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Solid

Liquid

Gas

 
 
 
 

Figure 5–2

The states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.

forms are called the states of matter. Matter assumes one of these states de- pending on its temperature (Figure 5–2). The three different states have the following distinct characteristics.

Solids have a definite shape and volume. Ice is an example of a solid. lids have a definite shape and volume. Ice is an example of a solid.

Liquids have a definite volume but not a definite shape; they take the shape of their containers. Water is an example of a liquid.a definite shape and volume. Ice is an example of a solid. G ases do not

Gases do not have a definite volume or shape. They expand easily and can be ases do not have a definite volume or shape. They expand easily and can be compressed. Steam is an example of a gas.

Structure of Matter

 

Matter can be classified into three main groups: elements, compounds, and mixtures.

An element is the basic unit of all matter. It is a substance that can- not be made by the combination of two or more simpler substances, and the element itself cannot be reduced to simpler substances without a loss of identity. There are over 90 naturally occurring elements, each with its own distinctive physical and chemical properties. All matter in the univ- verse is made up of one or more of these different elements.

Each element is identified by a letter symbol, such as O for oxygen, C for carbon, and H for hydrogen. You can search for these symbols in the Periodic Table of Elements, found in any chemistry textbook.

There are five elements in the Table that are of special interest to the esthetician. These elements make up part of the structure of skin, hair, and nails: carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N), and sulfur(S).

Atoms are the structural units that make up elements. Atoms are the particles from which all matter is composed. An atom is the smallest par- ticle of an element that still retains the properties of that element. All the atoms in an element are identical. Atoms cannot be divided into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.

Atoms consist of smaller particles: protons, which have a positive elec- trical charge; neutrons, with a neutral charge; and electrons, with a nega-

Part 2

Part 2 General Sciences

General Sciences

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tive charge (Figure 5–3). The number of protons in an atom equals the number of electrons.

A molecule is formed by joining two or more atoms chemically. There

are two types of molecules.

Elemental molecules contain two or more atoms of the same element that are united chemically. Atmospheric oxygen, contain two or more atoms of the same element that are united chemically. Atmospheric oxygen, in the air we breathe, is the elemental molecule O 2 . The ozone in the atmosphere, which protects us from ultraviolet radiation, is the elemental molecule O 3 (Figure 5–4).

Compound molecules are chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements (Figure 5–5). The compound are chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements (Figure 5–5). The compound molecule sodium chloride (NaCl), or common table salt, is a chemical combi- nation of one atom of sodium (Na) and one atom of chlorine (Cl).

A compound is a combination of two or more atoms of different

elements united chemically with a fixed chemical composition, definite proportions, and distinct properties. The properties of chemical compounds are different from the properties of the elements from which they were made. Water (H 2 O) is a chemical compound. A water

Carbon Atom Proton Neutron Electron Figure 5–3 An atom consists of
Carbon Atom
Proton
Neutron
Electron
Figure 5–3
An atom consists of

negatively charged electrons, positively charged protons, and neutral neutrons.

O Atomic oxygen O O O OO Oxygen, O 2 Ozone, O 3 Figure 5–4
O
Atomic oxygen
O
O O
OO
Oxygen, O 2
Ozone, O 3
Figure 5–4
Elemental molecules.
Sodium chloride, NaCl
H
H
H
O
O
O
C
O
O
H
Water, H 2 O
Carbon dioxide, CO 2
Hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2
Figure 5–5
Compound molecules.
Chapter 5

Chemistry for Estheticians

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