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A Text Book on

INFORMATICS
PRACTICES

CLASS XII

Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre,


Preet Vihar, Delhi-110 092 India
A text book on Informatics Practices, Class XII.

PRICE : Rs.

FIRST EDITION 2011 © CBSE, India

COPIES:

"This book or part thereof may not be reproduced by


any person or agency in any manner."

PUBLISHED BY : The Secretary, Central Board of Secondary Education,


Shiksha Kendra, 2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110092
DESIGN, LAYOUT : Multi Graphics, 5745/81, Reghar Pura, Karol Bagh,
New Delhi-110005, Phone : 25783846

PRINTED BY :
Foreword
Invention of Machines led to take up heavier, hazardous and heavy duty tasks beyond
limits of human capacity. With the advent of computer, imagination got expanded
networking worldwide. ICT (Information and Communication Technology) deals with
information to compute / process and to communicate to other users. The ICT policy in
School education aims at augmenting creativity and promoting global competitiveness.

With this backdrop care is to be taken to impart ICT instructions so as to promote critical
thinking, collaborative learning and multi discipline problem-solving skills.

The curriculum of "Informatics Practices" has been revised accordingly with focus on
rapid application development using IDE, data processing and domain-specific
applications, e.g. e-Governance, e-Business and e-Learning. Use of open source software
is encouraged.

In its first attempt, the text book of Informatics Practices for Class XI has been published.
The text book of Informatics Practices for Class XII is ready. I am happy to release the
same. In the Syllabus of IP for Class XII a unit on Networking and Open Standards has
been introduced.. RDBMS (Relational Database Management System)is dealt with
using MYSQL in place of SQL & PL/SQL using oracle. A new unit on IT Applications has
been added with three focused domains to enhance understanding the above tools and
techniques to solve real life problems by designing both front end and back end with
proper data connectivity.

The text book includes puzzles in the beginning of the chapters to motivate students for
collective and joyful learning of the subject. Cue to future trends may ignite curiosity.

My thanks are due to the text book development team aptly steered by Prof.Omvikas.

Appreciation is also due to Mrs. Chitralekha Gurumurthy, Director (Acad.) and Dr.
(Smt) Srijata Das, Education Officer, for Planning, coordinating and executing this
initiative resulting into this publication.

I hope that all students and teachers will benefit from this publication. Their feedback
will be highly appreciated for further improvement.

VINEET JOSHI
CHAIRMAN
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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA
PREAMBLE

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a 1

SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens :
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the [unity and integrity of the Nation];
2

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY TO


OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

1. Subs, by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act. 1976, sec. 2, for "Sovereign Democratic Republic (w.e.f.
3.1.1977)
2. Subs, by the Constitution (Forty-Second Amendment) Act. 1976, sec. 2, for "unity of the Nation (w.e.f. 3.1.1977)

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA


Chapter IV A
Fundamental Duties

ARTICLE 51A

Fundamental Duties - It shall be the duty of every citizen of India-


(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the
National Anthem;
(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
(e) To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India
transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices
derogatory to the dignity of women;
(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wild life and to
have compassion for living creatures;
(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation
constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CBSE ADVISORS
• Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman, CBSE
• Smt. Chitralekha Gurumurthy, Director (Academics)

CONVENOR & EDITOR


• Prof. Om Vikas, Former Director, IIITM, Gwalior

DEVELOPMENT TEAM
• Mukesh Kumar, DPS, RK Puram, Delhi
• Mrs. Nancy Sehgal, Mata Jai Kaur Public School, Ashok Vihar, Delhi
• Mrs. Gurpreet Kaur, GD Goenka School, Vasant Kunj, Delhi
• Yogesh Kumar, Mira Model School, Janak Puri, New Delhi
• Mrs. Ritu Arora, DPS, Gurgaon
• Mrs. Divya Jain, Apeejay, Noida

MEMBER COORDINATOR
• Dr. Srijata Das, Education Officer, CBSE, Delhi
INFORMATICS PRACTICES

1 191

1 COMPUTER NETWORKING
7 WEB APPLICATIONS
CONTENTS

39 244

2 OPEN SOURCE CONCEPTS


8 MYSQL REVISION TOUR

270

9
56

3
GUI PROGRAMMING - MORE ON DATABASES
A REVIEW AND SQL

103 315

4 10
BASICS OF OBJECT ADVANCED RDBMS
ORIENTED PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS

122 334

5 11
ADVANCED PROGAMMING
CONCEPTS IT APPLICATIONS

150 362

6 DATA CONNECTIVITY
APPENDIX