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КАМЧАТСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ХОХЛОВА И.Н.

ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ФОНЕТИКА
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
Часть II

Петропавловск-Камчатский 2006
5Б6(03)

Хохлова И.Н. Практическая фонетика английского языка. Часть


II: учебное пособие /И.Н.Хохлова. – Петр.-Камч.: Изд-во КамГУ. -
2006. – 237 с.

Пособие предназначено для развития навыков английской


интонации. Пособие состоит из трех частей: теоретической,
упражнений для тренировки и хрестоматии. В нем имеется
поурочный план, в котором точно указывается дозировка учебного
материала на каждое занятие, последовательность его введения.
Предлагаемое пособие может быть использовано как для работы
в аудитории, так и для самостоятельной работы. Для студентов
факультетов иностранных языков, обучающихся по специальностям
033.200 «Иностранный язык с дополнительной специальностью» и
022.900 «Перевод и переводоведение», студентов других
факультетов, где английский язык изучается как дополнительная
специальность.

Научный редактор:
Федоров В.В., к.ф.н., доцент, зав.кафедрой перевода и
переводоведения КамГУ.
Рецензенты:
Шевченко О.Г. — к.ф.н., доцент, зав кафедрой английского
языка КамГУ.
Ильинская Я.А. — к.ф.н., зав. кафедрой иностранного языка
КамГУ.

ISBN
© Хохлова И.Н., 2006.
© Издательство Камчатского государственного университета
имени Витуса Беринга, 2006.

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Настоящее пособие предназначено для использования на


занятиях по практической фонетике английского языка для
студентов факультетов иностранных языков, обучающихся по
специальностям 033.200 «Иностранный язык с дополнительной
специальностью» и 022.900 «Перевод и переводоведение», а также
для самостоятельной работы.
Пособие состоит из 30 уроков. Каждый урок разделен на три
части. Первая часть является описательно-теоретической. В ней
содержатся теоретические основы английской интонации, описание
артикуляции английских согласных фонем. Вторая часть содержит
фонетические упражнения для тренировки, закрепления основных
интонационных контуров, выработки автоматизированных навыков
произношения. В этой части каждая согласная фонема
обрабатывается 1) в словах; 2) в идиоматических выражениях и
коротких предложениях; 3) в связном тексте и диалогах. Третья
часть – хрестоматия, содержащая прозаические и поэтические
тексты с интонационной разметкой.
Структура пособия проста и единообразна и позволяет
прорабатывать материал как в полном объеме в указанной
последовательности, так и выборочно в любой удобной для
преподавателя последовательности.
При работе над произношением следует применять следующие
методы: 1) метод подражания хорошему образцу (магнитофон,
преподаватель); 2) описательно-теоретический.
Каждый урок рассчитан на 4 часа аудиторной и 4-6 часов
внеаудиторной работы.
При введении фонем преподаватель дает лишь краткое
объяснение, анализирует возможные ошибки в произношении.
Работа над произношением, ритмом, мелодией, темпом,
паузацией должна быть теснейшим образом связана с освоением
фонем и их вариантом. В каждой серии упражнений должно быть
предусмотрено увеличение темпа воспроизведения и доведения его
до нормального. Произношение при соблюдении необходимого
темпа говорения имеет первостепенное значение и вырабатывается
постепенно на всем протяжении обучения иностранному языку.
Упражнения построены по принципу повтора одного и того же
звука, а также по принципу чередования контрастных звуков.
Последние представляют большую трудность с точки зрения

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артикуляции, ввиду того, что требуют более совершенной работы
органов речи и быстрого чередования разных укладов органов речи.
Контрастные упражнения созданы с целью тренировки и развития
навыка артикуляции и соединения английских звуков для
предотвращения ошибок типа «ложной ассимиляции».
Упражнения на ритм содержат все английские гласные и
согласные звуки. Это дает возможность корректировать звуки во
фразах в технически более сложных произносительных условиях,
чем в фонетических упражнениях на отдельные слова. Тренировка
фраз и предложений одновременно нацелена и на становление и
закрепление интонационного механизма — различных
интонационных контуров в сочетании с английской более сильной
акцентуацией.
Ряд упражнений посвящен развитию навыка чтения и
самостоятельной интерпретации диалогов. Здесь можно также
рекомендовать письменные задания но транскрибирование и
графическое изображение интонации высказывания.
Прослушивание записей стихов английских и американских
писателей, отрывков из художественных текстов с последующим
воспроизведением способствуют совершенствованию
фонематического слуха студентов.
Пособие может быть использовано также для студентов других
факультетов, где английский язык изучается как дополнительная
специальность.

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LESSON 1

The classification of English consonants phonemes

1.1. The particular quality of a consonant depends on the work


of the vocal cords, the position of the soft palate and the kind of
noise that results when the tongue or the lips obstruct the air-pas-
sage.
There are two types of articulatory obstruction: complete and
incomplete.
A complete obstruction is formed when two organs of speech
come in contact with each other and the air-passage through the
mouth is blocked.
An incomplete obstruction is formed when an articulating or-
gan (articulator) is held so close to a point of articulation as to nar-
row, or constrict, the air-passage without blocking it.
1.2. Consonants are usually classified according to the follow-
ing principles:
I. According to the type of obstruction and the manner of the
production of noise.
II. According to the active speech organ and the place of ob-
struction.
III. According to the work of the vocal cords and the force of
articulation.
IV. According to the position of the soft palate.
1.3. According to the type of obstruction English consonants
are divided into occlusive and constrictive.
Occlusive consonants are produced with a complete obstruc-
tion formed by the articulating organs, the air-passage in the
mouth cavity is blocked.
Occlusive consonants may be: (A) noise consonants and (B)
sonorants.
According to the manner of the production of noise occlusive
noise consonants are divided into plosive consonants (or stops) and
affricates. In the production of plosive consonants the speech or-
gans form a complete obstruction, which is then quickly released
with plosion, viz. the English [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g] and the Rus-
sian [п], [п’], [б], [б’], [т], [т’], [д], [д’], [к] , [к’], [г] , [г’].
In the production of affricates the speech organs form a com-

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plete obstruction which is then released so slowly that consider-
able friction occurs at the point of articulation, viz. the English
[tS], [dZ] and the Russian [ц], [ч’].
In the production of occlusive sonorants the speech organs
form a complete obstruction in the mouth cavity which is not re-
leased, the soft palate is lowered and the air escapes through the
nasal cavity, viz. the English [m], [n], [N] and the Russian [м], [м’],
[н], [н’].
Constrictive consonants are produced with an incomplete ob-
struction, that is by a narrowing of the air-passage.
Constrictive consonants may be: (A) noise consonants (or frica-
tives) and (B) sonorants.
In the production of noise constrictives the speech organs form
an incomplete obstruction, viz. the English [f], [v], [T], [D], [s], [z],
[S], [Z], [h] and the Russian [ф], [ф’], [в], [в’], [с], [с’], [з], [з’], [ш],
[ш’:], [ж], [ж’:].
In the production of constrictive sonorants the air-passage is
fairly wide so that the air passing through the mouth does not
produce audible friction and tone prevails over noise.
Constrictive sonorants may be median and lateral.
In the production of median sonorants the air escapes without
audible friction over the central part of the tongue, the sides of the
tongue being raised, viz. the English [w], [r], [j].
In the production of lateral sonorants the tongue is pressed
against the alveolar ridge or the teeth, and the sides of the tongue
are lowered, leaving, the air-passage open along them, viz. the
English [l], and the Russian [л], [л’].
1.4. According to the active organ of speech English conso-
nants are divided into labial, lingual and glottal.
1. LABIAL consonants may be (A) bilabial and (B) labio-den-
tal.
(A) Bilabial consonants are articulated by the two lips, viz. the
English [p], [b], [m], [w] and the Russian [п], [п’], [б], [б’], [м], [м’].
(B) Labio-dental consonants are articulated with the lower lip
against the upper teeth. The English labio-dental consonants are
[f], [v], the Russian labio-dental consonants are [ф’], [ф], [в], [в’].
2. LINGUAL consonants may be (A) forelingual, (B) mediolin-
gual, and (C) backlingual.
(A) Forelingual consonants are articulated by the blade of the

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tongue, the blade with the tip or by the tip against the upper teeth
or the alveolar ridge. According to the position of the tip English
forelingual consonants may be (a) apical, and (b) cacuminal.
(a) Apical consonants are articulated by the tip of the tongue
against either the upper teeth or the alveolar ridge, viz. the Eng-
lish [T], [D], [t], [d], [l], [n], [s], [z] and the Russian [л], [л’], [ш],
[ш’:], [ж], [ж’:], [ч’].
Note. The Russian [т], [т’], [д], [д’], [н], [н’], [с], [с’], [з], [з’] are
dorsal, i.e. they are articulated by the blade of the tongue against either
the upper teeth or the alveolar ridge, the tip being passive and lowered.
(b) Cacuminal consonants are articulated by the tongue tip
raised against the back part of the alveolar ridge. The front of the
tongue is lowered forming a spoon-shaped depression, viz. the
English [r] and the Russian [р], [р’].
(B) Mediolingual consonants are articulated with the front of
the tongue against the hard palate, viz. the English [j] and the
Russian [й].
(C) Backlingual consonants are articulated by the back of the
tongue against the soft palate, viz. the English [k], [g], [N] and the
Russian [к], [к’], [г], [г’], [х], [х’].
3. GLOTTAL consonants are produced in the glottis, viz. the
English [h], [?] (the glottal stop).
According to the point of articulation forelingual consonants
are divided into (1) dental (interdental or post-dental), (2) alveolar, (3)
palato-alveolar, and (4) post-alveolar.
(1) Dental consonants are articulated against the upper teeth ei-
ther with the tip, viz. the English [T], [D], the Russian [л], [л’], or
with the blade of the tongue, viz. the Russian [т], [т’].
(2) Alveolar consonants are articulated by the tip of the tongue
against the alveolar ridge: the English [t], [d], [n], [l], [s], [z] and
the Russian [р], [р’].
(3) Palato-alveolar consonants are articulated by the tip and
blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge or the back part of
the alveolar ridge, while the front of the tongue is raised in the di-
rection of the hard palate: the English [S], [Z], [C], [G] and the
Russian [ш], [ш’:], [ж], [ж’:].
(4) Post-alveolar consonants are articulated by the tip of the
tongue against the back part of the alveolar ridge: the English [r].
According to the point of articulation mediolingual and back-

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lingual consonants are called palatal and velar, respectively.
1.5. Most consonants are pronounced with a single obstruction.
But some consonants are pronounced with two obstructions, the
second obstruction being called coarticulation. Coarticulation may
be front (with the front of the tongue raised) or back (with the back
of the tongue raised). The tongue front coarticulation gives the
sound a clear (“soft”) colouring, viz. [l], [S], [Z], [C], [G], and all
the Russian palatalized consonants. The tongue back coarticula-
tion gives the sound a dark (“hard”) colouring, viz. the English
dark [l], [w], the Russian [ш], [ж], [л].
1.6. According to the work of the vocal cords consonants are
divided into voiced and voiceless. According to the force of articula-
tion consonants are divided into relatively strong, or fortis and rela-
tively weak, or lenis.
English voiced consonants are lenis. English voiceless conso-
nants are fortis. They are pronounced with greater muscular ten-
sion and a stronger breath force.
The following English consonants are voiceless and fortis: [p],
[t], [k], [C], [f], [T], [s], [S], [h].
The following English consonants are voiced and lenis: [b], [d],
[g], [G], [v], [D], [z], [Z], [m], [n], [N], [w], [l], [r], [j].
The Russian voiceless consonants are weaker than their Eng-
lish counterparts, the Russian voiced consonants are stronger.
1.7. According to the position of the soft palate consonants are
divided into oral and nasal.
Nasal consonants are produced with the soft palate lowered
while the air-passage through the mouth is blocked. As a result,
the air escapes through the nasal cavity.
The English nasal consonants are [m], [n], [N], the Russian –
[м], [м’], [н], [н’].
Oral consonants are produced when the soft palate is raised
and the air escapes through the mouth.
The following English consonants are oral [p], [b], [t], [d], [k],
[g], [f], [v], [T], [D], [s], [z], [S], [Z], [h], [C], [G], [w], [l], [r], [j] and
the Russian [п], [п’], [б], [б’], [т], [т’], [д], [д’], [к], [к’], [ф], [ф’],
[в], [в’], [с], [с’], [з], [з’], [ш], [ш’:], [ж], [ж’:], [ч’], [ц], [л], [л’], [р],
[р’], [й].

Articulation of the consonants [p], [b]

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The consonants [p, b] are articulated with the lips pressed to-
gether. Thus a complete obstruction is formed so that the air-pas-
sage through the mouth cavity is blocked for a short time. Then
the lips are quickly opened and the air escapes with plosion. In
the production of [p] the vocal cords are kept apart and do not vi-
brate, whereas in the articulation of [b] they are drawn near to-
gether and vibrate.
Thus [p] and [b] may be defined as occlusive noise plosive bilabial
consonants. The consonant [p] is voiceless-fortis, the consonant [b]
is voiced-lenis. The English [p] in a stressed syllable, when fol-
lowed by a vowel and not preceded by [s], is pronounced with as-
piration.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[p]

1. Speak up. ['spJk vAp] Говорите громче.


2. Present company excepted. [ֽprezqnt ֽkAmpqnI Ik"septId] О
присутствующих не говорят.
3. Keep up appearances.[ˋkJp Ap q"pIqrqnsIz] Соблюдайте
приличия.
4. Please point my pencil. [ˋplJz point maI "pensl]
Пожалуйста, зачините мой карандаш.
5. The piano’s past repair. [Dq 'pjxnquz pRst rIˎpFq] Это
пианино невозможно починить.
6. Pat’s a perfect paragon. ['pxts q 'pWfIkt ˋpxrqgqn] Пет –

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образец для подражания.
7. Pete’s as pleased as Punch. ['pJts qz 'plJzd qz ˋpAnC] Пит
очень доволен.
8. Percy’s as proud as a peacock. ['pWsIz qz 'praud qz q ˋpJkOk]
Пэрси очень горд.
9. Poll’s as plump as a partridge. ['pOlz qz 'plAmp qz q ˋpR-
trIG] Полли пухленькая.
10. Peg’s as pretty as a picture. ['pegz qz 'prItI qz q 'pIkCq] Пег
хорошенькая.
11. Stop playing Pantaloon. [ˋstop ֽpleIIN pxntq"lHn] Не валяй
дурака.
12. They pulled Paul to pieces. [DeI 'puld 'pLl tq ˎpJsIz] Они
раскритиковали Поля в пух и прах.
13. Pam popped up again. ['pxm pOpt 'Ap qˋgen] Пэм
неожиданно появилась опять.
14. It put poor Pete on the spot. [It 'put puq 'pJt On Dq ˋspOt]
Это поставило беднягу Пита в затруднительное положение.
15. Don’t pass up the opportunity, Rupert. ['dqunt pRs 'Ap Di
OpqvtjHnqtI ֹrHpqt] Не упуская возможность, Руперт.
16. Pop spared no pains to prevent the purchace. [pOp 'spFqd
nqu 'peInz tq prIˋvent Dq ֽpWCqs] Папа сделал все, чтобы не дать
состояться покупке.
17. It’s the pick of the paperbacks. [Its Dq 'pIk qv Dq
ˋpeIpqbxks] Это самая лучшая из книг в мягкой обложке.
18. Papa, potatoes, poultry, prunes and prism are all very
good words for the lips – especially prunes and prism. [pq"pR
pq"teItquz "pqultrI "prHnz qnd "prIzm qr 'Ll 'verI gud ֹwWdz fq Dq
ˎlips IsˆpeSlI ֽprHnz qnd vprIzm] (Ch. Dickens) Папа, помидор,
птица, персики и призмы – прекрасные слова для губ,
особенно персики и призмы. (Пер. М.А. Энгельгардта)
1. The Polka
by Ogden Nash

Hop step step step,


Hop step step step,
Go the Polish dancers.

10
Polka or Mazurka?
I wish I knew the answers.
Such names to me sound rigmarolish,
I must polish up my Polish.

2. Outer Space
by Robert Frost

But outer space,


At least thus far,
For all the fuss
Of populace
Stays more popular
Than populous.

3. P’s and Q’s

P stands for every pretty thing, wherever


you may find it,
The sweet Pea in the garden, and the
Pretty face behind it,
It stands for Peace and Plenty too, ‘tis
well that we should mind it.

P stands for many other things, for


Prejudice and pride,
For Pertness, Pique, Perversity, and
Petulance beside,
And these are P’s that we must mind,
and keep them far and wide.

"Ship or Sheep" Unit 24" Passports, please"

(Mr. And Mrs. Tupman are at the airport. They have just got
off the plane from Paris.)
Official: Passports, please.
Mr. T.: I think I've lost the passports, Poppy,
Mrs. Т.: How stupid you are, Peter! Didn't you put them in
11
your pocket?
Mr. T.: (emptying his pocket) Here's a pen… a pencil… my
pipe…a postcard…an envelope…a stamp…a pin
Mrs. T.: Oh, stop taking things out of your pocket. Perhaps
you put them into the plastic bag?
Mr. Т.: (emptying the plastic bag) Here's a newspaper…an ap-
ple… a pear…a plastic cup…a spoon… some paper plates…a
piece of pork pie…a pepper pot…
Mrs. T.: Oh, stop pulling things out of the plastic bag, Peter.
These people are getting impatient.
Mr. Т.: Well, help me, Poppy.
Mrs. T.: We’ve lost our passports. Perhaps we dropped them
on the plane.
Official: Then let the other passengers past, please.
Mr. Т.: Poppy, why don't you help? You aren't being very
helpful. Put the things in the plastic bag.
Official: Your name, please?
Mr. Т.: Tupman,
Official: Please go upstairs with this policeman, Mr. Tupman.

Tone Group 1

All statements sound definite and complete. Tone Group 1 is


characteristically used to convey a cool, calm, phlegmatic, de-
tached, reserved, dispassionate, dull, grim or surly attitude on the
part of the speaker, e. g.:
What’s your name? ˎJohnson.
It’s ֽֽgetting ˎlate.
I’ve got the sack. I’m ֽֽnot surˎprised.

Special questions sound rather flat and unsympathetic, quite


often even hostile, e. g.:
Can you lend me some money? ֽֽWhat do you ˎwant it ֽ for?

The attitude with general questions is detached, phlegmatic,


reserved e. g.:
This knife’ s too blunt. Is ˎthis one ֽany ֽbetter?

12
Tone Group 1 is used for question tags when they follow state-
ments containing the low-falling nuclear tone. In such cases the
speaker expects his statement to be confirmed by the listener, e.
g.:
What a 'beautiful ˎday, | ˎisn’t it?

When the Low Fall is used the comment is apt to convey a to-
tal lack of interest, or else a mood of grim hostility, e. g.:
I’ve just come back from Paris. ˎHave you?
This tone group is used in alternative questions to mark the
last of the alternatives, e. g.:
'Would you like "tea | or ˎcoffee?

The final fall implies that these are the only choices and that
the list is complete.
Tone Group 1 is used for unemotional, calm, controlled, often
cold commands, e. g.:
ˎDon’t. ˎTake it.

Interjections with this tone group sound calm, unsurprised,


self-possessed, reserved, e. g.:
ˎGood. ˎRight. ˎNonsense.

Notice in particular ˎThank you to express genuine, though un-


excited, gratitude.

Tone group 1

Tune I
LOW FALL ONLY
'Can you ֹcome toˎmorrow? ˎNo.
'Whose ˎbook is ֽthis? ˎMine.
You must 'ask for them ˎnow. ˎWhy?

13
He 'simply 'must ˎgo. ˎWhen?
I’ll ˎsend it ֽto him. ˎDo.
'What do you ad'vise me to ˎdo? ˎGo.
He’s 'just arˎrived. ˎOh!
'Here’s your ˎsweater. ˎThanks!

Tune II
LOW FALL + TAIL
'What’s your ˎname? ˎJohnson.
'Who’s ֹrunning the ˎmusic ֽclub ˎPeter’s going to run it.
this ֽyear?
ֽֽSomeone’s bound to ֽhave one. ˎWho eֽxactly?
He 'says he’s ˎcoming. ˎWhy is he ֽcoming?
He’s for'gotten to 'shut the ˎgate. ˎIsn’t he ֽstupid!
What a 'very ֹnice ˎhouse! ˎYes, | ˎisn’t it?
I 'rather like "Mary. ˎVery ֽpleasant, |
ˎisn’t
she?
What 'shall I ˎdo with this ֽrubbish? ˎBurn it.
'Watch me 'juggle with these plates. ˎNow ֽlook what you’ve
ֽdone.
'Would you 'like an "apple? ˎThank you.
Oh I am ֽcold. ˎNonsense!

Tune III
LOW PRE-HEAD + LOW FALL (+ TAIL)
'What’s your ˎjob? I’m a ˎshop asֽsistant.
'Where did you 'go to ˎschool? Well I was at a ˎnumber
of ֽschools.
v
Someone’ll ֽhave to ֽdo it. But ˎwho?
I’ve vsaid I’ll ֽmeet you. Yes but ˎwhere?
I’ve got 'so ֹmany 'things to ˎdo. Can ˎI ֽhelp it ֽall?
Thank you for your "offer. Will itˎhelp, do you

14
ֽthink?
'May I 'borrow this "pen? Yes, ˎdo.
I ↘can’t tell you vnow. Then ˎphone me aֽbout it.
'Did you 'lock the 'back "door? Of ˎcourse!
I’m a'fraid I’ve ֹgot a ˎcold! No ˎwonder!

Tune IV
(LOW PRE-HEAD +) LOW HEAD + LOW FALL (+ TAIL)
'What would you 'like for ˎdinner? I ֽֽdon’t ˎknow.
'What’s that 'tray ˎmade of? It’s ֽֽmade of a ֽֽsort of
ˎplastic.
'Which 'road shall we ˎtake? ֽֽWhich is the ˎquicker?
I’m a'fraid I’ve 'lost your pen. ֽֽWhat are you ֽֽgoing to
ˎdo aֽbout it?
I don’t know what to ֽtell ֽJean. ֽֽNeed we ֽֽtell her
ˎanything?
'Thank you so "much. ֽֽDon’t ˎmention it.
It was 'very ˎkind of you. ֽֽNot in theˎ least.
I’m 'very pleased with "Sue. ֽֽSo you ˎought to be.

15
LESSON 2

“Ship or sheep” Unit 25 “Happy birthday”

Bob: Hello, Barbara:


Barbara: Hello, Bob, It's my birthday today,
Bob: O, yes! Your birthday! Happy birthday, Barbara!
Barbara: Thank, Bob. Somebody gave me this blouse for my
birthday.
Bob: What a beautiful blouse! It's got brown and blue butter-
flies on it.
Barbara: And big black buttons.
Bob: Did Ruby buy it for you?
Barbara: Yes. And my brother gave me a hairbrush and a book
about baby birds.
Bob: I didn’t remember your birthday, Barbara. I'm terribly
sorry.
Barbara: Well, you can buy me a big bottle of perfume, Bob!
Bob: I've got a better idea. We'll get into a cab and go to a pub,
and I'll buy you a bottle of beer!

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[b]

1. Be brief. [ˉbJ "brJf] Будьте лаконичны. (Короче.)

16
2. A bad job. [q 'bxd ˎGob] Гиблое дело.
3. A bad blunder. [q 'bxd ˎblAndq] Грубая ошибка.
4. Bad’s the best. [ˋbxdz Dq vbest] Ничего хорошего не
предвидится.
5. The biter’s bit. [Dq 'baItqz ˋbIt] Попался, который кусался.
6. Ben’s a bag of bones. ['benz q 'bxg qv ˎbqunz] Бен худой как
щепка.
7. Rob’s as blind as a bat (beetle). ['rObz qz 'blaInd qz q ˋbxt
(ˋbJtl)] Роб подслеповат.
8. Betty’s as bold as brass. ['betIz qz 'bquld qz ˋbrRs] Бетти –
нахалка.
9. Barbara’s as busy as a bee. ['bRbqrqz qz 'bIzI qz q ˋbJ]
Барабара – хлопотунья.
10. Bob is a big bug. ['bOb Iz q 'bIg ˋbAg] Боб – большая
шишка.
11. Bel has a bee in her bonnet. ['bel hxz q ˋbJ In hq ֽbOnIt] Бел с
причудами.
12. Bab lives at the back of beyond. ['bxb 'lIvz qt Dq 'bxk qv
bIˋjOnd] Бэб живет у черта на куличиках.
13. Don’t be a busybody, baby. [ֽdqunt bi· q ˆbIzIbOdI ֽbeIbI] Не
суй нос в чужие дела, дорогуша.
14. Bid good-bye to your baby-brother. ['bId gud"baI tq jO·
ֽbeIbI"brADq] Попрощайся с братиком.
15. Bram broke the back of the business. [ֽbrxm ֽbrquk Dq ˋbxk
qv Dq ֽbIznIs] Брэм сделал самую тяжелую часть работы.
16. Bee is a bread-and-butter miss. ['bJ Iz q 'bred qnd 'bAtq mIs]
Би – девочка школьного возраста.
17. Bob was black-balled. ['bob wqz 'blxkˎbLld] Боба
забаллотировали.
18. I’m bored by both, Beck and Bert. [aIm 'bLd baI bquT 'bek qnd
ˋbWt] Мне надоели оба – и Бек и Берт.
19. Rob wishes not to seem but to be the best. ['rOb wISIz 'nOt tq
v
sJm bqt tq ˋbJ Dq ֽbest] Роб хочет не казаться, а быть самым
лучшим.
20. One beats the bush, another takes the bird. ['wAn 'bJts Dq v

17
buS q"nADq 'teIks Dq ˋbWd] Один работает, другой наживается.

1. B’s the Bus


by Phyllis McGinley

B’s the Bus


The bouncing Bus,
That bears a shopper store-ward.
It’s fun to sit
In back of it
But seats are better forward.
Although it’s big as buildings are
And looks both bold and grand,
It has to stop obligingly
If you but raise your hand.

2. Bacon and Eggs


by Sir A.P. Herbert

Now blest be the Briton, his beef and his beer,


And all the strong waters that keep him in cheer,
But blest beyond cattle and blest beyond kegs
Is the brave British breakfast of bacon and eggs –

Bacon and eggs,


Bacon and eggs;
Sing bacon,
Red bacon,
Red bacon and eggs!

O breakfast! O breakfast! The meal of my heart!


Bring porridge, bring sausage, bring fish for a start,
Bring kidney and mushrooms and partridges’ legs,
But let the foundation be bacon and eggs –

Bacon and eggs;


Bacon and eggs;
Bring bacon,

18
Crisp bacon,

And let there be eggs!

“Tit for Tat”


A 'boy 'bought a ↑twopenny ˎloaf at a ˎbaker’s. It v struck him
| that it was 'much ˋsmaller than "usual, | so he 'said to the "baker,
| “'I don’t be'lieve this 'loaf is the 'right ˎweight.” “ˎOh, | ˋnever
"mind,” | ֽanswered the "baker, | “'You’ll 'have the 'less to ˆcarry.”
“'Quite ˎright,” said the ֽboy | and 'put ↑three-ˎhalfpence ֽon the
ˎcounter. 'Just as he was ˋleaving the "shop | the 'baker 'called
ˎout to him, | “I ˋsay, "Tommy, | you 'haven’t 'given me the 'price
of the ˋloaf!” “Oh, 'never ˋmind,” said the "boy, | “ֽyou’ll ֽhave the
ֽless to ˆcount!”

“Stories for reproduction” Text 1

Two Mexicans had accused each other of cheating, and both of


them were getting angrier and angrier.
“I'll kill you!” shouted Jose.
Miguel laughed rudely and answered, “You could never kill
me; but I could kill you”
“Just try!” Jose shouted back. “We'll fight a duel in the park at
five o'clock tomorrow morning.”
“No, not in the park,” Miguel answered. “The police might see
or hear us there. Let's go out to a quiet place in the country.”
“All right,” said Jose, “I accept. Let's go to San Antonio by the
first train tomorrow morning. That's where I usually fight my
duels.”
“I do too!” answered Miguel.
The next morning they went to the railway station together,
and Jose bought a return ticket, but Miguel bought a single one.
“Ho, ho!” said Jose, “so you don't expect to return? I always
get a return ticket.”
“I never do,” answered Miguel calmly. “I always use my
opponent's other half.”
19
W. Wordsworth “Upon Westminster Bridge”

Earth has not anything to show more fair:


Dull would he be of soul who could pass by
A sight so touching in its majesty:
This City now doth like a garment wear

The beauty of the morning, silent, bare


Ships, towers, domes, theatres and temples lie
Open unto the fields, and to the sky:
All bright and glittering in the smokeless air.

Never did sun more beautifully steep


In his first splendor, valley, rock or hill;
Ne’er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep!
The river glideth at its own sweet will:
Dear, God! the very houses seem asleep;
And all that mighty heart is lying still!

20
LESSON 3

Articulation of the consonants [t], [d]

The consonants [t, d] are articulated with the tip of the tongue
pressed against the alveolar ridge (apical articulation). Thus con-
tact is formed so that the air-passage through the mouth is
blocked for a short time. Then the tip of the tongue is quickly re-
moved from the alveolar ridge and the air escapes with plosion.
In the production of [t] the vocal cords are kept apart and do not
vibrate, whereas in the articulation of [d] they are drawn near to-
gether and vibrate.
Thus [t] and [d] may be defined as occlusive noise plosive fore-
lingual apical alveolar consonants; the consonant [t] is voiceless-for-
tis, the consonant [d] is voiced-lenis.
The English [t] in a stressed syllable, when followed by a
vowel and not preceded by [s], is pronounced with aspiration.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[t]

1. ‘twas What sport. [ˉwOt ˎspLt] Презабавно!


2. Get it right. ['get It vraIt] Поймите меня правильно.
3. Cut it short. [ֽkAt It "SLt] Короче.
4. To return to our muttons. [tq rI'tWn tu auq ˋmAtnz]
Вернемся к теме разговора.

21
5. Try to put it right. [ˋtraI tq put It "raIt] Попытайся
починить это.
6. Tom’s quite washed out. ['tOmz 'kwaIt wOSt ˋaut] Том
крайне утомлен.
7. Don’t take it to heart. [ˋdqunt ֽteIk It tq "hRt] Не принимай
это близко к сердцу.
8. Tim is hard put to it. ['tIm Iz 'hRd ˋput tu It] Тим без гроша.
9. Mart is as true as steel. ['mRt Iz qz 'trH qz ˋstJl] Март –
честнейший человек.
10. Ted is a bit of a wet blanket. [ֽted Iz q ֽbIt qv q ֽwet "blxNkIt]
Тед – скучный человек.
11. You are telling pretty tall stories. [ˋjHq ֽtelIN prItI 'tLl ˋstL-
rIz] Ты рассказываешь небылицы.
12. I don’t like my tea too strong. [aI 'dqunt laIk maI 'tJ 'tH
v
strON] Я не люблю очень крепкий чай.
13. I don’t want to get mixed up. [aI 'dqunt wOnt tq 'get mIkst
v
Ap] Я не хочу впутываться (в это).
14. Put two and two together. ['put 'tH qn 'tH tqˋgeDq] Сделай
вывод.
15. It went out of date. [It 'went aut qv ˎdeIt] Это устарело.
16. Tess took Tim to task. ['tes tuk 'tIm tq ˋtRsk] Тесс задала
Тиму взбучку.
17. Tina, don’t speak out of your turn. [ˋtJnq 'dqunt 'spJk aut qv
jO· vtWn] Тина, отвечай только тогда, когда тебя спрашивают.
18. Toby still treats the matter lightly. ['tqubI ˋstIl ֽtrJts Dq ֽmxtq
"laItlI] Тоби все еще относится к этому беспечно (не
принимает всерьез).
19. Tony oughtn’t to stay out late. ['tqunI 'Ltnt tq steI 'aut ˋleIt]
Тони не следует приходить домой так поздно.
20. Better the foot slip than the tongue trip.=[ ֽbetq Dq ˋfut "slIp
Dqn Dq ˋtAN ֽtrIp] Лучше оступиться, чем оговориться.

1. Duty of the Student


by Edward Anthony

22
It is the duty of the student
Without exception to be prudent.
If smarter than his teacher, tact
Demands that he conceals the fact.

2. Cats
by Sinclair Lewis

This is a cat that sleeps at night,


That takes delight
In visions bright,
And not a vagrant that creeps at night
On box cars by the river,

This is a sleepy cat to purr


And rarely stir
It’s shining fur,
This is a cat whose softest purr
Means salmon, steaks, and liver.

That is a cat respectable


Connectable
With selectable,
Whose names would make you quiver.

That is a cat of piety,


Not satiety,
But sobriety.
Its very purr is of piety
And thanks to its Feline Giver.

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 26 “In a department store”

Pretty girl: I want to buy a hat.


Assistant: Hats are upstairs on the next floor.
Fat man: Where can I get a hot meal?
Assistant: The restaurant is on the thirteenth floor.
Little girl: I want to buy some bootlaces.
Assistant: They're on the next counter on you left, dear.

23
Lady: I want some tins of tomato paste.
Assistant: Try the supermarket in the basement.
Gentleman: Could you tell me where the travel agency is?
Assistant: It's right next to the cafeteria on the thirteenth floor.
Student: I want to buy a football.
Assistant: Take the lift to the sports department. It's on the top
floor.
Little boy: Could you tell me where the telephone is?
Assistant: It's on the twelfth floor opposite the photographer's.
Twins: Could you tell us the time, please?
Assistant: Yes. It's exactly twenty two minutes to ten.

“One too many for him”. Text


A schoolboy|who had been ↘working a 'good ↘deal at avrith-
v

metic, |'came 'home one 'summer for his ˋholidays. ¯One


"evening| there were 'two 'roast ˋpigeons on the vdinner table; |
and the vboy, | who ˋthought himself very vsmart, | 'said to his
"father, | “I can 'prove to 'you by a vrithmetic | that 'those ↑two
'pigeons are ˋthree.” “ˋOh!” said his ֽfather, | “'how do you
'manage ˋthat?” “"Well, | this is "one, | and 'that is "two: | and
'one and 'two make ˋthree.”
“How 'very ˋclever!” exֽclaimed his ֽfather. “Then your
'mother shall have the "first, | 'I’ll 'eat the "second, | and 'you can
'have the ˋthird!”

G.G. Byron “Twilight”

It is the hour when from the boughs


The nightingale’s high note is heard;
It is the hour when lovers’ vows
Seem sweet in every whisper’d word;
And gentle winds, and waters near,
Make music to the lonely ear.
Each flower the dews have lightly wet,
And in the sky the stars are met,
And on the wave is deeper blue,
And on the leaf a browner hue,

24
And in the heaven that clear obscure,
So softly dark, and darkly pure,
Which follows the decline of day,
As twilight melts beneath the moon away.

25
LESSON 4

Intonation. Its main functions

The most essential speech unit, complete and independent


enough to function as a unit of communication, is the sentence. It
can perform this function not only because it consists of words
that are made up of definite sounds, have a definite meaning, and
follow each other in a definite order according to the rules of the
language, but also because it possesses definite phonetic fea-
tures, without which the sentence cannot exit. These features are
closely connected with the meaning of the utterance as a whole
and carry important information that the words of the utterance
do not convey. They are superimposed upon the sounds making
up the sentence in the process of speech and are inseparable from
it.
These features are called prosodic, or supra-segmental and in-
clude speech melody, sentence-stress, tempo, rhythm, pauses. So
intonation is a complex of these prosodic features. Of all these
prosodic phenomena the most important are speech melody and
sentence-stress.
The main functions of intonation are:
(a) sentence-forming;
(b) sentence-delimiting;
(c) distinctive;
(d) attitudinal.
(a) Intonation, along with words and grammati-
cal structure, is an indispensable feature of the sentence. A chain
of words correctly used according to grammatical rules does not
necessarily make an unambiguous utterance with a clear commu-
nicative aim, if pronounced without differentiations in pitch and
stress. For instance, “'He’s 'passed 'his e'xam” may be taken for a
statement, or a question, or an exclamation, while with a definite
intonation contour superimposed on this chain of words, the com-
municative aim of the utterance is clearly revealed.
Compare:
He’s 'passed his eˎxam. – A statement of fact.
He’s 'passed his e´xam? – A question.
He’s 'passed his e"xam? – A question + surprise.

26
He’s ˋpassed his eˋxam! – An exclamation.
He’s ↘passed his evxam. – A statement + implication.
(The implication may be: So he must know something. He’s
probably not so lazy after all. Now he may take a rest, etc.)

(b) The end of a sentence is always recognized


by a pause of varying length combined with a moving (or nu-
clear) tone on the most important word of the sentence; the end of
a non-final sense-group is usually signalled by a shorter pause in
combination with a nuclear tone on the semantic centre of the
sense-group.
E.g. Like 'most 'old "people, | he was 'fond of 'talking about
'old ˎdays.
(c) The distinctive function of intonation is ap-
parent from the fact that communicatively different types of sen-
tences are distinguished by intonation alone.
Compare:
It’s 'no 'use 'sending for the ˎdoctor. – A categoric statement
(low fall in the nucleus).
It’s 'no 'use 'sending for the "doctor. – A non-categoric statement
(low rise in the nucleus).
It’s 'no 'use 'sending for the ´doctor? – A question (high rise in
the nucleus).
It’s ↘no ↘use ↘sending for the vdoctor. – A statement + implica-
tion (fall-rise in the nucleus).
'Wait ˎhere! – A categoric order (a falling tone).
'Wait "here! – A polite request (a rising tone).
ˎIsn’t she a ֽnice ֽgirl! – An exclamation (a falling tone).
ֽIsn’t she a ֽnice "girl? – A general question (a rising tone).

The decisive role of intonation in defining the communicative


type of an utterance stands out clearly in those cases where gram-
mar and intonation are at variance; for example, where the gram-
matical features suggest a statement but the intonation turns the
utterance into a question, or vice versa, e.g. –
You ´like it?
ˎIsn’t he ֽstupid!

27
(His ֽpictures are ֽvery ˎstriking.) – ˎYes, ˎaren’t they?
(It 'looks like ˎrain.) – It ˋdoes, ˋdoesn’t it?
(d) Attitudinal meanings (the mood of the
speaker, his attitude to the situation and to the listener) are also
expressed only by intonation.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[d]

1. Good day. [ˉgud "deI] До свидания.


2. How do you do. ['hau dju ˎdH] Здравствуйте.
3. I’d be delighted. [aId bi· dIˆlaItId] Буду очень рад
(счастлив).
4. Mind the head. [ˋmaInd Dq "hed] Не высовывайся.
5. Draw it mild. ['drL It "maIld] Не преувеличивай.
6. Don’t disturb. ['dqunt dIsvtWb] Просьба не входить.
7. Good riddance. ['gud ˎrIdns] Скатертью дорога.
8. Dogged does it. ['dOgId ˋdAz It] Упорство приносит
победу.
9. Dad’s a good driver. ['dxdz q 'gud ˋdraIvq] Папа хорошо

28
водит машину.
10. The kid’s as good as gold. [Dq 'kIdz qz 'gud qz ˋgquld] Это
очень хороший ребенок.
11. Beyond the shadow of a doubt. [bI'jOnd Dq ˋSxdqu qv q
ֽdaut] Несомненно.
12. The invalid is doing splendidly. [Di ֽInvqlId Iz ֽdHIN ˋsplen-
dIdlI] Больной чувствует себя прекрасно.
13. Dick had read himself stupid. [ˋdIk hqd ˋred himself vstjH-
pId] Дик дочитался до одурения.
14. Dumb dogs are dangerous. ['dAm 'dOgz Q· ˆdeInGqrqs] В
тихом омуте черти водятся.
15. What good did that do, I wonder? ['wOt gud dId ˆDxt dH aI
wAndq] Ну, и какой от этого был толк?
16. The dog-days seemed to have no end. [Dq 'dogdeIz ֹsJmd tq
hxv 'nqu ˎend] Испепеляющая жара, казалось, никогда не
кончится.
17. Dad couldn’t deny that I’d made good. ['dxd ֹkudnt dIˋnaI
Dqt aId ֽmeId ֽgud] Папа не мог отрицать, что я преуспел.
18. Dolly is their adopted daughter, I understand. ['dOlI Iz Deqr
qˋdOptId ֽdLtqr aI Andqֽstxnd] Долли – их приемная дочь,
кажется.
19. Dell acted on Dan’s advice. That is sad indeed. ['del 'xktId
On ˋdxnz qd"vaIs Dxt ˋIz sxd InˋdJd] Делл послушалась совета
Дана. Это очень печально.
20. Dave is in a decidedly good mood. ['deIv Iz In q dIˋsaIdIdlI
gud ˋmHd] Дейв явно в хорошем настроении.

1. The Time-table of Lazy-bones Grundy


by R. L. Stevenson

Lazy-bones Grundy
Must do sums for Monday.
“And today it is Tuesday”,
Says lazy-bones Grundy,
“So, I’ll do it on Wednesday,
If not – then on Thursday,

29
Or even on Friday
And Saturday comes,
But lazy-bones Grundy
Has no time for sums.
“Never mind”, says Grundy,
“I’ll do it on Sunday!”

2. Young and Old


by Charles Kingsley

When all the world is young, lad,


And all the trees are green;
And every goose a swan, lad,
And every lass a queen;
Then hey for boot and horse, lad,
And round the world away;
Young blood must have its course, lad
And every dog his day.

When all the world is old, lad,


And all the trees are brown;
And all the sport is stale, lad,
And all the wheels run down;
Creep home, and take your place there,
The spent and maimed among:
God grant you find one face there,
You loved when all was young.

“Ship or sheep” Unit 27 “A damaged telephone”

Daisy: Dunston 238282.


Donald: Hello, Daisy. This is Donald
Daisy: Oh, hello, darling.
Donald: What did you do yesterday, Daisy? You forgot our
date, didn't you?
Daisy: Well, it rained all day, Donald, and I have a bad cold,
so I decided to stay at home.
Donald: Did you? I telephoned twenty times and nobody an-
swered.

30
Daisy: Oh, the telephone was damaged. They repaired it
today.
Donald: What did David do yesterday? Did he and Dotty go
dancing?
Daisy: No. They stayed at home and played cards with the
children.
Donald: And what did you do? Did you play cards too?
Daisy: No. Sidney and I listened to the radio and studied.
What did you do yesterday, Donald?
Donald: I've just told you, Daisy I tried to phone you twenty
times!

“Stories for reproduction” Text 2

Mrs. Evans went to a large local cinema one summer after-


noon. Half-way through the wonderful film there was the usual
interval, so that people could buy sweets, chocolates and ice-
cream.
Mrs. Evans rarely bought anything in the cinema, but this time
she was feeling hot, so she thought, “I'll have an ice-cream to cool
me. I certainly need it.” Quite a lot of the audience were waiting
to buy ice-creams from the girl who was selling them, so Mrs.
Evans waited for her turn.
There was a small boy in front of her. When it was his turn, he
offered the girl ten pence and asked for an ice-cream, but they
cost twenty pence, so the girl said, “I want another ten pence,
please.”
The small boy put the coin back in his pocket, put his hand in
another pocket, took out another ten pence coin and offered that
to the girl.
Mrs. Evans was so amused that she paid the other ten pence
herself.

Tone group 2

This is used to give a categoric, considered, weighty, judicial,


dispassionate character to statements. Such pronouncements are

31
more emphatic and often more ponderous-sounding than with
Tone Group 1, e. g.:
Are you sure? 'Abso'lutely ˎcertain.
What shall I do? I 'simply 'can’t imagine.

This tone group adds weight to expressions of enthusiasm as


well as of disapproval, e. g.:
It was 'perfectly ˎwonderful.
It was 'simply ˎterrible.

Special questions are searching, serious, intense, responsible,


and are often used to suggest impatience or irritability, e. g.:
'Why not 'come and have ˎdinner ֽwith us?
Now 'where did I 'put my ˎpipe?
'Why did you ˎdo such a ֽstupid ֽthing?

General questions with this tone group sound as subject for


discussion, e. g.:
'Would you pre ֹfer ˎthis ֽchair?

Questions beginning with "Will you ..." are in reality impera-


tives, e. g.:
'Will you be ˎquiet?
The negative form of these general questions is used as an ex-
clamatory device, e. g.:
'Isn’t it ˎwonderful!

Such commands are firm, serious, considered, weighty, press-


ing, dispassionate, e.g.:
Now 'take it ˎslowly.
'Don’t be riˎdiculous.
'Please be ˎquiet.
This tone group is very common with interjections and gives
great emphasis to them, e. g.:
How 'very peˎculiar! What ˎnonsense!

32
Tune I
STEPPING HEAD + LOW FALL (+ TAIL)
'Isn’t she 'very "bright? 'Mad as a ˎhatter.
¯Is it "easy? 'Not so 'easy as you might
ˎthink.
I’m aֹfraid I 'can’t ˎdo it. 'Can’t do ˎwhat?
ֽֽWhat’s he ˋsaying? 'How can I 'hear when
you’re 'making 'so
muchˎnoise.
It’ll be ↘very exvciting. 'Will you 'stick to the ˎpoint?
He’s 'two ֹhours 'late aˋgain. 'Isn’t he 'just a 'sort of
'person to 'drive you ˎmad?
'What do you 'think you’re 'Mind your ֹown ˎbusiness.
ˋdoing?
'What do you 'want ˎme 'Read the 'paragraph be'gin-
to ֽdo? ning at the 'bottom of the
'next 'page but ˎone.
'Here I 'am at ˎlast. 'Welcome ˎback!
'Isn’t it ˎmild toֽday! 'What a 'difference from 'this
time ˎlast ֽweek!

Tune II
LOW PRE-HEAD + STEPPING HEAD + LOW FALL (+ TAIL)
'Why did you ֹrun aˋway? I ֹhaven’t the 'slightest iˎdea.
'Where’s thatˎbook of ֽmine? I’ve 'put it a'way in the
'dining room ˎcupboard.
'Will you "help? ֹHow could I 'possibly reˎfuse?
'Oh for a ֹbit of ˋquiet! When 'will they 'stop
'making that 'dreadful ˎdin?
It’s ↘quite an vinteresting Would you 'say it’s a 'practical
iֽdea. propoˎsition?
We’ve 'both got the 'same Now 'isn’t 'that peˎculiar!

33
ˋanswer.
Do you re'member our 'walk What a 'beautiful ˎday,
(ˎwasn’t it?) in 'Epping "Forest?
We’ll be 'there in ˎno ֽtime. Now 'take it ˎslowly.
It’s ֽֽnot "much of ֹrisk. Well 'don’t 'say I 'didn’t
ˎwarn you.
'How shall I 'make my ˎpeace? ֹGive the ֹgirl the ֹmost ex'pen-
sive 'meal you can afˎford.
'Here’s the ˋpen you ֽlost. ֹThank you 'very 'much
inˎdeed!
I 'haven’t 'seen you for ˋages. And i'magine us 'meeting
ˎhere of ֽall ֽplaces!

Tune III
HIGH PRE-HEAD + LOW FALL (+ TAIL)
I’ll 'fetch you in the ˋcar. ¯That ˎis ֽgood of you.
You ↘won’t do it vthat ֽway. ¯Well ˎhow, ֽthen?
´What did you ֹsay the ad ¯How many ˎmore ֽtimes
ֹdress was? d’you ֽwant ֽtelling?
Well he vsays he ֽneeds it. ¯Yes but ˎdoes he, in ֽall
ֽhonesty?
We ↘can’t leave vyet. It’s ¯Now ˎisn’t that
ˋraining. inֽfuriating?

I don’t want your ֽhelp.
v
¯Do it yourˎself, ֽthen.
He just 'shouted me ˋdown. ¯The ˎbrute!
ˋHullo, "Jack! ¯Good ˎevening, Mr. ֽDean!

34
LESSON 5

Articulation of the consonants [k] [g]

The consonants [k, g] are articulated with the back of the


tongue pressed against the soft palate. Thus contact is formed so
that the air-passage through the mouth is completely blocked for
a short time. Then the back of the tongue is quickly removed from
the soft palate and the air escapes with plosion. In the production
of [k] the vocal cords are kept apart and do not vibrate, whereas in
the articulation of [g] they are drawn near together and vibrate.
Thus [k] and [g] may be defined as occlusive noise plosive back-
lingual velar consonants; the consonant [k] is voiceless-fortis, the
consonant [g] is voiced-lenis.
The English [k] in a stressed syllable, when followed by a
vowel and not preceded by [s], is pronounced with aspiration.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[k]

1. Cocks crow. ['kOks "krqu] Петухи кукарекают. Cats cater-


waul. ['kxts "kxtqwLl] Кошки задают кошачьи концерты. Crows
caw. ['krquz "kL] Вороны каркают. Ducks quack. ['dAks "kwxk]
Утки крякают. Peacocks scream. ['pJkOks "skrJm] Павлина
пронзительно кричат.

35
2. Cry quits. ['kraI ˋkwIts] Скажи, что сдаешься.
3. Cut and come again. ['kAt qnd 'kAm qˋgeIn] Кушайте на
здоровье.
4. The cast is clear. [Dq 'kqust Iz ˋklIq] Опасности нет.
5. Frank kicks against the pricks. ['frxNk 'kIks qgeInst Dq
ˋprIks] Фрэнк лезет на рожон.
6. Ken’s as cold as a cucumber. ['kenz qz 'kquld qz q
ˋkjHkqmbq] Кен очень хладнокровен.
7. Kate’s as weak (melancholy) as a cat. ['keIts qz 'wJk
('melqNkqlI) qz q ˋkxt] Кэйт – размазня.
8. Kirk is the cock of the school. ['kWk Iz Dq 'kOk qv Dq ˋskHl]
Керк – первый драчун в школе.
9. Kay is like a walking dictionary. ['keI Iz laIk q 'wLkIN ˋdIk-
SqnrI] Кей очень много знает. (Кей – ходячая энциклопедия.)
10. Keep quite quiet. [ˋkJp kwaIt "kwaIqt] Не шумите!
Замолчите!
11. Come back and keep us company. ['kAm 'bxk qnd 'kJp qs
"kAmpqnI] Возвращайтесь, составите нам компанию.
12. Kim’s coat could do with a clean. [kImz ˋkeut kud ˋdH wID q
v
klJn] Надо отдать в чистку пальто Кима.
13. Kay comes like clock-work. ['keI 'kAmz laIk ˋklOkwWk] Кей
приходит минута в минуту.
14. Kiki cannot take a joke. ['kIkI 'kxnOt teIk q ˋGquk] Кики не
понимает шуток.
15. School keeps on till six o’clock. ['skHl kJps "On tIl 'sIks qˋk-
lOk] Уроки в школе продолжаются до шести часов.
16. Kit kept it quite dark. [ֽkIt kept It 'kwaIt ˎdRk] Кит держал
это в секрете.
17. Come back as quick as you can. ['kAm 'bxk qz 'kwIk qz ju·
ˋkxn] Возвращайся побыстрее.
18. Care killed a cat, not work. [ˋkFq ֽkIld q "kxt 'nOt vwWk]
Забота старит, не работа.
19. So that accounts for the milk in the cocoanut. [squ ˋDxt
qֽkaunts fq Dq ֽmIlk In Dq ֽkqukqunAt] Так вот где собака зарыта.
20. If you agree to carry the calf, they’ll make you carry the

36
cow. [If ju· q'grJ tq 'kxrI Dq vkRf DeIl ֽmeIk ju· kxrI Dq ˋkau] Только
согласись нести теленка, и тебе взвалят на плечи корову.

1. Song of the Train


by David McCord

Clickety-clack Clickety-clack,
Wheels on the track Over the crack
This is the way Faster and faster
They begin to attack: The song of the track:
Click-ety-clack, Clickety-clack,
Click-ety-clack, Clickety-clack,
Click-ety-clack-ety; Clickety, clickety,
Click-ety Clackety
Clack. Clack.

2. Clocks and Watches


by Olive Sansom

Our great Clickety-clack,


Steeple clock Clickety-clack.
Goes Tick-Tock. Clickety, clackety
Clackety
Tick-Tock Clack.
Our small Tick-Tack, Tick-Tack.
Mantel clock
Goes Tick-Tack, Tick-Tack, Our little
Riding in front, Pocket watch
Riding in back, Goes Tick-a-tacker, Tick-a-
Everyone hears tacker,
The song of the track: Tick-a-tacker, Tick.

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 28 “The Cuckoo Clock”

Mrs. Cook: Would you like some cream in your coffee, Mrs.
Clark?
Mrs.Clark: No, thank you. But I'd like a little milk.

37
Mrs.Cook: Would you like some chocolate cakes?
Mrs.Clark: Thank you.
Mrs.Cook: Take two. Here's a cake fork, and here's…
Mrs. Clark: Excuse me, Mrs. Cook. But what's that next to
your bookshelf? Is it a clock?
Mrs. Cook: Yes. It’s an American cuckoo clock.
Mrs. Clark: Is it plastic?
Mrs. Cook: Oh, no, Mrs. Clark. It's a very expensive clock. It is
an electric clock.
Mrs. Clark: Well, it's exactly six o'clock now, and it's very
quiet. Doesn't it say “cuckoo”?
Mrs. Cook: Of course, Mrs. Clark. Look.
Clock: Cuckoo! Cuckoo! Cuckoo! Cuckoo!
Mrs. Clark: How exciting! What a clever clock!
Clock: Cuckoo…

H. W. Longfellow “The Twilight”

The twilight is sad and cloudy,


The wind blows wild and free,
And like the wings of sea-birds
Flash the white caps of the sea.

But in the fisherman’s cottage


There shines a ruddier light
And a little face at the window,
Peers out into the night.

Close, close it is pressed to the window,


As if those childish eyes
Were looking into the darkness
To see some form arise.

And a woman’s waving shadow


Is passing to and fro,
Now rising to the ceiling
Now bowing and bending low.

What tale do the roaring ocean

38
And the night wind, bleak and wild,
As they beat at the crazy casement,
Tell to that little child?

And why do the roaring ocean,


And the night wind, wild and bleak,
As they beat at the heart of the mother,
Drive the colour from her cheek?

“Stories for reproduction” Text 3

A clerk who worked in a small office in a factory discovered


that there were so many files in his room that there was not room
for any more. Also, each file was so full that it was impossible to
add any more papers to it.
“Well,” he thought, “every week I have to find room for sev-
eral hundred letters, so something will have to be done about
this.”
He thought and thought, and then decided to send a note to
his manager explaining what had happened and asking him for
his permission to go through the old files and to take out and de-
stroy all letters which were no longer of any use.
The next day he received a note from the manager in answer to
his. It said, “All right, you have permission to do as you suggest,
but you must make copies of all letters before destroying them.”

39
LESSON 6

The components of intonation

As has been mentioned above, the sentence possesses definite


phonetic features. Each feature performs a definite task, and all of
them work simultaneously. Thus,
a) Sentences are usually separated from each other by pauses.
If necessary, the sentence is subdivided into shorter word-groups
according to sense; these are called sense-groups or syntagms.
b) The pitch of the voice does not stay on the same level while
the sentence (or the sense-group) is pronounced; it fluctuates, ris-
ing and falling on the vowels and voiced consonants. These falls
and rises are not chaotic, but form definite patterns, typical of
English. The fluctuations of the voice-pitch are called speech
melody.
c) The word that is most important for the meaning of the
sentence, i.e. the word acting as its semantic centre, is made prom-
inent by stress and a special moving tone; this special tone is the
result of a perceptible change in the pitch, which either falls, or
rises, or changes its movement first in one direction, then in an-
other (fall-rise or rise-fall). The movement is initiated on the
stressed syllable of the most important word of the sentence (or
sense-group).
d) Other words, also essential for the meaning, are stressed,
but the pitch of these words remains unchanged.
e) Form words, performing grammatical functions (such as ar-
ticles, prepositions, auxiliary, modal, and link verbs) are usually
left unstressed; they are mostly pronounced in their reduced
(weak) forms.
f) Connected English speech comes as a series of closely-knit
groups of words, each group containing only one stressed sylla-
ble. The stressed syllables occur at approximately equal intervals
of time, e.g. –

The result of this subtle interrelationship of stress and time is a


peculiar rhythm resembling a drum-beat. This rhythm is not easy
for a foreigner to acquire, but its absence often makes his speech

40
barely intelligible.
g) The rate of speech is not constant, but is made to suit the
semantic weight of each sentence or sense-group of the utterance.
For example, utterances in direct speech are usually pronounced
slower that those that are said parenthetically, and stressed ele-
ments of a sentence are pronounced slower than the unstressed
ones.
h) The timber of the voice changes in accordance with the
emotions experienced by the speaker.
All the phonetic features of the sentence enumerated above
(speech melody, sentence-stress, tempo, rhythm, pauses and
timber) form a complex unity, called intonation.
The most important components of intonation from the lin-
guistic point of view are: speech melody, sentence-stress, and
rhythm.
It should be borne in mind that all the components of intona-
tion are closely connected; none of them can be separated in ac-
tual speech. This can be done, however, for the sake of analysis,
which is essential as a preliminary stage in mastering intonation.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[g]

1. Good gracious! Goodness gracious! Gracious goodness!


[gud ˎgreISqs gudnIs ˋgreISqs 'greISqs ˋgudnIs] Боже мой!
41
2. Get you gone! ['get ju· ˎgOn] Уходи!
3. One gets gripped. [wAn ֽgets vgrIpt] Это захватывает.
4. Go while the goings go. ['gqu wail Dq ˋgquINz ֽgqu]
Убирайся подобру-поздорову.
5. Gary is a gay dog. ['gFqrI Iz q ˋgeI ֽdOg] Гэри – весельчак.
6. Olga is as gay as a grig. ['Olgq Iz q 'geI qz a ˋgrIg] Ольга –
очень веселая девушка.
7. Gil’s got the gift of the gab. ['gIlz gOt Dq 'gIft qv Dq ˋgxb] У
Гила хорошо подвешен язык.
8. A good dog deserves a good bone. [q 'gud ˎ"dOg dI'zWvz q
ֹgud ˋbqun] Большому кораблю – большое плавание.
9. Peggy will gladly play the giddy goat. ['pegI wIl 'glxdlI 'pleI
Dq ˋgIdI ֽgqut] Пегги любит валять дурака.
10. Grig gave as good as he got. ['grIg 'geIv qz 'gud qz hi· ˋgOt]
Григ отплатил той же монетой.
11. I’ve got to get going. [aIv ˋgOt tq ֽget "gquIN] Мне нужно
идти.
12. Got a cigarette, Gil? ['gOt q sIgq´ret ֹgIl] У тебя есть
сигарета, Гил?
13. Gert has a grudge against me. ['gWt hxz q ˎgrAG q"geInst
mi·] Герт имеет зуб против меня.
14. We agreed to go there together. [wi q'grJd tq 'gqu DFq
tqˋgeDq] Мы договорились пойти туда вместе.
15. Grace had got good sea legs. ['greIs hqz 'gOt 'gud ˋsJ legz]
Грейс хорошо переносит качку.
16. Gregory is a go-getter. [´gregqrI Iz q ˎgqugetq] Грегоги –
ловкач.
17. Gordon’s life is all game and glee. ['gLdnz 'laIf Iz 'Ll 'geIm
qnd ˎglJ] Жизнь Гордона – сплошное удовольствие.
18. Granny gets my goat. [ֽgrxnI ֽgets maI "gqut] Бабушка
сердит меня.

1. Golden Hour
by John Keats

42
Golden in the garden, Golden in the tree-tops,
Golden in the glen, Golden in the sky,
Golden, golden, golden Golden, golden, golden
September’s here again! September’s passing by.

2. Green Things Growing


by Dinah Maria Mulock Craik

O the green things growing, the green things growing,


The faint sweet smell of the green things growing!
I should like to live, whether I smile or grieve,
Just to watch the happy life of my green things growing.

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 29 “Guests in August”

Craig: I've just got a telegram from Margaret and Greg.


Carol: Are they coming to England again?
Craig: Yes. At the beginning of August.
Carol: Good. We can all get together again.
Craig: I'm glad they're coming in August. We can take the dog
and go for walks together.
Carol: Yes. And we can give a garden party.
Craig: And Margaret can play her guitar in the garden and
sing Greek songs again.
Carol: Yes, August is a good time to come to England.

“Accuracy”

“'Must I 'stick it on my´self,” asked a 'lady who had just


'bought a 'postage stamp.
“ˋNo, madam”, reֽplied the ֽcounter-clerk, | ”It’s 'much 'better
to ↑stick it on the ˋenvelope!”
('This 'anecdote de'pends for its 'point upon a ˋstress ֽfallacy, |
for the vlady, | 'using “'on” as an vadverb, | would have ˋstressed
it, | whereas, 'used as a 'prepo'sition 'governing “myvself”- as the
'clerk preˋtended it "was- it would be ˋunֽstressed.)

43
“Stories for reproduction” Text 4

Len and Jim worked for the same company. One day, Len lent
Jim $20, but then Jim left his job and went to work in another
town without paying Len back his $20.
Len did not see Jim for a year, and then he heard from another
friend that Jim was in town and staying at the Central Hotel, so he
went to see him there late in the evening.
He found out the number of Jim’s room from the clerk at the
desk downstairs and went up to find him. When he got to the
room, he saw Jim’s shoes outside the door, waiting to be cleaned.
“Well, he must be in,” he thought, and knocked at the door.
There was no answer.
He knocked again. Then he said, “I know you’re in, Jim. Your
shoes are out here.”
“I went out in my slippers,” answered a voice from inside the
room.

44
LESSON 7

English speech melody. Its forms

1.
No sentence can exit without a definite melodic contour.
In the shortest utterances consisting of only one monosyllabic
word the melodic contour is very simple: the pitch changes
within the monosyllabic word. This change may be effected by
lowering or raising the pitch to different degrees, or by combin-
ing this lowering and raising in a different order and thus ob-
taining more complex tones.
Obviously it is possible to produce an infinite variety of mov-
ing tones: we can begin and finish the tone at different pitches, we
can alter the range of pitch-movement, etc.
For practical purposes of teaching and learning English intona-
tion, however, it is sufficient to distinguish six tones.
Thus, he monosyllabic word “No” may be pronounced with
the following six main tones:

Low fall Low rise High fall High rise Fall-rise Rise-fall

The low fall starts in the middle of the voice range and gradu-
ally descends to a very low pitch:

The low rise starts at a very low pitch and gradually ascends
to the middle of the voice range:

The high fall starts at a high pitch and then falls to a very low
pitch:

The high rise starts in the middle of the voice range and then

45
rises to a very high pitch:

The fall-rise starts with a fall similar to that of the high fall,
which is immediately followed by a low rise:

The stress dies away during the initial fall but is partially re-
vived as the rise begins.
The rise-fall starts in the middle of the voice range, rises to a
very high pitch and then falls to a very low pitch:

The realization of the rise-fall varies with the number of sylla-


bles in the word in which the tone is used and with the location of
stress.
In a monosyllabic word, naturally, the rise and the fall are real-
ized in one syllable, e.g. ˆOh! ˆFine! ˆThanks

In a word of two syllables, the first of which is stressed and


contains a vowel that can be prolonged, the stressed syllable is
pronounced with a high rise, and the unstressed one – on a very
low pitch, e.g. ˆGorgeous!

Good ˆevening!

If the first syllable of the nucleus contains a short vowel, it is


given a low level stress, after which the voice jumps upward in
pitch and falls during the second syllable, which is quite un-
46
stressed, e.g. ˆNever!

With ˆpleasure!

In a word of three syllables, the first of which is stressed, the


stressed syllable is pronounced on a medium level tone, the sec-
ond (unstressed) syllable is very high pitched, and the last (un-
stressed) syllable is very low pitched, e.g. ˆWonderful!

On the ˆcontrary!

The syllable on which the moving tone is performed is called


the nucleus of the utterance.
In longer utterances the melodic contour becomes more com-
plex because of the words preceding and following the nucleus
and forming the head, pre-head, and tail of the contour.
The nucleus may be preceded and followed by stressed and
unstressed syllables.
Stressed syllables preceding the nucleus together with the in-
tervening unstressed syllables form the head of the contour:
a) 'Mary 'hasn’t 'heard from him since ˎMay.

Head Nucleus

b) 'Can you 'tell me the 'shortest 'way to the "Zoo?

47
Head Nucleus

Initial unstressed syllables make a pre-head:


a) He was 'glad to 'find his ˎkey.

Pre-head Head Nucleus

b) Has it bee a 'great re"lief?

Pre-head Head Nucleus

Stressed and unstressed syllables following the nucleus are


called the tail:
a) It was 'clearly inˋevitable.

Pre-head Head Nucleus Tail

b) You could have ֽseen it was in"evitable.

Pre-head Head Nucleus Tail


c) 'What was ˎthat, I ֽwonder?

48
Head Nucleus Tail

The nucleus is the only indispensable part of the contour;


head, pre-head, and tail are not obligatory, and the length and
character of each of these parts of the contour may vary consider-
ably. In some of the examples given above there is no pre-head, in
others there is no tail. In such utterances as:
ˎYes. "No. ˋWait.

there is nothing but the nucleus.

Articulation of the consonants [s] [z]

The consonants [s, z] are articulated with the tip and blade of
the tongue held close to the alveolar ridge. The sides of the blade
of the tongue are raised, forming a short and narrow groove-like
channel. Thus a round narrowing is formed through which the air
passes with friction.
In the production of [s] the vocal cords are kept apart and do
not vibrate, whereas in the articulation of [z] they are drawn near
together and vibrate.
Thus [s], [z] may be defined as constrictive noise fricative fore-lin-
gual apical alveolar consonants pronounced with a round narrowing.
The consonant [s] is voiceless-fortis, the consonant [z] is voiced-le-
nis.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[s]

49
1. So sorry. [ˋsqu "sOrI] Извините, пожалуйста.
2. Just fancy! ['GAst ˋfxnsI] Подумать только!
3. See you soon. ['sJ ju· "sHn] До скорого свидания.
4. Precisely so. [¯prIˋsaIslI squ] Совершенно верно.
5. It makes no sense. [It 'meIks nqu ˋsens] Это неправильно.
(в этом нет смысла.)
6. It’s like this, you see. [Its laIk ˋDIs ju ֽsJ] Дело вот в чем.
7. It’s nice of you to say so, sir. [Its ˋnaIs qv ju tq ˋseI squ ֽsW]
Вы очень добры, сэр.
8. It’s beside the question. [Its bI'saId Dq ˋkwesCqn] Это не
по существу.
9. Let’s get to brass tacks. ['lets ֹget tq 'brRs ˎtxks] Перейдем
к сути дела. (Внесем полную ясность.)
10. I am so sorry to be such a nuisance. [aIm ˋsqu "sOrI tq bJ
sqC q ˎ"njHsqns] Мне очень жаль, что я доставила вам столько
неприятностей.
11. I can’t accept such a poor excuse. [aI 'kRnt qkˋsept sAC q
ֽpuqr Iks"kjHs] Я не могу принять такую неубедительную
отговорку.
12. I’m absolutely certain of success. [aIm 'xbsqlHtlI ˋsWtn qv
sqkֽses] Я совершенно уверен в успехе.
13. Advertisement helps to sell. [qdvvWtaIsmqnt helps tq ˋsel]
Реклама способствует торговле.
14. Let’s assume that it’s so. ['lets qˋsjHm Dqt Its "squ]
Предположим, что это так.
15. My son’s still homesick for school. [maI 'sAnz ֹstIl "hqumsIk
fq "skHl] Мой сын все еще тоскует по школе.
16. Pete’s numerous absences from school must be stopped.
['pJts 'njHmqrqs 'xbsqnsIz frqm "skHl mqst bi· ˋstOpt] Нужно
50
запретить Питу то и дело пропускать занятия.
17. I absolutely insist that you stay with us. [aI 'xbsqlHtlI Inˋ-
sIst Dqt ju· "steI wID As] Я решительно настаиваю на том, чтобы
вы остановились у нас.
18. You mustn’t upset yourself, Cecily. [ju· ˋmAsnt Ap"set jOֹ-
self ֹsesIlI] Вы не должны расстраиваться, Сесили.
19. Art’s as cross as two sticks. ['Rts qz 'krOs qz ֹtH ˋstIks] Арт
не в духе.
20. Avoidance of accidents in city streets is possible.
[q'vOIdqns qv ˋxksIdqnts In ֽsItI "strJts Iz ˋpOsqbl]
Предотвращение несчастных случаев на городских улицах
возможно.

1. Sixteen
by Carolyn Cahalan

Sixteen
sees and laughs,
aches and cries,
babbles, thinks,
loves and hates,
stretches, lives
and hopefully waits.

2. City
by Langston Hughes
In the morning the city
Spreads its wings
Making a song
In stone that sings.
In the evening the city
Goes to bed
Hanging lights
About its head.

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 30 “It’s expensive”

51
Sam: Let’s go to the seaside on Saturday.
Alice: Yes! Let’s go sailing and water-skiing. That’s exciting.
Sam: It’s expensive too. Let’s just sit in the sun and go
swimming instead.
Alice: Let’s stay in the Six Star Hotel and spend Sunday there
too.
Sam: Be sensible, Alice. It’s too expensive. Let’s sleep outside
instead.
Alice: Yes. Let’s sleep on the sand. That's more exciting.

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 30 “The Smile of a Snake”

She speaks slowly, and smokes special, expensive cigarettes.


As she steps upstairs, her long skirt sweeps over her silver slip-
pers. She is small and smart and sweet-smelling. Her skin is like
snow. “You have stolen my heart”. I once said stupidly, and she
smiled. But when she smiled, she smiled the smile of a snake.

Tone Group 3

Statements express a personal concern or involvement in the


situation. They are particularly common in conversation, e. g.:
When did you see him? On ˋThursday. | I tֽֽ hought you ˋknew.
I’m sorry John wasn’t there. But he ˋwas. | I ˋsaw him.

When a Low Head precedes the High-falling nuclear tone, the


attitude expressed is one of querulous or disgruntled protest, e. g.:
John said you disliked the play. I ֽֽliked it imˋmensely.

Special questions express a lively and interested reaction to the


situation, e. g.:
I know an easy way to do it. But ˋhow?

General questions in comments, where the High Fall is on the


special finite, the reaction is one of mild surprise but acceptance of
the listener’s premises. It’s more or less equivalent to a surprised
repetition of the listener’s statement, e. g.:
She’s thirty-five. ˋIs she? | (I didn’t know that)

52
Commands with Tone Group 3 show more warmth than with
the previous tone groups, e. g.:
Watch me jump off this wall. ˋDon’t. | (You’ll hurt yourself)

Interjections are more emotional than those with Tone Group


2, e. g.:
Here’s your pen. ˋOh, | ˋthank you. | (I thought I’d
lost it.)
You’ve passed your exam. What ֽֽwonderful ˋnews! | (It’s
almost incredible.)

Tune I
HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
'Do you ֹknow 'Basil "Fish? ˋNo. (I ˋdon’t.)
ֽֽWhy didn’t you ˋbuy the ֽpicture? ˋMuch too exֽpensive.
I ֽֽsaw the ˋQueen "yesterday. ˋWhere?
'Let’s ֹpaint 'one of the 'walls ˋpink. ˋWhich of them, do you
ֽthink?
You’re ֽֽtoo ˋlate. ˋAm I?
'John’s gener'osity is aˋmazing. ˋIs it generֽosity do you
ֽthink?

They vcan’t ֽgo | ˋafter ֽall. ˋPity, | ˋisn’t it?


'May I 'borrow this "pen? ˋYes, | ˋdo.
I ˋlove ֽֽsalted "almonds. ˋTake a ֽcouple of
ֽhandfuls.
The ֽֽpaper’s too ֽֽbig for the ˋFold it, ֽthen, you
ˋenvelope.ֽ helpless ֽman.

'Will you ֹhave a "drink? ˋThank you. | (I’d ˋlove


one.)
Have you 'taken 'over your ˋHeavens ֽyes! | ˋAges
ֹnew "house? aֽgo!

Tune II

53
LOW PRE-HEAD + HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
'What did you 'think of the ˎshow? It was ˋwonderful.
You ↘can’t eat all vthat. Oh but I ˋcan. I’m
ˋstarving.
You 'must ˎdo it. But ˋhow?
I know 'all aˎbout it. But how ˋcan you ֽknow?
They ˋboth ֽpassed the eֽxam. Oh ˋdid they?
We’ll ˋnever be ֽֽready by "Monday. Shall we postˋpone the
ֽmeeting, ֽthen?
ֹPat’s being 'very ˎobstinate. Then ˋyou be ֽob-
stinate, |
ˋtoo.
'May I 'use your "phone? By ˋall ֽmeans.
I 'owe you an aˋpology. I should ˋthink so,
inֽdeed!

Tune III
(LOW PRE-HEAD +) LOW HEAD + HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
'Peter ֹcame ˋearly. Well ֽֽso did ˋI.
ֽֽWhy didn’t you ˋsay you’d ֽwon? I ֽֽdidn’t ֽֽknow I ˋhad. |
as surֽֽprised as ˋyou ֽare. I’m ֽֽ just
I 'told him he was a ˎfool. ֽֽWhat did you ֽֽsay
ˋthat ֽfor?
I’m 'going to ˋemigrate. ֽֽWhen did you deֽֽcide
to do ˋthat?

I doubt whether David will
v
ֽֽIs it ֽֽfair to exˋpect him
subֽscribe. ֽto?
You’re ֽֽnot very ˋgood at it, | Have I ֽֽever preֽֽtended
ˋare you? ˋotherwise?
He paid 'five ˋthousand for It’s ֽֽabsoֽֽlutely riˋdiculous, |
ֽֽthat "house. (ˋisn’t it?)
I ↘don’t want to go avlone. ֽֽCome aֽֽlong with ˋus, ֽthen.
I’ve 'lost my inviˋtation. Well ֽֽwrite and ֽֽask them to

54
ֽֽsend you aˋnother one.
ˋLook. It ˋworks. ֽֽSo it ˋdoes. | How ֽֽvery ˋodd!
You’re a 'bit ˋgrumpy to"day. ֽֽNot in the ˋleast!

55
LESSON 8

Types of Heads

A head begging on a high pitch and then gradually descend-


ing in level pitches on the stressed syllables of the utterance, is
called a stepping head:
It’s 'much too 'late to have 'any re'grets ˎnow.

Stepping head

The unstressed syllables which occur between the stressed syl-


lables of a stepping head are pronounced on the pitch of the
stressed syllable which precedes them.
Gradually descending scale of level pitches on the stressed syl-
lables is a typical feature of English intonation.
The unstressed syllables may gradually descend in pitch too.
In that case the head may be called a falling head and the tono-
gram will be as follows:

J.D. O’Connor and G.F. Arnold in “Intonation of Colloquial


English” establish a new type of head in which both stressed and
unstressed syllables are said on the same high pitch. They call it a
high head:
I 'thought we 'ought to 'have a ˎtalk.

High head

A head beginning on a low pitch and remaining there is called


a low head:

56
It’s ֽno ֽgood aֽpologizing "now.

Low head

ֽHow did you ֽmanage to ֽdo ˋthat?

Low head

The stressed syllables may gradually rise towards the high-


falling nucleus. In that case the head is called a rising head and
the tonogram will be as follows:
ֽHow did you ֽmanage to ֽdo ˋthat?

Rising head

If the head presents a fall in pitch that is not so gradual as in


the stepping head but rather “jumpy”, we get what is called the
sliding head. In that case the stressed syllables of the head are
marked with the symbol [↘]:
(a) I ↘knew you ↘hadn’t vfinished it.

Sliding head

57
(b) You could at ↘least vtry.

Head
(c) I doubt whether I can give an ↘answer by vthen.
↘ ↘

Head

As can be observed in the tonograms, the effect of “jumping”


is achieved either by considerably lowering the pith inside the
stressed syllables of the head (if there are no intermediate un-
stressed syllables as in the example b), or by pronouncing the in-
termediate unstressed syllables at a much lower pitch than the
preceding stressed syllable (see the examples a and c).

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.

[z]

1. As you please. [xz ju· "plJz] Как вам угодно.

58
2. Deeds not words. [vdJdz nOt ˋwWdz] Важны дела, а не
слова.
3. Heads or tails? ['hedz q ˋteIlz] Орел или решка?
4. What James says goes. [wOt ֽGeImz "sez ˋgquz] Джеймс
слов на ветер не бросает.
5. Easy does it. [ˋJzI "dAz It] Тише едешь, дальше будешь.
6. It is miles easier. [It Iz ˋmaIlz "JzIq] Это в тысячу раз легче.
7. His fingers are all thumbs. [hIz 'fINgqz qr 'Ll ˋTAmz] У него
все валится из рук.
8. My reasons are as follows. [maI 'rJznz qr qz "fOlquz] Вот мои
причины.
9. There is no reason to suppose. [Dqr Iz 'nqu ˋrJzn tq sq"pquz]
Нет основания полагать так.
10. As sure as eggs is eggs. [qz 'Suqr qz 'egz Iz ˋegz] Как пить
дать. (Как дважды два четыре.)
11. Rose always dramatizes things. ['rquz ˎLlwqz ֽdrxmqtaIzIz
ֽTINz] Роза всегда сгущает краски.
12. Charles is as safe as houses. ['CRlz Iz qz 'seIf qz ˋhauzIz]
Чарльз – очень надежный человек.
13. Everybody’s business is nobody’s business. [ˋevrIbqdIz
"bIznIs Iz ˋnqubqdIz ֽbIznIs] У семи нянек дитя без глазу.
14. Is it as easy as that? ['Iz It qz 'JzI qz vDxt] Неужели это так
легко?
15. These stories are as old as the hills. ['DJz 'stLrIz qr qz 'quld qz
Dq ˋhIlz] Эти россказни стары, как мир.
16. What size shoes does Susan wear? ['wOt ֹsaIz ˋSHz dqz ֽsjHzn
ֽweq] Какой размер туфель носит Сузан?
17. It is as plain as the nose on your face. [It Iz qz 'pleIn qz Dq
'neuz On jO· ˋfeIs] Это совершенно ясно.
18. Asses as well as pitchers have ears. ['xsIz qz ֹwel qz "pICqz
hxv ˋIqz] Глупцы и дети могут услышать и понять то, что не
предназначено для их ушей.
19. One man’s meat is another man’s poison. ['wAn ֹmxnz "mJt
Iz qvnADq ֹmxnz ˋpOIzn] Что полезно одному, то другому

59
вредно.
20. A man is judged by his foes as well as by his friends. [q
'mxn Iz 'GAGd baI hIz ˋfquz qz ֽwel qz baI hIz "frends] О человеке
судят по его врагам и по его друзьям.

1. The Rose Family


by Robert Frost
The rose is a rose,
And was always a rose,
But the apple’s a rose,
And the pear is, and so’s
The plum, I suppose.

The dear only knows


What will next prove a rose –
But were always a rose.

2. Polly
by William Brightly Rands

Brown eyes, straight nose Catching flies on the pane;


Dirt pies, rumpled clothes. Deep sighs – cause not plain;
Torn books, spoilt toys;
Arch looks, unlike a boy’s; Bribing you with kisses
For a few farthing blisses
Little rages, obvious arts; New shoes, new frock;
(Three her age is), cakes, Vague views of what’s
tarts; o’clock.

Falling down off chairs; Bed gown white, kiss Dolly;


Breaking crown down stairs; Good night! – that’s Polly.

3. The Deep Clear Eyes


by Walter de la Mare

60
Two deep clear eyes, Ears bid eyes
Two ears, a mouth, a nose, Mark:
Ten supple fingers, Mouth bids nose
And ten nimble toes, Smell:
Two hands, two feet, two Nose says to mouth,
arms, two legs. I will:
And a heart through which Heart bids mind
Love’s blessing flows. Wonder:
Eyes bid ears Mind bids heart
Hark: Ponder.

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 31 “Surprises in the post office”

Mrs. Smith: This parcel smells, Mrs. Jones.


Mrs. Jones: Something's written on it.
Mrs. Smith: What does it say?
Mrs. Jones : It says: This parcel contains six mice.
Mrs. Smith: Pooh!
Mrs. Jones: Listen! What's in this sack?
Mrs. Smith: It's making a strange hissing noise.
Sack (hisses): Ssssssssssssss
Mrs. Jones: Mrs. Smith, It's a sack of snakes!
Mrs. Smith: So it is! And what's in this box, Mrs. Jones?
Mrs. Jones: It's making a buzzing sound.
Box (buzzes): Zzzzzzzzzzzzzzz
Mrs. Smith: These are bees! A parcel of mice! And a sack of
snakes! And a box of bees! This is very surprising!
Mrs. Jones: It's amazing! This isn't a post office, Mrs. Smith!
It's a zoo!

“Stories for reproduction” Text 5

Timothy was ten years old. He was not a very good pupil, and
he did not like having to do homework, because he preferred to
do other things in his free time. Frequently he did not do his
homework, and when he did do it, he always made a lot of mis-
takes.
Then one day, his mathematics teacher looked at Timothy's
homework and saw that he had got all his sums right. He was

61
very pleased—and rather surprised. He called Timothy to his
desk and said to him, “You got all your homework right this time,
Timothy. What happened? Did your father help you?”
Usually Timothy's father did help him with his homework, but
the evening before this, he had not been able to, because he had
not been at home, so Timothy answered, “No, sir. He was busy
last night, so I had to do it all myself.”

T. Moore “Those Evening Bells”

Those evening bells! Those evening bells!


How many a tale their music tells,
Of youth and home and that sweet time
When last I heard their soothing chime.

Those joyous hours are past away;


And many a heart, that then was gay,
Within the tomb now darkly dwells,
And hears no more those evening bells.

And so’t will be when I am gone;


That tuneful peal will still ring on,
While other bards shall walk these dells,
And sing your praise, sweet evening bells!

62
LESSON 9

Types of Pre-Heads

A low pre-head consists of unstressed syllables pronounced at


a low pitch, or gradually ascending in pitch towards the head or
the nucleus:

But you’ll be 'home in 'time for ´dinner?

Pre-head
or

The low pre-head is used so frequently that it may be considered as


normal.
A high pre-head consists of unstressed syllables pronounced
on a high pitch:

¯How ˎcan you be so ֽobstinate?

Pre-head

Do it yourself then.

63
Pre-head

A high pre-head gives to the utterance an extremely emotional


character and may be regarded as a feature of emphatic speech.

Articulation of the consonants [S] [Z]

The consonants [S], [Z] are articulated with the tip and blade
of the tongue and the front of the tongue simultaneously raised. A
flat narrowing is formed by the tip and blade of the tongue held
close to the back of the alveolar ridge for primary articulation and
by the front of the tongue raised in the direction of the hard palate
for tongue-front co-articulation which slightly palatalizes the con-
sonants. The air passes through the narrowing with friction. The
lips are rounded and slightly protruded.
In pronouncing [S] the vocal cords are kept apart and do not
vibrate, whereas in the production of [Z] they are drawn near to-
gether and vibrate.
Thus [S], [Z] may be defined as constrictive noise fricative with
tongue-front co-articulation forelingual apical palato-alveolar conso-
nants pronounced with a flat narrowing. The consonant [S] is
voiceless-fortis, the consonant [Z] is voiced-lenis.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[S]

sheep fish ocean


shoe wash revolution
show bush social
shy hush vacation
ship dash pension
shop wish Russia

1. Shoo, shoo! [ˋSH ˋSH] Брысь! Пошел вон!


2. She’s an accomplished musician. [Si·z qn q'kOmplISt
mjHˋzISn] Она превосходный музыкант.
3. Stop shouting and pushing, Shirley. ['stop 'SautIN qnd vpuSIN
SWlI] Не кричи и не толкайся, Шерли.

64
4. Why should she be so sure? [ֽwaI Sqd Si ֽbJ squ ˋSuq] Откуда
у нее такая уверенность?
5. Ashley is a shy fish. ['xSlI Iz q ˋSaI ֽfIS] Эшли застенчив.
6. She was shaking in her shoes. [Si wqz 'SeIkIN In hq ˋSHz]
Она дрожала от страха.
7. Why shouldn’t she share with me? [¯waI ˋSudnt Si· "SFq
wID mi·] Почему бы мне не поделиться с ней (тем, что я
имею)?
8. Shut up shop. [ˋSAt Ap "SOp] Кончайте работу.
9. I sure with she were here. [aI ˋSuq ˋwIS Si wq vhIq] Я бы,
конечно, хотела, чтобы она была здесь.
10. All’s in shipshape and Bristol fashion. ['Llz In 'SipSeIp qnd
'brIstl ˋfxSn] Все в полнейшем порядке.
11. I wish Marcia were not so shilly-shally. [aI ˋwIS mRSq wq
ˋnOt vsqu vSilIֹSxlI] Как жалко, что Марсия так нерешительна.
12. I shun shilling shockers. [aI ˋSAn ֽSIlIN ֽSOkqz] Я не читаю
бульварных романов.
13. Wishes don’t wash dishes. ['wISIz 'dqunt 'wOS ˋdISIz] Если
бы да кабы во рту росли грибы.
14. She made a sufficient impression on Sherry. [Si· ֽmeId q
sq'fISqnt ImˋpreSn On ֽSerI] Она произвела впечатление на
Шерри.
15. Shirl made a substantial contribution. ['SWl meId q
sqbˋstxnSl kOntrI"bjHSn] Шерл внесла значительный вклад.
16. Sherlock surely furnishes a pattern for imitation. ['SWlOk
ˋSuqlI ֽfWnISIz q 'pxtn fqr ImIvteISn] Шерлок, безусловно,
является образцом для подражания.
17. Sherwood is on a fishing expedition. ['SWwud Iz On q
ˋfISIN ֽekspI ֽdISn] Шервуд зондирует почву.
18. She shouldn’t like to make any rash speculations. [Si 'Sudnt
laIk tq 'meIk ֹenI ˋrxS spekju"leISnz] Она не хотела бы делать
поспешные предположения.
19. Friendship in trouble – friendship sure. ['frendSIp In "trAbl
'frendSIp ˎSuq] Дружба в беде – истинная дружба.
1. Rules and Regulations

65
By Edgar Lear

A short direction In adaptation


To avoid dejection, To your station,
By variations By invitations,
In occupations, To friends and relations,
And prolongation By evitation
Of relaxation, Of amputation,
and combinations By permutation
of recreations, In conversation,
And disputation And deep reflection
On the state of nation You’ll avoid dejection.

________________
Moral: Behave.

2. Greetings
by Joe Wallace

I wish you health but not with wealth


I wish you work and worry
I wish you what I wish myself,
A share in man’s sad story.

I wish you, on that next-door day


We coax the world to spin our way
A share in all its glory.

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 32 “A Special Washing Machine”

Mrs. Marsh: Does this shop sell washing machines?


Mr. Shaw: Yes. This is the newest washing machine, madam.
Mrs. Marsh: Is it Swedish?
Mr. Shaw: No, madam. It’s English.
Mrs. Marsh: Please, show me how it washes.
Mr. Shaw: Shall I give you a demonstration? Here are some
sheets and shirts. You put them in the machine. You shut the
door. And you push this button.

66
Mrs. Marsh: The machine shouldn't shake like that, should it?
Mr. Shaw: Washing machines always shake, madam. Ah! It's
finished now.
Mrs. Marsh: But the sheets have shrunk, and so have the
shirts.
Mr. Shaw: Do you wish to buy this machine, madam?
Mrs. Marsh: I'm not sure.

“Nothing to complain about”

An in'telligent 'small 'boy was ac↑costed on a 'bus by a ↑well


'meaning but ↑fatuous ˎpassenger, with the ֽquestion:
“And 'how old are ˋyou?”
“I’m ˎfour”, re ֽplied the ֽchild ֽtersely.
“I 'wish ˋI were "four”, observed the 'passenger in'gratiatingly.
He was con'siderably 'taken aˋback, how"ever,│ when the
v
child, │turning a 'candid and ↑rather sur'prised ˋgaze u"pon
him, │ re'plied with 'calm 'practi"cality:
“But you ˋwere ֽfour "once!”

67
LESSON 10

Types of Tails

A low tail is one in which everything that comes after a fall-


ing-tone nucleus is pronounced at a low pitch:

(a) 'I know ˋnothing about it.

Tail
(b) I ֽtried ˋboth ֽmethods│ but I ֽfound ˋneither to be ֽsatis ֽfac-
tory.

Tail Tail
A rising tail occurs when all the syllables that come after a ris-
ing-tone nucleus gradually rise in pitch. The word carrying the
syntagmatic stress is very low pitched in the case of a low rise, or
is pronounced in the middle of the voice-range in the case of a
high rise. Thus, strictly speaking, it is the tail that is responsible
for the rising effect.
a) I 'promise I 'won’t "tell anyone.

Tail
b) 'When’s the 'best 'time to "catch him, do you suppose?

Tail

68
c) Oh, I’m ˋhopeless at "that sort of 'thing.

Tail
d) 'How ´old, did you 'say?

Tail
As can be seen from the above examples, the tail may contain
not only unstressed, but stressed syllables as well. The stressed
syllables of the tail, however, have a weaker stress that the
stressed syllables of the head.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[Z]

measure vision mirage


pleasure decision garage
treasure confusion rouge
leisure invasion genre

1. Measure for measure. ['meZq fq ˎmeZq] Мера за меру.


2. Eat at pleasure, drink with measure. ['Jt qt "pleZq 'drINk wID
ˋmeZq] Ешь вволю, пей в меру.
3. She wears Parisian rouge. [Si 'wFqz pq'rIZjqn ˋrHZ] У нее
парижская косметика.
4. A mirage is an illusion. [q mIvrRZ Iz qn IˋlHZn] Мираж –
это оптический обман.
5. Your casual allusion caused confusion. [jO· 'kxZuql q"lHZn
'kLzd kqnˎfjHZn] Твой случайный намек вызвал
замешательство.

69
6. It’s a pleasurable occasion. [Its q 'pleZqrqbl qˋkqIZn] Это
приятное событие.
7. His persuasion is unusual. [hIz pq'sweIZn Iz 'AnˋjHZwql] Он
мастер убеждать.
8. His pleasure and joy knew no measure. [hIz 'pleZqr qnd 'GOI
njH 'nqu ˋmeZq] Его удовольствию и радости не было границ.
9. I don’t usually see visions. [aI 'dqunt ˋjHZwqlI sJ "vIZnz] Я
не страдаю галлюцинациями.
10. The confusion of [Z] and [S] is usual. [Dq kqn'fjHZn qv '[Z]
qnd "[S] Iz ˋjHZwql] Смешение звуков [Z] и [S] происходит
часто.
11. Conversation is a pleasure, but it wants leisure.
[ֽkOnvq'seISn Iz q ˎpleZq bqt It 'wOnts ˋleZq] Беседа –
удовольствие, но она требует досуга.
12. She watches television usually, not occasionally. [Si· 'wOCIz
'telIvIZn ˋjHZwqlI nOt qvkeIZnqlI] Она смотрит телевизор
регулярно, а не от случая к случаю.
13. After much persuasion he took a decision. ['Rftq mAC
pq"sweIZn hi· 'tuk q dIˋsIZn] После долгих убеждений он
принял решение.
14. He has an unusual vision of a point. [hi· hxz qn AnˋjHZwql
ֽvIZn qv e ˎpOInt] Он необыкновенно легко схватывает суть
дела.

1. On the Sands
by Alfred H. Miles

Digging for treasure? With never a measure


Nay, not a bit of it! For labour pay.
Digging for pleasure? Digging for pleasure
Aye, there’s the wit of it! We surely earn
Digging for treasure A spadeful of treasure
We dig all day At every turn.

2. When a Man’s Busy


by Robert Browning

70
When a man’s busy, why, leisure
Strikes him as wonderful pleasure:
‘Faith, and at leisure once is he,
Straightaway he wants to be busy.

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 33 “Television Programmes: Channel 0”

7.00. Children's film: "Treasure Island".


7.15. News comment: An Unusual Collision.
7.30. Fashion Casual Clothes.
7.45. Travel film: Across Asia in a Peugeot.
8.15. Do-it-yourself: How to Measure a New Garage.
8.30. Variety show: It's a pleasure.

“Stories for reproduction” Text 6

Two sailors who had just finished a long voyage went home to
their village and decided to have a few drinks in the bar there.
When they had had enough, they came out into the street to look
for something amusing to do, but it was a very quiet place, and
nothing interesting ever happened there, so they could not find
anything.
But at last, while they were standing in the market-place out-
side the bar, they saw a village boy coming slowly towards them.
He was leading a donkey by a rope, so the sailors decided that
they would have a joke with him.
“Hullo,” one of the sailors said to the boy. “Why does your
brother have to have a rope round his neck when he goes for a
walk with you?”
“To stop him joining the navy,” the boy answered at once.

Tone group 4

This tone group retains the lightness, the airiness and the affect

71
of personal participation in the situation, characteristic of the
High Falling nuclear tone, e. g.:
What time is it? It’s 'half ֹ past ˋtwelve.|
I 'didn’t 'realize how ˋlate it ֽwas.

This way of putting special questions avoids the coldness of


Tone Group 2 and the surprise of Tone Group 3. It is perfectly
brisk and businesslike and is a very common way of asking these
questions, e. g.:
'What’s the ˋtime?
'Where on 'earth have you ˋbeen ֽall this ֽtime?

General questions are put for discussion, or as the key ques-


tion in the discussion, e. g.:
John says he has an alibi. 'Can he ˋprove it?
Shall we take Frank into your confidence? 'Dare we ˋrisk it?

Such commands seem to suggest a course of action to the lis-


tener, without the surprise of Tone Group 3 and without the calm
demand for action of Tone Group 2. e. g.:
This tea’s too hot. 'Put some ֹ more ˋmilk in it.

Interjections express here mild surprise, e. g.:


I must stay and do some work. How 'very ˋnoble of you!

Tune I
(LOW PER-HEAD +) STEPPING HEAD + HIGH FALL ( +
TAIL)
'What’s the ˎtime, ֽplease? I 'don’t ˋknow. | I sup'pose it’s
a ֹbout ˋtwelve.
ˎHere. 'Use ˎmy pen. 'Thank you ֹvery ˋmuch. | 'Mine
ֹ seems to be 'out of ˋink.
I’ve 'just ֹseen that 'new ˋmusical. 'What’s it ˋcalled?
'Under ֹ neath the ˋArches. 'What did you ˋthink of it?
"What was ֹthat you ֹsaid? 'Where did you 'go for
your 'summer ˋholiday?
72
'John says he ֹhas an ˋalibi. 'Can he ˋprove it?
I can’t "help being ֹright, | "can I? But must you 'always 'be
so ˋsmug aֽbout it?
It’s 'not so ˋbright "now, | ˋis it? It 'looks as if it’s 'going to
ˋrain, | (ˋdoesn’t it?)
I ֹcan’t think 'what to ˎsay. ֹDon’t say 'anything at
ˋall. | ֹLeave it en'tirely to
ˋme.
'What shall I 'do with ˋthis? 'Put it in the ֹwaste ˋpaper
ֽbasket.
We’ll 'go there on ˎFriday. The 'sooner the ˋbetter!
I was ˋsorry to have to A 'fine 'friend you ֽֽvote
a"gainst you. ˋturned ֽout to ֽbe!

Tune II
(LOW PRE-HEAD +) HIGH FALL(S) + HIGH FALL (+ TAIL)
'What was the 'party ˋlike? The ˋfood was ˋterrible,
I’m ֽsorry to ֽsay.
He ֹsaid he knew 'nothing aˎbout it. But I ˋtold him myˋself.
Oh I ↘know he ֹcouldn’t vhelp it. Then ˋwhy are you
soˋangry ֽwith him?
I ˋfound your book in the ˋgreenhouse. How on ˋearth did you
get ˋthere?
I bumped into ˋAlice "yesterday. Did you ˋnotice how
ˋthin she’s beֽcome?
v
That’s not ֽvery conֽvincing. Well can ˋyou think of a
ˋbetter ֽargument?
Have you 'heard about "Alex? ˋIsn’t it inˋcredible!
Of ˋcourse he’ll aֽgree. ˋDon’t be too ˋsure.
He’s an 'absolute ˎswindler. ˋOh I ˋsay! | For
ˋheaven’s ˋsake.

73
'Here’s a ˋcheque for you. ˋThank you most
ˋawfully!

Tune III
HIGH PRE-HEAD + HIGH FALL ( + TAIL)
¯Was it "easy? ¯Surˋprisingly ֽso.
It’s ↘no use ֹasking vPhilip. ¯Well ˋwho, ֽthen?
Well it vlooks like ֽmine. ¯But ˋis it ֽyours, in ֽfact?
'Shall I 'ask him to "tea? ¯By ˋall means ֽask him.
'Looking for ´me, ֹTerry? ¯Oh ˋthere you ֽare, ֽPeter.

74
LESSON 11

The main English intonation contours

It is easy to see that combinations of nuclei, heads, pre-heads


and tails lead to a great variety of melodic patterns in English in-
tonation. In teaching English intonation it is certainly desirable to
represent the melodic structure of the language as a simple sys-
tem of patterns based upon the most important linguistic func-
tions of intonation. Since the most significant component of into-
nation is speech melody, and the most important word of and ut-
terance is made prominent by one of the special tones typical of
the language, it is natural to systematize the melodic patterns ac-
cording to these special tones. Thus, the great variety of possible
patterns can be reduced to six intonation contours, based on the
six main tones used in the nuclei. These tones, when combined
with different heads, tails and pre-heads, give rise to a few signi-
ficative variants of the intonation contour.
The abbreviation IC stands for “intonation contour” in all the
explanations given below.
IC 1 is based on a low fall in the nucleus. The low fall is pre-
ceded by the stepping head. The pre-head, if there is any, may be
low or high. The tail is always low-pitched.

Examples of IC 1:
a) The e'xams are 'over at ˎlast.

b) 'Isn’t it ˎwonderful!

c) ¯That ˎis ֽgood of you.

There is an important variant of IC 1 with a low head or no


75
head; if there is a pre-head, it is low, too; the tail is low-pitched.

Examples of IC 1a:
a) ˎYes.

b) ֽWhy ˎnot?

c) I’ve ֽlost my ˎappetite.

IC 2 is based on a low rise in the nucleus. The low rise is pre-


ceded by the stepping head. The pre-head may be high or low.
The tail rises gradually to a medium pitch.

Examples of IC 2:
a) It 'doesn’t "matter.

b) Do you 'know when the 'Festival "ends?

c) ¯What do you "want it 'for?

There is an important variant of IC 2 with a low head or


no head. The pre-head, if there is any, is low, too. If there is a tail,
it rises gradually to a medium pitch.
76
Examples of IC 2a:
a) "Yes.

b) "Certainly.

c) You could en"quire.

d) ֽWhat’s she ֽgoing to "do about it?

IC 3 is based on a high fall for its nucleus. The high fall is


preceded by the stepping head. The pre-head, if there is any, may
be low or high. The tail is always low-pitched:

Examples of IC 3:
a) 'Very ˋwell.

b) It’s 'not as 'far as you iˋmagine.

c) ¯ It just ˋcan’t be ֽtrue.

77
d) I could ˋhardly beˋlieve my ˋeyes. (High fall may occur
more than once in one and the same sense-group.)

There is an important variant of IC 3 with a low head or no


head; if there is a pre-head, it is low, too. The tail is low-pitched:

Examples of IC 3a:
a) Eˋxactly.

b) I ֽthought they were ֽall ˋgone.

IC 4 has a high rise for its nucleus.


The other components of the melodic contour, if there are
any, are: stepping head, low pre-head and rising tail.

Examples of IC 4:
a) ´Yes?

b) ´Interesting?

c) Oughtn’t ´I to have been con'sulted?

78
d) 'Mix it with 'half a 'pound of ´sugar?

IC 5 has a fall-rise for its nucleus. The fall-rise may be pre-


ceded by a low pre-head and a sliding or stepping head. The tail
gradually rises towards a medium pitch. The nucleus often con-
sists of one word, so that the fall-rise may be called undivided:

In those cases where the rise includes other words besides


the one that carries the fall, these words are either unstressed or
weakly stressed:

or

Examples of IC 5:
a) vPlease.

b) It’s unvlikely.

c) You could avpologize.

79
d) He ↘hasn’t ↘definitely revfused.

e) v
Watch it!

An important variant of IC 5 is represented by the fall-rise that


extends over at least two and often many words. The fall is al-
ways high and makes one of the initial words very prominent.
The low rise usually occurs near the end of the sense-group and
gives prominence to a second word that semantically stands next
in importance to the word carrying the high fall. There may be
stressed and unstressed words between the high fall and the low
rise, but they should be pronounced on a low pitch. This variant
of IC 5 may be described as fall-rise divided:

The high fall of this contour may be preceded by a stepping


head, low head, sliding head, and low pre-head. The low rise at
the end of the sense-group reaches the medium pitch.

Examples of IC 5a:
a) ˋCheer "up.

b) Per'haps it would be 'better to 'stay at ˋhome, in "that 'case.

c) ֽEven the ˋbest of us make misֽtakes "sometimes.

80
IC 6 has a rise-fall for its nucleus. If there is a head, it is
usually stepping. The pre-head is usually of the low type. The tail
is low-pitched.

Examples of IC 6:
a) ^Yes.

b) It was 'not like 'that at ^all.

c) I 'simply ^hated it.

or

The general shape of an intonation contour is in most cases


clear enough from the pitches of the stressed syllables of the ut-
terance, among which the nucleus is the most important one.
Therefore, the main intonation contours with their variants are
sufficient to represent the intonation of ordinary English speech
and may be conveniently represented by the following graphic
symbols:

IC 1 (stepping head + low fall)

IC 1a (low head + low fall)

81
IC 2 (stepping head + low rise)

IC 2a (low head + low rise)

IC 3 (stepping head + high fall)

IC 3a (low head + high fall)

IC 4 (high rise)

IC 5 (fall-rise undivided)

IC 5a (fall-rise divided)

IC 6 (rise-fall)

The pitch of unstressed syllables, however, is important for the


complete meaning of the utterance; it can express the attitudinal
features and emotional state of the speaker.
In unemphatic speech initial unstressed syllables are always
82
low-pitched and form the low pre-head, e.g. —
We’ve been exˎpecting them.

Intermediate unstressed syllables which aid in forming a grad-


ually descending scale are pronounced on the same pitch as the
preceding stressed syllables (stepping head) or may gradually de-
scend in pitch (falling head).
'What are you 'going to ˎdo about it?

Final unstressed syllables forming the tail of the utterance are


always low-pitched when they follow a falling nuclear tone, and
always gradually rise in the case of a rising pattern. In the latter
case the nuclear syllable is pronounced on the lowest level pitch.
Compare:
It was ˎyesterday.

'Are you 'quite "sure?

'Are you 'quite "sure of it?

In emphatic speech initial unstressed syllables are sometimes


very high-pitched, particularly in colloquial English, and form the
high pre-head.

83
Intermediate unstressed syllables are often much lower-
pitched than the preceding stressed syllable, and form the sliding
head.
Final unstressed syllables are treated in the same way as in un-
emphatic speech.

Articulation of the consonants [C] [G]

The consonants [C], [G]. The two English affricative conso-


nants[C], [G] are articulated with the tip and blade of the tongue
raised to touch the back part of the alveolar ridge. Then contact is
made so as to block the air-passage through the mouth cavity for
a short time. Then the front of the tongue is raised in the direction
of the hard palate, and the tip of the tongue is slowly removed
from the alveolar ridge, forming a flat narrowing through which
the air passes with friction. Thus in the production of[C], [G] their
primary articulation is accompanied by tongue-front co-articula-
tion, slightly palatalizing these sounds. In the production of[C]
the vocal cords are kept apart and do not vibrate, whereas in the
production of [G] they are drawn near together and vibrate.
Thus[C], [G] may be defined as occlusive noise affricative with
tongue-front co-articulation fore- and mediolingual apical palato-alveo-
lar consonants.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[C]
cheek future watch reached
chart culture fetch lunched
child nature lunch fetched
choice orchard catch watch chain
chill lecture ditch Dutch cheese
chubby mixture much catch Charles

1. Which is which? ['wIC Iz ˋwIC] Кто здесь кто? (Просьба


назвать имена.)
2. Reach me the matches. ['rJC mi· Dq vmxCIz] Передайте мне
спички.

84
3. What a charming child! [wOt q 'CRmIN ˋCaIld] Какой
прелестный ребенок!
4. Don’t catch a chill. [ֽdqunt kxC q "CIl] Не простудись.
5. I watched and saw two chicks hatched. [aI 'wOCt qnd 'sL 'tH
'CIks ˋhxCt] Я видел, как вылупились два цыпленка.
6. Fetch some chalk, Cherry. ['feC sqm vCLk ֹCerI] Принеси
мел, Черри.
7. Such carpenters, such chips. ['sAC "kRpqntqz ֹsAC ˋCIps]
Дело мастера боится.
8. Not much of a catch. [ˋnOt mAC qv q vkxC] Невелика
ценность.
9. Here are two pictures which are a match. ['hIqr q 'tH "pIkCqz
wIC qr q ˋmxC] Вот парные картины.
10. Charlie doesn’t know chalk from cheese. ['CRlI 'dAznt nqu
'CLk frqm ˎCJz] Чарли – круглый невежда.
11. Which is your choice? ['wIC Iz "jL COIs] Что вы
выбираете?
12. Check your watch with the time signal. ['Cek jO· 'wOC wID
Dq ˋtaIm ֽsIgnql] Проверьте часы по сигналу точного времени.
13. Nothing much to choose between them. ['nATIN 'mAC tq
ˋCHz bIt"wJn Dqm] Выбирать тут нечего. (Один другого стоит.)
14. I adore Dutch cheese. [aI qˋdL ֽdAC "CJz] Я очень люблю
голландский сыр.
15. This child’s features are my own. [ˋDIs CaIldz "fJCqz q maI
ˋqun] У этого ребенка мои черты лица.
16. Venture a small fish to catch a great one. [ˋvenCq q ˋsmLl
"fIS tq 'kxC q ˋgreIt ֽwAn] Рискни малым ради большого.
17. Chattie’s wisdom matches her charms. ['CxtIz vwIzdqm ֽmx-
CIz hq ˋCRmz] Чэтти так же умна, как и прелестна.
18. Hatches, catches, matches and dispatches. ["hxCIz "kxCIz
"mxCIz qnd dIsˋpxCIz] Газетные сообщения о рождениях,
обручениях, свадьбах и смерти.
19. The years teach much which the days never know. [Dq 'jWz
'tJC "mAC wIC Dq ˎ"deIz 'nevq ˋnqu] (Emerson) Годы учат тому,
чему не научат дни.

85
1. The Puzzled Centipede
by Ogden Nash

A centipede was happy quite,


Until a frog in fun
Said, “Pray, which leg comes after which,”
This raised her mind to such a pitch,
She lay distracted in the ditch
Considering how to run.

2. Aunts
by Virginia Graham

Children, aunts are not glamorous creatures,


As very often their features
Tend to be elderly caricatures of your own.

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 34 “At the Butcher’s Shop”

Butcher: Good morning, Mrs. Church.


Mrs. Church: Good morning, Mr. Cheshire. I'd like some chops for
the children's lunch.
Butcher: Chump chops or shoulder chops, Mrs. Church?
Mrs. Church: I'll have four shoulder chops, and I want a small
chicken.
Butcher: Would you like to choose a chicken, Mrs. Church?
Mrs. Church: Which one is cheaper?
Butcher: This one's the cheapest. It's a delicious chicken.
Mrs. Church: How much is all that? I haven't got cash. Can I
pay by cheque?
Butcher: Of course, Mrs. Church.

“Cinderella”

'Once upon a vtime│ there 'lived a ↑young ˎgirl│ 'called 'Cin-


deˎrella. She had a ˋstep - "mother│ and 'two ugly ˋstep – sis-

86
ters│ who were ˋvery unˋkind to her. 'One "day│ the 'Prince
in'vited them to a ˋball. The 'ugly ˋsisters "went, │ but 'Cinde-
v
rella│ 'had to 'stay at ˋhome. ↘As she was ↘sitting by the ↘fireside
vcrying, │ her 'fairy vGodmother│ 'suddenly ap'peared beˎfore
her.
The 'fairy 'waved her "wand│ and the vpumpkin│ was 'turned
into a ↑golden "coach, │ 'eight "mice│ became 'eight 'lovely
↑white vhorses│ and some vlizards│ 'changed into ˋcoachmen.
'Cinde'rella’s vrags│ were 'turned into a ↑beautiful ˎdress.
“ˋNow you can ˋgo to the ˋball”, │ said her 'fairy ˎGod-
mother, - “But revmember: │ you 'mustn’t 'stay ↑after ˋmidnight.”
'At the "palace│ 'Cinde'rella was so ↘happy ↘dancing with the
v Prince│ that she for'got all a↑bout the ˆtime, │ and 'so she 'heard
the 'clock ↑strike ˎtwelve. 'As she 'ran a"way│ she ˋlost one of her
'little 'glass ˎslippers. The ↘Prince was de↘termined to ˋfind her
a"gain; │ so he 'made the 'procla'mation that she would vmarry
who'ever could 'wear the ˋslipper. It was ↘soon disvcovered that
the vslipper│ would 'fit ˋnobody but 'Cindeˎrella. So the 'Prince
ˎmarried│ her and they 'lived ↑happily 'ever ˎafter.

87
LESSON 12

English speech melody, its distinctive and attitudinal functions

English speech melody is a highly distinctive part of the lan-


guage. The presence or absence or pitch-movement within a word
is of great importance. Moving or kinetic tones always mark the
semantic centre of the sentence (or sense-group), thus forming the
nucleus of the melodic pattern of the utterance, while the other
stressed words are pronounced on level or static tones.

Examples:
He 'called a 'porter to 'carry his 'bags to a ˎtaxi.

Head – level tones Nucleus –


moving
tone

The main tones form significative oppositions in accordance


with:
a) the direction of the pitch movement – falling/ rising.
Compare:
I ˋoffered it ֽto him. (a statement)

You ´offered it 'to him? (a question)

Compare:
'Come aˎlong! (an order)

88
'Come a"long! (a polite invitation)

b) the range of the pitch movement – low/ high.

Compare:
Don’t! (matter-of- fact, indifferent, phlegmatic)

Don’t! (with warmth and interest, emphatic)

Compare low rise —high rise:


'Ask "questions. (a request)

'Ask ´questions? (an echoed imperative)

c) the simplicity or complexity of the voice-pitch movement —


fall/ fall-rise, rise/ rise-fall.
Compare:
I have 'nothing aˎgainst it. (a categoric statement)

I have ↘nothing avgainst it. (a statement with an implication)

Compare rise —rise-fall:


She ´likes it? (a question)

89
She ^likes it. (a very emphatic statement)

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 35 “George Churchill”

Jerry: Just outside this village there's a very dangerous bridge.


John: Yes. Charles told me two jeeps crashed on it in
January. What happened?
Jerry: Well, George Churchill was the driver of the larger jeep,
and he was driving very dangerously. He's been drinking gin.
John: George Churchill? Do I know George Churchill?
Jerry: Yes, that ginger - haired chap. He's the manager of the
travel agency in Chester.
John: Oh, yes. I remember George. He's always telling jokes.
Well, was anybody injured?
Jerry: Oh, yes. The other jeep went over the edge of the bridge
and two children and mother passenger were badly injured.
John: Where both the jeeps damaged?
Jerry: Oh, yes.
John: And what happened to George?
Jerry: George? He's telling jokes in jail now, I suppose.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
{[G]

joy large agent charged


joke bridge major aged
jar badge pages huge Jack
jam edge a jam large jar
job age page nine stage-conscious
jest barge tell Jack Judge Johnson

1. Just imagine! ['GAst IˋmxGIn] Подумать только!

90
2. Change the subject. ['CeInG Dq ˋsAbGIkt] Измените тему
разговора.
3. Justice’s justice. ['GAstIsIz ˎGAstIs] Шемякин суд.
4. Jim’s just my age. ['GImz ˋGAst maI ֽeIG] Джиму столько
же лет, сколько и мне.
5. Meet John Jones junior. ['mJt 'GOn 'Gqunz ˋGHnjq]
Знакомьтесь, Джон Джоунз младший.
6. June is a prodigy of energy. ['GHn Iz q 'prodIGI qv ˋenqGI] У
Джун неиссякаемая энергия.
7. Jos is a gentleman at large. ['GOz Iz q 'Gentlmqn qt ˎlRG]
Джоз – джентльмен без определенных занятий.
8. I’ll do it just to oblige Joyce. [aIl 'dH It 'GAst tq qb'laIG
ˋGOIs] Я это сделаю ради Джойс.
9. John arranged your journey to Japan. ['GOn q'reInGd jO·
'GWnI tq Gqˋpxn] Джон организовал для вас поездку в Японию.
10. Don’t bear Joan a grudge because she misjudged you.
[ˋdqunt ֽbFq ֽGqun q "grAG bIkOz Si· mIs"GAGd ju·] Не сердись на
Джоун из-за того, что она составила о тебе неправильное
мнение.
11. June marriages lucky. [ˋGHn ֽmxrIGIz ˋlAkI] Июньские
браки счастливые.
12. Don’t jest with edged tools. ['dqunt 'Gest wID 'eGd vtHlz] Не
шутите с огнем.
13. James joined the geography society. ['GeImz 'GOInd Dq
GIˋOgrefI sqֽsaIqtI] Джеймс записался в географический
кружок.
14. Jo, make a margin on the left of the page. [ˋGqu 'meIk q 'mR-
GIn On Dq ˋleft qv Dq ֽpeIG] Джо, оставь поля с левой стороны.
15. Just imagine Jim learning the German language. ['GAst Iֽmx-
GIn ^GIm ֽlWnIN Dq ֽGWmqn ^lxNgwIG] Представь себе Джима,
изучающего немецкий язык.
16. Be just before you are generous. ['bJ ˋGAst bIֽfL ju· q "Gen-
qrqs] Будь справедливым, потом великодушным.
1. Algy Met a Bear
by Edward Lear

91
Algy met a bear,
The bear was bulgy,
The bulge was Algy.

2. Just and Unjust


by Lord Bowen

The rain it raineth on the just


And also on the unjust fella;
But chiefly on the just, because
The unjust steals the just’s umbrella.

“Not so stupid”

A 'man en'gaged in 'lawsuit sug↑gested to his "lawyer that it


'might be a 'good i'dea to ↑send a ˎpresent│ to the 'judge who
was 'going to ˋtry the ֽcase. His 'lawyer 'warned him that the
'judge was ↑quiet incorˎruptible │and that if he 'did ↑any such
"thing│ he would 'only 'prejudice the judge aˋgainst him.
'During the 'trial the ↑lawyer 'noticed that the ↑judge 'seemed
to 'favour his ˋclient, │ in 'whose 'favour 'judgment was e'ventu-
ally ˎgiven. The 'man 'afterwards 'told his "lawyer│ that he had
'sent a ↑rich ˎpresent to the ֽjudge.
“But you ˋcan’t have ֽdone so,” said the ֽlawyer aֽghast.
“^Oh yes I ^did,” │ reֽplied the "man, │ “but re'membering
your advvice, │ I ֽsent it in opֽponent’s ˋname.”

“Stories for reproduction” Text 7

There was once a large, fat woman who had a small, thin hus-
band. He had a job in a big company and was given his weekly
wages every Friday evening. As soon as he got home on Fridays,
his wife used to make him give her all his money, and then she
used to give him back only enough to buy his lunch in the office
every day.
One day the small man came home very excited. He hurried
into the living-room. His wife was listening to the radio and eat-
92
ing chocolates there.
“You'll never guess what happened to me today, dear,” he
said.
He waited for a few seconds and then added, “I won ten thou-
sand pounds on the lottery!”
“That's wonderful!” said his wife delightedly. But then she
thought for a few seconds and added angrily, “But wait a mo-
ment! How could you afford to buy the ticket?”

93
LESSON 13

The main English intonation contours and their variants

Table

Articulation of the consonants [f], [v]

The consonants [f, v] are articulated with the lower lip raised
to the edge of the upper teeth, forming a flat narrowing. The air
passes through it with friction. In the production of [f] the vocal
cords are kept apart and do not vibrate, whereas in the articula-
tion of [v] they are drawn near together and vibrate.
Thus [f], [v] may be defined as constrictive noise fricative labio-
dental consonants pronounced with a flat narrowing. The consonant
[f] is voiceless-fortis, the consonant [v] is voiced-lenis.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[f]

four off friend


foe life from
far half front
few self afraid
first safe fried
fat rough free
feel enough France

1. Fair enough. [¯fFqr I"nAf] Справедливо.


2. First and foremost. ['fWst qnd ˎfLmqust] Прежде всего.
3. Fill in the form. ['fIl In Dq ˋfLm] Заполните бланк

94
(анкету).
4. I’m afraid Flo is far from well. [aIm q'freId 'flqu Iz 'fR frqm
v
wel] К сожалению, Фло еще плохо себя чувствует.
5. Fan is full of fads and fancies. ['fxn Iz 'ful qv 'fxdz qnd ˋfxn-
sIz] Фэн полна причуд и фантазий.
6. Fred often frets and fumes. ['fred 'Ofn 'frets qnd ˎfjHmz]
Фред часто бушует (рвет и мечет).
7. Frank failed at the first go-off. [frxNk ˋfeIld qt Dq ˋfWst
"gquOf] Фрэнк провалился при первой попытке.
8. Fingers were made before forks. ['fINgqz wq 'meId bIfL
ˋfLks] Пожалуйста, без церемоний.
9. Fortune favours fools. [ˋfLCqn ֽfeIvqz ˋfHlz] Дуракам
счастье.
10. Face front and listen carefully. ['feIs ˋfrAnt qnd 'lIsn ˎk-
FqfqlI] Смотрите на меня и слушайте внимательно.
11. I feel fit as a fiddle. [aI ֽfJl 'fIt qz q ˋfIdl] Я чувствую себя
превосходно.
12. Fight fire with fire. ['faIt 'faIq wID ˋfaIq] Клин клином
вышибают.
13. A fair field and no favour. [q 'fFq "fJld qnd 'nqu ˋfeIvq]
Равные шансы для всех. Игра (борьба) на равных условиях.
14. Floy is neither fish, flesh nor fowl. ['flOI Iz naIDq 'fIS 'fleS
nO· ˋfaul] Флой — ни рыба, ни мясо.
15. A fault confessed is half forgiven. [q 'fLlt kqn"fest Iz 'hRf fqˋ-
gIvn] Повинную голову меч не сечет.
16. Ford came off with flying colours. ['fLd keIm 'Of wID 'flaIIN
ˋkAlqz] Форд одержал блестящую победу.
17. Ferd’s definitely a friendly fellow. ['fWdz 'defInItlI q frendlI
"felqu] Ферд, несомненно, человек дружелюбный.
18. From the frying-pan into the fire. [frqm Dq 'fraIINpxn Intq Dq
ˎfaIq] Из огня да в полымя.
19. Fay felt that for five years she’d been cut off from life. ['feI
'felt Dqt fq 'faIv "jWz SJd bi·n 'kAt ˋOf frqm laIf] Фей чувствовала,
что пять лет была оторвана от жизни.
20. Trifles make perfection, and perfection is no trifle. ['traIflz

95
meIk pqˋfekSn qnd pqvfekSn Iz ˋnqu ֽtraIfl] (Michelangelo) Мелочи
создают совершенство, но совершенство — не мелочь.

1. F is the Fighting Firetruck


by Phyllis McGinley

F is the fighting Firetruck


That’s painted a flaming red.
When the signals blast
It follows fast
When the chief flies on ahead.

And buses pull to the curbing


At the siren’s furious cry,
For early or late
They have to wait
When the Firetruck flashes by.

2. The Sniffle
by Ogden Nash

In spite of her sniffle, But Isabel’s chiffle


Isabel’s chiffle. In spite of her sniffle
Some girls with a sniffle Some girls with a snuffle,
Would be weepy and tiffle, Their tempers are uffle,
They would look awful, But when Isabel’s snivelly
Like a rained-on waffle, She’s perfectly luffly.

3. To a Butterfly
by W. Wordsworth

I’ve watched you now a full half-hour,


Self-poised upon that yellow flower,
And, little butterfly! indeed
I know not if you sleep or feed.
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 36 “At the Photographer’s”

Phillip: I want a photograph of myself and my wife.

96
Photographer: Please fill in this form, sir. Would you prefer a
full front photograph or a profile?
Phillip: A full front, don't you think, Phillippa?
Phillippa: Yes, A full front photograph.
Photographer: Please sit on this sofa. Is it comfortable, Mrs.
Puffin?
Phillippa: Yes. It feels fine.
Photographer: Mr. Puffin, please give a friendly laugh.
Phillip: That's difficult. If you say something funny I can
laugh.
Photographer: And, Mrs. Puffin, please look soft and beauti-
ful.
Phillippa: Is it finished?
Photographer: Yes.
Phillip: Will the photograph be ready for the 1st of February?
Photographer: Yes. Please, phone my office after five days, Mr.
Puffin.

Tone group 5

These statements imply all the definiteness, finality, etc. associ-


ated with the other falling tone group. The speaker is greatly im-
pressed, perhaps awed, e. g.:
Have you heard about Pat? ^Yes! | (Isn’t it scandalous!)

Tone Group 5 is very often used in echoing an immediately


prior remark, in order to show how impressed the speaker is, e.
g.:
She was wearing purple stockings. ^Purple!

The speaker often sounds complacent, self-satisfied, even


smug, e. g.: Is that your last word? I’m a'fraid it ^is.
John’s failed his driving test. I’m 'not sur^prised.

This tone group gives to special questions a note of challenge


and antagonism, e. g.:
You could surely find some money somewhere. (But) ^where?
I know it for a fact. ^How do you ֽknow, (though)?

97
In general questions the speaker accepts what has been said
and is impressed by it, e. g.:
He shot an elephant. ^Did he!
They’ve nowhere to live. ^Haven’t they!

Tone Group 5 with commands is again a matter of shrug-


ging off responsibility, of refusing to be embroiled, e. g.:
Which of these hats shall I buy? 'Please your^self.
Could you help? 'You ֹ fight your ^own ֽbattles.

When the speaker uses Tone Group 5 with interjections he


sounds greatly impressed by something not entirely expected, e. g.:
Sally’s just had triplets. 'My ^goodness!

Tune I
RISE-FALL + TAIL
¯Can you "see? ^Perfectly.
'Is he as 'tall as his "father? ^Taller, ֽeven.
I was very ˋcross with him. ^Naturally. | ^Anyone w
ֽ ould be.

Surely vone of these ֽ ^Which of them, ֽthough?
screws will ֽfit.
I ֽֽfinished ˋwell before ֽtime. ^Clever, | ^aren’t you.
I ˋhate it, | but ֽֽwhat ^Tell them you ֽhate it?
can I ˋdo?
¯Did you "finish your ֹjob? ^Heavens, ֽyes! | ^Ages aֽgo!

Tune II
RISE-FALL ONLY
'Did you 'see any "lions? ^Lots.
¯Is it "cheaper by ֹcoach? ^Much.
^You ֽpay for it. ^How?
Well ^borrow a ֽruler. ^Whose?
'May I 'take this "newspaper? ^Do.
ˋJohn’s got it "now. ^Oh! | ('That’s ^differ-
ent.)

Tune III

98
LOW PRE-HEAD + RISE-FALL (+ TAIL)
¯Can you 'manage it a"lone? I’m ^sure I ֽcan.
I 'thought you 'didn’t ˋlike ֽspinach.
On the ^contrary. | I
^love it.
'Why should ˎyou do the ֽdonkey work? Who ^else is there to
ֽdo it?

I’ll make it soon, | I ˋpromise.
v
Yes but ^how ֽsoon?
You 'ought to a^pologize. Oh ^ought I, inֽdeed?
'Everything’s so ^dear. Aren’t po^tatoes a ֽprice!
'Nobody 'seems at ^all ֽkeen. Well give ^up the iֽdea.

Tune IV
(LOW PRE-HEAD +) STEPPING HEAD + RISE- FALL
(+ TAIL)
'Is he getting "fatter? 'Getting ^fatter! | (He’s ^huge!)
'Did you ֹsave "time? I was 'able to 'do it in ^half the
ֽtime.
I 'don’t ˋlike the ֽman. You’ve 'never 'even ^spoken ֽto
him.
Which one shall I ˋchoose? It’s 'up to ^you. | You must 'make
up your ^own ֽmind.
¯Would "Max have a ֹgame? 'Why not ^ask him?
I’ve 'had this 'pain for ˋdays. 'Why don’t you ^do something
aֽbout it?
'Can we afˋford to ֽbuy it? 'Can we af ֹford ^not to?
'Which one shall I "buy? 'Please your^self.

It’s not much of a ֽcut. Then 'don’t make 'so much ^fuss
v

aֽbout it.
Thank you ˋso "much. 'Not at ^all. | 'Thank ^you.

1. The main English intonation contours with their variants

99
100
LESSON 14

The semantic function of the nucleus

The opposition of falling and rising tones enables the speaker


to convey in his utterance either an impression of finality, com-
pleteness or resoluteness by using one of the falling tones:

Or on the contrary, to convey a feeling of non-finality, incom-


pleteness, hesitation, implication by using one of the rising tones:

Compare:
I 'think you 'ought to aˎpologize. (definite, categoric)
I 'think you 'ought to a"pologize. (hesitant, non-categoric)

The oppositions based on the range of the pitch movement


(low fall/ high fall and low rise/ high rise) serve a different pur-
pose.
High fall adds personal concern, interest and warmth to the
features characteristic of low fall on a purely intellectual level, i.e.
finality, definiteness, etc. The speaker’s attitude towards the situa-
tion and the listener, the emotional side of the utterance is thus
expressed by increasing the range of the falling tone.

Compare:
I 'hear you’ve ˎpassed your exam. (categoric, matter-of-fact)
I 'hear you’ve ˋpassed your exam. (categoric, with interest and
warmth)

The high rise is essentially an interrogatory tone. The feeling


of non-finality and incompleteness, characteristic of low rise, is
brought to its extreme form in high rise, expressing the speaker’s
active searching for intonation. This is obvious in those utterances
where the high rise turns into a question a sentence which is built
grammatically as a statement, e.g.—
101
You ´like it?

While low rise is often used in statements of a non-categoric


type, high rise (when used in final sense-groups) always indicates
interrogation.

Compare:
He’s 'hardly 'hurt at "all. (a reassuring statement)
He’s 'hardly 'hurt at ´all? (an echoed statement = a question)
('Who ˎsays it?)

In echoed utterances of all communicative types, when the


speaker seems to be checking whether he received the informa-
tion correctly before reacting to the other person’s speech, it is
again the high rise that is mostly used.

Examples:
a) An echoed statement — We ֽstart toˋmorrow. — You 'start to
´morrow?
b) An echoed general question — 'Did you en"joy the 'concert? —
'Did I en´joy it?
c) An echoed special question — 'How 'many ˎchildren ֽhas he?
— 'How ´many? (ˋSix, I be"lieve)
d) An echoed order (or request) — ˋTelephone me, ֽthen. —
´Telephone you? (How ˋcan I?)
e) An echoed exclamation — ˋWonderful ֽnews! — ´Wonderful
news? ('Nothing of the ˎkind.)

In general and alternative questions and in non-final sense-


groups of enumerations there seems to be no linguistically impor-
tant juxtaposition of low rise and high rise. The latter makes the
utterance sound somewhat lighter or livelier, and the difference
stops there.
Compare:
General question — 'Did they ´all 'go? │ 'Did they "all 'go?
102
Alternative question — Will you have ´cake│ or ˎpastry? │ Will
you have "cake│ or ˎpastry?
Non-final sense-groups — Has she 'learnt to ´sew, │ and ´cook?
│Has she 'learnt to "sew, │ and "cook? │ Have you 'all got
´knives│ and ´spoons? │Have you 'all have "knives│ and
"spoons?

In complex tones it is the final part that is more informative.


“Fall-rise is an implicatory tone. It always gives the impres-
sion that something has been left unsaid, and that the speaker ex-
pects his listener to imagine the extra meaning” (R. Kingdon)
The exact character of the implication is always deduced from
the concrete situation in which fall-rise is used. There is no need
to use words to express what the fall-rise hints at, because it is
known both to the speaker and to the listener.

Example:
The 'boy is ˎseven. — vNine. (Polite correction. Implication: You
are mistaken.)
Have 'Bob and 'Jane ar"rived? — ˋJane’s "here. (Implication:
But ˋBob "isn’t.)

Sometimes the implication consists in signaling to the listener


that “the speaker hesitates to make his statement too confidently,
and at other times it conveys a warning or an apology.” (R. King-
don)
This tone is used in statement and requests, but hardly ever in
questions.
In some books of English phonetics this tone is described as al-
ways being an emphatic one. R. Kingdon, however, places it side
by side with simple falling and rising tones as belonging to the
main unemphatic tones, each of which can be made emphatic by
means of increasing stress.

Rise-fall implies all the definiteness, finality, etc., associated

103
with the other falling tone contours. It particularly shows that the
speaker is greatly impressed (whether favourably or not). This
tone has an intensifying function very similar to the use of the
word “even”.
You aren’t trying = … even trying.
In teaching English intonation “… it should be remembered
that the attitudinal meaning of an utterances must always be in-
terpreted within a context, both of the situation and also of the
speaker’s personality. It may well happen that an intonation
which is neutral in one set of circumstances might be, for instance,
offensive or patronizing when used by another person or in other
circumstances.” (A. C. Gimson)

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 37 “A Fine View”

Vera: Has your family lived here for very long?


Victor: Five and a half years. We arrived on the first of Febru-
ary.
Vera : What a fine view you have!
Victor: Yes. I love living here.
Vera: Look! You can see the village down in the valley.
Victor: Yes, It's a lovely view.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[v]

vast of never
verse have over
voice love river
vote live heavy
vow move twelve
vex leave lives
van save a very
1. Very clever of Ava. ['verI ˋklevqr qv ֽRvq] Ава умно
поступила.
2. I’ve never heard of Steve. [aIv 'nevq ˋhWd qv "stJv] Я
ничего не знаю о Стиве.
3. Vivie’s vain of her voice. ['vIvIz 'veIn qv hq ˋvOIs] Виви

104
очень гордиться своим голосом.
4. I’ve never lost the love of my job. [aIv ˋnevq lOst Dq ˋlAv qv
maI ˋGOb] Я никогда не переставала любить свою работу.
5. I’ve given Vic the best of advice. [aIv 'gIvn vIk Dq 'best qv
qdˋvaIs] Я дал Виктору прекраснейший совет.
6. They’ve never approved of Val. [DxIv 'nevq qˋprHvd qv ֽvxl]
Они всегда неодобрительно относились к Велу.
7. Mr. Vere’s in the vicinity of seventy-five. [mIstq 'vIqz In Dq
vI'sInItI qv 'sevqntI ˋfaIv] Мистеру Виру лет 75.
8. You’ve been overprotective of Viola. [¯juv bIn 'quvqprqˋtek-
tIv qv ֽvaIqlq] Вы чрезмерно оберегаете Виолу.
9. I’ve never voted. [aIv 'nevq ˋvqutId] Я никогда (еще) не
голосовал.
10. They’ve arrived at five. [DeIv q'raIvd qt ˋfaIv] Они
приехали в 5 часов.
11. Victor’s on active service in the Navy. ['vIktqz On ֹxktIv
'sWvIs In Dq ˎneIvI] Виктор находиться на действительной
службе во флоте.
12. Vesuvius is an active volcano. [vIvsHvjqs Iz qn 'xktIv
vqlˋkeInqu] Везувий — действующий вулкан.
13. Vest is my only surviving relative. ['vest Iz maI 'qunlI
sq'vaIvIN "relqtIv] Вест — мой единственный оставшийся в
живых родственник.
14. I’ve never taken to Viv very much. [aIv 'nevq ֹteIkn tq 'vIv
ֹverI "mAC] Мне Вив никогда особенно не нравилась.
15. I’ve moved heaven and earth. [aIv ֽmHvd 'hevn qnd ˋWT] Я
пустил в ход все.
16. I believe the very reverse is true. [aI bIֽlJv Dq 'verI rIˋvWs Iz
ֽtrH] Я считаю, что все как раз наоборот.
17. I’ve never forgiven Vera. [aIv 'nevq fqˋgIvn ֽvIqrq] Я так и не
простил Веру.
18. Van ought never to have ventured it. ["vxn 'Lt 'nevq tq hqv
ˋvenCqd It] Вен не должен был делать этого (так рисковать).
19. I’ve never given Avy a thought. [aIv 'nevq gIvn 'eIvI q ˎTLt]

105
Я не обращаю ни малейшего внимания.
20. Vivie’s the vaguest creature that ever lived. ['vIvIz Dq
'veIgqst 'krJCq Dqt ֹevq ˎlIvd] Виви невероятно рассеяна.

1. The Tide in the River


by Eleanor Farjeon

The tide in the river,


The tide in the river,
The tide in the river runs deep,
I saw a shiver
Pass over the river
As the tide turned in its sleep.

2. To my Grammatical Niece
by W. R. Spencer

The Nom’native Case which I study’s —“A Niece”


Who is Genitive ever of kindness to me:
When I am sad, she’s so Dative of comfort and
peace,
That I scarce against fate can Accusative be!
O Friendship (this Vocative most I prefer),
Makes my case always Ablative —“by and with
her”.
Your Mother’s a Verb from Anomaly free,
Though Indicative always of learning and sense,
In all of her moods she’s Potential o’er me,
And the Perfect is still her invariable Tense!
Though Passive in temper, most Active in spirit,
And we are Deponents —who swear to her merit!

“Too great a majority”

'George Bernard 'Shaw’s 'gift of ready "wit│ is 'well 'illustrated


by the 'story of how he 'turned the 'laugh against a ↑member of
the 'public who was ex↑pressing 'disap'proval of ↑one of his
ˎplays.

106
It was the 'first 'night of “↑Arms and the ˎMan”, │ a 'play
which had an en'thusiastic re'ception from a ↑crowded ˎhouse.
When the 'curtain 'fell at the ↑end of the 'last "act │ there was
tre'mendous ap"plause, │ac'companied by in'sistent 'calls for the
ˋauthor to apֽpear. One 'man in the ˋgallery, how"ever, │ 'kept up
a 'string of 'catcalls and ˎwhistling, │ 'thus ex'pressing his 'dis-
apˎproval.
'Shaw ap'peared before the "curtain, │ and 'waited in 'silence
until the ap↑plause had 'died ˎdown. "Then│'looking up at the
'hostile "critic, he 'said:
“I 'quite aˋgree with you, Sir, │ but 'what can ↑we 'two do
against 'all ˋthese ֽpeople.”

“Child’s play”
Once a child was sitting on a log by the roadside playing.
Presently, another child came along.
-What are you playing at? – said the second child.
-I’m sailing to the southern seas with the cargo of monkeys
and elephants’ tusks and crystal balls as large as oranges. Get up
on the log and you may sail with me if you like.
So the second child climbed up on the log.
-See how the foam bubbles up before the ship and trails and
floats away. The water is so clear, you can see the fish darling
about: red, and green, and blue. Look, there’s a parrot-fish. My fa-
ther told me about those. I shouldn’t be surprised if we saw a
whale in about a minute.
-What ever are you talking about? – said the second child
crossly. – There’s no water here, only grass. Besides, you can’t get
to islands like this. This is only a log.
-But we can. We ought to know. See the palm-trees waving
and the white sands glittering.
-You ought to be ashamed of yourself. – said the second child.
– That’s Mrs. Jones.
-It’s all the same, - said the first child.
-Story-teller, - said the second child and he got down from the
log. – I’m going to play tip-cat, - he said. – I don’t see any fun in
playing things that aren’t really there, - and he walked slowly

107
away. The first child looked after him for a minute.
-I think you are pretty dull to see nothing but what is under
your nose, - but he was too well-mannered to say this aloud, and
having taken in his cargo, he sailed for another port.

108
LESSON 15

The semantic function of the head

The stepping head, with its gradual falling of pitch on the


stressed words of the pre-nuclear part of the utterance, conveys
the impression of the balanced, active, mood of the speaker. It is
widely used in combination with any of the six main tones of the
nucleus.

Examples:
IC 1 — I’m a'fraid I for'got to reˎturn it.
IC 2 — There’s 'nothing to 'get up"set about.
IC 3 — I’d 'like to 'try aˋgain.
IC 4 — It’s 'not the 'one you ´want?
IC 5 — I 'haven’t 'much vappetite.
IC 5a— It’s 'more like ˋJanuary than "April.
IC 6 — It’s 'not like 'that at ^all.

The low head, based on low-pitched pre-nuclear stressed syl-


lables, is apt to convey an impression ranging from cool and in-
different to sulky and hostile, particularly when combined with
low fall or low rise.
The low head usually appears as a component of intonation
contours 1a, 2a and 3a, which means that it is combined mainly
with three nuclear tones: low fall, low rise and high fall.

Examples:
IC 1a — I ֽwanted to have a ˎchat with you.
IC 2a — It’s ֽall the ֽsame to "me.
IC 3a — I ֽjust ֽdon’t ˋwant to ֽsing.

A low head is quite possible in IC 5a, as this contour contains


high fall.

109
Example: I ֽseem to have misˋlaid "mine.

In the case of intonation contours 3a and 5a, where low head


precedes high fall, the low head seems to increase by contrast the
emotional function of the high fall, at the same time often adding
to the utterance such features as insistance, puzzlement, displea-
sure, protest, etc. The negative attitude is particularly to be felt in
special questions, pronounced with IC 3a.

Compare:
IC 1 — 'What have you ˎdone it for? (a simple question)
IC 1a— Wֽ hat have you ˎdone it for? (a question + disap-
proval)
IC 3a— ֽWhat have you ˋdone it for? (a question + indigna-
tion)

The sliding head, due to its “jumpy”, uneven scale of pre-nu-


clear syllables, usually reflects an excited state of mind and,
sometimes, a highly emotional attitude to the situation.
The sliding head seems to be mostly used in combination with
a fall-rise in the nucleus.

Examples:
IC 5a— I ↘can’t get them ↘done tovday.

Pardon my inter↘rupting you avgain.

Articulation of the sound [w]

The consonant [w] is articulated with the lips forming a round


narrowing, the back of the tongue being raised towards the soft
palate as for [u] or even higher (tongue-back co-articulation).
The sides of the tongue are raised and the air-passage is open
along the median line of the tongue. The air passes through the
round narrowing between the lips without any audible friction.
In the articulation of the sonorant [w] tone prevails over noise
as the air-passage is rather wide. The vocal cords are drawn near
together and vibrate. The sound is very short and weak. The

110
tongue and the lips immediately glide from the position for [w] to
that of the following vowel.
Thus [w] may be defined as a constrictive median with tongue-
back co-articulation bilabial sonorant pronounced with a round nar-
rowing.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.

[w]

we wool sweet
work walk swift
why ward swam
way wood swan
where was swore
war win swine

twice queen where – wear


twelve quick which – witch
twenty quite whale – wail
twin question whet – wet
tweed quarrel whine – wine
twist quiet whether- weather

1. Well, I declare! [wel aI dIˎklFq] Ну, скажу я вам! (Ну и ну!)


2. Why worry? [ֽwaI ˋwArI] Зачем беспокоиться?
3. Time works wonders. [ˋtaIm wWks ˋwAndqz] Время
творит чудеса.
4. Away with war! [q'weI wID ˋwL] Долой войну!
5. One word to the wise. ['wAn ˋwWd tq Dq "waIz] Умному
кивни — догадается.
6. Whatever will we do? [wOt'evq wIl wi· ˋdH] Что мы будем
делать?
7. We’ll walk whatever the weather. [wi·l 'wLk wOtˋevq Dq
ֽweDq] Мы пойдем гулять в любую погоду.
8. We see what we wish to. [wi· 'sJ wOt wi· vwIS tu] Мы видим
то, что хотим видеть.
111
9. One never knows with the weather. [wAn 'nevq ˋnquz wID
Dq ֽweDq] Никогда не знаешь, какая будет погода.
10. We wondered where we were. [wi· 'wAndqd 'wFq wi· ˋwW]
Мы не знали, где находимся.
11. I wonder what’s wrong with Wyn. [aI 'wAndq wOts ˋrON
wID ֽwIn] Не понимаю, что стряслось с Уин.
12. The sweater will wear well. [Dq 'swetq wIl 'wFq ˋwel] Этот
свитер будет хорошо носиться.
13. Willful waste makes woeful want. ['wIlful "weIst ֹmeIks 'wqu-
ful ˎwOnt] Мотовство до добра не доводит.
14. When will we meet? ['wen wIl wi· ˋmJt] Когда мы
встретимся?
15. I wonder what’s worrying Will. [aI ֽwAndq ֽwOts ˋwArIIN
"wIl] Не понимаю, что беспокоит Уилла.
16. Walter always knows what’s what. ['wOltq ˋLlwqz ֽnquz
'wOts ˋwOt] Уолтер всегда знает что к чему.
17. It was a wonder the weather was so wet. [It wqz q ˋwAndq
Dq ֽweDq wqz squ "wet] Было удивительно, что погода такая
сырая.
18. Winnie is as weak as water. ['wInI Iz qz 'wJk qz ˋwOtq]
Уинни слабохарактерная.
19. Watt is as swift as the wind. ['wOt Iz qz 'swIft qz Dq ˋwInd]
Уот все делает быстро.
20. No sweet without some sweat. ['nqu 'swJt wID'aut sqm ˋswet]
Без труда нет плода.

1. Washing
by John Drinkwater

What is all this washing about,


Every day, week in, week out?
From getting up till going to bed,
I’m tired of hearing the same thing said.
Whether I am dirty or whether I am not,
Whether the water is cold or hot,
Whether I like it or whether I don’t —
112
Whether I will or whether I won’t —
Have you washed your hands, and washed
your face?
I seem to live in the washing-place.

2. The Wonderful World


by William Brightly Rands

Great, wide, beautiful wonderful world,


With the wonderful water round you curled,
And the wonderful grass upon your breast —
World, you are beautifully dressed!

The wonderful air is over me,


And the wonderful wind is shaking the tree —
It walks on the water, and whirls the mills.
And talks to itself on the top of the hills.

“Ship or Sheep” Unit 38 “A Walk in the Woods”

Wendy: Yes. We went for a walk in the woods near the rail-
way.
Gwen: Wasn't it cold on Wednesday?
Wendy: Yes. It was very cold and wet. We wore warm clothes
and walked quickly to keep warm.
Gwen: It's lovely and quiet in the woods.
Wendy: Yes. Further away from the railway it was very quiet,
and there were wild squirrels everywhere. We counted twenty
squirrels.
Gwen: How wonderful! Twenty squirrels! And did you take
lunch with you?
Wendy: Yes, about twelve we had veal sandwiches and sweet
white wine and we watched the squirrels. It was a very nice walk!

“Stories for reproduction” Text 8

Bill Jenkins worked in a big office in the city, and generally he

113
used to go to the barber’s during working hours to have his hair
cut, although this was against the rules: clerks had to have their
hair cut in their own time.
While Bill was at the barber’s one day, the manager of the of-
fice came in by chance to have his own hair cut. Bill saw him and
tried to hide his face, but the manager came and sat beside him, so
he soon recognized him.
“Hullo, Jenkins,” the manager said. “I see that you are having
your hair cut in office time.”
“Yes, sir, I am,” admitted Bill calmly. “You see, sir, it grows in
office time.”
“Not all of it,” said the manager of the office at once. “Some of
it grows in your own time.”
“Yes, sir, that’s quite true,” answered Bill politely, “but I’m not
having it all cut off.”

114
LESSON 16

The semantic function of the pre-head

The low pre-head may occur in all unemphatic and many em-
phatic utterances. It may be combined with any of the six main
tones. Its main function is to mark the comparative unimportance
of initial unstressed syllables.

Examples:
IC 1 —It was 'very ˎkind of you.
IC 1a— Will it ˎhelp do you ֽthink?
IC 2 — It’ll be 'quite 'ready by to"morrow.
IC 2a— He did ֽnothing of the "sort.
IC 3 — I can 'hardly beˋlieve it.
IC 3a— We’ve been ֽwaiting for ˋages.
IC 4 — You ´offered it to him?
IC 5 — It was ↘earlier than vthat.
IC 5a— That’s the ˋsecond ֽtime you’ve ֽasked me "that.
IC 6 — You should have ^told me.

The high pre-head has a clearly emphatic function. Before a


rise it usually gives a bright, lively, encouraging character to the
utterance.

Stimulus Response
We had a ˋlovely ֽtrip. ¯Do "tell me about it.
'See you ˎpresently. ¯So "long, old 'chap.
Is 'that 'your "note-book? ¯It "is.

Before a fall it may give the utterance an indignant, quarrel-


some ring. (A. Gimson)

Stimulus Response
115
You ↘won’t do it ˋthat way. ¯Well ˎhow, then?
He just 'shouted me ˋdown. ¯The ˎbrute!
I ֽdon’t beֽlieve you ˋposted it. ¯I ˎdid post it.
ˋJohn’s the "winner. ¯He ˎwill be surֽprised.
I’ll 'fetch you in the ˋcar. ¯That ˎis ֽgood of you.

The last two examples illustrate a highly emotional positive at-


titude expressed by high pre-head preceding a falling tone in the
nucleus.

The main attitudes conveyed by the main intonation contours.


IC 1 — calm, matter-of-fact but interested.
IC 1a— calm, unemotional, cold, uninterested.
IC 2 — soothing, genuinely interested, friendly.
IC 2a— encouraging further conversation, casual, or calmly disap-
proving, warning, critical, menacing.
IC 3 — lively, interested, personally concerned, emotional, with
some warmth.
IC 3a— the same as IC 3, but with less warmth and often with
surprise, displeasure, protest.
IC 4 — interrogatory, light and casual; in non-final sense-
groups, tentative.
IC 5 — implicatory; hardly ever used in questions and interjec-
tions.
IC 5a— highly emotional, warm, sympathetic; in special ques-
tions, plaintive, weary.
IC 6 — highly emotional; the speaker is impressed and sometimes
even awed challenging and censorious in the case of negative emotions.

Articulation of the sound [j].

The consonant [j] is articulated with the front of the tongue


held against the hard palate at approximately the same height as
in pronouncing the vowel [i]. The sides of the tongue are raised
leaving the air-passage open along the median line of the tongue.
The vocal cords are drawn near together and vibrate. The air-pas-
sage between the front of the tongue and the hard palate is rather
wide and the air flows through it without any audible friction. As

116
a result, in the articulation of [j] tone prevails over noise. The
sound is very short and weak. The tongue immediately glides
from the position for [j] to that of the following vowel. The vocal
cords are drawn near together and vibrate.
Thus [j] may be defined as a constrictive median mediolingual
palatal sonorant.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.

[j]
you suit pure
your assume tune
yes few cure
year fume human
young super queue
yard enthusiasm tube

1. Yes, continue. ["jes kqn"tInjH] Да, продолжайте.


2. Julia’s young for her years. ['GHljqz ˋjAN fq hq "jWz]
Джулия выглядит моложе своих лет.
3. Your companion’s young, yet peculiar. [jO· kqmֽpxnjqnz
v jAN jet pIˋkjHljq] Ваш спутник молод, но со странностями.
4. The year is young yet. [Dq 'jWr Iz "jAN ֹjet] Год только
начался.
5. I’m a year Daniel’s senior. [aIm q 'jW 'dxnjqlz ˋsJnjq] Я на
год старше Дэниеля.
6. You won’t yell, will you? [ju· 'wqunt ˋjel ´wIl ju] А кричать
не будешь?
7. You kept Amelia amused. [¯ju· 'kept q'mJljq q"mjHzd] Ты все
время смешил Амелию.
8. You’d be less than human if you refused. [ju·d bi· ֽles Dqn
ˋhjHmqn If ju· rI"fjHzd] Было бы противоестественно, если бы
ты отказался.
9. Delia is far beyond William in Italian. [ֽdJljq Iz 'fR bIֹjOnd
ˋwIljqm In Iˋtxljqn] Дилия гораздо лучше знает итальянский
язык, чем Уильям.

117
10. Spaniels are companionable, you know. ['spxnjqlz q
kqmˋpxnjqnqbl ju "nqu] Спаниели же очень общительны.
11. New Year’s Day is the youngest day in the year. ['njH vjWz
ֹdeI Iz Dq 'jANgIst 'deI In Dq ˋjW] 1-е января — первый день
Нового года.
12. Did you sell your old piano? ['dId ju· 'sel jO·r 'quld ´pjxnqu]
Вы продали свой старый рояль?
13. Credit is due to you, Celia. ['kredIt Iz 'djH tq ˋjH ֽsJljq] Ты
достойна похвалы, Силия.
14. You are young yet, aren’t you? [ju· Q· ˋjAN jet ˋRnt ju·] Но
ведь ты еще так молода.
15. The book’ll be beyond you, Jolyon. [Dq 'bukl bi· bIˋjOnd ju·
"GOljqn] Ты не поймешь эту книгу, Джолион.
16. Yes, your face is familiar. ['jes jO· 'feIs Iz fq"mIljq] Да, ваше
лицо мне знакомо.
17. Julius yearns for news. ['GHljqs 'jWnz fq ˋnjHz] Джулиус с
нетерпением ждет известий.
18. Youth yearns to be old while age yearns to be young again.
['jHT 'jWnz tq bi· ˋquld waIl veIG 'jWnz tq bi· ˋjAN qֽgen] Казаться
старше юноши желают, обратно в юность старые хотят.

1. The Farm
by Archibald Macleish

Why do you listen, trees?


Why do you wait?
Why do you fumble at the breeze —
Gesticulate
With hopeless fluttering hands —
Stare down the vanished road beyond the gate
That now no longer stands?
Why do you wait —
Trees —
Why do you listen, trees?
2. Spring Grass
by Carl Sandburg

118
Spring grass, there is a dance to be danced for you.
Come up, spring grass, if only for young feet.
Come up, spring grass, young feet ask you.

Smell of the young spring grass,


You’re a mascot riding on the wind horses.
You came to my nose and spiffed me.
This is your lucky year.

Young spring grass just after the winter,


Shoots of the big green whisper of the year,
Come up, if only young feet.
Come up, young feet ask you.

“Ship or Sheep”, unit 39 “A Stupid Student”

Jim: Excuse me. Did you use to live in York?


Jack: Yes.
Jim: Did you use to be tutor at the University?
Jack: Yes. For a few years.
Jim: Do you remember Hugh Young? He was a music student.
Jack: Hugh Young? Did he use to have a huge yellow jeep.
Jim: Yes. And he used to play beautiful tunes on the tuba.
Jack: Yes, I knew Hugh. He used to be a very stupid student.
Do you have any news of Hugh?
Jim: Yes. He's a millionaire now in New York.
Jack: A millionaire? Playing the tuba?
Jim: Oh, no. He produces jam in tubes, and tins of sausages
and onion stew, and sells them in Europe. I read about Hugh in
the newspapers yesterday.
Jack: Oh, well, he wasn't so stupid.

“The story of Narcissus”

Long, long ago, when birds and flowers and trees could talk, a
beautiful fountain sprang up in the midst of the forest. Little sun-
beams crept between the leaves, and, as they fell upon it, made it
shine, like silver.
One day a lad, who had been hunting in the forest, lost sight of

119
his friends. While looking for them, he saw the fountain shining
in the sunlight through the trees. He at once turned to it, for he
was hot and thirsty.
He stooped down to bathe his burning forehead, and to cool
his dry hot lips. But as he bent over the water, he saw his own
face in it, as in a glass. He thought it might be some lovely water-
fairy, that lived within the fountain, and as he looked he forgot to
drink. The bright eyes, the curly hair, the round cheeks and the
red lips were beautiful to him; and he fell in love with that image
of himself, but knew not that it was his own image. It smiled
when he smiled and as he spoke, the lips of the face moved as
though speaking too, though no sound came from them.
“I love you with all my heart!” said the lad.
The image smiled and held out its arms, but still was dumb.
The lad spoke to it again and again, and getting no answer he at
last began to cry. The tears fell upon the water, and ruffled it, so
that the face looked wrinkled.
Thinking it was going away, he said: “Only stay, beautiful be-
ing, and let me look at you, if I may not touch you”. He forgot ev-
erything but that lovely face.
Day after day, night after night, he stayed there, till he grew
thin and pale, and at last died. Just at the water’s edge, where the
lad had died, there grew one strange little flower, all alone.
“He has been changed into a flower,” his friends said. “Let us
call it after our dead friend!” So they named the flower Narcissus
in memory of him and it is called Narcissus to this very day.

120
LESSON 17

The sense-group or the syntagm

In the process of speech our thoughts are shaped sentences. A


separate word may be used as a sentence (e. g. Yes. No. Do. Don't.
Where? How? Nonsense! Good, etc.), but as a rule a sentence con-
sists of more than one word.
Each sentence expresses a more or less complete idea which
has a definite communicative aim: it represents either a statement,
or a question, or a command, or an exclamation. The aim of the
utterance is made clear by intonation.
Often a sentence is made up of two or more parts, which are
called sense-groups or syntagms. A sentence which is not divided
into smaller parts is both a sense-group and a sentence. The divi-
sion of a sentence into sense-groups depends on the idea to be ex-
pressed. Sometimes one and the same chain of words may be var-
iously divided into sense-groups, each division giving rise to a
different utterance.
Each sense-group contains a meaningful word or a number of
words expressing in this particular situation a separate element of
reality (object, action, or property, etc.), sometimes very complex,
so that the sense-group cannot be subdivided into smaller units
without destroying this particular sense.

Examples of sense-groups:
(a) 'Sometimes! I 'get to 'town by the 18/30.
(b) In private | he was 'good-'humoured and 'good-natured.
(c) In addition to this he had a fine 'musical taste, 'carefully
cultivated.
(d) 'Two or 'three 'years ago we had a very hard winter.
(e) 'Stand 'here out of the rain while I get a taxi.
(f) If you 'don't mind, I’ll stay on here for a bit.

Grammatically, a sense-group represents a separate word, or a


word-combination, or a clause, or a sentence, the words of which
are used in their proper forms and joined together in accordance
with the syntactic rules of the language.
Phonetically, a sense-group represents one of the intonational

121
contours typical of the language.
The phonetic features, superimposed on the semantic and
grammatical content of a sense-group to delimit it from the other
sense-groups and to supply it with important information in addi-
tion to the meaning of the words making up the sense-group, are
as follows:
(a) A pause at the end of the sense-group.
(b) A definite intonation contour, the nucleus of which, (i. e.
one of the six main tones) falls on the semantic centre of the sense-
group; the head marks the pre-nuclear important words of the
sense-group, the pre-head — the comparatively less important
initial words, the tail — the comparatively less important final
words.
Thus a sense-group may be defined as the shortest possible
unit of speech from the point of view of meaning, grammatical
structure and intonation.
Final sense-groups are the most important ones: their intona-
tion contours (chiefly their nuclei) determine the communicative
type of the whole sentence.
Non-final sense-groups may have different degrees of seman-
tic completeness, finality and independence. (See examples a, b, c,
d, e, f.)
The intonation contours of non-final sense-groups can express
these features adequately enough: intonation contours based on
falling tones are used in sense-groups with a complete meaning,
independent of the following sense-groups, while intonation con-
tours based on rising tones signify incompleteness, non-finality
and dependence on or closer connection with the following sense-
groups.
The size of sense-groups is variable.
Sometimes ... In private ... In addition to this ... Two or three,
years ago ... Stand here out of the rain …

Also in the sentence below:


Of course, I’m not at all fluent, and my accent must be pretty
awful, but people were very patient and helpful, so I really had
very little trouble.
It should be noted that in conversation, side by side with an
abundance of short sense-groups presented by the so-called con-

122
versational formulas ('Good. "All ,right. 'See you ,later. To be
'sure. 'That's ,it, etc.), one often observes very long sense-groups
of the kind given above.
The number of sense-groups in a sentence is variable, too, and
is closely connected with the style of speech.
Particular attention should be paid to the intonation of specifi-
cally conversational English structures, consisting of two sense-
groups:
Disjunctive questions:
It's 'rather 'difficult,| .isn't it?
Derogatory questions:
Stimulus
My 'car ,fetched a ,good .price. I 'may have passed my e,xam. .
I 'don't 'like this one.
Response
Oh you've 'sold it,! ,have you?
You're 'hoping for the 'best, ,are you?
You'd 'rather have the 'other one would you?

Imperative utterances with "will you" or "won't you" as a tag:


Examples:
'Take 'good ,care ol it.| 'won't you?
''Meet me,| 'won't you?
Don't 'ever ,tell him,| 'will you?
v
Porter,| 'put 'tiiese on a ,taxi,| ,will you?

Imperative utterances with "shall we" as a tag:


Example: "Let's ,go,| ,shall we?

Imperative utterances with "can't you" as a tag:


Example: 'Hold !on to the Yope.j 'can't you?

Exclamations having the form of general questions:


Stimulus What a 'very 'nice
Response ,Yes,| .isn't it!

Articulation of the sound [h]

123
The consonant [h] is articulated with a strong air stream pass-
ing through the open glottis. The bulk of the tongue and the lips
are held in the position necessary for the production of a follow-
ing vowel.
Thus [h] may be defined as a constrictive noise fricative glottal
voiceless consonant pronounced with a flat narrowing.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[h]
he high him behave
harm how hen behind
horse hoist hat somehow
who whole hop a house
huge here whom the honey
her hair hut unhappy

1. Happy holiday! ['hxpI "hOlqdI] С праздником!


2. House and home. ['haus qnd ˋhqum] Домашний уют.
3. He is hard of hearing. [hi Iz ֽhRd qv ˋhIqrIN] Он плохо
слышит.
4. Hold your head high. ['hquld jO· 'hed vhaI] Держи высоко
голову.
5. Harry entered hat in hand. ['hxrI 'entqd 'hxt In ˋhxnd] Харри
вошел с подобострастным видом.
6. Henry is hungry as a hunter (hawk). ['henrI Iz 'hANgrI qz q
ˋhAntq (ˋhLk)] Генри голоден как волк.
7. Hank holds with the hare and runs with the hounds. ['hxNk
'hquldz wID Dq "hFq qnd 'rAnz wID Dq ˋhaundz] Хэнк служит и
нашим и вашим.
8. Hal has hunted the whole house for his hat. ['hxl hqz 'hAntId
Dq 'hqul ˋhaus fq hIz ֽhxt] Хэл весь дом перевернул в поисках
своей шапки.
9. I hope I haven’t hurt him. [aI ˋhqup aI ֽhxvnt "hWt hIm]
Надеюсь, я не обидела его.
10. Time hangs heavy on his hands. ['taIm ֹhxNz ˋhevI On hIz
ֽhxndz] Время медленно тянется для него.

124
11. Every man has his hobby-horse. ['evrI 'mxn hxz hIz ˋhO-
bIhLs] У каждого человека есть свой конек.
12. He who has begun has half done. ['hJ hu hqz bI"gAn hqz
´hRf ˋdAn] Хорошее начало полдела откачало.
13. Ham hunted everybody out of house and home. ['hxm 'hAn-
tId ˋevrIbOdI ֽaut qv ֽhaus qnd ֽhqum] Хэм всех выжил из дома.
14. It has hit him hard. [It hqz 'hIt hIm ˋhRd] Это для него
тяжелый удар.
15. How horrid of him! [¯hau ˎhOrId qv hIm] Это ужасно с его
стороны!
16. Hugh hears as a hog in harvest. ['hjH 'hIqz qz q 'hOg In
ˎhRvqst] Хью глух как тетеря.
17. Hedy held herself well in hand. ['hedI 'held hq·self 'wel In
ˋhxnd] Хеди держала себя в руках.
18. Humph has a heavy hand. ['hAmf hxz q 'hevI ˋhxnd] У
Хамфа тяжелая рука.
19. Hilda is head over heels in love with him. ['hIldq Iz 'hed quvq
ֹhJlz In ˋlAv wID hIm] Хильда по уши в него влюблена.
20. He hung his head in shame. [hi· ֽhAN hIz ֽhed In ˎSeIm] Он
опустил голову от стыда.

1. Laughing Time
by William Jay Smith

It was laughing time, and a tall Giraffe


Lifted his head and began to laugh:
Ha! Ha! Ha! Ha!

And the Chimpanzee on the gingko tree


Swung merrily down with a Tee Hee Hee:
Hee! Hee! Hee! Hee!

“It’s certainly not against the law!”


Croaked Justice Crow a loud guffaw:
Haw! Haw! Haw! Haw!

125
The dancing bear who could never say “No”
Waltzed up and down on the tip of his toe:
Ho! Ho! Ho! Ho!

The donkey daintily took his paw,


And around they went: Hee-Haw! Hee-Haw!
Hee-Haw! Hee-Haw!

The moon had to smile and it started to climb,


All over the world it was laughing time!
Ho! Ho! Ho! Hee-Haw! Hee-Haw!
Hee! Hee! Hee! Ha! Ha! Ha! Ha!

2. The Corn-song
by J.G. Whittier

Heap high the farmer’s wintry hoard


Heap high the golden corn!
No richer gift has autumn poured
From out her lavish horn!

“Ship or Sheep”, unit 40 “A horrible Accident”

Helen: Hello, Ellen.


Ellen: Hello, Helen. Have you heard? There's been a horrible
accident.
Helen: Oh dear! What happened?
Ellen: Hilda Higgins’ husband has had an accident on his
horse.
Helen: How awful! Is he injured?
Ellen: Yes. An ambulance has taken him to the hospital.
Helen: How did it happen?
Ellen: He was hit by an express train. It was on the crossing,
just behind the house.
Helen: How horrible!
Ellen: He's having an important operation in hospital now.
Poor Hilda! She’s so unhappy.
Helen: Perhaps he'll be all right.

126
Ellen: I hope so.

Tone group 6

Statements here invite a further contribution to the conversa-


tion from the listener, e. g.:
Hullo, Frank. (Hullo, Jimmy.) | You’re ֽֽlooking
ֽֽvery ˏsmart. |
(Going to wedding?)
Have you heard about Max? ˏNo.

Tone Group 6 is often used to express reproving criticism of


the listener’s attitude or the general situation, e. g.:
I shall have to sack him. You cֽֽ an’t do ˏthat. | (He’s too useful.)
What a terrible play! It ֽֽwasn’t as ֽֽbad as ֽֽall ˏthat.

It is also used for continuative purposes, e. g.:


One, | ˏtwo, | ˏthree, | ˏfour, | ˏfive.

Special questions sound wondering, even menacing, e. g.:


How did he do it? ˏHow did he ֹ do it? | (Perfectly obvious.)

General questions express disapproval or skepticism, e. g.:


I’m sorry now that I did it. ֽֽAre you ˏreally ֹ sorry?

Notice that when a speaker says:


She’s a ˋnice ֽ girl, | ˏisn’t she?
he has probably not met the girl concerned, or at any rate not
made up his mind about her niceness, since he is genuinely con-
cerned to have the listener’s view; whereas when he says:
She’s a ˋnice ֽ girl, | ˋisn’t she?
he almost certainly has met the girl and formed an opinion
about her niceness, which he expects the listener to confirm.
Tone Group 6 isn’t very widely used with commands except
those beginning with Don’t. It’s also commonly heard with a few
short commands, when they constitute a rather calm warning or
exhortation, e. g.:

127
I’m going to sack him. ֽֽDon’t ֽֽdo ˏthat. | (He’s not a bad chap.)
ˏCareful. ˏSteady. ˏWatch.
Most interjections are rarely said in this way.

Tune I
LOW RISE ONLY
'Did you 'catch the 'last "train? "Just.
'What does a ˎhaberdasher ֽsell? "Shirts, | "ties, | "socks, |
"gloves.
'When’s the 'meeting 'due to take "When? | (Why, at ˋfive.)
ˋplace?
The 'meeting’s at ˋfive. "When? | (I ֽֽthought it
was at ˋsix.)
¯But ֽֽhow do you ˋdo it? "Watch.

It’s half past ten.
v
"Well!

Tune II
LOW RISE + TAIL
Do you 'ever 'go to the "club? "Sometimes.
ֽֽTony’s ˋalways ֽlate. "Last ֹweek he was on ֹtime.
How ˋold are you? "How old ֹam I? | (How ֽֽold do
you ˋthink?)
I 'thought she was ˋpretty. "Did you?
Your ˋchange, sir. "Thank you!

Tune III
LOW PRE-HEAD + LOW RISE (+ TAIL)
'Have you "been ֹthere? I "have.
I 'wonder if they 'sell ˋsocks. You could en"quire.
ֹThat’s my 'final ˎoffer. If "that’s the ֹway you ֹwant it, |
(there’s 'nothing 'more to ˎsay.)
I 'went with ֹMr. ˋSpang. With "who?
There’s ֽֽsomeone to ˋsee you. Who "is it?
Oh ˋgood! | 'Breakfast in ˋbed! Do you "like ֹbreakfast in ֹbed?

128
I 'can’t find my ֹkey ˋanywhere. You haven’t "lost it, | ("have you?)
ˋThank you. Don’t "mention it.
'Is that 'really "yours? Of "course!

Tune IV
(LOW PRE-HEAD +) LOW HEAD + LOW RISE (+ TAIL)
'Let me 'get you some 'more ˋtea. You’re ֽֽvery "kind.
'How ֹmuch did you ˋwin? About a ֽֽthousand
"pounds.
What 'will they ˎthink of me? You ֽֽmustn’t ֽֽtake it
to "heart.
I 'don’t aˎgree. ֽֽWhy "not?
'Shut the ˎdoor, for ֽheaven’s ֽsake. Just ֽֽwho do you
ֽֽthink you’re
"talking to?
'Let’s ֹuse it ˋnow. ֽֽWouldn’t it be
ֽֽbetter to ֽֽwait till
it’s "cold?
He ֹsays he’ll 'never 'speak to me aˎgain. He ֽֽdoesn’t ֽֽreally
"mean it, | ("does he?)
I ↘don’t think I can ↘dive from ֽֽHave a shot at it,
v
that ֽheight. "Pete’s ֽֽdone it.
I’m ˋsorry. Well ֽֽsay it as ֽֽif you
"meant it.
I’m ˋterribly "sorry. ֽֽDon’t a"pologize. | (It
could ֽֽhappen to
ˋanybody.)
I 'can’t ˎhelp you. ֽֽVery "well. | (We’ll
ֽֽdo it aˋlone.)

129
LESSON 18

The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different


communicative types. Statements

In statements all intonation contours may be used.


The most typical contour for unemphatetic statements is IC 1
which makes the utterance sound complete, definite and cate-
goric, matter-of-fact but interested.

Examples:
I 'didn’t 'quite ˎcatch that.
We 'haven’t 'heard from him for ˎages.

IC 1a is used to convey a cool, reserved, indifferent, grim or


surly attitude on the part of the speaker. The statement sounds
complete, definite and categoric, as in the case of IC 1, but may
sound unfriendly when addressed to a stranger.

Example: I ֽwant to ˎtalk to you.

IC 2, when used in statements, makes them sound not cate-


goric, assertive and separative, but soothing and reassuring. It
may sometimes give a hint of self-confidence and self-reliance.

Examples:
There’s 'nothing to 'get up"set a'bout.
I 'promise I 'won’t "tell 'anyone.
We 'all 'make mis'takes "sometimes.
'All in 'good "time.

IC 2 is typical contour for non-final sense-groups very closely


connected with the following sense-group.

130
Examples:
I 'opened the 'door "quietly, | (and 'caught him 'red-ˋhanded).
I’d no 'sooner 'set "eyes on him| (that I 'knew he was 'seriously
ˋill).

IC 2a may encourage further conversation or may be guarded,


reprovingly critical, resentful, bored.

Examples:
('Have you "been 'there?) —I "have.
(You must a'pologize at ˎonce.)—I ֽdon’t see ֽwhy I "should.
(The cor'rect 'answer is ˋseven.)— ֽThat most ֽdefinitely is "not
the cor'rect 'answer.
IC 3 is very common in ordinary colloquial speech, as it con-
veys personal concern or involvement; it sounds lively, interested,
and can express vigorous agreement or contradiction very effi-
ciently. IC 3 (with stepping head) sounds light and warm, while
IC 3a (with low head) conveys a feeling of querulous protest.

Examples:
IC 3 — He 'won’t be 'back till ˋten.
— I must 'stay 'in and 'do some ˋwork.
— I’ve ˋnever been there in my ˋlife.
IC 3a — You ֽdidn’t ˋask me ֽto.
— We’ve been ֽwaiting for ˋages.
— I ֽsent it ֽto you ֽthree ˋdays a ֽgo.

IC 4 can be used in statements only when they are echoed and


thus turned into questions, often addressed by the speaker to
himself before he reacts to the interlocutor’s utterance.

131
Examples:
(I ˋoffered it ֽto him.)—You ´offered it 'to him?
(They 'don’t ˎlike it.) —They ´don’t like it?

IC 5 always carries and implication with it. What exactly is im-


plied id perfectly clear to the speaker and to the hearer, since it is
derived from the situation, and no verbal expression of the impli-
cation is necessary. Typical attitudes, often conveyed with the
help of IC 5, may be described as follows:

a) correcting the interlocutor (politely!);


b) grudgingly admitting;
c) reluctantly or defensively dissenting;
d) tentatively suggesting;
e) concerned;
f) hurt;
g) reserved.

Examples:
(Note. The sentences given in parentheses give an idea of the
implication and are not actually uttered, but suggested by the in-
tonation.)

(a) There were ˋseven ֽboys ֽthere. — vNine.


(b) 'Is he 'tall and "dark? — Well, he’s vtall. (But I
↘shouldn’t ↘call him vdark.)
(c) It ֽdidn’t ֽtake you "long. — It vdid.
(d) Your ˋphone wasn’t ֽworking. — He could have
v
wired.
(e) Have you 'heard the 'news about "Frank? — You
↘don’t mean to ↘say he’s ↘failed avgain, ("do you?).
(f) You’re ֽnot ˋtrying! — I most ↘certainly vam.

132
(g) 'What did you 'think of the ˋlecture? — It ↘wasn’t
e↘xactly senvsational, (ˋwas it?).

IC 5a (fall-rise divided) makes the utterance very emphatic.


The attitudes expressed may vary according to the verbal context
and the situation. The statement may sound “apologetic, appre-
ciative, grateful, regretful, sympathetic, persuasively reassuring,
plaintive or pleading”:

Very often no particular emotion is conveyed by IC 5a.


The main function of this contour is to place a particular em-
phasis on “the hub” (the hub = the semantic centre of the utter-
ance.) of the utterance, and mark as important another word out
of those that follow “the hub”, either because it is a modal word,
or because it is the semantic centre of an afterthought, or because
it limits in some respect or renders more exact the idea expressed
in the first part of the utterance. The afterthought or limitation of-
ten have the form of a subordinate clause.
Sometimes the subordinate clause precedes the principal one;
in such cases it is the subordinate clause which has the high fall
on "the hub", and the principal clause carries the low rise.

Examples:

I ˋhope I'm not "late. (apologetic)


It's ֽquite ˋgood, "really. (appreciative)
You can't iˋmagine what your ֽhelp has "meant to me. (grateful)
I don't reˋmember, I'm af"raid. (regretful)
I should go ˋhome, if I were "you. (persuasively reassuring)
I ˋquite under ֽstand your po"sition. (sympathetic)
It's ˋalways the "same. (plaintive)
He's ֽhardly ˋever on "time. (plaintive)
You ˋmust try to ֽbe more "careful. (pleading)
Stimulus Reaction
'Don’t you ´like it? I ˋdon’t "frankly. (a modal word)

133
ֽHow did you get ˋon ֽRather ˋwell, ֽstrange as it ֽmay
with him? "seem. (an afterthought)
D’you 'like my 'new "hat? I ֽcan’t say I ˋdo, par"ticularly. (a
I 'thought of 'going for a limitation)
ˋstroll. ֽI’ll come ˋtoo, if I "may.
He’s a diˋrector "now. I must conˋgratulate him when I
"see him.

IC 6 in this type the initial rise reinforces the meaning of the


high fall, adds to the definiteness and finality of a falling tone
some warmth, admiration, sarcasm, indignation, etc., thus empha-
sizing, either positive or negative emotion, according to the situa-
tion. The speaker is greatly impressed.

Examples:
^Very good!
A ^marvelous time.
I 'simply ^hated it.
You 'aren’t ^trying.

Articulation of the sounds [T] [D]

The consonants [T], [D] are articulated with the tip of the
tongue slightly projected out between the upper and lower teeth.
The tip of the tongue is placed against the edge of the upper teeth
to form a flat narrowing, the main part of the tongue being fairly
flat and relaxed, while the air passes through the narrowing with
friction.
In the production [T] of the vocal cords are kept apart and do
not vibrate, whereas in the articulation of [D] they are drawn near
together and vibrate.
Thus [T], [D] may be defined as constrictive noise fricative fore-
lingual apical (inter)dental consonants pronounced with a flat nar-
rowing. The consonant [T] is voiceless-fortis, the consonant [D] is
voiced-lenis.

134
Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn
the poems by heart.
[T]
theme north fifths three
thought south hearths throw
thigh month lengths thread
thing youth faiths threw
thumb truth Ruth’s thrust
thin birth Smith’s throng

1. Nothing like youth! ['nATIN laIk ˋjHT] Ничего нет


прекраснее молодости!
2. Think things over. [ֽTINk TINz "quvq] Обдумайте все.
3. Thank you for nothing. [ֽTxNk ju· fq ˎnATIN] Спасибо, не
надо.
4. When three Thursdays come together. [wen 'TrJ 'TWzdIz
kAm tqˎgeDq] Никогда.
5. Thad’ll go through thick and thin. ['Txdl 'gqu TrH 'TIk qnd
ˋTIn] Тед ни перед чем не остановится.
6. A thousand thanks to you both. [q 'Tauzqnd 'TxNks tq ju·
ˋbquT] Тысяча благодарностей вам обоим.
7. You’ve thrust the thing into my throat. [juv ֽTrAst Dq ֽTIN
Intq maI ˎTrqut] Вы навязали мне это.
8. Theo threw the thing into his teeth. ['TJqu 'TrH Dq ֹTIN Intq
hIz ˎtJT] Тео упрекнул его.
9. Martha’s like nothing on earth. ['mRTqz laIk 'nATIN On
ˎWT] Марта — такой противный человек.
10. Kenneth and Arthur are as thick as thieves. ['kenIT qnd 'RTq
qr qz 'TIk qz ˋTJvz] Кеннет и Артур — закадычные друзья (их
водой не разольешь).
11. Thread and thrum. ['Tred qnd ˎTrAm] Все вместе— и
хорошее и дурное.
12. Nothing loath. ['nATIN "lquT] Вполне охотно.
13. I have a thousand and one things to ask you. [aI hxv q
'Tauzqnd qnd ˋwAn "TINz tu ˋRsk ju·] У меня к вам уйма

135
вопросов.
14. They had to thread their way through the thick crowd. [DeI
hxd tq 'Tred DFq 'weI TrH Dq 'TIk ˋkraud] Они должны были
пробираться сквозь густую толпу.
15. Thornton’s voice thrilled through the hall. ['TLntqnz 'vOIs
'TrIld TrH Dq ˋhLl] Голос Торнтона гулко прозвучал в зале.
16. Thea sees through things. ['TJq ֹsJz ˋTrH TINz] Тиа
проницательна.
17. Thorp likes to be in the thick of the things. [TLp ˋlaIks tq bJ
In Dq ˋTIk qv "TINz] Торп любит быть в гуще событий.
18. Timothy is within a hair’s breadth of death. ['tImqTI Iz
wIDIn q 'hFqz 'bredT qv ˎdeT] Тимоти на волосок от смерти.
19. Theodore thinks something of himself. ['TIqdL TINks
^sAmTIN qv himֽself] Теодор о себе высокого мнения.
20. I must speak the truth, and nothing but the truth. [aI mqst
'spJk Dq "trHT qnd 'nATIN bqt Dq ˋtrHT] Я должен говорить
правду, только правду.

1. The Golden Legend


by Joe Wallace

A thousand faiths with a common dream


A thousand tongues with a common theme
A thousand thoughts with a single plan:
Peace on earth and goodwill to man!

2. The Months of the Year


By Alfred H. Miles

September was the seventh month from


Romulus that came.
Ninth in the modern calendar, it still
retains the name.
October eighth, November ninth,
December tenth of old.
Are now the tenth, eleventh and twelfth,
but still these names they hold.

136
“Ship or Sheep”, unit 41 “Gossips”

Judith: Edith Smith is only thirty.


Ethel: Is she? I thought she was thirty-three.
Judith: Edith’s birthday was last Thursday.
Ethel: Was it? I thought it was last month.
Judith: The Smiths’ house is worth thirty thousand pounds.
Ethel: Is it? I thought it was worth three thousand.
Judith: Mr. Smith is the author of a book about moths.
Ethel: Is he? I thought he was a mathematician.
Judith: I'm so thirsty.
Ethel: Are you? I thought you drank something at the Smiths’.
Judith: No. Edith gave me nothing to drink.
Ethel: Shall I buy you a drink?
Judith: Thank you.

W. Shakespeare “Sonnet 18” (+ translation)

Shall 'I com'pare "thee│ to a 'summer’s "day?


Thou art 'more ´lovely│ and 'more ˋtemperate:
'Rough 'winds do 'shake the 'darling 'buds of "May, │
And 'summer’s 'lease hath ↑all 'too ˋshort a ֽdate:
'Sometime ↑too ˎhot│ the 'eye of 'heaven "shines,
And 'often is his 'gold com'plexion ˋdimm’d;
And 'every ˎfair│ from ˋfair someֽtime de"clines, │
By "chance│ or 'nature’s 'changing 'course │unˎtrimm’d;
But 'thy e'ternal 'summer ↑shall not ˎfade,
'Nor 'lose pos'session of that ↑fair thou ˎowest;
'Nor shall ˎdeath ֽbrag│ thou 'wander’st in his ˎshade, │
'When in eˋternal "lines│ to ˋtime thou ֽgrowest:

So 'long as 'men can "breath│ or 'eyes can "see, │


'So 'long 'lives ˎthis,│ and "this│ 'gives 'life to ˎthee.

В. Шекспир «Сонет 18»


Сравню ли я тебя с днем светлым лета?

137
Милей его ты, кротче и нежнее.
Холодный ветер — злобный враг расцвета,
Дни летние могли бы быть длиннее.
Порою око неба слишком знойно,
Иль золото его закрыто тучей,
И красота боится беспокойно
Природы, иль случайности летучей.
Твое лишь лето вечное не минет,
И красота не будет скоротечность.
Смерть с похвальбой тень на тебя не кинет,
Когда в стихе изведаешь ты вечность.

Пока есть люди и пока есть зренье,


Жив будет стих и ты, его творенье.
(перевод Б.Бера)

138
LESSON 19

The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different


communicative types. General questions

The most typical intonation contour for general questions in


unemphatic speech is IC 2. The speaker sounds “generally inter-
ested”.

Examples:
'Have you 'seen "Tom 'lately?
Does he 'go to "school 'yet?
Will there be 'room e'nough for "all of us?

IC 2a gives a disapproving, skeptical ring to the general ques-


tion.

Examples:
Does it "matter?
Do you "think so?
Are you "sure 'this is the 'right 'road?
Is there ֽreally any "need to?

IC 1 in general questions suggests “subjects for discussion”.


The question sounds insistent and ponderous.

Examples:
'Are you 'certain he’ll ˎhelp?
Does 'anyone 'feel like a ˎwalk?

IC 1a makes a general question sound “detached, phlegmatic,


reserved”.

139
Examples:
Will it ˎhelp, do you 'think?
Can I ˎcount on ֽthat?
ֽShall we ֽget it in ˎtime?

IC 3 shows that the speaker is “willing to discuss the situation


and sometimes skeptical, but no suggestion of the impatience or
querulousness sometimes associated with IC 3a ”.

Examples:
'Must we ˋtell him a ֽbout it?
'Does she 'know the ˋway?
Did you ˋnotice how ˋthin she’s be ֽcome?

IC 3a indicates that the speaker is “willing to discuss the situa-


tion, though sometimes impatient that such discussion should be
necessary”.

Examples:
Shall we postˋpone the ֽmeeting, ֽthen?
Need we do ˋanything about it?
But ֽwill it be ֽopen this ˋevening?

IC 4 is often used in light and casual general questions.

Examples:
Can ´I help at 'all?
'Are you 'free ´now?

140
Elliptical general questions seem to be always pronounced
with IC4.

Examples:
´Like it? (for: 'Do you "like it?)
A'nother 'cup of ´tea? (for: 'Will you have a'nother 'cup of
"tea?)

General questions with the word order of a declarative sen-


tence are always pronounced with IC 4.

Examples:
You 'want it ´back?
It’s 'not the 'one you ´want?
He 'won’t be 'able to ´help?

IC 5 is hardly ever used in questions. When it is used, it is


done only for the sake of emphasis in combination with the high
fall on the semantic centre of the utterance, which turns the con-
tour into its variant — IC 5a.

IC 5a gives to a general question a plaintive, pleading,


long-suffering ring.

Examples:
ˋCan’t you ֽsee I’m "busy?
ˋCan I ֽhave a ֽnother piece of "toffee?
ˋMust you ֽbe so "obstinate?

IC 6 makes a general question sound “impressed, challenging,


antagonistic”.

141
Examples:
Is he ^really ֽinterested?
But could ^you de ֽany ֽbetter?
Is it 'worth ^while, do you ֽthink?

Short Comment of the Type “Is it?”, “Isn’t it?”


Though short comments have the same grammatical structure
as ordinary general questions, their peculiar function in speech
should be thoroughly explained.
Short comments rely for their lexical content on the preceding
utterance of the interlocutor. In most cases they carry no interro-
gation, but only denote the speaker's readiness to continue the
talk and express, with the help of intonation, his positive or nega-
tive attitude to the situation.
Since short comments have the form of a “mini-sentence”, con-
sisting only of a form-verb + a personal pronoun, it is convenient
to observe the different connotations arising from the use of dif-
ferent tones in such sentences. The attitudinal meanings conveyed
by these tones are described by J. O'Connor and G. Arnold in this
way:

Low rise — a disapproving or sceptical tone.


Stimulus Response
He’s 'only 'thirty-ˋfive. "Is he? (He looks about fifty.)

High rise —particularly common with short comments, de-


signed to keep the conversation going.
Stimulus Response
I’ve 'just seen ˋJohn. ´Have you?

Low fall —a total lack of interest, or else a mood of grim hos-


tility.
Stimulus Response
I’ve 'just come 'back from ˋParis. ˎHave you?

High fall—a mild surprise but acceptance of the listener's


premises. It is more or less equivalent to a surprised repetition of
142
the listener's statement.
Stimulus Response
She’s 'thirty-"five. ˋIs she? (I didn’t know that)

Fall-rise—in intensified questions.


Stimulus Response
It’s ˋyour ֽturn.
v
Is it?

Rise-fall — the speaker accepts what has been said and is im-
pressed by it.
Stimulus Response
He 'shot an ˋelephant. ^Did he!
They’ve 'nowhere to ˎlive. ^Haven’t they!

“Ship or Sheep”, unit 42 “The hat in the window”

Miss Brothers: I want to buy the hat in the window.


Assistant: There are three hats together in the window,
madam. Do you want the one with the feathers?
Miss Brothers: No. The other one.
Assistant: The small one for three pounds?
Miss Brothers: No. Not that one either. That one over there.
The leather
one.
Assistant: Ah! The leather one. Now this is another leather hat,
madam. It's better than the one in the window. It's a smoother
leather.
Miss Brothers: I'd rather have the one in the window. It goes
with my
clothes.
Assistant: Certainly, madam. But we don't take anything out of
the window until three o'clock on Thursday.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.

[D]

143
these with either
those bathe neither
they breathe northern
there booth southern
this smooth weather
that clothe rather

baths with Sid with Roy


youths breathe slower with wrath
paths clothe Sam clothe Ruth
booths writhe silently with Roger
truths soothe Simon soothe Rue
mouths bathe Sis bathe Rob

1. There! There! ['DFq ˋDFq] Успокойся.


2. And that’s that! [qnd 'Dxts ˋDxt] Вот так-то! (Вот и все!)
3. That’s neither here nor there. ['Dxts naIDq "hIq nO· ˋDFq]
Это ни к селу, ни к городу. (Это никуда не годиться.)
4. Then there’s another thing. [ֽDen DFqz qvnADq ֹTIN] И еще
одно.
5. There’s nothing like leather. [DFqz 'nATIN laIk ˋleDq] Всяк
кулик свое болото хвалит.
6. I’d do anything rather than that. [aId 'dH venITIN rRDq Dqn
ˋDxt] Я сделаю что угодно, только не это.
7. I don’t wish them other than they are. [aI ˋdqunt wIS Dqm
ˋADq Dqn DeI vR] Они мне нравятся такими, какие они есть.
8. You never know with the weather. [ju 'nevq ˋnqu wID Dq
weDq] Погода так часто меняется.
9. They couldn’t tell one brother from the other. [DeI 'kudnt tel
'wAn ֹbrADq frqm Di ˋADq] Они не могли отличить одного
брата от другого.
10. That means nothing other than the usual thing. ['Dxt ֹmJnz
'nATIN 'ADq Dqn Di ˋjHZuql "TIN] Это то же, что и обычно.
11. Then there’s that brother of mine. [ֽDen DFqz ֽDxt ^brADqr
qv ֽmaIn] И потом еще этот мой братец.
12. There’s no one there, neither mother nor father. [DFqz ˋnqu

144
wAn ֽDFq naIDq ˋmADq nO· ˋfRDq] Там никого нет, ни мамы ни
папы.
13. One law for the rich, another for the poor. ['wAn 'lL fq Dq
"rIC qvnADq fq Dq ˋpuq] Один закон для бедных, другой для
богатых.
14. They were gathered to their fathers. [DeI wq 'gxDqd tq DFq
ˎfRDqz] Они отправились к праотцам (умерли).
15. The Smiths keep themselves to themselves. [Dq 'smITs 'kJp
Dqm ֹselvz tq Dqmˎselvz] Смиты ведут уединенный образ
жизни.
16. This film is no worse than the others. [ˋDIs "fIlm Iz 'nqu
'wWs Dqn Di ˋADqz] Этот фильм не хуже других.
17. These are the things that matter. [ֽDJz q Dq ֽTINz Dqt ˋmxtq]
Именно эти вещи важны.
18. They are always bothering Father to do things for them.
[DeI qr ˋLlwqz bODqrIN ˋfRDq tq ֽdH ֽTINz fO· Dqm] Вечно они
заставляют отца что-то для них делать.
19. The less men think the more they talk. [Dq 'les ֹmen "TINk
Dq 'mO· DeI ˋtLk] (Montesquieu) Чем меньше люди думают,
тем больше они говорят.

1.
The more we study, the more we know,
The more we know, the more we forget.
The more we forget, the less we know.
The less we know, the less we forget.
The less we forget, the more we know.
Why study?

2. Toast
Here’s a health to all those that we love,
Here’s a health to all those that love us,
Here’s a health to all those that love them
That love those that love us!

“Dialectal differences”

145
v
Structurally, | the 'English 'language is ↑fairly homo"geneous |
'all over the ˋworld, | but there are 'marked 'differenced in
pro'nunciˋation be ֽtween its ֽmany ֽdialects. It is 'interesting to
'note that 'some of the most ˋstriking of these "differences | oc'cur
in the ↑small 'island of ˋBritain, | a ֽfact for which there ˋis of
"course | a 'perfectly 'logical his'torical explaˎnation. 'Visitors
from the U'nited 'States of A"merica, | where 'only ↑three 'main
'dialects are "recognized, | are 'often 'taken a'back when they 'hear
the ↑widely 'differing ˋBritish ֽaccents.
During the 'Second 'World "War, | a 'number of 'British
and A'merican me'chanics who were ↑stationed in a 'certain
'country in the ↑Near "East, | were 'living to'gether in 'local
ˋboarding ֽhouse. 'One 'day at "tea-time | an A'merican who
'hailed from "Kansas | was 'sitting 'opposite a ↑Yorkshireman who
had a 'strong 'local "accent | and 'two ˋLondoners, | one of whom
'spoke in the Reˋceived Pro ֽnunci"ation | while the 'other had a
'marked ˋCockney ֽaccent. After 'listening for 'some 'time to the
↑conver'sation of 'these "three, | the 'Kansan 'suddenly burst "in
with: “ˋSay, | ˋI ֽcan’t ֽfigure "out | "how you 'Britishers | underˋs-
tand one a ֽnother.”

“Stories for reproduction”. Text 9

A clerk who worked very hard and was usually very punctual
arrived at his office very late one morning. He had bruises on his
face, a scratch on one of his lips, sticking-plaster on his left wrist
and thumb, and a bandage on his right shoulder. He had also hurt
his knees, ankles and some of his toes.
The manager of the office was not a patient man, and he had
been waiting for the clerk, because he had some work to give him.
When he saw him come in at last, he said angrily, “You're an hour
late, Tomkins!”
“I know, sir,” answered the clerk politely. “I'm very sorry. My
flat is on the eighth floor, and just before I left home this morning,
while I was closing one of the windows, I slipped and fell out.”

146
“Well,” the manager answered coldly, “did that take you an
hour?”

147
LESSON 20

The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different


communicative types. Special questions

The most usual intonation contour for unemphatic special


questions is IC 1.

They sound “serious, intense, responsible”. Some English pho-


neticians also mention that special questions with this intonation
are sometimes used to suggest impatience and irritability.

Examples:
'What’s the ˎtime?
'How ˎmuch is it?
'When d’you get ˎup?
'Why did you ˎdo such a ֽstupid ֽthing?

IC 1a makes a special question sound “rather flat and unsym-


pathetic, quite often even hostile”.

Examples:
ֽWhat do you ˎwant it ֽfor?
ֽWhat’s so ˎdifficult a ֽbout it?
ֽWhy didn’t you ֽfind out ˎsooner?

When pronounced with IC2 special questions indicate that the


speaker is sympathetically interested.

Examples:

148
'Whose "is it?
'What’s your "name?
'How 'soon will they be "back?

Special questions addressed by a grown-up to a child are often


pronounced in this way.

IC 2a. With the nuclear tone on the interrogative word a spe-


cial question sounds wondering, mildly puzzled.

Examples:
"How 'often must he 'take it?
"When is he 'due?

When the nuclear tone follows the interrogative word the


question sounds calm but very disapproving, if not menacing.

Examples:
ֽWhere have you "been all this 'time?
And ֽwhy "shouldn’t I?
ֽWho’s ֽgoing to "pay for it?

IC 3 makes a special question sound interested, brisk, busi-


ness-like. There is none of the possible hostility sometimes con-
veyed by IC 1a, and none of the possible surprise or displeasure
of IC 3a.

Examples:
'What’s her ˋname?
'How long d’you in'tend being aˋway?
Then ˋwhy are you so ˋangry ֽwith him?

IC 3a expresses a lively and interested reaction to the situation.

149
Examples:
ˋHow?
Who’s ˋthat?
Where ˋelse have you ֽbeen?

With a low head the question sounds as if the speaker were


somewhat unpleasantly surprised.

Examples:
ֽWhy didn’t you ֽsay so beˋfore?
But ֽwhen did you ˋsee her?
ֽWhy ˋshould I?

IC 4, when used in a special question with the nuclear tone on


the interrogative word, calls for a repetition of the information al-
ready given.

Examples:
´What’s his 'name? (I 'didn’t 'quite ˋcatch it.)
´When can I 'phone you?

IC 5a makes a special question sound “plaintive, pleading,


weary; warm, affectionate, sympathetic”.

Examples:
Oh ˋwhy don’t you "listen, 'Charles?
ˋWhat’s made you ֽchange your "mind?
ˋWhen will you be "back?

150
With IC 6 a special question sounds “challenging, antagonistic,
disclaiming responsibility”.

Examples:
^What ֽbook?
^How?
'Why ^should I?
'What’s the 'good of 'doing ^that?
ֽWhat else ^can I say?

Articulation of the sound [m]

The consonant [m] is articulated with the lips slightly pressed


together, forming a complete obstruction to the air flow through
the mouth cavity. The soft palate is lowered and the air passes out
through the nasal cavity. The vocal cords are drawn near together
and vibrate.
Thus [m] may be defined as an occlusive nasal bilabial sonorant.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.

[m]

me him seems smoke


more hem sums smile
may ham times not me
my hum aims stop Mike
miss Tom rooms ask Ma
mess sum homes spilt milk

1. Come what may. [ˋkAm wOt v meI] Была не была.


2. Many and many a time. ['menI qnd 'menI q ˎtaIm] Очень
часто.

151
3. I’m melting. [aIm ˋmeltIN] Я изнемогаю от жары.
4. Make no mistake. [ˋmeIk nqu mIs"teIk] Безусловно. Будьте
уверены.
5. Mike’s a made man. ['maIks q ˋmeId ֽmxn] Майк добился
успеха (преуспел).
6. You might make my room. [ju· 'maIt 'meIk maI ˋrum]
Убери, пожалуйста, мою комнату.
7. I’m your man, Monty. [aIm ˋjO· ֽmxn ֽmOntI] Принимаю
ваше предложение, Монти.
8. Many men many minds. ['menI "men ֹmenI ˋmaIndz] Ум
хорошо, два лучше.
9. You mustn’t mind about me. [ju· ˋmAsnt ֽmaInd qbaut vmJ]
Без церемоний, не смущайтесь.
10. Minnie can’t make up her mind. ['mInI 'kRnt meIk 'Ap hq
ˋmaInd] Мини не может решиться.
11. The name slipped my memory. [Dq 'neIm 'slIpt maI
ˎmemqrI] Я забыл эту фамилию.
12. Mamie makes much of me. [vmeImI ֽmeIks ˋmAC qv mJ]
Мейми обо мне высокого мнения.
13. Come for a tramp tomorrow, Lam. ['kAm fqr q 'trxmp tqˋ-
mOrqu lxm] Приходи завтра, Лэм, мы пройдемся пешком.
14. If my memory serves me. [If maI 'memqrI "sWvz mi·] Если
память не изменяет мне.
15. That seems to me most improbable. [Dxt ˋsJmz tq mi· mqust
ImvprObqbl] Это кажется мне маловероятным.
16. Mrs. Smith is a most remarkable woman. [¯mIsIz "smIT Iz q
'mqust rIˋmRkqbl ֽwumqn] Миссис Смит – удивительная
женщина.
17. Mart knows no more about them than the man in the moon.
['mRt nquz 'nqu vmL qbaut Dqm Dqn Dq 'mxn In Dq "mHn] Март
абсолютно ничего о них не знает.
18. Must Mother make a mountain out of a molehill? [ˋmAst
mADq meIk q ֽmauntIn aut qv q "mqulhIl] Зачем мама делает из
мухи слона?
19. Just a moment, Mama. [ˋGAst q "mqumqnt mq·mR]

152
Подожди минутку, мама.

1. God Made the Bees

God made the bees,


And the bees make honey,
The miller’s man does all the work,
But the miller makes the money.

2. Summer-time
by Rosemary Garland

Summer is the play-by-the-stream time,


Roll-in-the-meadow-and-dream time,
Lie-on-your-back-and-chew-grass time,
Watch-butterflies-as-they-pass time,
Try-and-pick-daisies-with-toes time,
Playing-where-nobody-knows time.

“Ship or Sheep”, unit 43 “Mum’s crumpets”

Jim: Mum, may Tom Mitcham come home with me for tea to-
morrow?
Mrs. Smith: Of course, Jim. Have I met Tom before?
Jim: You met him in the summer. He's very small and smart.
Mrs. Smith: Oh, yes. I remember Tom. Does his family come
from Cambridge?
Jim: Yes. Oh, Mum! Will you make some home-made crum-
pets tomorrow?
Mrs. Smith: Mm…maybe. If I have time.
Jim: I told Tom about your crumpets, Mum. That's why he' s
coming for tea tomorrow.

Tone group 7
Such statements tend to sound soothing, reassuring. There is a
hint of great self-confidence or self-reliance in them, e. g.:
Where are you going? 'Just to ֹpost a "letter.
Are you ready to go? I 'shan’t be a "moment.

153
In echoed statements, i. e. those which repeat more or less
what has just been said by the other person, this tone group turns
the statement into a surprised and disbelieving question, e. g.:
He’s broken his leg. 'Broken his "leg?

By using Tone group 7 with special questions the speaker


wants to show interest not only in receiving the information
asked for but also in the listener himself, e. g.:
(Hullo, darling.) | 'What have you ֹgot "there?

In echoed questions this tine group shows disapproval of the


questions being asked, e. g.:
When are you going home? 'When am I 'going "home? |
(How dare you!)

This is the most common way of asking general questions; any


other tone group should be used only in special circumstances, e.
g.:
'Are you ֹcoming "with us?
'Did you en'joy the "play ֹ last 'night?

This tone group is rather commonly used with a few interjec-


tions. The effect is quite airy, casual, and encouraging, e. g.:
I’ve managed it at last. 'Well "done!
It’s my exam tomorrow. 'Good "luck!

Bright and friendly greetings belong here, e. g.:


¯Good "morning. ¯Hul"lo, ֹ there.

Leave-takings are almost invariably in this form:


¯Good "bye. ¯Good "night, ֹdear.

Tune I
(LOW PRE-HEAD +) STEPPING HEAD + LOW RISE (+
TAIL)
154
Tune II
HIGH PRE-HEAD + LOW RISE (+ TAIL)

155
156
LESSON 21

The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different


communicative types. Alternative questions

The most usual way of pronouncing alternative questions is to


make two sense-groups and to use a rising tone in the first sense-
group and a falling tone in the last one:
Would you like tea or coffee?
The final fall shows that these are the only choices and that the
list is complete.
In fast colloquial speech an alternative question may be re-
duced to one sense-group with no rise of tone in the middle:
'Would you like tea or coffee?

Articulation of the sound [n]

The consonant [n] is articulated with the tongue tip touching


the alveolar ridge (apical articulation), forming a complete ob-
struction to the air flow through the mouth cavity. The soft palate
is lowered. The air passes out through the nasal cavity. The vocal
cords are drawn near together and vibrate.
Thus [n] may be defined as an occlusive nasal forelingual apical
alveolar sonorant.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[n]

no in since
now on aunt
near sun pence
knee moon science
nor send sent
new learn learnt

ninth often unreal


tenth snow inroad
panther written sunrise
southern cotton run races
157
in the sputnik in writing
northern button in richness

1. Now and then. ['nau qnd "Den] Время от времени.


2. Rain or shine. ['reIn q ˋSaIn] В любую погоду.
3. No nonsense now! ['nqu ˋnOnsqns "nau] Пожалуйста, без
глупостей! Возьмись за ум.
4. On no account. [On ˋnqu q ֽkaunt] Ни в коем случае.
5. No offence intended. ['nqu q'fens InˎtendId] Я не хотел
обидеть вас.
6. In any event. [In ˋenI I ֽvent] В любом случае.
7. Any news? No news. ['enI ´njHz ´nqu njHz] Есть новости?
Нет новостей.
8. Nick is no genius. [ˋnIk Iz ˋnqu vGJnjqs] Ник не блещет
умом.
9. I’ve been and gone and done it! [aIv 'bJn qnd 'gOn qn ˋdAn
It] А все же у меня это получилось!
10. Brown, Jones and Robinson. [´braun ´Gqunz qnd ˋrObInsqn]
Простые рядовые англичане.
11. What’s done cannot be undone. ['wOts "dAn 'kxnOt bi· ˋAn
ֽdAn] Что сделано, то сделано.
12. You’ve found an elephant on the moon. [juv 'faund qn
'elqfqnt On Dq ˎmHn] Ты попал пальцем в небо.
13. Nanny left no stone unturned. ['nxnI left 'nqu ֹstqun
ֹAnˋtWnd] Ненни не жалела сил.
14. One man, no man. [vwAn ֹmxn ˋnqu mxn] Один в поле не
воин.
15. Don’t run the man down. [ֽdqunt ֽrAn Dq mxn "daun] Не
говори об этом человеке с пренебрежением.
16. It’s no concern of mine. [Its ˋnqu kqnsWn qv vmaIn] Это не
мое дело.
17. I know Nanna by name only. [aI 'nqu 'nxnq baI 'neIm ˋqunlI]
Я знаю Нанну только по имени.
18. No sooner said than done. ['nqu 'sHnq "sed Dqn ˋdAn]
Сказано – сделано.

158
19. In need men know their friends. [In "nJd ֹmen 'nqu DFq
ˋfrendz] Друзья познаются в беде.
20. Money spent on the brain is never spent in vain. ['mAnI
'spent On Dq "breIn Iz 'nevq spent InˋveIn] Деньги, потраченные
на образование, никогда не пропадают.

1. Night
by William Blake

The sun descending in the west,


The evening star does shine,
The birds are silent in their nest,
And I must seek for mine.
The moon like a flower,
In heaven’s high bower,
With silent delight
Sits and smiles on the night.

2.
by Bertha R. Hudelson

If many men knew


What many men know,
If many men went
Where many men go,
If many men did
What many men do,
The world would be better —
I think so; don’t you?

“Ship or sheep”, unit 44 “At an Accommodation Agency”

Mr. Mason: Good morning. I want an apartment in central


London.
Manager: Certainly, sir. How much rent did you want to pay?
Mr. Mason: No more than £ 27 a month.
Manager: £ 27 a month? We don't often have apartments as
inexpensive as that. We have one apartment for £ 29 a month in
159
Northern Avenue. It's down near the station.
Mr. Mason: Is it furnished?
Manager: No, it’s unfurnished. The kitchen has no oven. It's
forbidden to use the garden. No friends in the apartment after
eleven in the evening. No noise and no television after 11,15. No...
Mr. Mason: No, thank you! I want an apartment, not a prison.

W. Shakespeare “Sonnet 29” (+ translation)

'When in dis"grace | with 'fortune and 'men's "eyes, |


I 'all a'lone be↑weep my 'outcast ˎstate |
And 'trouble ↑deaf 'Heaven with my ↑bootless "cries, |
And 'look upon my"self | and ˋcurse my ˎfate, |
'Wishing me 'like to 'one ↑more 'rich in "hope, |
ˋFeatur’d like "him, | like ˋhim with ˋfriends posˎsess’d, |
De'siring ˋthis man's ֽart | and ˋthat man's ˋscope, |
With 'what I ↑most en"joy | con'tented ˎleast;
'Yet | 'in these 'thoughts my'self ˋalmost desvpising, |
↘Haply I ↘think on ˎthee, | and 'then my 'state
'Like to the 'lark | at 'break of 'day a´rising |
From 'sullen "earth | 'sings ˋhymns | at ˋheaven's ˎgate;

For 'thy ↑sweet ˎlove re^member'd | 'such ^wealth ֽbrings, |


That 'then I ^scorn | to ˋchange my ˋstate with ˎkings.

В. Шекспир «Сонет 29»

Когда в немилости у счастья и людей,


Я плачу над моей проклятою судьбою,
И глухи небеса на вопль души моей,
И жребий свой кляну с бесплодною тоскою;

Ревную ли к тому, кто посреди друзей


Надеждами богат и блещет красотою;
Завидую ли тем, кто кажется сильней
Меня талантами, успехом пред толпою,

160
И презирать себя средь этих дум готов.
Лишь вспомню о тебе — и вновь здоров душою,
Несется песнь моя до дальних облаков,
Как жаворонка звон над темною землею.

О, велики, мой друг, дары любви твоей,


И доля царская ничтожна перед ней!
(перевод Д. Аверкиева)

161
LESSON 22

The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different


communicative types. Disjunctive questions

Utterances of this type represent a curious blend of a statement


and a question. From the point of view of their grammatical struc-
ture they consist of a declarative sentence, followed by a mini-
question: “They know about it, don’t they?”, or “They don’t know
about it, do they?”
One might expect that since the final part of the structure is in-
terrogative, the communicative aim of the utterance is also inter-
rogative.
In actual speech, however, the utterance acquires its final
shape and a definite aim only after a definite intonation pattern
has been superimposed on it.
In disjunctive questions the predominance of the declarative or
of the interrogative part is finally settled by intonation.
Disjunctive questions usually consist of two sense-groups: the
statement makes the first sense-group, and the question-phrase
makes the second:
They ˎknow about it, | "don’t they?

There are two main variants of this structure, which are very
often used in colloquial English. They differ in their linguistic
function according to the tones used on them.

Compare:
a) You 'met my 'brother in the Criˎmea, | "didn’t you?
b) You 'met my 'brother in the Criˎmea, | ˎdidn’t you?

The sequence of tones is used when the speaker, stat-


ing a fact, expects the listener to confirm the correctness of the
idea; in other words, he means to provoke the listener’s reaction.

With the sequence of tones the speaker conveys the


impression that he is not only convinced that what he says is

162
right, but also that he is sure that his listener agrees. That is why,
when exchanging remarks about the weather, and when both the
speaker and the listener are in the same place, the only possible
intonation for such utterance as “It’s a fine day, isn’t it?” is the se-

quence of tones: ; the other alternative – would


sound strange (if not absurd), as it retains interrogation, which is
out of place under the circumstances.
It is also obvious that when the so-called disjunctive question
is used as an affirmative reaction to a statement, its intonation can

be only the sequence of tones , e.g. —

Stimulus Response
I 'think it’s a deˋlightful place. It ˋis, | ˋisn’t it?

Disjunctive questions may be pronounced not only with the

sequence of tones and as described above, but


also with the following sequences of tones.

Examples:

a) You could "buy one, | "couldn’t you?

b) It wasn’t "my 'fault, | ˋwas it?

c) You 'mean last vMarch, | "don’t you?

d) It’s ˋnot too "big, | ˋis it?

In example (a)—a hesitant statement is followed by an inter-


rogative tag; final result — a question.
In example (b) — a hesitant statement is followed by a state-
ment-like tag (emphatic); final result — a statement.
In example (c) — an implicatory statement (correcting the in-
terlocutor) is followed by an interrogative tag; final result — a
question.

163
In example (d) — an emphatic, non-categoric: statement is fol-
lowed by a statement-like question; final result—an emphatic
statement.
Thus the tone used in the declarative part of a disjunctive
question expresses the speaker's view of the situation, while the
tone used in the question-tag anticipates the listener's attitude.
As a rule, after a disjunctive question pronounced with this se-

quence of tones , an answer follows; after a disjunctive

question pronounced with this sequence of tones , where


the second falling tone cancels the interrogation contained in the
question-tag, the speaker often continues speaking, expecting no
reaction form the listener.
Attention should be paid to general questions with a logical
stress on the subject, which are added as a question-tag to a
declarative sentence, e.g. —

I 'never ˋheard of such a ֽthing, | did "you?


I 'call that ˎbad, | don’t "you?
I 'shouldn’t 'mind some ˋtea, | would "you?

Since their grammatical structure is similar to that of disjunc-


tive questions, the two communicatively different types can be
easily confused. It must be pointed out that in a disjunctive ques-
tion the subject of the declarative part and the subject of the ques-
tion-tag is the same, while the appearance of a new subject in the
tag inevitably shifts the nucleus to it, in order to contrast the two
subjects.

Compare:
He has 'no 'sense of ˋhumour, | ˋhas he? (a disjunctive
question)
He has 'no 'sense of ˋhumour, | has "she? (a statement + a
general question)

Articulation of the sound [N]

164
The consonant [N] is articulated with the back of the tongue
raised and touching the soft palate thus forming a complete ob-
struction to the air flow through the mouth cavity. The soft palate
is lowered and the air passes out through the nasal cavity. The vo-
cal cords are drawn near together and vibrate.
Thus [N] may be defined as an occlusive nasal back lingual velar
sonorant.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[N]

sing sings singing finger think


sang tongues ringing stronger uncle
song longs banging anger anchor
sung fangs learning English monkey
young Young’s talking jungle ankle

21. Nothing’s wrong. [ˋnATINz "rON] Все в порядке.


22. Things’re mending. [ֽTINz q "mendIN] Дела поправляются.
23. Bring them along. ['brIN Dqm qvlON] Введите их.
(Приведите их.)
24. Thanks for calling. ['TxNks fq ˋkLlIN] Спасибо, что
пришли (позвонили).
25. Stop fidgeting, it’s annoying. [ˋstOp "fIGItIN Its qˋnOIIN]
Не вертись, это невыносимо.
26. We’re getting things moving. [wi· q 'getIN TINz "mHvIN]
Дело пошло.
27. Everything’s going wrong. [ˋevrITINz ֽgquIN ֽrON] Все
идет вкривь и вкось.
28. Inga’s poking and prying. ['INgqz 'pqukIN qnd ˎpraIN] Инга
всюду сует свой нос.
29. Saying and doing are two things. ['seIIN qnd "dHIN q 'tH ˎT-
INz] Важны дела, а не слова.
30. Anything’s better than going on doing nothing. [^qnITINz
ֽbetq Dqn gquIN ֽOn dHIN vnATIN] Любое занятие лучше
безделья.
31. No one like Duncan for saying the wrong thing. ['nqu wAn

165
laIk ˋdANkqn fq ֽseIIN Dq ֽrON "TIN] Дункан не имеет себе
равных в умении говорить невпопад.
32. You are fancying and imagining things. [ju· q 'fxnsIIN qnd
IˋmxGInIN TINz] Все это только плод твоего воображения.
33. I think Uncle’s keeping something back. [aI 'TINk ֹANklz
'kJpIN ֹsAmTIN "bxk] Я думаю, дядюшка что-то утаивает.
34. Inga’s way of doing things is singular. [ˋINgqz ֽweI qv
ֽdHIN "TINz Iz ˋsINgjulq] Инга все делает своеобразно.
35. Spring is looking at the thing form the wrong angle. [ֽsprIN
Iz ֽlukIN qt Dq ֽTIN frqm Dq 'rON ˋxNgl] У Спринга неверная
точка зрения на это.
36. A creaking door hangs long on its hinges. [q 'krJkIN "dL
hxNz ˋlON On Its ֽhInGIz] Скрипучее дерево два века стоит.
37. Anything damaging in sitting and smoking? ['enITIN
´dxmqGIN In 'sItIN qnd ´smqukIN] Что, нельзя сидеть и курить?
38. Some Englishmen are murdering King’s English. [vsAm ֹIN-
glISmqn q ˋmWdqrIN kINz ˋINglIS] Некоторые англичане
ужасно коверкают литературный английский язык.
39. The whole thing’s being a roaring success. [Dq 'hqul "TINz
bJIN q ˋrLrIN sqkֽses] Это чрезвычайно процветающее дело.
40. Frank’s anxious to start earning his living. ['frxnks 'xNkSqs
tq 'stRt 'WnIN hIz ˋlIvIN] Фрэнку не терпится начать
зарабатывать на жизнь.

1. Old Ellen Sullivan


by Winifred Welles

Down in our cellar on a Monday and a Tuesday,


You should hear the slapping and the rubbing and the muttering,
You should see the bubbles and the steaming and the splashing.
The dark clothes dripping and the white clothes fluttering.

Where old Ellen Sullivan


Cross Ellen Sullivan,
Kind Ellen Sullivan,
Is washing and ironing, and ironing and washing.

166
Like a gnarled old root, like a bulb, brown and busy,
With earth and air and water angrily tussling,
Hissing at the flatirons, getting hot and huffy,
Then up to the sunlight with the baskets bustling
Comes old Ellen Sullivan,
Cross Ellen Sullivan,
Kind Ellen Sullivan,
The clothes like blossoms, all sweet and fresh and fluffy.

2. Night is Ended
by Joe Wallace

March in mighty millions pouring,


Forges flaring, cannon roaring,
Life and Death in final warring
Call you, Workingmen!

At your benches planning, speeding,


In the trenches battling, bleeding,
Yours the help the world is needing,
Answer, Workingmen!

“Ship or sheep”, unit 45 “Noisy Neighbours”

Mr. Pring: (angrily) Bong! Bong! Bong! What are the Kings
doing at seven o'clock on Sunday morning?
Mrs. Pring: Well, Mr. King is singing.
Mr. Pring: Yes, but what's the banding noise?
Mrs. Pring: (looking out of the window) He's standing on a
ladder and banging some nails into the wall with a hammer. Now
he's handing some strong string on the nails.
Mr. Pring: And what's Mrs. King doing?
Mrs. Pring: She's bringing something pink for Mr. King to
drink. Now she's putting it under the ladder, and... Ohh!
Mr. Pring: What's happening?
Mrs. Pring: The ladder's falling.
Mr. Pring: What's Mr. King going?
Mrs. Pring: He's handing from the string. He's holding the
string in his fingers and he's shouting to Mrs. King.
Mr. Pring: And is she helping him?
167
Mrs. Pring: No. She's running to our house. Now she’s ringing
our bell.
Mr. Pring: I'm not going to answer I'm sleeping.

“Tea”

The 'trouble with vtea | is that ovriginally it was 'quite a ˎgood


'drink. ¯So a 'group of the most ↘eminent British vscientists 'put
their 'heads to´gether, | and made ˋcomplicated 'bioˋlogical
exvperiments to ֽfind a ֽway of ˎspoiling it.
To the e'ternal ˋglory | of 'British ˎscience | their ´labour | 'bore
ˎfruit. They sugˋgested that if you do ˋnot drink it "clear, | or
with "lemon| or 'rum and vsugar, | but 'pour a ↑few ˎdrops of 'cold
v
milk into it, | and 'no 'sugar at ˋall, | the deˋsired ˋobject is
aˎchieved. ´Once | 'this re´freshing, | 'aro´matic, | 'ori'ental ˎbev-
erage | was suc'cessfully 'transvformed into ´colourless and ˋtaste-
less ˋgargling-ֽwater, | it 'suddenly be'came the ˋnational ֽdrink of
'Great "Britain and ˎIreland — 'still reˋtaining, | in'deed uˋsurp-
ing, | the ˎhigh-ˎsounding ˎtitle of ˎtea.
There are 'some oc"casions when you must ˋnot re ֽfuse a ֽcup
of ֽtea, | ´otherwise | you are ˋjudged an e´xotic and ˋbarbarous
"bird |without ^any hope of ˋever being ֽable to ֽtake your ֽplace
in ˎcivilized soˋciety.
'If you are inˋvited | to an ↘English vhome, | at ˋ5 o’clock in
the ´morning | you 'get a 'cup of ˋtea. It is ֽeither ֽbrought in by a
ˋheartily ֽsmiling ´hostess | or an ↘almost ma↘levolently ↘silent
ˋmaid. 'When you are disvturbed | in your 'sweetest 'morning
ˎsleep | you must 'not 'say: “ˋMadame (or ˎMabel), I 'think you
are a ˋcruel, ˋspiteful and maˋlignant ˋperson who deˋserves to
be ˋshot.” On the ˋcontrary, | you 'have to de'clare with your
↑best '5 o’clock 'smile: “ˋThank you ˎso much. I 'do aˎdore a 'cup
of 'early 'morning ˎtea, | es'pecially ˎearly in the ˎmorning.” If

168
they 'leave you aˎlone with the ֽliquid, | you may ˎpour it ˎdown
the ˎwash-basin.
Then ˎyou have ˎtea for ˎbreakfast; ˎthen you have ˎtea at
ˎ11 o’ˎclock in the ´morning; then 'after ´lunch; 'then you have
'tea for ´tea; then 'after ´supper; and a↘gain at ↘11 o↘’clock at
ˋnight. You must 'not re'fuse ↑any adˋditional ֽcups of "tea | un-
der the ˋfollowing ֽcircumֽstances: if it is ´hot; if it is "cold; if you
are "tired; if 'anybody ˋthinks that you ˋmight be ´tired; if you
are ´nervous; if you are ´gay; be'fore you go ´out; 'if you ´are
out; if you have 'just re'turned ´home; if you ´feel 'like it; if you
do ´not feel 'like it; if you have had ˋno tea for some "time; if you
have 'just ˋhad a ֽcup.
You 'definitely must ˋnot follow my eֽxample. 'I ˎsleep at ֽ5
o’ֽclock in the ˋmorning; I have ˋcoffee for ˋbreakfast; I 'drink in-
ˋnumerable ˋcups of ˋblack ˋcoffee during the ˋday; I have the
most 'un'orthodox | and eˋxotic vteas | 'even at ˋtea-time.
The 'other ˎday, for ֽinstance — I must ˎmention this as a
ˋterrifying eˋxample to ֽshow you ˋhow 'low some ˋpeople can
ˎsink — I 'wanted a 'cup of "coffee | and a 'piece of "cheese | for
ˎtea. It was 'one of those exˋceptionally 'hot ˎdays | and my vwife
| (ֽonce a ֽgood English ֽwoman, ֽnow comֽpletely and ˎhope-
lessly led aֽstray by my ˎwicked ˎforeign "influence) | 'made some
↑cold ˎcoffee | and 'put it in the reˎfrigerator, | where it "froze |
and became ˋone ˋsolid ˎblock. On the ´other 'hand, | she 'left
the ˋcheese on the ´kitchen 'table, | where it ˎmelted. So I 'had a
ˋpiece of ´coffee | and a ˋglass of ˋcheese.
LESSON 23

The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different


communicative types. Commands and requests

IC 1 is the most usual intonation pattern for firm, serious,

169
weighty commands.

Examples:
'Show me your ˎtickets, | ֽmadam.
'Don’t you ˎworry.

IC 1a makes a command sound calm, unemotional, often cold.

Examples:
ˎDon’t. ˎDo. ֽTry ֽsome of the ˎother ֽkeys on the
ֽ unch.
b

IC 2 sounds soothing, encouraging, calmly patronizing.

Examples:
'Cheer "up.
'Don’t "worry.
'Have a good "time.
'Send me a 'line and 'let me 'know 'how you get "on.

IC 2a in commands beginning with “Don’t” sounds reprov-


ingly critical, resentful; in a few short commands — calmly warn-
ing, exhortative.

Examples:
ֽDon’t ֽdo "that. "Slowly. "Gently. "Careful.
IC 3 gives a command a ring of warmth, suggesting a course of
action to the listener.

Examples:
'Come ˋin.

170
'Buy yourself an umˋbrella.
'Take it 'back and ˋchange it.

IC 3a is essentially the same as IC 3, but often adds a note of


critical surprise.

Examples:
ˋTry it.
ֽLook it ֽup in the ˋtime-table.

IC 5 expresses an urgent warning with a note of reproach or


concern.

Examples:
v
Careful. vHelp me. vRun. ↘Mind you don’t vfall.

IC 5a is used plaintively, sometimes reproachfully, pleadingly,


reassuringly.

Examples:
ˋCheer "up.
ˋDo for"give me.
ˋPlease don’t ֽbother on "my ac'count.
ֽDon’t take ˋany "notice.

IC 6 sounds as if the speaker were disclaiming responsibility.

Stimulus Response
I ֽdon’t ˋwant to ֽplay. ^Don’t, then.

171
Their 'phone is 'out of ˋorder. ^Write to them, in ֽthat case.

Articulation of the sound [l]

The consonant [l] has two variants in English.


One is called the “clear” [l]. It is used before vowels and [j],
e.g. lesson, live.
The second is called the "dark" [l]. It is used before consonants
and in word-final position, e.g. children. When followed bу a
vowel or the sonorant [j] in context the clear variant is used.
In pronouncing both variants of the consonant [l] the tongue
tip is slightly pressed against the alveolar ridge while the sides of
the tongue are lowered forming rather wide passages. The air
passes along these-channels without audible friction. As a result,
in the articulation of [l] tone prevails over noise.
In the articulation of the clear variant of the phoneme [l] the
front of the tongue is raised in the direction of the hard palate
(tongue-front co-articulation). This slightly palatalizes the sound.
In the articulation of the dark variant the back of the tongue is
raised in the direction of the soft palate (tongue-back co-articula-
tion). This gives a dark colouring to the sound.
In the articulation of both variants of [l] the vocal cords are
drawn near together and vibrate.
Thus [l] may be defined as a constrictive lateral forelingual apical
alveolar sonorant, pronounced with tongue-front co-articulation in
the clear variant and with tongue-back co-articulation in the dark
variant.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.
[l]
lead large will
learn low tell
late loiter shall
light look full
lip lot all
left loom yell

will you health all the

172
tell you wealth well then
shall you filth kill the
full yet stealth will these
all young Bill thinks shall those
yell yes all things all the things

ultra play fly


will try plan flew
shall draw plus sleep
all trees cloud slip
all dry close wash Lucy
all tricks club worth
learning

1. Live and learn. ['lIv qnd ˋlWn] Век живи, век учись.
2. Adults only. ['xdqlts ˋqunlI] Детям до 16 лет вход
воспрещен.
3. It’s a small world. [Its q 'smLl ˋwWld] Мир тесен.
4. Let well alone. ['let ֹwel qˋlqun] От добра добра не ищут.
5. Lillian left the library at eleven o’clock. ['lIljqn 'left Dq
v
laIbrqrI qt I'levn qˎklOk] Лилиан ушла из библиотеки в 11
часов.
6. Will you please lay the table? [wIl ju· 'plJz ֹleI Dq "teIbl]
Накрой, пожалуйста, на стол.
7. Liz complains of the feeling ill. ['lIz kqm'pleInz qv ˋfJlIN vIl]
Лиз жалуется, что плохо себя чувствует.
8. Len is a likely lad. ['len Iz q ˋlaIklI ֽlxd] Лен – смышленый
паренек.
9. Lu’s absolutely lovely. ['lHz 'xbsqlHtlI ˋlAvlI] Лу
обворожительна.
10. Larry is pulling your leg. ['lxrI Iz 'pulIN jO· ˋleg] Лэрри
дурачит вас.
11. Lyle holds himself aloof. ['laIl 'hquldz hImself qˋlHf] Лайл
держится особняком.
12. It’s Lola herself as large as life. [¯Its ˋlqulq hq'self qz 'lRG qz

173
ˋlaIf] А вот и Лола собственной персоной.
13. Lynn was blamed for the devil and all. ['lIn wqz 'bleImd fq
Dq 'devl qnd ˋLl] Лина обвиняли во всем.
14. Really, all your children look alike. [ˋrIqlI ˋLl jO· ֽCIldrqn
ֽluk qvlaIk] Правда, все ваши дети похожи друг на друга.
15. Luke always travels by land. ['lHk 'Llwqz 'trxvlz baI ˋlxnd]
Льюк всегда путешествует по суше.
16. He that lives with cripples learns to limp. ['hJ Dqt ֹlIvz wID
"krIplz 'lWnz tq ˋlImp] С кем поведешься, от того и наберешься.
17. Please all, and you will please none. ['plJz vLl qnd ju wIl 'plJz
ˋnAn] Угождая всем, не угодишь никому.
18. Only an elephant can bear an elephant’s load. ['qunlI qn
ˋelIfqnt kqn ֽbFqr qn 'elIfqnts ˋlqud] Большому кораблю –
большое плавание.
19. In this life he laughs longest who laughs last. [In ˋDIs "laIf
'hJ lRfs 'lONIst hu 'lRfs ˋlRst] Дольше всех смеется тот, кто
смеется последний.

1. "I'll Try" and "I Can't"


by R. L. Stevenson

The little boy who says "I'll try",


Will climb to the hill-top;
The little boy who says "I can't",
Will at the bottom stop.

2. The Lama
by Ogden Nash

The one-l lama, And I will bet


He's a priest. A silk pajama
The two-l llama, There isn't any
He's a beast. Three-l lllama.

3. Theme in Yellow

174
by Carl Sandburg

I spot the hills And circle- round me


With yellow balls in autumn Singing ghost songs
I light the prairie cornfields And love to the harvest
Orange and tawny gold clusters moon,
And I am called pumpkins. I am a jack-o'-lantern
On the last of October With terrible teeth
When dusk is fallen And the children know
Children join hands I am fooling.

“Ship or sheep”, unit 46 “Early for Lunch”

Mr. Allen: Hello, Lily. You're looking lovely today.


Waitress: Hello, Mr. Allen. You're early for lunch. It's only
eleven o’clock.
Mr. Allen: When I come later there's usually nothing left.
Waitress: What would you like?
Mr. Allen: Leg of lamb, please.
Waitress: And would you like a plate of salad? It's lettuce with
black olives.
Mr. Allen: Marvelous! I love olives.
Waitress: And would you like a glass of lemonade?
Mr. Allen: Yes, please, Lily. And a slice of melon and some
yellow jelly.

W. Wordsworth “Daffodils”

I wandered lonely as a cloud


That floats on high o’er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
Continuous as the stars that shine
And twinkle on the milky way,
They stretched in never ending line
Along the margin of a bay;
Ten thousand saw I at a glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance
175
The waves beside them danced, but they
Out did the sparkling waves in glee:
A poet could not but be gay,
In such a jocund company.
I gazed – and gazed – but little thoughts
What wealth the show to me had brought:

For oft when on my couch I lie


In vacant or in pensive mood
They flash upon that inward eye
Which in the bliss of solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure fills,
And dances with the daffodils.

176
LESSON 24

The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different


communicative types. Exclamations and interjections

The most typical exclamatory intonation is achieved by using


IC 1. It makes the utterance sound weighty and emphatic.

Examples:
'Well ˎdone!
'How riˎdiculous!
'What a reˎlief!
What 'ghastly 'weather for Juˎly!
'How exˎtraordinary!

IC 1a makes an exclamation sound calm, unsurprised, re-


served.

Examples:
ˎGood. ˎAwful. ֽNot ˎbad. How ֽvery ˎstrange!

IC 2 is used to express airy, casual yet encouraging, often


friendly exclamations. They sound brighter than when IC 2a is
used.

Examples:
'Well "done! 'Hard "luck! ¯In"deed!

IC 2a is used when the speaker is reserving judgement or casu-


ally acknowledging a fact.

Examples:
177
"Oh! "Thanks! ֽNice "work!

IC 3 renders the exclamation (or interjection) more emotional


but less weighty than when said with IC 1.

Examples:
'How ˋawkward!
'What a ˋshame!
'Well ˋdone!
The 'very iˋdea of it!
What an ˋage he’s ֽtaking!

IC 3a has very much the same effect as IC 3, but with a low


head, surprise is added to the utterance.

Examples:
ˋOh!
ˋNonsense!
ˋThere’s a ֽclever ֽboy!
ˋThat’s a ֽgood ֽgirl!
What ֽwonderful ˋnews!
How ֽabsolutely ˋmarvelous!
ֽNot in the ˋleast!

When IC 5a is used in exclamations, it may express warmth,


appreciation, sympathy or encouragement; or occasionally puz-
zlement or surprise.

Examples:

178
ˋAll "right!
ˋWhat a "pity!
ˋPoor old "Peter!
ˋHalf a "minute!

IC 6 is used when the speaker is impressed.

Examples:
^Splendid!
^Nonsense!
How ^marvelous!
How 'very 'nice of you to re^member!

“Ship or sheep”, unit 47 “A Spoilt Little Boy in the Bicycle Shop”

Paul: What a beautiful bicycle!


Uncle Bill: Paul! Be careful!
Salesman: Excuse me, sir. This child is too small to ride this
bicycle. It's a very difficult bicycle to…
Uncle Bill: Be careful, Paul!
Paul: You always tell me to be careful. Don't help me. I won't
fall.
Salesman: But, sir. This is a very special bicycle. It’s…
Paul: Don't pull the bicycle, Uncle Bill. I'll do it myself.
Uncle Bill: Be sensible, Paul. This gentleman says it's a…
(Paul falls)
Paul: It was Uncle Bill's fault. He was holding the bicycle.

S. T. Coleridge “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”.

The 'sun now 'rose u'pon the ˎright, |


'Out of ˋsea | came ˎhe;
'Still 'hid in 'mist | and 'on the 'left |
Went ˋdown into the ֽsea.
 

179
And the 'good 'south 'wind | 'still 'blew be'hind;
But 'no sweet 'bird did ˎfollow, |
'Nor any 'day for 'food or 'play |
'Came to the 'mariners’ ˎhollo!
 
And ֽI had ֽdone a ֽhellish ֽthing, |
And it would ֽwork‘em ˎwoe:
For 'all a'verred I had 'killed the 'bird
That 'made the ˎbreeze to ֽblow.
“'Ah! ˋwretch!” said ֽthey, | ” the ˋbird to "slay
That 'made the ˋbreeze to ֽ blow.
 
'Nor dim | 'nor red , | like 'God’s own 'head, |
The 'glorious 'sun upˎrist:
Then 'all a'verred I had ˋkilled the "bird |
That 'brought the ↑fog and "mist.
 “T’was ˋright” said they, | “such ˋbirds to "slay |
That 'bring the "fog | and "mist”.

The 'fair 'breeze 'blew, | the 'white 'foam 'flew, |


The 'furrow 'followed 'free; 
'We were the ˋfirst | that ever ˋburst |
'Into that ˋsilent ֽsea.

'Down ˋdropt the "breeze, | the "sails | 'dropt "down,


T’was 'sad as 'sad could 'be;
And 'we did 'speak | 'only to 'break
The ˋsilence | of the ˎsea!
 
'All in a 'hot and 'copper 'sky,
The 'bloody 'sun at 'noon |
'Right up above the 'mast did 'stand, |
No ˋbigger | than the ˎmoon.
 'Day after 'day, | 'day after 'day, |
We 'stuck, nor 'breath nor 'motion,
As 'idle as a 'painted 'ship
180
U'pon a 'painted ˎocean.
 
'Water, | 'water | 'every'where, |
And 'all the 'boards did 'shrink;
'Water, | 'water | 'every'where, |
'Nor any drop to "drink.
 
The very ˋdeep did ֽrot; - 'O ˋChrist!
That 'ever this should ˋbe!
'Yea, 'slimy 'things did 'crawl with 'legs
U'pon the 'slimy ˎsea.
 
Aˎbout, | aˎbout | in 'reel and 'rout
The ↑death-fires 'danced at 'night;
The vwater, | like a 'witch’s "oils, |
Burnt 'green and 'blue and 'white.

 
And 'some in "dreams, | as"sured were |
Of the 'spirit that 'plagued us 'so;
'Nine ˋfathom ֽdeep he had "followed us |
From the 'land of 'mist and 'snow.
 
And 'every "tongue, | through 'utter 'drought, |
Was 'withered at the ˎroot;
We 'could not ˎspeak, | no 'more than 'if
We 'had been 'choked with ˎsoot.
 
'Ah! 'well a-ˎday! what ˋevil "looks |
Had 'I from 'old and ˎyoung!
In'stead of the ´cross, | the 'Albatross |
A'bout my ˎneck was ˎhung.
Tone group 8

Complete statements with this tone group have the effect of

181
questions, e. g.:
You ´like him? is equivalent to 'Do you "like him?
´Sugar? is equivalent to 'Do you ֹ take "sugar?

When the nuclear tone is on the interrogative word in special


questions, Tone Group 8 calls for the repetition of information al-
ready given, e. g.:
´What was his ֹname again? | (I’ve forgotten.)

When the nuclear tone is not on the interrogative word, the


speaker is often echoing the listener’s question in order to get it
clear in his mind before giving an answer, e. g.:
How many children has he? 'How ´many?

General questions may be echoed questions, e. g.:


Is it raining? 'It is ´raining, did you ֹsay?

This tone group is particularly common with short commands,


designed to keep the conversation going, e. g.:
I’ve just seen John. ´Have you?

Tune I
HIGH RISE (+ TAIL)
It’s ˋsnowing. ´Much?
I’ve 'just ֹseen the ˋEdwards ֽgirl. ´Joan ֹ Edwards?
'Can I 'borrow some "matches? ´Matches? | (By ˋall
ֽmeans.)
I’ve 'got to ֹgo to ˋLeeds. ´You’ve got to ֹgo?
'Who’s 'Archibald ˎSimpson? ´Who, did you ֹsay? | (or
ˎhow?)

ֽֽHow did he find ˋout? ´How did he find ֹout? |


(Through ˋMax, I i"mag-
ine.)
'Can you "make me ֹone? ´Make you ֹone? | (With

182
ˋpleasure.)
'Wasn’t it ˎstupid? ´Was it so ֹstupid, I
ֹwonder?
What 'lovely ˎcherries! ´Want ֹsome?
I ˋlike "Barbara. ´Do you?
ˋTelephone me, ֽthen. ´Telephone you? | (How
ˋcan I?)

Tune II
LOW PRE-HEAD + HIGH RISE (+ TAIL)

Tune III
(LOW PRE-HEAD +) STEPPING HEAD + HIGH RISE
(+ TAIL)

183
184
LESSON 25

The use of the tones in the sentences containing more


than one sense-group

In sentences containing more than one sense-group, the choice


of tone for the final sense-group is determined by the communica-
tive type of the sentence, e.g. a categoric statement, an ordinary
special question, a command, an exclamation require a falling
tone, while a non-categoric statement, a general question, a re-
quest require a rising tone, and a statement with implication re-
quires a falling-rising tone, etc.
In the choice of tone to be used in a non-final souse-group one
should be guided by the degree of semantic completeness of this
sense-group, its semantic importance in comparison with the sub-
sequent sense-group, and its independence of what comes after it.
Thus, the sequence of tones in sentences of more than one sense-
group (this sequence can be graphically represented by the fol-

lowing possible variants: ) is de-


rived form the content and the aim of the sentence as a whole, and
the semantic weight of its parts, represented by its sense-groups.
The falling tone is used in a non-final sense-group that makes
complete sense and can stand by itself, being more or less inde-
pendent of the subsequent sense-group.
Example:
It was 'cold and ˋcomfortless, | for there was 'no ˎfire in the
ֽgate.

The rising tone is used in a non-final sense-group that is not


fully understandable, cannot stand by itself, and is closely con-
nected in meaning with the subsequent sense-group. It also im-
plies continuation, or secondary importance in comparison to the
sense-group which comes after it.
The general rules given above can be illustrated by the use of
both falling and rising tones in the example given below.

From "WILD WALES"

185
by Q. H, Borrow (1803—1881)
The 'old 'woman, who con'fronted me in the 'passage of the
"inn | 'turned 'out to be the ˎlandlady. On 'learning that I
in'tended to 'pass the 'night at her "house, | she con'ducted me into
a 'small 'room on the 'right-hand 'side of the "passage, | which
'proved to be the ˎparlour. It was 'cold and ˋcomfortless, | for
there was 'no ˎfire in the ֽgrate. She ˋtold me, how"ever, | that
'one should be ˎlighted, | and 'going "out, | 'presently re'turned
with a 'couple of 'buxom ˎwenches, | who I 'soon 'found were her
ˋdaughters. The 'good 'lady had 'little or 'no ˎEnglish; | the ˋgirls,
how"ever, | had ˋplenty, | and of 'good 'kind ˋtoo. They 'soon
'lighted a ˎfire, | and 'then the 'mother in'quired it if I 'wished for
any ˎsupper.

Articulation of the sound [r]

The consonant [r] is articulated with the tongue-tip raised to-


wards the back part of the alveolar ridge, forming a rather wide
air-passage, while the front of the tongue is to some extent de-
pressed (cacuminal articulation). The sides of the tongue are
raised and the air passes along the median line of the tongue
without any audible friction. As a result tone prevails over noise.
The vocal cords are drawn near together and vibrate.
Thus [r] may be defined as a constrictive median forelingual cacu-
minal post-alveolar sonorant.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation.


[r]

read spring free present cry


rule spread friend pretty crab
right strike fry prize cream
wrong straw shrill problem crew
rook scream shrewd proof crop
run scrub shrug proud cruise
upright three very tree dream
necessary through sorry try dry

186
birthright throw quarrel true drew
horse-race thread merry trade drive
mushroom with right for ever traffic dress
cockroach with Rob for instance trolley drop

1. Rack your brains. [ֽrxk jO· "breInz] Шевелите мозгами.


2. Very true. [ֽverI ˋtrH] Совершенно верно.
3. Rather curious. [ֽrRDq ˋkjuqrIqs] Очень любопытно.
4. It's rather strange, yet true. [Its ˋrRDq "streInG jet ˋtrH] Это
очень странно и тем не менее правда.
5. The crops promise well. [Dq 'krOps ֹprOmIs "wel] Виды на
урожай хорошие.
6. Ron was proposed as president. ['rOn wqz prq'pquzd qz
ˋprezIdqnt] В председатели (старосты) предложили Рона.
7. Rora arrived on the stroke of three. ['rLrq q'raIvd On Dq
'strquk qv ˋTrJ] Рора появилась, когда часы пробили три.
8. Try to reduce rule to practice. ['traI tq rI'djHs 'rHl tq ˋprxktIs]
Попробуй применить это правило.
9. The river is running dry. [Dq 'rIvqr Iz 'rAnIN ˋdraI] Река
высыхает.
10. The three R's are reading, writing and (a)rithmetic. [Dq 'TrJ
"Rz q "rJdIN "raItIN qnd (q)ˋrITmqtIk] Чтение, письмо и
арифметика.
11. Little friends may prove great friends. [ˋlItl "frendz ·meI
prHv ˋgreIt ֽfrendz] Маленькие друзья иногда оказывают
большие услуги.
12. There is neither rhyme nor reason in it. [Dqr Iz naIDq 'raIm
nO· ˋrJzn In It] В этом нет ни складу, ни ладу.
13. Rod has brains and character. ['rOd hxz 'breInz qnd ˋkxrIktq]
Род умный и волевой.
14. Ruth is hungry for flattery. ['rHT Iz ˎhANgrI fq ˋflxtqrI] Рут
любит лесть.
15. Rod's eyes draw straws. ['rOdz 'aIz 'drL ˋstrLz] У Рода
слипаются глаза.
16. Rolf returned to his parents as right as rain. ['rOlf rI'tWnd tq

187
hIz 'pFqrnts qz 'raIt qz ˋreIn] Рольф возвратился к родителям
целый и невредимый.
17. When a friend asks, there is no tomorrow. [wen q ˋfrend
"Rsks Dqr Iz 'nqu tqˋmOrqu] Когда просит друг, не откладывай
на завтра.
18. Who won't be ruled by the rudder must be ruled by the
rock. [hH 'wqunt bi· 'rHld baI Dq vrADq mAst bi· 'rHld baI Dq ˋrOk]
Кто не слушается добрых советов, пусть пеняет на себя.
19. When angry count a hundred. [wen vxNgrI 'kaunt q hAndrqd]
Когда ты выходишь из себя, считай до ста.
20. Truth is stranger than fiction. [ˋtrHT Iz ֽstreInGq Dqn "fIkSn]
Правда диковиннее вымысла.

“Ship or sheep” Unit 48 “A Proud Parent”

Mrs. Randal: Are all the children grown up now, Ruth?


Mrs. Reed: Oh, yes. Laura is the cleverest one. She's a librarian
in the public library.
Mrs. Randal: Very interesting. And what about Rita?
Mrs. Reed: She's a secretary at the railway station.
Mrs. Randal: And what about Rosemary? She was always a
very pretty child.
Mrs. Reed: Rosemary is a waitress in a restaurant in Paris.
She’s married to an electrician.
Mrs. Randal: And what about Jerry and Roland?
Mrs. Reed: Jerry drives a lorry. He drives everywhere in
Europe.
Mrs. Randal: Really? Which countries does he drive to?
Mrs. Reed: France and Austria and Greece and Russia.
Mrs. Randal: And does Roland drive a lorry too?
Mrs. Reed: Oh, no. Roland is a pilot.
Mrs. Randal: Really? Which countries does he fly to?
Mrs. Reed: Australia and America.

R. Aldington “The Poplar”

Why do you always stand there shivering

188
Between the white stream and the road?
The people pass through the dust
On bicycles, in carts, in motor cars
The wagoners go by at dawn
The lovers walk on the grass path at night.
Stir from your roots. Walk poplar!
You are more beautiful than they are.
I know that the white wind loves you
Is always kissing you and turning up
The while lining of your green petticoat
The sky darts through you like blue rain

And the grey rain drips on your flanks and loves you
And I have seen the moon slip his silver penny
Into your pocket as you straightened your hair
And the white mist curling and hesitating
Like a bashful lover about your knees.
I know you poplar, I have watched you since I was ten
But if you had a little real love
A little strength. You'd leave your
Non-chalant idle lovers and go walking
Down the white road behind the waggoners
There are beautiful beaches down beyond the hill
Will you always stand there shivering?

189
LESSON 26

Sentence-stress in English

A separate word, when used as a sentence, is always stressed,


e.g. ˎNonsense. ˎListen.
In a sentence consisting of more than one word, some of the
words are left unstressed, e.g. —
I should 'like you to ˎmeet him.

In unemphatic speech, words of small semantic value or those


with a purely grammatical function (articles, prepositions, con-
junctions, auxiliary, modal and link verbs, personal and reflexive
pronouns) are usually unstressed. Words essential to the meaning
of the utterance are normally stressed (nouns, adjectives, notional
verbs, adverbs, demonstrative and interrogative pronouns).
In English, which is an essentially analytical language, form-
words are much more numerous than in Russian. Hence, there is
a considerable difference in the structure of English and Russian
sense-groups. As a rule, the number of unstressed words is much
greater in English.
Compare:
A "schoolboy, | who had been 'working a good 'deal at
a"rithmetics, | 'came 'home one 'summer for his ˎholiday. (Ten un-
stressed words)

О'дин "школьник, | у'сердно заним'авшийся


ариф"метикой, | при'ехал 'летом до'мой на каˎникулы. (One
unstressed word)

The degree of stress in the stressed words differs. "The relative


stress of the words in a sentence depends on their importance."
For practical purposes it is necessary to distinguish between
three main functional types of sentence-stress: syntagmatic, syn-
tactic, and logical.
Syntagmatic stress represents the most important functional
type. Together with one of the main tones, this stress singles out
the semantic centre of the sentence (or of the sense-group).

190
In sentences where no word is made specially prominent, the
syntagmatic stress is usually realized in the last stressed word and
is stronger than the stress on the preceding words; e. g.—

By the 'time we 'got to the "house, | we were 'all 'wet


ˎthrough.

Syntactic stress marks the other semantically important words


within the utterance. These words are mostly pronounced on
level pitches, e. g. —
I'm 'sending you 'two 'tickets for the ˎtheatre.

Logical stress is connected with shifting the syntagmatic stress


from its normal place on the last stressed word to one of the pre-
ceding words; in this way a new utterance with a new semantic
centre is created.
Compare the different meanings of the sentences given below,
arising from the shifting of the nucleus:
(a) 'Jack 'likes ˎfish. Semantic centre—likes fish.
(b) ˋJack ֽlikes ֽfish. Semantic centre —Jack.
(c) ֽJack ˋlikes ֽfish. Semantic centre —likes.

Words that are usually unstressed in unemphatic speech may


be turned into the semantic centre in the same manner. e. g.—
(a) ˋHe in ֽsisted ֽon it.
(b) The 'box is ˋunder the ֽtable.
(c) You ˎmust be ֽkind to them.

“Ship or sheep” Unit 49 “In the Airport”

191
Announcement: The 230 plane to NY will depart later this af-
ternoon at four forty-four. Passengers on this flight are forbidden
to leave the airport.
Daniel: Wonderful! I’m going to the bar to order some more
German beer.
Michael: Where’s the bar?
Daniel: It’s upstairs. There’s a book shop too. And a supermar-
ket. This is a marvelous airport.
Michael: Oh, dear! I wanted to get to NY earlier. Ah! Here’s an
airhostess. Excuse me. I don’t understand. Has there been an
emergency?
Hostess: Oh, no sir. There’s just a storm, and the weather fore-
cast says it will get worse. So the plane will leave a little later this
afternoon.
Michael: Are you sure?
Hostess: Oh, yes. Our departure time is at four forty-four.

Read the following. Mind the pronunciation and intonation. Learn


the poems by heart.

1. Rain
by R. L. Stevenson

The rain is raining all around,


It falls on field and tree,
It rains on the umbrellas here,
And on the ships at sea.

2. Trucks
by James S. Tippet

Big trucks for steel beams,


Big trucks for coal,
Rumbling down the broad streets,
Heavily they roll.

Little trucks for groceries,


Little trucks for bread,
192
Turning into every street,
Rushing on ahead.

Big trucks, little trucks,


In never ending lines,
Rumble on and rush ahead
While I read their signs.

“Stories for reproduction” Text 9

Elizabeth was a very pretty girl, and her parents were rich.
Quite a lot of the young men in the town wanted to marry her,
but she was not satisfied with any of them.
One evening, one of the handsomest of the young men who
wanted to marry Elizabeth came to visit her in her parents' house
and asked her to become his wife. She answered, “No, William, I
won't marry you. I want to marry a man who is famous, who can
play music, sing and dance very well, who can tell really
interesting stories, who does not smoke or drink, who stays at
home in the evenings and who stops talking when I'm tired of
listening.”
The young man got up, took his coat and went to the door, but
before he left the house, he turned and said to Elizabeth, “It isn't a
man you're looking for. It's a television set.”

Text “A basket of fir cones”

Edward Grieg was spending the autumn in the forest near


Bergen It was specially fine at that time of the year, smelling of
mushrooms and golden leaves. But the best after all was the forest
covering the mountains slopes near the sea shore. The sound of
the waves could be heard there, mists were always sweeping in
from the sea. The plenty of moisture causing moss to grow up
profusely. It hang from the branches in green strings reaching to
the very Earth. Once when he was walking in the forest, Grieg
met a little girl with pigtails, the daughter of the forester. She was
gathering fir cones in her basket. It was Autumn. If you ought to
take all the gold and copper there is in the world, and make thou-

193
sands upon thousands of the tinest leaves from it, that would
make only a tiny portion of all the beauty of the forest dress, that
lay on those mountain slopes.
“What's your name, little girl?” - asked Grieg.
“Dagni Pedersen”- she replied in a small voice. And she an-
swered in that way not because she was afraid but because she
was shy. And she couldn't have been afraid because there was a
merry twinkling in Grieg's eyes.
“What a shame,” said Grieg, peeping in his pockets.
“I have nothing to give you. No dolls, ribbons or furry bon-
nets.”
“I have my mother's old doll,” said the little girl, “it used to
shut its eyes, like this” - the little girl slowly closed her eyes.
When she opened them again Grieg noticed that they were hazel,
and the golden leaves were reflected in them.
“And now she sleeps with her eyes open” - added Dagni
sadly.
“Old people sleep badly too. Grandad groans all night”.
“Listen, Dagni,” said Grieg, “I have an idea. I shall make you
an interesting gift, but not now, in a few years time.”
Dagni even clasped her hands together.
“Oh, such a long time”.
“Remember, I have to make it”.
“And what is it?”
“Wait, and you'll see”.
“Will it take you all your life to make just five or six toys?” -
asked Dagni.
Grieg was confused. “Why, no. It's not true”, he said uncer-
tainly.”
“I shall probably make it in a few days, but things like that are
not to be given to little children. I make gifts for grown-ups”.
“I won't break it” - answered Dagni pleading and holding her
hands to Grieg. “I won't break it. Granddad has a little glass boat,
I dust it but I've never chipped out of it even a tiniest piece”.
“This Dagni has caught me in a trap” thought Grieg somewhat
next. That sort of things the grown-ups always say when put in an
awkward position by little children. “You are too small to under-
stand. Learn to be patient. And now give me your basket. It's
much too heavy for you. And I'll take you back home. And on the

194
way we'll talk about something else”. Dagni heaved a sigh and
held off the basket. It really was heavy. Fir cones have more tar
and therefore they are much heavier. When the house of the
forester could be seen beneath the trees Grieg asked: “Well, now
you can manage yourself, Dagni Pedersen. There are many girls
in Norway with the name like yours. What your father's name?”
“Hageroop”, said Dagni. And rubbing her forehead up:
“Won't you come in? We have an embroidered table-cloth, a gin-
ger cat and a glass boat, Granddad will let you hold it”.
“Thank you, Dagni. But I have no time just now. I have to be
going”. Grieg stroked the little girl's hair and strode off in the di-
rection of the sea. Dagni looked after him frowning. She carried
the basket lopsided on one arm, the cones fell as she walked. “I'll
write music for her”, Grieg said to himself. “On the front page of
the score I shall write: “To Dagni Pedersen, daughter of the
forester Hageroop Pedersen, for her eighteenth birth-day”.

195
LESSON 27

English rhythm

This is what English phoneticians say about rhythm: “It occa-


sionally happens that a foreign student acquires faultless pronun-
ciation and even correct intonation, and one wonders what it is
that betrays his non-English origin. It is, in these circumstances,
his faulty rhythm.”
“Examples of Shakespeare's prose, ... all show that, while the
English language may have changed to a certain extent in form
and pronunciation and idiom, its speech rhythm has remained
unaltered for three hundred and fifty years.”
“... Rhythm and intonation; two features of pronunciation
upon which intelligibility largely rests. The surest way to become
unintelligible in a language is to distort its natural rhythm.”
In the light of the above quotations the importance of studying
English rhythm systematically and thoroughly is obvious. Many
English authors of books on teaching English recommend teach-
ing rhythm before teaching intonation (Hornby, Milne). They
think, too, that rhythm is best taught through verse, where, be-
cause of the requirements of the metre, rhythm is very regular.
Rhythm is a regular recurrence of some phenomenon in time,
e. g. the lunar rhythm of the tides; the rhythm of the seasons; the
rhythm of bodily functions.
Speech rhythm is inseparable from the syllabic structure of the
language. There are two main kinds of speech rhythm.
“As far as is known, every language in the world is spoken
with one kind of rhythm or with the other. In the one kind,
known as a syllable-timed rhythm... the syllables recur at equal
intervals of time —they are isochronous. .. In the other kind,
known as a stress-timed rhythm, stressed syllables are
isochronous. English, Russian, Arabic illustrate this other mode:
they are stress-timed languages.”
From the point of view of rhythm, a sense-group in English is
divided into rhythmical groups, like bars in music. There are as
many rhythmical groups in a sense-group as there are stressed
syllables. A minimal rhythmical group consists of nothing but a
stressed syllable, e. g.— Most rhythmical
196
groups consist of a stressed syllable and one or more unstressed

ones, e. g.— In ordinary speech the


number of unstressed syllables between each consecutive pair of
stresses varies considerably. In verse, where a definite regularity
in the alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables is required
by the metre, rhythm can be observed very easily.
As the rhythm of speech is more free and elastic than that of
music, the regularity of the recurrent beat in speech is only ap-
proximate. The stressed syllables are as evenly distributed in time
as the stricture of the sense-group permits.
The basic rules of English rhythm that an adult learner may
find useful are as follows:
1. The stressed syllables in a sense-group follow each other at
regular intervals of time; only in very long rhythmic groups, con-
taining many unstressed syllables, this regularity is not strictly
observed.
2. Most non-initial rhythmic groups begin with a stressed syl-
lable; unstressed syllables occurring inside a sense-group have a
tendency to cling to the preceding stressed syllable, forming its
enclitics; only initial unstressed syllables always cling to the fol-
lowing stressed syllable, forming its proclitics.
3. The greater the number of unstressed syllables intervening
between stressed ones, the more rapidly they are pronounced.
4. Initial unstressed syllables are always pronounced rapidly.
5. Each sense-group has a rhythm of its own, depending on the
degree of semantic importance attached to it in comparison with
the other sense-groups of the utterance.
In the examples of rhythmic groups of different structures
given below, rhythmic groups are marked with a curve below the
line.

Rhythm in Connected Prose

197
Text “Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata”

"Suddenly | the 'flame of the 'single "candle | "wavered, | ´sank,


| "flickered | and 'went ˎout. 'Beethoven ˎpaused | and 'I threw
↑open the "shutters, | ad'mitting a 'flood of ↑brilliant ˎmoonlight |
which 'fell ˎstrongest | u'pon the ˎplayer.
The 'chain of his i"deas | 'seemed to have been ˎbroken by the
ˎaccident. His 'head ↑dropped upon his "breast, | his 'hands
↑rested upon his "knees, | he 'seemed ab'sorbed in ↑deep
ˎthought.
¯He re'mained "thus | for 'some ˎtime. At ´length | the 'young
v
shoemaker | "rose | and apˎproached him | "eagerly | 'yet ˎrever-

198
ently. “ˋWonderful ֽman,” he ֽsaid in a ֽlow ֽtone. “ˋWho and
ˋwhat ֽare you?”
“ˋListen,” said ֽBeethoven. And he 'played the ↑opening "bars |
of the So'nata in ˎF.
A 'cry of deˋlight and ˋrecog ֽnition | 'burst from them ˎboth, |
and ex'claiming “Then you are ˋBeethoven!” | they 'covered his
'hands with ↑tears and ˎkisses.
He 'rose to ˎgo, | but they 'held him 'back with enˎtreaties.
“'Play to us ˎonce ֽmore | — 'only ˎonce ֽmore.”
He ˋsuffered him"self | to be 'led 'back to the ˎinstrument. The
'moon 'shone 'brightly "in | through the ˎwindow | and 'lighted up
his ↑glorious 'rugged "head | and 'massive ˎfigure.
“'I will ↑improvise a so'nata to the ˎmoonlight!” said he | 'look-
ing up 'thoughtfully to the ↑sky and ˎstars.
'Then his 'hands ↑dropped on to the ˎkeys, | and he be'gan
playing a 'sad and ↑infinitely 'lovely ˎmovement, | which 'crept
'gently 'over the ´instrument | like the 'calm 'flow of ˎmoonlight |
'over the 'dark ˎearth.
'This was "followed | by a ˋwild, ˋelfin ֽpassage | in 'triple
ˎtime — | a 'sort of gro↑tesque ˎinterlude, | like the 'dance of
sprites upon the ˎlawn. Then came a ´swift, | ´breathless, | "hur-
rying, | ˋtrembling ֽmovement, | des'criptive of ˋflight | and
'unˋcertainty, | and 'vague im'pulsive ˎterror, | which 'carried us a
´way | on its 'rustling ˎwing, | and 'left us 'all in eˎmotion | and
ˎwonder.
ˋThis | is the "origin | of that “'Moonlight Soˎnata” | with
'which we are 'all so 'fondly acˎquainted.

“Stories for reproduction” Text 11

Miss Grey lived alone in a small flat. She was old and did not
like noise at all, so she was very pleased when the noisy young

199
man and woman who lived in the flat above her moved out. A
new young man moved in, and Miss Grey thought, “Well, he
looks quiet.”
But at three o'clock the next morning, Miss Grey was woken
up by the barking of a dog.
She thought, “I've never heard a dog here before. It must
belong to the new man in the flat above.” So she telephoned the
young man, said some nasty things to him about the dog and then
hung the telephone up before he could answer.
Nothing more happened until three o'clock the next morning.
Then Miss Grey's telephone rang, and when she answered, a
voice said, “I'm the man upstairs. I've rung you up to say that I
haven't got a dog.”

Tone group 9

200
Tune I
FALL-RISE+ TAIL OF ONE SYLLABLE

TuneII
FALL-RISE + TAIL OF MORE THAN ONE SYLLABLE

201
Tune III
FALL-RISE ONLY

Tune IV
LOW PRE-HEAD + FALL-RISE (+ TAIL)

202
Tune V
(LOW PRE-HEAD) SLIDING HEAD + FALL-RISE (+ TAIL)

203
LESSON 28

Emphatic speech

When the speaker's aim is to express only the intellectual con-


tent of the thought, i. e. when he does not mean to express his
own attitude or emotions, and does not wish to give any particu-
lar prominence to any part of the utterance, his speech may be
called unemphatic (emphasis = prominence).
Two intonation contours are most commonly used in unem-
phatic speech:
IC 1

and

IC 2

Examples:
IC1 'Let’s take a ˎtaxi.

I 'want to 'talk to you a'bout a 'very 'private matˎter.

IC 2 'Have you 'been to the "Zoo?

'Will you 'show me the 'way to the "station?

204
However, people often desire either to make the whole of the
utterance particularly significant or to make one or more words
more prominent than the others. Such aims can he achieved in
many ways by using special intonation.
All of the main components of intonation (speech melody, sen-
tence-stress, rhythm, tempo and timbre) can be used for this pur-
pose, individually as well as jointly.
To emphasize the whole of the utterance we can:
(a) Widen the range of the utterance or narrow it.

Compare:
'Which of the 'books have you ˎread?

b) Modify the head of the intonation contour, i.e. instead of the

stepping head , typical of unemphatic speech, use

the low head or the sliding head

and .

Compare: unemphatic (with the stepping head):


It 'isn’t e'xactly what I ˎwant.

emphatic (with the low head):


It ֽisn’t e ֽxactly what I ˋwant.

205
emphatic (with the sliding head):
It ↘isn’t e↘xactly what I ˋwant.

c) Increase stress on all the stressed words.

To give prominence to one or more separate words of the ut-


terance we can:
(a) Break the regularly descending scale of the stepping head
by raising the pitch of the word to be made prominent slightly
higher than the pitch of the preceding stressed word, e. g.—

I 'saw 'clearly e'nough that I was ↑not ˎwelcome.

This “special” rise can be used more than once in the same ut-
terance, e.g. —
In about 'half an 'hour ↑one of the 'girls ↑came to 'tell me

that my ↑supper was ˎready.

After each rise the gradual descent is renewed. The special rise
does not reach the pitch of the first stressed syllable in the sense-
group.
Only when the special rise is used on the second stressed word
is the pitch of this word higher than that of the first stressed sylla -
ble, e. g.—
The 'boy is an ↑awful ˎliar.

206
The degree of prominence achieved by the special rise is in this
case greater.
(b) Omit stresses on all the words which are normally stressed
in unempliatic speech, leaving stress only on the nucleus; the lat-
ter will receive great prominence, particularly if one of the
widely-ranged tones is used on it, e. g.—

Compare:
unemphatic — 'What are you 'going to ˎdo a ֽbout it?

emphatic — What are you going to ˋdo about it?

(c) Stress one of the words that are normally unstressed in un-
emphatic speech (personal pronouns, prepositions, auxiliary
verbs, etc.), e. g,—

ˋYou ֽshould ֽgo ֽthere.


The book is ˎunder the ֽtable.
How 'are you 'going to get ˎhome?

(d) Use one of the main widely-ranged tones (high fall, rise-
fall, fall-rise) on the word to be made prominent, e. g.—

Compare:
unemphatic — You 'can’t ˎwalk, | it’s 'too ˎfar.

emphatic — You ˋcan’t vwalk, | it’s 'too ˋfar.

207
unemphatic — I could 'hardly believe my ˎeyes.

emphatic — I could ˋhardly beˋlieve my ˋeyes.

unemphatic — You 'look ˎlovely, my ֽdear.

emphatic — You look ^lovely, my ֽdear.

There seem to be two main motives for giving prominence, i.e.


emphasis, in speech; they are intensity and contrast. (D. Jones)
Intensity emphasis is often used on words which contain in
their lexical meaning a possibility of some degree or quantity,
such as: crowds, tons, miles, hours, enormous, tiny, etc., adore, lovely,
awful, wonderful, etc.

Examples:
^Lots!
^Terribly ֽfoolish.
It's so exˋpensive.
He 'used to enˋjoy it so.
It was aˋmazing.

Contrast emphasis is possible with any words, including


purely grammatical (“empty”) words.

Examples:

208
'What 'sort of 'weather did you 'have in ˋLondon?
'Now it's ˋyour ֽturn.
Would ^you have ֽliked it?
'I think you're optiˋmistic.
Why 'must you be so ˎobstinate?

Text “Irene’s Return”


(from the “Forsyte Saga” by John Galsworthy)

'On reaching vhome | and 'entering the 'little 'lighted "hall | with
his vlatchkey, | the 'first 'thing that ↑caught 'Soames' ˎeye | was his
'wife's ↑gold-mounted umˎbrella | 'lying on the 'rug ˎchest. 'Fling-
ing off his vfur coat, | he 'hurried to the ˎdrawing-room.
The 'curtains were ˎdrawn for the ֽnight, | a 'bright 'fire | of
'cedar 'logs | 'burned in the ˎgrate, | and 'by its 'light | he 'saw
I'rene| 'sitting in her ↑usual ˎcorner | on the ˎsofa. He 'shut the
'door ˋsoftly, | and 'went ˎtowards her. She 'did not "move, | and
'did not 'seem to ˎsee him.
“So you've 'come ˎback?” — he ֽsaid. “'Why are you 'sitting
'here in the ˎdark?”
´Then | he 'caught 'sight of her ˎface, | 'so 'white and ˎmotion-
less | that it 'seemed as 'though the 'blood must have ↑stopped
ˎflowing | in her ˎveins; and her ˋeyes | that 'looked eˎnormous, |
like the 'great, 'wide, ↑startled 'brown ˎeyes | of an ˎowl.
'Huddled in her 'grey vfur | a'gainst the 'sofa vcushions; | she
ˋhad a ˋstrange reˋsemblance | to a vcaptive ˎowl, | 'bunched in
its ↑soft ˎfeathers| a'gainst the ˎwires | of a ˎcage. The 'supple
e'rectness of her ˋfigure was ˎgone, | as 'though she had been
ˋbroken | by 'cruel ˎexercise, | as 'though there were ↑no 'longer
↑any ˎreason | for being 'beautiful, | and ˎsupple, | and eˎrect.
“'So you've ↑come ˎback,” | —he re ֽpeated. She 'never looked
ˎup, | and 'never ˎspoke, | the ˋfirelight ˋplaying over her ˋmo-

209
tionless ˎfigure.
v
Suddenly | she 'tried to ˎrise, | but he preˎvented her; it was
ˎthen | that he 'underˎstood.
'She had ↑come ˎback | like an ˋanimal | 'wounded to ˎdeath, |
'not knowing ↑where to ˎturn, | 'not knowing ˋwhat she was ֽdo-
ing. The 'sight of her ˎfigure, | 'huddled in the ˎfur, | was eˎ-
nough.
He 'knew "then | for ˎcertain | that Bo'sinney had 'been her
ˎlover; 'knew that she had ˋseen the reˋport of his ˎdeath | —
per'haps, like himˎself, | had 'bought a ˎpaper at the 'draughty
'corner of the ˎstreet, | and ˎread it.
She had 'come ˋback "then | of her 'own acˎcord, | to the ´cage
| she had ´pined | to be ˎfree of | — and 'taking in 'all the tre'men-
dous sig'nificance of ˎthis, | he 'longed to ˎcry: | “'Take your
↑hated 'body, that I 'love, ↑out of my "house! 'Take a'way that
↑pitiful 'white 'face, | so ˋcruel and ˎsoft | — be'fore I ˎcrush it.
ˋGet out of my ˎsight; 'never 'let me 'see you aˎgain!”

Material for reading and comment. Test 1.

210
Tone group 10

This is essentially a combination of a falling with a rising tune,


e.g.:
By the 'time he ar"rived | he was com'pletely exˋhausted.
He was com'pletely exˋhausted by the ֽֽtime he ar"rived.

It is used when the main attention is on the main proposition,


and subsidiary attention is given to the subordinate adverbial, e.
g.:
Will you join us? I’d ˋlove to, if you ֽֽdon’t "mind.

Final please and thank you have a rise after a statement with a
falling tune, e. g.:
I’d 'like some ˋtea, "please.
I’ve 'got eˋnough, "thank you.

A considerable degree of sentiment is found in expressions of


apology, of sincere appreciation, of gratitude and of good wishes,
also in expressing regret, sorrow and sympathy or plaintiveness,
petulance, self-pity, resentment, e. g.:

I’m ˋso ֽֽglad you could "come.


I ˋdo ֽֽthink it’s "kind of you.
I ˋwish I ֽֽhadn’t been so "rude.

211
I ˋwish you’d ֽֽdo as you’re "told.
I ˋalways have to ֽֽdo the "dirty ֹwork.

Special questions have a plaintive, weary, even despairing


note, e. g.:
You owe me ten pounds. Just ˋhow d’you make "that out?

General questions convey a marked plaintive, pleading, or


long-suffering tone, coupled with a feeling of impatience, even ex-
asperation, e. g.:
I tell you I won’t listen. ˋMust you be so "obstinate?

The dominant attitude in commands is one of the supplication


or pleading, often accompanied by plaintiveness or reproach, e.
g.:
Now ˋdo be "reasonable, ֹCharles.
Oh, ˋdon’t make ֽֽmatters any ֽֽworse than they "are.

Interjections said with Tone Group 10 have a warm, appreciative,


sympathetic, encouraging ring and often suggest an affectionate
intimacy, e. g.:
That’s the second he’s failed. ˋPoor old "Peter! | (He’ll never make
it.)

Sometimes they may convey a plaintive, sullen or resentful at-


titude, and sometimes a note of surprise or puzzlement is present,
e. g.:

I thought I asked you to make up the fire. ˋAll "right. |


(ˋDon’t go "on
about it. | I
wasˋjust "going.)

Greetings and leave-takings sound pleasant and friendly.


Occasionally they convey a ponderously exuberant attitude, e. g.:

212
213
214
215
LESSON 29

Some rhythmical tendencies

The tendency to distribute stressed syllables evenly is charac-


teristic of English speech. In ordinary speech the number of un-
stressed syllables between each pair of stresses varies consider-
ably. It is important to keep the beat of the stresses going regu-
larly, no matter how many intervening unstressed syllables there
are. When two or three stresses come close together the speed of
utterance is noticeably slower, when they are separated by several
unstressed syllables these syllables flow more rapidly.
The following exercises help to maintain the regular beat of the
stresses.

Exercise 1. The stressed syllables in this exercise should be


spaced at regular intervals.
l. a 'cloth | a 'piece of 'cloth | a 'piece of 'white 'cloth | a 'large
'piece of 'white 'cloth | a 'large 'piece of 'pure 'white 'cloth.
2. a 'cup | an 'empty 'cup | an 'empty 'cup and 'saucer | an
'empty 'cup and a 'broken 'saucer | 'two 'empty 'cups and a 'broken
'saucer.
3. a 'hat | a 'straw 'hat | a 'dirty 'straw 'hat | a 'very 'dirty 'straw
'hat.
4. a 'cloth | a 'linen 'cloth | a 'linen 'table-cloth | a 'white 'linen
'table-cloth | a 'clean 'white 'linen 'table-cloth.
5. a 'desk | an 'oak 'desk | an 'oak 'desk with 'drawers | a 'pol-
ished 'oak 'desk with 'drawers | a 'polished 'oak 'desk with 'large
'drawers.
6. a 'telephone | a 'public 'telephone | 'two 'public 'telephones |
'two 'public 'telephones on 'Platform '4 | 'two 'new 'public 'tele-
phones on 'Platform '4.
7. a 'chair | an 'arm'chair | 'Granny's 'arm'chair | 'Granny's 'fa-
vourite 'arm'chair | the 'back of 'Granny's 'favourite 'arm'chair.
8. 'shoes | a 'pair of 'shoes | a 'dirty 'pair of 'shoes | a 'dirty 'pair
of 'brown 'shoes | a 'dirty 'pair of 'brown 'leather 'shoes | a 'very
'dirty 'pair of 'brown 'leather 'shoes | 'two 'very 'dirty 'pairs of
'brown 'leather 'shoes.
9. a 'light | an e'lectric 'light | an e'lectric 'light with a 'shade |

216
'two e'lectric 'lights with 'coloured 'shades.
10. a 'lorry | a 'heavy 'lorry | a 'heavy 'lorry with a 'load | a
'heavy 'lorry with a 'load of 'wood | a 'heavy 'lorry with a 'full 'load
of 'wood | a 'heavy 'lorry with a 'full 'load of 'two 'tons of 'wood.

Exercise 2. Read the following sentences, paying attention to


the number of syllables in each group in bold type and changing
the rate of speech accordingly.
What a 'sensible 'piece of adˎvice!
What a 'useful 'piece of adˎvice!
What a 'wise 'piece of adˎvice!

I 'didn't be'lieve it was ˎtrue.


I 'didn't 'think it was ˎtrue.
I 'don't 'think it was ˎtrue.

I'm 'going to 'town for the ˎday.


I'm 'going to 'town toˎday.
I'm 'going to 'town ˎnow.

'What do you 'want me to ˎdo?


'What do you 'want to ˎdo?
'What do you 'want ˎdone?

Can 'anyone 'tell me the "time?


Does 'anyone 'know the "time?
Does 'anyone 'know "Tom?

It was 'good to ˎspeak to him a ֽbout it.


It would be 'better if you ˎspoke to him a ֽbout it.
It would have been 'better if you had ˎspoken to him a ֽbout it.

We 'bought a ˎbook.

217
We have 'bought another ˎbook.
We could have 'bought you another ˎbook.
We ought to have 'bought ourselves another ˎbook.

Exercise 3. Read sentence B more quickly than sentence A. In


the sentences marked A there are more stressed elements than in
those marked B, and some words which are usually stressed lose
their stress under the influence of speed.
1. A. This is a 'funny 'old ˎhat.
B. This is a 'funny old ˎhat.
2. A. 'Buy her a 'pretty 'new ˎdress.
B. 'Buy her a 'pretty new ˎdress.
3. A. 'What have you 'done with the ˎink?
B. 'What have you done with the ˎink?
4. A. 'Where have you 'hidden the ˎkey?
B. 'Where have you hidden the ˎkey?
5. A. 'When are you 'going aˎway?
B. 'When are you going aˎway?
6. A. 'Go to a'nother hoˎtel.
B. 'Go to another hoˎtel.
7. A. It's 'nearly as 'far as the ˎbridge.
B. It's 'nearly as far as the ˎbridge.
8. A. 'Tell the 'girl to 'put the 'book ˎdown!
B. 'Tell the girl to 'put the book ˎdown!
9. A. There 'isn't 'really 'quite e'nough for ˎtwo.
B. There 'isn't really 'quite enough for ˎtwo.
10. A. 'That can be 'seen at a ˎglance.
B. 'That can be seen at a ˎglance.

Exercise 4. Sentences for rapid reading. Note the loss of stress.


1. He's 'two hours 'late aˎgain.
2. I 'shan't stay a 'minute ˎlonger.

218
3. Can I 'see him if I 'come back ˎlater?
4. We've 'both got the 'same ˎanswer.
5. 'Why did he run aˋway?
6. I can't find my ˎpipe.
7. 'What makes you ˎthink so?
8. It isn't 'quite what I ˎthink.
9. But she 'hasn't sent it off ˎsoon enough.
10. Don't 'ever do that aˎgain.
11. He 'can't 'make up his ˎmind.
12. For 'goodness 'sake 'make up your own ˎmind.
13. Your 'very good ˎhealth!
14. Is 'Mike 'still doing "well?
15. We'd 'better make ˎsure.
16. Are you 'still in that 'dingy little "office?
17. We're 'quite sold ˎout.
18. 'Time to get ˎup.
19. It's 'right next 'door to the ˎstation.
20. What a de'lightful surˎprise!
21. How 'perfectly ˎcharming of her.
22. It 'turned out 'fine after ˎall.
23. It de'pends 'which way you ˎgo.
24. 'That wouldn't 'matter in the ˎleast.
25. 'That's what ˎeverybody ֽsays.
26. 'Ten or e'leven hours a ˎweek.
27. 'How long did you stay in ˎLondon?
28. 'Why not come 'down for a week-ˎend?
29. What 'ever 'made you do ˎthat?
30. 'When will you get ˎback?
31. Does it 'really make 'very much ˎdifference?
32. 'Let's go ˎon.
33. Then 'make it ˎup with her.

219
34. 'How much d'you ˎwant for it?
35. Then 'don't let him ˎbully you so.
36. I'magine how ˎsilly I'd ֽlook.
37. Then for 'heaven's 'sake 'go and lie ˎdown.
38 'Try 'turning it the 'other way ˎround.
39. 'Poor old ˎchap.
40. 'Better 'luck next ˎtime.
41. It's 'not as 'complicated as you'd ˎthink.
42. 'Which one do you preˎfer?
43. 'How long do you in'tend to "stay there?
44. 'How did you get ˎon?
45. How ˎold is he?
46. The 'tower looks ˎbeautiful.
47. Is 'everything ˎready for Miss 'Warren?
48. Well, 'when did you 'have it ˎlast?
49. Yes, but ˋdid she ֽbring it ֽback in ֽfact?
50. Now 'what's the 'price of this ˎother one?
51. Do you 'mind if I "smoke?
52. Could 'anything have been 'simpler than ˎthat?
53. Wouldn't you 'really think he'd have more ˎsense?
54. Do you 'think it'll be all "right?
55. But do you 'really underˎstand it?
56. Shall I come to'day or toˎmorrow?
57. What a 'dear little ˎroom!
58. 'Soon after 'half past ˎsix.
59. She's a 'silly young ˎthing.
60. They've got a 'lovely little 'house in the ˎcountry.
61. She is an ef'ficient young ˎwoman.

W. Shakespeare “Hamlet’s monologue” (+ translation)


act 3 scene 1
220
To be or not to be- that is the question;
Whether this nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrages fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them? To die, to sleep-
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to. This a consummation
Devotedly to be wished. To die, to sleep;
To sleep, perchance to dream. Ay, there’s the rub;
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come,
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause. There's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life;
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely.
The pangs of despised love the law's delay,
The insolence of office, and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes.
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin? Who could fardels bear
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that the dread of something after death-
The undiscovered country, from whose bourn
No traveller returns-puzzles the will,
And makes us rather bear those ills we have
Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all;
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with a pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pitch and movement,
With this regard, their currents turn awry
And lose the name of action.

“Stories for reproduction” Text 12

Mrs. Robinson had one small son. His name was Billy. Mrs.

221
Robinson loved Billy very much, and as he was not a strong child,
she was always afraid that he might get ill, so she used to take
him to the best doctor in the town four times a year to be
examined.
During one of these visits, the doctor gave Billy various tests
and then said to him, “Have you had any trouble with your nose
or ears recently?”
Billy thought for a second and then answered, “Yes, I have.”
Mrs. Robinson was very worried. “But I'm sure you've never
told me that, Billy!” she said anxiously.
“Oh, really?” said the doctor seriously. “And what trouble
have you had with your nose and ears, my boy?”
“Well,” answered Billy, “I always have trouble with them
when I'm taking my jersey off, because the neck is very tight.”

Material for reading and comment. Test 2

1. 'Tom has ˋpassed his e"xam. Well 'fancy ˋthat!


2. 'Come "on. ¯Let’s ֽgo for a ˋwalk. We 'really ˋcan't. It's 'rain-
ing 'cats and ˋdogs.
3. 'Why were you so ˋcross with ֽAlec? No 'sooner had we 'got
our 'holiday 'all ar"ranged, | (than he 'wanted to 'cry ˋoff).
4. The e'xams are 'over at ˎlast. 'Isn't it ˎwonderful?
5. I shall 'miss him ˋterribly. You 'ought to have 'thought of
'that beˎfore you ֽsent him a ֽway.
6. 'Mary’s dropped 'paint ↑all over the ˎcarpet. When 'is she
'going to 'learn to be 'more ˎcareful?
7. He’s 'given up ˋeverything. ¯ I ˎdo think it’s a ֽpity.
8. 'Can you 'give me his "phone number? 'Hang "on. I’ll ˋfind
it ֽfor you.
9. 'What was it ˎlike in Ni ֽgeria? Oh the 'heat was ˋterrible. I
'thought I should have ˋdied.
10. He’s 'on his way "back. But 'will he be 'back in ˋtime?
11. 'What time’s con'venient for ˋyou? 'Come whenˋever
you’re ˋfree.

222
12. Oh this 'wretched ˋclock. 'What’s "wrong with it?
13. 'Have you 'posted those "letters? 'Not "yet.
14. 'Can’t we "do 'something a'bout it? 'All in 'good "time.
15. ˋWhich one can I ˋhave? ˋ Which would you preˋfer?
16. 'I thought it was a ˋhuge suc ֽcess. Yes, 'didn’t it go ˎwell!
17. 'Which would ˋyou ֽchoose, if you were ֽme? For 'good-
ness 'sake 'make up your ˎown ֽmind.
18. D’you 'mind if I "smoke? 'Not at ˋall. Can I 'offer you a
'ciga"rette?
19. I’ll 'give him a 'piece of my ˋmind. Now 'don’t dis"courage
him. He’s 'only a be"ginner.
20. There’s 'no esˋcaping it. 'Ah "well! I 'don’t sup'pose it’ll
"kill us.

223
LESSON 30

Rhythm in English Verse

The basic tendency to space stressed syllables regularly is


characteristic both of speech and verse. It has been observed that
the rhythm of the language is best taught through verse. The
rhythm of verse permits fewer variations in the number of un-
stressed syllables and is regulated by the metre. The rhythm of
the question: Can anyone tell me the time? is quite simple and regu-
lar, like the first line of the limerick: There was an old man in a tree.
'Cat, 'cat, 'kill ˎrat!
'Rat 'won't 'gnaw ˎrope;
'Rope 'won't 'hang ˎbutcher;
'Butcher 'won't 'kill ˎox;
'Ox 'won't 'drink ˎwater;
'Water 'won't 'quench ˎfire;
'Fire 'won't 'burn ˎstick;
'Stick 'won't 'beat ˎdog;
'Dog 'won't 'bite ˎpig;
The 'cat be'gan to 'kill the ˎrat;
The 'rat be'gan to 'gnaw the ˎrope;
The 'rope be'gan to 'hang the ˎbutcher;
The 'butcher be'gan to 'kill the ˎox;
The 'ox be'gan to 'drink the ˎwater;
The 'water be'gan to 'quench the ˎfire;
The 'fire be'gan to 'burn the ˎstick;
The 'stick be'gan to 'beat the ˎdog;
The 'dog be'gan to 'bite the ˎpig.

'One, 'two, |
'Buckle my ˎshoe;
'Three, 'four, |

224
'Shut the ˎdoor;
'Five, 'six, |
'Pick up ˎsticks;

'Seven, 'eight, |
'Lay them ˎstraight;
'Nine, 'ten, |
A 'good fat ˎhen.
E'leven, 'twelve, |
'Who will ˎdelve?
'Thirteen, 'fourteen, |
'Maids a-ˎcourting;
'Fifteen, 'sixteen, |
'Maids a-ˎkissing; |

'Seventeen, 'eighteen, |
'Maids a-ˎwaiting;
'Nineteen, 'twenty, |
My 'stomach's ˎempty.
Note: When counting, the numerals 13—19 are pronounced
with only one stress on the first syllable, but when used in isola-
tion the same numerals have two even stresses.

'One potato, 'two potatoes,


'Three potatoes ˎfour, |
'Five potatoes, 'six potatoes,
'Seven potatoes ˎmore.

***
'One, 'two, ↑three, "four, |
'Mary 'at the 'cottage ˋdoor;
'Five, 'six, 'seven, "eight, |
'Eating 'cherries off a ˎplate.

***
'Tinker, 'tailor, 'soldier, 'sailor,

225
↑rich man, 'poor man, 'beggarman, ˎthief.

***
'Hark, 'hark, the 'dogs do ˎbark,
The 'beggars are 'coming to ˎtown;
'Some in ˎrags | and ˋsome in "tags,
And 'one in a ↑velvet ˎgown.

***
'Hotcross ˎbuns!
'Hotcross ˎbuns!
'One a penny, 'two a penny, |
'Hotcross ˎbuns!

'Hotcross ˎbuns!
'Hotcross ˎbuns!
'If ye have no "daughters
'Give them to your ˎsons.
***
I 'like to go 'out in the "garden, |
I 'like to get 'up on the ˋwall, |
I 'like to do ↑anything ˎreally, |
But I ˋhate to do 'nothing at ˋall.

***
To 'bed, to ˋbed, says ֽSleepy- ֽhead, |
ˋTarry a ֽwhile, says ֽSlow.
'Put on the ˎpan, says ֽGreedy ֽNan, |
Let’s ˋsup 'before we ˎgo.

***
(The comic verse form known as the limerick has five lines; the
first two have three stresses, the next two have two stresses, and
the last one again has three stresses. There are two unstressed syl-
lables between each pair of stresses.)
226
There 'was an Old 'Man in a "tree,
Who was ˋhorribly ֽbored by a ˋBee;
When they 'said, | “Does it "buzz?”
He re'plied, “Yes, it ˎdoes!
It’s a 'regular ˋbrute of a ֽBee.”

***
There 'was a young 'man of Benˎgal, |
Who 'went to a 'fancy-dress ˎball;
He de'cided to 'risk it
And 'go as a ˎbiscuit, |
But a ˋdog ate him ֽup in the ˋhall.

***
There 'was a young 'man of De"vizes, |
Whose 'ears were of 'different ˋsizes;
'One was so "small,
It was ֽno use at ˋall,
But the 'other won ↑several ˎprizes.

***
'Stitch! 'stitch! 'stitch!
In 'poverty, 'hunger and ˎdirt;
And 'still with a 'voice of 'dolorous 'pitch |
She 'sang the “'Song of the ˎShirt”!

“'Work – 'work – 'work!


From 'weary 'chime to ˎchime, |
'Work – 'work – 'work!
As ˋprisoners ֽwork for ˋcrime!”
(T. Hood. The Song of the Shirt.)

My 'hair is ˎgrey, | but 'not with ˎyears |


Nor 'grew it "white

227
In a 'single ˎnight, |
As 'men’s have 'grown form 'sudden ˎfears.
(G.G. Byron The Prisoner of Chillon.)

And 'through the 'drifts the 'snowy 'clifts


Did 'send a 'dismal ˎsheen:
Nor 'shapes of 'men | nor 'beasts we 'ken —
The ˋice was 'all beˎtween.

The 'ice was "here, | the 'ice was "there, |


The 'ice was ↑all aˎround:
It 'crack’d 'growl’d, and 'roar’d and 'howl’d |
Like ˋnoises in a ˎswound!
(S. Coleridge. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.)

“Long trousers”. Text

There "was a 'time | when 'merely 'wearing ↑long ˋtrousers


ֽbrought ´me de'light. In 'those "days | when I 'must've been a'bout
fif´teen, | I had 'only ↑one ˎsuit, | my ˎbest, | ¯with ˎlong
ֽtrousers. My ˋother "suits | had ˎknee ֽbreeches | 'buttoning
ˋtightly 'just below the ´knee | and 'worn with ↑thick long ˎstock-
ings | 'turned 'down at the ˎtop.
There was 'really nothing 'wrong with my ap´pearance | when
I 'wore these 'knee "breeches | and 'long "stockings, | for after
'years of ´football | I had 'muscular, 'well-shaped ˎlegs. But
when'ever I ˋwore them | I 'felt I was ↑still im"prisoned, | a
'shame-'faced "giant | in the 'stale 'miniature 'world of ˎchildhood,
| con^demned | and I ֽuse this ֽterm be ֽcause there were ֽstrict ֽrules
at ^home | about ֽwhich ֽsuits ˋcould be ֽworn. To ↘wear these
ˋknee "breeches | I ↘felt that no ↘glimpse of my ˋreal "self | could
'catch the ˋtown's ˎeye. I might ↘almost have been ↘sent to
↘school in a ˎpram.

228
Con"versely | I 'felt that as 'soon as I 'put on the ´long 'trousers
| 'then ap'pearance and re'ality were ↑gloriously ˎwon. I ↘joined
the ↘world of ˋmen | and ֽeven without ֽdoing ֽanything ֽmore
than ˋwear these "trousers | and ֽleaving the other ֽwretched
ֽthings at ´home, | I could ֽfeel my ֽwhole ˋnature| ex'panding
magˎnificently.
On the oc'casional ´days | when I was al↘lowed to ↘wear the
aˋdult ´trousers | to ˋgo to ´school | ¯I 'almost ˎfloated there.
'Never did 'eighteen 'inches of ˎcloth | do ˎmore for the ֽhuman
ֽspirit.
On those ˎmornings ˎnow when I ˎseem to ˎstare "sullenly |
at the ↘wreck of a ˋshining "world, | 'why don't I re^mind my ֽself
| that al↘though I grow ^old | and ˋfat and vpeevish, | at "least | I
am 'wearing my ↑long ^trousers.

“Stories for reproduction” Text 13

Some friends hired a bus to go to the seaside for the day. When
they returned to the bus late at night to go home, someone was
lying on the ground beside it. They looked at him and discovered
that he was a man from their town whom they were sure had not
come on their bus. He was very drunk.
“I suppose he came in another bus,” one of the men said, “and
missed it when it left for home because he was drunk. Now he's
come to our bus to go back in that.”
Two men put him into the bus. He did not wake up during the
drive back, and when the bus arrived, they took him to his home,
still very drunk.
They knocked at the door for several minutes, and then a
neighbour opened a window and said, “It's no use knocking
there. They've gone to the seaside for two weeks.”

Material for reading and comment

Exercise 16. Read the following sentences and analyse them

229
for intonation.
1. The 'book 'fell on the ˎfloor, | and be'fore he could 'pick it
"up | the 'telephone ˎrang.
2. 'When I 'asked him 'how much he had 'paid for the 'theatre
"seats, | he said ˎnothing | but 'only ˎsmiled.
3. ˋWe "men | dis'cuss "politics, | "business | and the 'latest
ˎnews.
4. 'Shall we have "cakes | or "pastries | or 'buttered ˎtoast?
5. We’d have ˋwaited for him | and 'brought him aˋlong with
us | if we'd "known.
6. In'stead of "waiting, | she 'went to the "wardrobe, | 'took out
her 'best "clothes, | 'dressed with 'great "care, | and 'went 'out for a
ˎwalk.
7. As they 'aren't "ready| and 'aren't "likely to be, | we must
'manage withˋout them | until we ֽget a ֽfresh sup"ply.
8. I could 'only 'look ˎupwards; the 'sun be'gan to 'grow "hot |
and the 'light 'hurt my ˎeyes.
9. 'Monday 'came at ˎlast; the 'rain "fell again | and the 'wind
ˎhowled.
10. The 'journey 'passed ˎsafely, | and at our "stop | I 'somehow
'managed to 'drag my ↑heavy 'load 'off the ˎtram.
11. 'On the "sideboard | the 'Browns 'usually have a 'bowl of
ˎfruit: "apples, | "pears, | "plums, | "cherries, | "grapes, | "oranges |
or ba"nanas, | ac'cording to the ˎseason.
12. We had 'tea in the 'afterˋnoon, | and our 'landlord's
"daughter, | a 'modest 'civil "girl, | 'very 'neatly "dressed, | ˎmade
it for us.
13. You'll come vearly, | and 'stay as 'long as you vcan, | ˋwon't
you?
14. "Tribes, | 'even ˋclans, | wore 'special inˎsignia, | so that
'friend could be dis'tinguished from "foe, | and 'chief from 'com-
mon ˎwarrior.
15. 'English 'artists were in'spired by ˋclassical "models, | but

230
'made out of them 'something of their ˎown, | a tra'dition ↑more
reˎstrained,| ˋquieter, |'more ˎmoderate.
16. 'Isaac ˎNewton, | 'one of the ↑greatest 'men that 'ever
"lived, | was 'born in "England | 'more than 'two 'hundred years
aˎgo. It is "said | that ˋone "day, | while he was 'sitting in his 'gar-
den under an 'apple-"tree, | he 'saw an 'apple 'fall to the ˎground.
Now, the 'fall of an ˎapple | is a 'very common eˋvent, | and a
'great many "people | beˎfore Newton | had 'seen an 'apple 'fall to
the ˋground. But 'Newton was the 'first who ˎsaid to himself: |
“ֽWhy does it ֽnot go ֽup into the ˋsky, |or ֽwhy does it ֽnot go
ˋsideways | when it ֽleaves the ˎtree?”

Exercise 17. Read the following sentences and comment on the


possible tones.
1. The ice broke and he fell into the water and it took us some
time to get him out.
2. We had better get moving if we want to see the beginning of
the film.
3. If you're going to stay on a farm you'll need some old
clothes to get into.
4. It was a long job but it's done at last.
5. We shan't go walking this week-end if the weather looks
doubtful.
6. She saw us from an upstairs window and came down to
open the door.
7. If they put the rent up when our lease runs out we shall
have to move.
8. I speak French better than she does but when it conies to
English she is better by far.
9. When I lost my identity card I went through all my writing-
table and eventually found it in the wastepaper basket.
10. A great many of these afternoon performances consisted of
old plays that had achieved a permanent place in the company's
repertoire, but there was also a steady supply of new scripts in
which the actors were investing their time, their faith and their
money.
11. It was perfectly true that he had never taken the slightest

231
interest in his clothes, a suit off the peg had always served him ex-
cellently, covered him, kept him warm without elegance. Chris-
tene, too, though she was always so neat, never bothered about
clothes. She was happiest in a tweed skirt and a woollen jumper
she had knitted herself.

232
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
Предисловие.....................................................................................3
LESSON 1................................................................................................5
The classification of English consonants phonemes...........................5
Articulation of the consonants [p], [b]...............................................9
"Ship or Sheep" Unit 24" Passports, please"....................................12
Tone Group 1.....................................................................................12
LESSON 2..............................................................................................16
“Ship or sheep” Unit 25 “Happy birthday”.....................................16
“Tit for Tat”......................................................................................19
“Stories for reproduction” Text 1.....................................................19
W. Wordsworth “Upon Westminster Bridge”...................................20
LESSON 3..............................................................................................21
Articulation of the consonants [t], [d]..............................................21
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 26 “In a department store”...........................23
“One too many for him”. Text...........................................................24
G.G. Byron “Twilight”......................................................................24
LESSON 4..............................................................................................26
Intonation. Its main functions............................................................26
“Ship or sheep” Unit 27 “A damaged telephone”............................30
“Stories for reproduction” Text 2.....................................................31
Tone group 2.....................................................................................32
LESSON 5..............................................................................................35
Articulation of the consonants [k] [g]...............................................35
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 28 “The Cuckoo Clock”................................38
H. W. Longfellow “The Twilight”.....................................................38
“Stories for reproduction” Text 3.....................................................39
LESSON 6..............................................................................................40
The components of intonation...........................................................40
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 29 “Guests in August”..................................43
“Accuracy”.......................................................................................43
“Stories for reproduction” Text 4.....................................................44
LESSON 7..............................................................................................45
English speech melody. Its forms......................................................45
Articulation of the consonants [s] [z]...............................................49
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 30 “The Smile of a Snake”...........................52
Tone Group 3.....................................................................................52
LESSON 8..............................................................................................56
Types of Heads..................................................................................56
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 31 “Surprises in the post office”...................61
“Stories for reproduction” Text 5.....................................................61

233
T. Moore “Those Evening Bells”......................................................62
LESSON 9..............................................................................................63
Types of Pre-Heads...........................................................................63
Articulation of the consonants [S] [Z]..............................................64
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 32 “A Special Washing Machine”.................66
“Nothing to complain about”............................................................67
LESSON 10............................................................................................68
Types of Tails.....................................................................................68
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 33 “Television Programmes: Channel 0”....71
“Stories for reproduction” Text 6.....................................................71
Tone group 4.....................................................................................72
LESSON 11............................................................................................75
The main English intonation contours..............................................75
Articulation of the consonants [C] [G].............................................84
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 34 “At the Butcher’s Shop”...........................86
“Cinderella”.....................................................................................87
LESSON 12............................................................................................88
English speech melody, its distinctive and attitudinal functions.......88
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 35 “George Churchill”.................................90
“Not so stupid”.................................................................................92
“Stories for reproduction” Text 7.....................................................92
LESSON 13............................................................................................94
The main English intonation contours and their variants.................94
Articulation of the consonants [f], [v]...............................................94
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 36 “At the Photographer’s”..........................96
Tone group 5.....................................................................................97
LESSON 14..........................................................................................101
The semantic function of the nucleus...............................................101
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 37 “A Fine View”........................................104
“Too great a majority”...................................................................107
“Child’s play”.................................................................................107
LESSON 15..........................................................................................109
The semantic function of the head...................................................109
Articulation of the sound [w]..........................................................110
“Ship or Sheep” Unit 38 “A Walk in the Woods”..........................113
“Stories for reproduction” Text 8...................................................114
LESSON 16..........................................................................................115
The semantic function of the pre-head............................................115
Articulation of the sound [j]............................................................116
“Ship or Sheep”, unit 39 “A Stupid Student”.................................119
“The story of Narcissus”.................................................................119

234
LESSON 17..........................................................................................121
The sense-group or the syntagm......................................................121
Articulation of the sound [h]...........................................................124
“Ship or Sheep”, unit 40 “A horrible Accident”............................126
Tone group 6...................................................................................127
LESSON 18..........................................................................................130
The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different
communicative types. Statements....................................................130
Articulation of the sounds [T] [D]..................................................134
“Ship or Sheep”, unit 41 “Gossips”...............................................137
W. Shakespeare “Sonnet 18” (+ translation).................................137
LESSON 19..........................................................................................139
The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different
communicative types. General questions........................................139
“Ship or Sheep”, unit 42 “The hat in the window”........................143
“Dialectal differences”...................................................................146
“Stories for reproduction”. Text 9..................................................146
LESSON 20..........................................................................................148
The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different
communicative types. Special questions..........................................148
Articulation of the sound [m]..........................................................151
“Ship or Sheep”, unit 43 “Mum’s crumpets”.................................153
Tone group 7...................................................................................153
LESSON 21..........................................................................................157
The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different
communicative types. Alternative questions....................................157
Articulation of the sound [n]...........................................................157
“Ship or sheep”, unit 44 “At an Accommodation Agency”............159
W. Shakespeare “Sonnet 29” (+ translation).................................160
LESSON 22..........................................................................................162
The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different
communicative types. Disjunctive questions...................................162
Articulation of the sound [N]..........................................................165
“Ship or sheep”, unit 45 “Noisy Neighbours”...............................167
“Tea”...............................................................................................168
LESSON 23..........................................................................................170
The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different
communicative types. Commands and requests..............................170
Articulation of the sound [l]............................................................172
“Ship or sheep”, unit 46 “Early for Lunch”...................................175
W. Wordsworth “Daffodils”............................................................175

235
LESSON 24..........................................................................................177
The use of the main intonation contours in utterances of different
communicative types. Exclamations and interjections....................177
“Ship or sheep”, unit 47 “A Spoilt Little Boy in the Bicycle
Shop”...............................................................................................179
S. T. Coleridge “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”.......................179
Tone group 8...................................................................................182
LESSON 25..........................................................................................185
The use of the tones in the sentences containing more than one sense-
group...............................................................................................185
Articulation of the sound [r]...........................................................186
“Ship or sheep” Unit 48 “A Proud Parent”...................................188
R. Aldington “The Poplar”.............................................................189
LESSON 26..........................................................................................190
Sentence-stress in English...............................................................190
“Ship or sheep” Unit 49 “In the Airport”......................................192
“Stories for reproduction” Text 9...................................................193
Text “A basket of fir cones”............................................................193
LESSON 27..........................................................................................196
English rhythm................................................................................196
Text “Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonata”...........................................198
“Stories for reproduction” Text 11.................................................199
Tone group 9...................................................................................200
LESSON 28..........................................................................................204
Emphatic speech..............................................................................204
Text “Irene’s Return” (from the “Forsyte Saga” by John Galswor-
thy)...................................................................................................209
Material for reading and comment. Test 1......................................210
Tone group 10.................................................................................211
LESSON 29..........................................................................................216
Some rhythmical tendencies............................................................216
W. Shakespeare “Hamlet’s monologue” (+ translation)................221
“Stories for reproduction” Text 12.................................................222
Material for reading and comment. Test 2......................................222
LESSON 30..........................................................................................224
Rhythm in English Verse.................................................................224
“Long trousers”. Text.....................................................................228
“Stories for reproduction” Text 13.................................................229
Material for reading and comment.................................................230

236
ИРИНА НИКОЛАЕВНА ХОХЛОВА

ПРАКТИЧЕСКАЯ ФОНЕТИКА
АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
Часть II

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237

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