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11 Composite Design

11.1 GENERAL REMARKS

The use of steel-concrete composite construction began around 1926. During recent years, composite design has been widely applied in building construc- tion. In general, composite design provides the following advantages as com- pared with noncomposite design:

1. Efficient use of material. As a result of composite design, the size and

weight of steel beams can be reduced by as much as 15 to 30%. The cost of fireproofing can be reduced in addition to the cost reduction of steel beams.

2. Greater stiffness. The stiffness of the composite section can be in-

creased. This reduces the deflection of the member as compared with the noncomposite beam.

3. Extra usable space. The use of shallow beams can reduce building

heights. It is also possible to increase column spacings to provide larger us- able space within a structure.

4. Saving in labor and other construction material. Savings in labor, facing

material, piping, and wiring can be realized.

The conventional steel-concrete composite construction as now used in buildings and bridges is a series of T-beams. It is composed of three essential elements:

1. A reinforced concrete slab

2. Steel beams

3. Shear connectors

Figure 11.1 shows a composite beam section in which the reinforced con- crete slab acts as the compression flange of the T-section. Shear connectors can resist the horizontal shear and provide vertical interlocking between con- crete slab and steel beams to produce a composite section that acts as a single unit. Types of shear connectors include studs, channels, stiffened angles, and flat bars, as shown in Fig. 11.2. The most often-used connectors are shear studs. In building construction the studs are welded through the steel deck into the structural steel framing; in bridge construction the studs are welded directly to the framing.

600

11.2 STEEL-DECK-REINFORCED COMPOSITE SLABS

601

11.2 STEEL-DECK-REINFORCED COMPOSITE SLABS 601 Figure 11.1 Composite construction. In the past, the construction was

Figure 11.1

Composite construction.

In the past, the construction was usually done with wood forming and the slab was reinforced with bars. For the last 30 years, steel deck has been used as the forming material for building construction and wood is only used for bridges even though steel deck is also often used on bridges too.

11.2 STEEL-DECK-REINFORCED COMPOSITE SLABS

For steel-deck-reinforced composite slabs, the cold-formed steel deck serves in four ways. It acts as a permanent form for the concrete, provides a working platform for the various trades, provides the slab reinforcing for positive bend- ing, and provides bracing for the steel frame by acting as a diaphragm. The placement of the steel deck is done in a fraction of the time required for wood

of the steel deck is done in a fraction of the time required for wood Figure

Figure 11.2

Types of shear connectors. 11.1

602 COMPOSITE DESIGN

forming, so it is no surprise that wood has been replaced in steel-framed building construction. Steel deck achieves its composite bonding ability by embossments or in- dentations formed in the deck webs or by the deck shape (Fig. 11.3). In the past, successful composite deck was made by welding transverse wires across the deck ribs (Fig. 11.4) or by punching holes in the deck to allow concrete to fill the ribs (Fig. 11.5). Research sponsored by the Steel Deck Institute and by the American Iron and Steel Institute has shown that the shear studs used to make the beams composite also greatly enhance the composite behavior of the steel deck. 11.18,11.21 The performance of the composite deck slab is as a one-way reinforced slab and the slab is designed with conventional reinforced concrete proce- dures. It is only necessary to provide reinforcement for shrinkage and some- times, depending on the loading, for negative bending over the interior supports. The Steel Deck Institute drew on the extensive research done at Iowa State University, University of Waterloo, Lehigh University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, Wash- ington University at Seattle, and from other studies done both in the United States and overseas, to produce the uniform design method shown in the 1977 Composite Deck Design Handbook. 1.324 This document contains requirements and recommendations on materials, design, connections, and details of con- struction with some additional information on special cases. Since 1984, en- gineers have also used the ASCE Standard Specification for the Design and Construction of Composite Steel Deck Slabs prepared by the Steel Deck with Concrete Standard Committee. 1.170 In 1991, the ASCE Standard was revised and divided into two separate Standards: (1) Standard for the Structural De- sign of Composite Slabs, ANSI/ASCE 3-91 11.53 and (2) Standard Practice for Construction and Inspection of Composite Slabs, ANSI/ASCE 9-91. 11.54 Both Standards were approved by ANSI in December 1992. These two Standards and their Commentaries focus on the usage of composite steel-deck-reinforced slabs. Standard 3-91 addresses the design of composite slabs and Standard 9- 91 focuses on construction practices and inspection. These two standards are being updated to incorporate the latest research.

11.3 COMPOSITE BEAMS OR GIRDERS WITH COLD-FORMED

STEEL DECK

In building construction, one of the economical types of roof and floor con- struction is to combine the steel-deck-reinforced slab with the supporting steel beams or girders as a composite system. When the composite construction is composed of a steel beam and a solid slab, as shown in Fig. 11.1, the slip between beam and slab is usually small under working load; therefore the effect of slip can be neglected. For this case, full interaction between beam and slab can be expected, and full ultimate

11.3 COMPOSITE BEAMS OR GIRDERS WITH COLD-FORMED STEEL DECK

603

COMPOSITE BEAMS OR GIRDERS WITH COLD-FORMED STEEL DECK 603 Figure 11.3 No. 1. 1 . 9
COMPOSITE BEAMS OR GIRDERS WITH COLD-FORMED STEEL DECK 603 Figure 11.3 No. 1. 1 . 9
COMPOSITE BEAMS OR GIRDERS WITH COLD-FORMED STEEL DECK 603 Figure 11.3 No. 1. 1 . 9

Figure 11.3

No. 1. 1.96,11.2 (b ) Type No. 2. 11.3 (c ) Type No. 3. 11.4

Composite systems containing embossments or indentations. (a ) Type

604 COMPOSITE DESIGN

604 COMPOSITE DESIGN Figure 11.4 Composite system with T-wires. 1 1 . 5 Figure 11.5 Composite

Figure 11.4

Composite system with T-wires. 11.5

Figure 11.4 Composite system with T-wires. 1 1 . 5 Figure 11.5 Composite system containing punched

Figure 11.5

Composite system containing punched holes.

. 5 Figure 11.5 Composite system containing punched holes. Figure 11.6 Composite beam using steel-deck-reinforced

11.3 COMPOSITE BEAMS OR GIRDERS WITH COLD-FORMED STEEL DECK

605

COMPOSITE BEAMS OR GIRDERS WITH COLD-FORMED STEEL DECK 605 Figure 11.7 Composite joist using steel-deck-reinforced

Figure 11.7

Composite joist using steel-deck-reinforced concrete slab. 1.96

load can be achieved if adequate shear connectors are provided. This type of composite beam can be designed by the AISC Specification. 1.148 Since 1978 the AISC Specification 1.148 has included some specific provi- sions for the design of composite beams or girders with cold-formed steel deck, as shown in Figs. 11.3a and 11.6. These provisions are based on the studies conducted previously by Fisher, Grant, and Slutter at Lehigh Univer- sity. 1.95,11.21,11.22 This specification provides general requirements and design formulas for deck ribs oriented perpendicular or parallel to steel beams. The application of such design rules is well illustrated in Refs. 11.23–11.25. In addition to the above, the current AISC Specification also recognizes partial composite action because for some cases it is not necessary, and occasionally it may not be feasible, to provide full composite action. 1.148,11.23 In 1989, Heagler prepared the SDI LRFD Design Manual for Composite Beams and Girders with Steel Deck. 11.51 This Manual contains a large number of design tables covering a wide range of beam, deck and slab combinations that have been analyzed as composite beams using the provisions of the AISC LRFD Manual of Steel Construction. 11.52 As far as other countries are concerned, the Canadian Sheet Steel Building Institute’s Criteria for the Design of Composite Slabs 11.26 are being used in Canada. In Switzerland, design recommendations have been prepared by Ba- doux and Crisinel. 11.27 A book on composite design was written by Bucheli and Crisinel in 1982. 11.28 References 11.42–11.44, 11.46, and 11.48 present the additional work and developments on composite design using steel deck in Canada, United Kingdom, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. In 1999, the International Conference on Steel and Composite Structures was held in the Netherlands to discuss recent research on composite structures. In addition to the use of conventional steel beams, composite open-web steel joists with steel deck, as shown in Fig. 11.7, have been studied by Cran and Galambos. 11.29,11.30

606 COMPOSITE DESIGN

With regard to shear connectors, special connectors have been developed in the past by various individual companies for use in composite construction. Several studies have been made to investigate the composite action of cold- formed steel beams and columns with concrete. 11.17,11.49,11.50 References 11.55–11.75 report on the results of recent projects on composite slabs and construction.

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