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ENGLISH FOR ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING
Department of Electric Power System
Hanoi University of Science and Technology

3/13/2011 Lecturer: Nguyen Xuan Tung


nx_tung-htd@mail.hut.edu.vn
General Introduction
Chapter 01: How to make an effective technical presentation Chapter 06: Distributions
Chapter 02: Electrical Power System – An introduction Chapter 07: Consumptions

2 Chapter 03: Generation Chapter 08: Interconnected Power Systems


Chapter 04: Transmission Lines Chapter 09: System Protection & Control
Chapter 05: Substations Chapter 10: Other topics (if applicable)

Chapter 5
Substations
 Overview
 Basic terminology
Major equipments in a substation
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 Transformers
 Circuit breakers
 Air disconnect switches
 Lightning arresters
 Electrical buses
 Capacitor banks
 Reactors
 Static VAR compensators
 Control building
Transformer: Boost or Decrease voltage
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Transformer - Details
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2. Magnetic Core
7. Radiator
8. Windings
10. Load Tap Changer (LTC)

On-load Tap Changer (OLTC)


Transformer Cooling Methods
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 Air Cooling For Dry Type Transformers:


Air natural Type (A.N.)
Air Forced type (A.F.)
 Cooling For Oil Immersed Transformers:
Oil Natural Air Natural Type (O.N.A.N.)
Oil Natural Air Forced Type (O.N.A.F.)
Oil Forced Air Natural Type (O.F.A.N.)
Oil Forced Air Forced Type (O.F.A.F.)
 Oil immersed Water Cooling:
Oil Natural Water Forced (O.N.W.F.)
Oil Forced Water Forced (O.F.W.F.)
Transformer Cooling Methods
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 Air Cooling For Dry Type Transformers:


Air natural Type (A.N.): transformer is cooled by nature surrounding
air.
Air Forced type (A.F.): air is forced on to the tank surface to increase
the rate of heat dissipation.
Apply for dry type transformer

A dry type transformer is one which does not employ a liquid as a


cooling or insulating medium.
Transformer Cooling Methods
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Tap Changing System
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 Insulation requirements: tap points is placed at the low voltage


end of the winding:
Near the star point in a star connected winding.
 In delta connected windings: the tapings are usually at the center of
the winding.
Tap Changing System
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On-load Tap Changer Mechanism


Tap Changing System
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 Switching sequence
Tap Changer - Fitted
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Tap
changer

External
control box
Other type of transformer: Autotransformer
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 In an autotransformer:
A portions of the same winding act as both
the primary and secondary: common
winding.
 An autotransformer:
Smaller size
Lighter & cheaper
 However: does not provide electrical
isolation.
Transformer - Bushings
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 Bushings are used on transformers, circuit breakers... as


connection points
 Bushings connect outside conductors to conductors inside
equipments
Transformer – Bushings CTs Location
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Bushing CT
Circuit Breaker
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 Switchgear: combination of electrical disconnects, fuses and/or


circuit breakers used to isolate electrical equipment.
 Switchgear: used both to:
De-energize equipment to allow work to be done
To clear faults downstream.
Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 Bulk Oil Circuit Breakers (BOCBs)


 Minimum Oil Circuit Breakers (MOCBs)
 Air Circuit Breakers (ACBs)
 Air Blast Circuit Breakers (ABCBs)
 SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers
 Vacuum Circuit Breakers (VCBs)
Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 Bulk Oil Circuit Breakers (BOCBs)


Contacts is immersed in oil
Oil as insulation: live part & earthed metal tank
Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 Minimum Oil Circuit Breakers (MOCBs) (low oil)


Use oil as interrupting media
Interrupting unit in insulating chamber at live potential  reduce
requirement of oil
Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 Air Circuit Breakers (ACBs)


Contacts open & close in air at atmospheric pressure
Normally, apply for low voltage system only
Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 Air Blast Circuit Breakers (ABCBs)


Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 Air Blast Circuit Breakers (ABCBs)


Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers


 Contacts open & close in Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6)
Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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Advantages over oil and air circuit Disadvantages:


breakers:  SF6 breakers are costly due
 Due to property of SF6 : very short to high cost of SF6
arcing time
 Dielectric strength of SF6 gas is 2 to 3
times that of air  can interrupt much
larger currents.
 Noiseless operation due to its closed
gas circuit
 No risk of fire as SF6 is non
inflammable
 Low maintenance cost, light
foundation requirements and
minimum auxiliary equipment
Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers


Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 SF6 Gas Circuit Breakers


Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 Vacuum Circuit Breakers (VCBs)


Arc interruption takes place in vacuum
Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 Vacuum Circuit Breakers (VCBs)


Arc interruption takes place in vacuum
Type of Circuit Breaker – Based on Interrupting Media
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 Vacuum Circuit Breakers (VCBs)


Arc interruption takes place in vacuum
Air Disconnect Switches - Isolator
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 Isolate or de-energize equipment for maintenance purposes


(isolator)
 Transfer load from one source to another in planned or
emergency conditions
 Provide visual openings for maintenance personnel
 Being normally gang operated (or group operated)

 Have low current interrupting ratings compared to circuit


breaker
Air Disconnect Switches - Types
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 Vertical break type


Air Disconnect Switches - Types
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 Horizontal break type


Air Disconnect Switches - Types
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 Operating Mechanism
Lightning Arrester
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 Designed to limit the L-G voltage in the event of lightning or


other excessive transient voltages

For substation
Lightning Arrester
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 Designed to limit the L-G voltage in the event of lightning or


other excessive transient voltages

For lines
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