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u , known as {  ,    ,    ,   ,  ,   , 

 ,   ,  
 (not to be confused with the much smaller true black
lentil î 
 J,  (in NepaliJ,  (Vietnamese, literally: black beanJ or

, is a bean grown in southern Asia. It is largely used to make dal from the
whole or split, dehusked seeds. It, along with the mung bean, was placed in ë  
but has been transferred to  . It was at one point considered to belong to the same
species as the mung bean.

Black gram originated in India where it has been in cultivation from ancient times and is
one of the most highly prized pulses of India. It has also been introduced to other tropical
areas mainly by Indian immigrants.

It is an erect, sub-erect or trailing, densely hairy annual herb. The tap root produces a
branched root system with smooth, rounded nodules. The pods are narrow, cylindrical
and up to six cm long. The bean is boiled and eaten whole or, after splitting, made into
dal prepared like this it has an unusual mucilaginous texture. Ground into flour or paste,
it is also extensively used in South Indian culinary preparation like dosa, idli, vada, and
papadum. When used this way, the white lentils are usually used.

It is very nutritious and is recommended for diabetics, as are other pulses. It is very
popular in the Punjabi cuisine of India and Pakistan where it is known as "sabit maash"
an ingredient of dal makhani. The product sold as "black lentil" is usually the whole urad
bean or urad dal. The product sold as "white lentil" is the same lentil with the black skin
   is used in traditional Indian(AyurvedaJ medicine. Pharmacologically
extracts have demonstrated immunostimolatory activity


Black gram is a member of the Asiatic  crop group. It is an annual pulse grown
mostly as a fallow crop in rotation with cereals. Similar to the other pulses, black gram,
being a legume, it enriches soil nitrogen content and has relatively a short (90-120 daysJ

Black gram is scientifically known as ë    and it is commonly known as

Urad in India. India is its primary origin and is mainly cultivated in Asian countries
including Pakistan, Myanmar and parts of southern Asia.

About 70 per cent of world¶s black gram production comes from India.The area of
traditional cultivation of black gram is confined to the South Asia and adjacent regions (
India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and MyanmarJ.


Black gram is a warm weather crop and comes up in areas receiving an annual rainfall
ranging from 600 to 1000mm. It is mainly cultivated in a cereal-pulse cropping system
primarily to conserve soil nutrients and utilize the left over soil moisture particularly after
rice cultivation. Hence, although it is grown in all the seasons, majority of black gram
cultivation falls in either rabi or late rabi seasons particularly in peninsular India.

The optimum temperature range for growth is 27-30 oC. A dry harvest period is
desirable as this forces the crop to mature and reduces the risk of weather damage,
although black gram is less susceptible to this than mung bean. Black gram will grow on
most soils, with a preference for loams with a P H of 5.5-7.5. It comes up well on water
retentive soils but cannot stand saline and alkaline conditions. Root growth can be
restricted on heavy clays, with a consequent limitation to growth. Black gram is more
tolerant of waterlogging than is mung bean.

India is the largest producer as well as consumer of black gram. It produces about 1.5
million tonnes of urad annually from about 2.5 million hectares of area with an average
productivity of 400 kg per hectare. Black gram output accounts for about 10 per cent of
India's total pulse production

! "  

The major producing states are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh,
Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producing state contributing
for about 24 per cent of total country¶s output followed by Maharashtra and Madhya
Pradesh with 20 per cent and 13 per cent, respectively.

India is the largest producer of black gram in the world. The annual production of urad in
India is around 1.5 million tons contributing around 10% of the total quantity of pulses
produced in India. The major states that produce black gram or urad in India are

¦| Madhya Pradesh
¦| Uttar Pradesh
¦| Punjab
¦| Maharashtra
¦| West Bengal
¦| Andhra Pradesh
¦| Orissa
¦| Tamil Nadu
¦| arnataka

The area under the cultivation of urad in the country is about 2.5 million hectares.
Madhya Pradesh is the leading producer of black gram in India. Two varieties of urad are
produced in the country ± Desi and T9. Most of these urad producing areas in India
produce Desi urad. Also there is a significant price difference between these two types of
the pulse, Desi being more expensive than T9.

! # 

Type 27,

Type 56,

Pusa 1,

Pant 430,

hargone 3,

ADT 1 to 3,

HPU 6,

T 65,

LBG 402,

LBG 22,

LBG 20

 $  % 
  & '(


ADT 1 Selection from 1965 80 450 rice --- High protein content of
Aduthurai fallowJ 19.9%

Co 1 Pureline 1968 110 600 750 Released for rainfed

selection from condition

Co 2 Pureline 1973 65-70 500 900 Can be grown throughout

selection from the year as an irrigated
PLS 150 crop

Co 3 Pureline 1976 85 500 1100 Less susceptible to root rot

selection from and pod borer
PLS 364

M 1 (G 31 x 1977 65-70 625 --- Dwarf type and drought

argaon 3 J x tolerant
G 31

Co 4 Induced 1978 75 550 1250 Tolerant to leaf crinkle

mutant from virus, tip blight, powdery
Co 1 (MMS mildew and less
0.02%J susceptible to stemfly and
pod borer

M 2 T 9 x L 64 1978 60-65 692 --- Dwarf type. Tolerant to

viral diseases.

ADT 2 Derivative of 1979 70-75 600 (rice --- High protein content of
Tirunelveli x fallowJ 21.5

TMV Midhi Ulundu 1979 65-70 --- 800 Resistant to YMV and
1 x M 1 tolerant to root rot.

Co 5 Pureline 1981 70-75 750 1250 Moderately resistant to

selection from powdery mildew, leaf
Musiri type crinkle, pod borer and tip

ADT 3 Pureline 1981 70-75 750(rice --- Suitable for rice fallow
selection from fallowJ

ADT 4 T9 / ADT2 / 1987 65-70 1000 --- Suitable for raising in field
PANT U- 14 bunds, higher grain
cross weight, resistant to YMV
derivative and stemfly.

Vamba M 1 x H 76- 1987 60-65 780 900 High yielding ,suitable for
n1 1 entire state and tolerant to

ADT 5 Pureline 1988 70-75 --- 1545 Suitable for rice fallow.
selection from Resistant to major
anpur variety diseases like YMV, root
rot and leaf crinkle and to

AP 1 ADT 2 x RU 1 1993 75 -- 940 Suited for rainfed

conditions for
intercropping with cotton

1 Co 3 x VS 131 1994 70-75 707 --- Suitable for southern

districts, YMV resistant,
24.2% protein, suitable for
intercropping in cotton
Vamba Spontaneous 1996 65 700 1074 Resistant to Yellow
n2 mutant Mosaic Virus.
selection from
Type 9

Vamba LBG 402 x 2000 65-70 775 900 Resistant to Yellow

n3 LBG 17 Mosaic Virus

Vamba CO 4 x PDU 2003 75-80 780 900 Resistant to Yellow

n (BgJ 102 Mosaic Virus

Vamba Vamban 1 x 2006 65 - 70 820 - High yield and resistant to

n (BgJ U 17 yellow mosaic virus
5 disease in all seasons


The term    

 (GAPJ can refer to any collection of specific
methods, which when applied to agriculture, produces results that are in harmony with
the values of the proponents of those practices. There are numerous competing
definitions of what methods constitute "Good Agricultural Practices", so whether a
practice can be considered "good" will depend on the standards you are applying.
Good Agricultural Practices are a collection of principles to apply for on-farm production
and post-production processes, resulting in safe and healthy food and non-food
agricultural products, while taking into account economical, social and environmental

GAPs may be applied to a wide range of farming systems and at different scales. They
are applied through sustainable agricultural methods, such as integrated pest
management, integrated fertilizer management and conservation agriculture. They rely on
four principles:

¦| Ëconomically and efficiently produce sufficient (food securityJ, safe (food safetyJ
and nutritious food (food qualityJ 1]
¦| Sustain and enhance natural resources
¦| Maintain viable farming enterprises and contribute to sustainable livelihoods
¦| Meet cultural and social demands of society.

The concept of GAPs has changed in recent years because of a rapidly changing
agriculture, globalization of world trade, food crisis (mad cow diseaseJ, nitrate pollution
of water, appearance of pesticide resistance, soil erosion...

GAPs applications are being developed by governments, NGOs and private sector to
meet farmers and transformers needs and specific requirements. However, many think
these applications are only rarely made in a holistic or coordinated way.

They provide the opportunity to assess and decide on which farming practices to follow
at each step in the production process. For each agricultural production system, they aim
at allowing a comprehensive management strategy, providing for the capability for
tactical adjustments in response to changes. The implementation of such a management
strategy requires knowing, understanding, planning, measuring, monitoring, and record-
keeping at each step of the production process. Adoption of GAPs may result in higher
production, transformation and marketing costs, hence finally higher costs for the
consumer. To minimize production costs and maintain the quality of agri-food, ACIAR
offers a series of advisable online publications to benefit farmers

   * +


Following care should be taken during harvesting:

> Harvesting should be done timely. Timely harvesting ensures optimum grain
quality and consumer acceptance.
> Harvesting before the crops mature, usually result lower yields, higher
proportion of immature seeds, poor grain quality and more chances of disease
attack during storage.
> Delay in harvesting, results in shattering of pods and other losses caused by
birds, rats, insects etc.
> Harvest the crop, when a large percentage of the pods are fully matured.
> Separate out the admixtures of other crop prior to harvesting,
> Avoid harvesting during adverse weather condition i.e. rains and overcast
> Avoid pest infestation prior to harvesting.
> Use proper harvest equipment i.e., sickle etc.
> All the harvested stems should be kept in one direction in order to ascertain
efficient threshing.
> The harvested bundles should be stacked in a dry place. The stacking should be
cubical to facilitate circulation of the air around.
> eep the harvested stems for drying in the sun.
> eep the harvested crop separately from one variety to another to get true type
of variety

There is a sizeable quantitative and qualitative loss of Black gram during
different post-harvest operations like threshing, winnowing, transportation, and storage.
The post-harvest losses reported to be 2.46 percent. The estimated post-harvest losses at
various stages are given below:

,- ./0

2 +

.- . 

3 Threshing 0.65

4 Winnowing 0.62

5 Field to threshing floor 0.70

6 Threshing floor to storage 0.19

/ During storage 0.30


  : Mumbai, Jalgaon, Latur, Akola, Indore, Bhopal, Vidisha

   : Delhi, anpur, Hapur, Jalandhar, Ludhiana,

   : Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Gulbarga, Sirsa, Sangrur Chennai

Pulses dominantly constitute the staple diet of the people in India. India has
always been the largest producer, consumer and importer of pulses. The same trends
follows in the context of Urad or the black gram. Urad has been consumed widely in
India since very long. It is one of the most important and highly prized pulses in India.
Due to the fermenting capability of this pulse, it is used widely in fermented foods that
are the specialty of South Indian cuisine.

The production of urad in India hovers around 1.3 to 1.5 million tons annually. It
is approximately 10% of the total pulses produced in India. Madhya Pradesh leads the
production figures of this crop in India. Urad¶s consumption pattern is quite dispersed as
it is used in most of the regions in India. Though the per capita consumption of urad has
declined over the years, consumption level of this crop is too high to be fulfilled by the
country¶s domestic production. That is why it has to rely upon imports from other
countries. The countries that export urad to India are

The following are the important marketing channels exist in the marketing
of Black gram.
(" +
This is a traditional channel and the most common marketing channel in
India. The main private marketing channels for c are as under:
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("  >#,   > % >   > 
("  > % > 
+("  >   
> % >   > 


Some institutions have been entrusted with marketing activities of Black
gram like NAFËD. NAFËD is the nodal agency for procuring Black gram through
providing minimum support prices to the farmers for their produce. The main
institutional marketing channels for Black gram are as under:
3("  > "    '> % >   
4("  > "    '> % >   
5("  > "    '> % > 

Following criteria should be considered during selecting a marketing channel:
1. The channel, which ensures the higher share to producer and also provides
cheaper price to consumer, is considered as the most efficient channel.
2. Selection should be for shorter channel having lesser market cost.
3. Avoid the longer channel having more intermediaries causing higher market
cost and less producer's share.
4. Select the channel which distributes the produce appropriately at least expense
and secure the desired volume of disposal.

*7 1 1
# 1
*7 1 1
%  1

1,-*--1 78c 

*7 1 1
1, 1


Marketing Costs are the actual expenses required in bringing goods and services from the
roducer to the consumers. The marketing cost normally includes
(iJ handling charges at local points

(iiJ assembling charges

(iiiJ transport and storage costs

(ivJ handling by wholesaler¶s and retailer¶s charges to consumers

(vJ expenses on secondary services like financing, risk taking and market intelligence,

(viJ profit margins taken out by different agencies.


Margin refers to the difference between the price paid and
received by a specific marketing agency such as a single retailer, or by any type of
marketing agency, i.e. retailers or assemblers or by any combination of marketing
agencies in the marketing system as a whole. The total marketing margin includes cost
involved in moving the Black gram from producer to consumer and profits of various
market functionaries. The absolute value of the marketing margin varies from market to
market, channel to channel and time to time. The Market Cost incurred by farmers and
traders at Regulated market includes
iJ Market fee

iiJ Commission

ivJ Taxes, and

ivJ Other miscellaneous charges.



 0 Market fee or entry fee is collected by the market committee of the
markets. It is charged either on the basis of weight or on the basis of the value of the
produce. It is usually collected from the buyers. The market fee differs from state to
state. It varies from 0.5 per cent to 2.0 per cent ad valoram.

(  0It is paid to the commission agent, and may be payable either by seller
or by the buyer or sometimes by both. The charge is usually made in cash and varies
(,90Different taxes are charged in different markets such as toll tax, terminal tax,
sales tax, octroi etc. These taxes livable on Black gram differ from market to market in
the same state as also from state to state. These taxes are usually payable by the seller.


In addition to the above-mentioned charges, some other charges are levied in markets of
Black gram. These includes handling and weighment charges (weighing, loading,
unloading, cleaning etc.J, charity contribution in cash and kind, grading charges, postage,
charges payable to water man, sweeper, Chowkidar etc. These charges may be payable
either by the seller or by the buyers. Market fee, commission charges, taxes and other



The study says consumers are highly sensitive to prices when making food purchase
decisions. "Consumers tend to switch to low priced pulse varieties and grades when the
price shoots up.

Importers, therefore, look to Myanmar for sourcing the requirement as it offers many
varieties with qualities similar to those produced in India," said Dr N. Raveendran,
Project Co-ordinator, Centre for Agricultural and Rural Development Studies.

The wholesale rates shot up in January-February 2006, following the extensive damage to
the stored pulses in the Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra belt in December.

Pulses production in 2006-07 has been estimated at 14 million tonnes (mtJ. Import is
expected to rise marginally to 1.8 mt against the estimated 1.6 mt in 2005-06. The
Domestic and Ëxport Market Intelligence Cell , expects the demand to be stable and the
crop prospects good for the 2006-07 rabi crop.

Analysts expect the wholesale price to hover around Rs 25 and Rs 27 in April and May
and move upwards in June.

The demand supply gap between domestic production and consumption of black gram
appears to be widening. The import of this highly priced pulse, which is an annual, warm
season crop has been on the rise, say Tamil Nadu Agricultural University researchers.

A study undertaken by the Domestic and Ëxport Market Intelligence Cell of the Centre
for Agricultural and Rural Development Studies in the Tamil Nadu Agricultural
University, Coimbatore has said . black gram import during 2002-03 stood at 35,360
tonnes (valued at Rs 53.70 croreJ.