for/by the people
IJ 191863
19 1

• Met on battlefield (great)


• Dedicate portion of field - fitting !
• Unfinished work (great tasks)

11191 63

1 f-
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4 la New Nations I
0.3
0.2
11 19 1863 0.1
0
-87 Now
Years
192

• Consecrate
• Hallow
(in narrow sense)
• Add or detract
• Note or remember what we say

• Civil war
• Dedicate field
• Dedicated to unfinished work
• New birth of freedom
• Government not perish
193

Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a
new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men
are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether this nation, or
any other nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met
on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that
field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation
might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate - we cannot consecrate - we
cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled
here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or detract. The world
will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget
what they did here. It is for us, the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the
unfinished work which they who fought here thus far so nobly advanced. It is
rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us - that
from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which
they gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve that
these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under God, shall have
a new birth of freedom; and that government of the people, by the people, for
the people, shall not perish from the earth. (Address on the occasion of the
dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery, Nov. 19, 1863)
194 Приложения

Вариант 1

Восемьдесят семь лет тому назад наши праотцы породили на этом мате ­

рике новую нацию, зачатую под знаком Свободы и посвящённую прин ­


ципу, что все люди созданы равными .

Ныне мы ведём великую гражданскую войну, подвергающую ис ­


пытанию вопрос, может ли эта нация или любая другая нация, так
зачатая и тому посвящённая, долго просуществовать . Мы сошлись на
поле одной из великих битв этой войны. Мы пришли освятить часть
э того поля как место последнего упокоения тех, кто отдал жизнь свою,

чтобы эта нация могла жить. Такое действие нам вполне подобает и
приличествует.

Но, в более обширном смысле , мы не можем посвящать, мы не


можем освящать, мы не можем возводить в святыню это место. Муже ­
ственные люди - живые и мёртвые - здесь боровшиеся, уже освятили
его, далеко превысив при этом всё, что мы с нашими слабыми силами
могли бы при ба вить или отнять. Мир мало заметит и не запомнит на­
долго то, что мы здесь говорим, но он никогда не сможет забыть то, что
они здесь свершили. Это нам, живым, скорее следует посвятить себя не­
законченному дел у, которое сражавшиеся здесь двигали столь доблест ­
но . Это скорее нам следует посвятить себя великому труду, который ещё
остаётся перед нами : дабы набраться от этих чтимых нами усопших вя ­
щей преданности тому делу, которому они принесли последнюю пол­
ную меру преданности : дабы нам здесь торжественно постановить, что
смерть этих умерши х не останется тщетной; что э та нация, с помощью
Божьей, обретёт новое рождение свободы; и что правление народное ,
народом и для народа не сгинет с земли.

Пер. В. Набокова
195

Вариант 2

Восемьдесят семь лет тому назад наши отцы положили начало новому
государству на этом континенте _ от них пошло на земле новое племя
людей, зачатых в лоне Свободы и глубоко верящих в то, что все люди
равны от рождения.

Сейчас, в дни великой Гражданской войны, испытывается жиз­


ненная стойкость нашего народа, как и всякого другого народа, взра­
щённого в том же духе и преданного тем же идеалам. Мы собрались
на поле, где происходило одно из крупнейших сражений этой войны.
Мы пришли сюда, чтобы торжественно освятить часть поля, ставшую
местом последнего успокоения тех, кто отдал свою жизнь ради жизни
нашего народа. Вне всякого сомнения, этим мы исполняем наш долг.
Но мы не в состоянии, если посмотреть на вещи более широко, ни
освятить, ни прославить эту землю, ни сделать её достойной поклонения.
Освятили её те отважные люди - живые и мёртвые, - которые сража­
лись здесь, и не в наших слабых силах превознести или умалить величие
содеянного ими. Вряд ли мир придаст особое значение словам, сказан­
ным нами сегодня. Довольно скоро они будут забыты, но дела этих людей
навсегда останутся в памяти людской. Не они, а мы, живые, нуждаемся
в посвящении - нам следует всецело посвятить себя выполнению величе­
ственной задачи, стоящей перед нами, - воздавая дань памяти павшим,
вдохновлённые их примером, мы должны исполниться высокой предан­
ности тому делу, которому они остались верны до конца и пожертвова­
ли всем, чем могли; все мы, собравшиеся здесь, должны проникнуться
твёрдой убеждённостью в том, что эти люди погибли здесь не напрасно;
что наш народ по воле Бога ещё узрит новое рождение свободы; что пра­
вительство из народа, волей народа и ради народа никогда не погибнет.
Пер. А. Дранова
Приложения
J96

Вариант 3

Минуло восемьдесят семь лет, как отцы наши основали на этом конти­

ненте новую нацию, своим рождением обязанную свободе и посвятив­


шую себя доказательству того, что все люди сотворены равными.
Сейчас мы проходим великое испытание гражданской войной, ко­
торая решает, способна ли устоять эта нация или любая нация, подоб­
ная ей по рождению и по призванию. Мы сошлись на поле, где греме­
ла великая битва этой войны. Мы пришли, чтобы освятить часть этой
земли - последнее пристанище тех, кто отдал жизнь ради жизни этой
нации. И это, само по себе, вполне уместно и достойно.
Но всё же не в нашей власти освятить это поле, сделать священной,
одухотворить эту землю. Деяниями храбрецов, павших и живых, кото­
рые сражались здесь, земля эта уже освящена, и не в наших скромных

силах что-либо тут прибавить или убавить. То, что мы говорим здесь,
будет лишь вскользь замечено и вскоре забыто, но то, что они здесь
сделали, не будет забыто никогда. Давайте же мы, живые, посвятим
себя здесь тому неоконченному делу, которое вершили здесь эти воины.
Давайте посвятим себя здесь великой работе, которая нам предстоит, и
преисполнимся ещё большей решимости отдать себя той цели, которой
павшие здесь отдали себя всецело и до конца - давайте торжественно
поклянёмся, что смерть их не окажется напрасной, что эта Богом хра­
нимая нация обретёт возрождённую свободу и что власть народа, волей
народа и для народа не исчезнет с лица земли.

Пер. П. Палажченко
]97

Вариант 4

Вот уже восемьдесят семь лет, как отцы наши на этом континенте дали
жизнь новой нации - нации, зачатой в свободе и преданной тому убеж­
дению, что все люди сотворены равными.

Сегодня мы ведём великую гражданскую войну, которая покажет,


способна ли эта нация, а равно и всякая другая нация, так же зачатая и
тому же убеждению преданная, выстоять в испытаниях. Мы собрались
на поле, где гремела одна из величайших битв этой войны. Мы пришли,
чтобы с почестями отвести часть этого поля для последнего упокоения
тех, кто отдал здесь свои жизни ради жизни нашего народа. Так велит
нам долг, так нам подобает.
Но мы бессильны воздать достойные почести - бессильны освя­
тить эту землю
- бессильны сделать её поистине святыней. Её уже освя­
тили сражавшиеся на ней герои, живые и павшие - так освятили, что
не в наших слабых силах усугубить или умалить это освящение. Мир
едва и услышит произнесённые здесь слова и скоро забудет их, но свер­
шённых здесь подвигов ему не забыть. Это мы, живые, должны принять
здесь посвящение - посвятить себя завершению труда, ради которого
выказали такую доблесть здесь сражавшиеся. Это нам должно посвя­
тить себя исполнению великой задачи : укрепить свою преданность
делу преданностью тех, кто с честью пал здесь в беззаветном служении
этому делу - исполниться решимости сделать так, чтобы жертва их не
стала напрасной, чтобы наша страна, с Божьей помощью, снова узрела
рождение свободы, чтобы власть народа, именем народа, во имя народа
вовек не исчезла с лица земли.

Пер. В. Ланчuкова
198 При л ожения

Вариант 5

Восемь десятков и семь лет назад наши отцы образовали на этом кон­
тиненте новую нацию, зачатую в свободе и верящую в то, что все люди
рождены равными.
Теперь мы ведем великую Гражданскую войну, подвергающую
нашу нацию или любую другую нацию, таким же способом зачатую и
исповедующую те же идеалы, испытанию на способность выстоять. Мы
встречаемся сегодня на великом поле брани этой войны. Встречаемся,
чтобы сделать его часть последним пристанищем для тех, кто отдал
свою жизнь во имя того, чтобы наша нация смогла выжить. Со всех
точек зрения это уместный и совершенно верный шаг.
Но в более широком смысле мы не можем посвящать, мы не можем
благословлять, мы не можем почитать эту землю. Отважные люди, жи­
вые и мертвые, сражавшиеся здесь, уже совершили обряд такого посвя­
щения, и не в наших слабых силах что-либо добавить или убавить. Мир
едва ли заметит или запомнит надолго то, что мы здесь говорим, но он

не сможет забыть того, что они совершили здесь. Скорее, это нам, жи­
вущим, следует посвятить себя великой задаче, все еще стоящей перед
нами, - перенять у этих высокочтимых погибших еще большую при­
верженность тому делу, которому они в полной мере и до конца сохра­
няли верность, исполниться убежденностью, что они погибли не зря,
что наша нация с Божьей помощью возродится в свободе и что власть
народа, волей народа и для народа не исчезнет с лица земли.

Пер. Э. Иваняна

t
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B cOBpeMeHHOM aHrnllli-icKoM !l3bIKe. - M.: P. BaneHT,
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