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Министерство образования и науки РФ

Алтайский государственный университет

Исторический факультет

Кафедра иностранных языков




Учебно-методическое пособие

Барнаул 2019

УДК 811.111 (075.8)

ББК 81.432.1 (я73)

Составитель: к. филос.н., проф. О.М. Казакова

Рецензент: к.т.н., доцент Е.В. Понькина

Данное издание адресовано студентам направления «Информатика в

гуманитарных науках». Пособие состоит из шести разделов и глоссария. В
разделах содержатся тексты на английском языке по профессиональной
тематике, словарь и упражнения. В третьем разделе подобраны разнообразные
упражнения на отработку лексики английского языка по теме «Компьютер и
информационные технологии», вторая часть раздела содержит упражнения на
фразовые глаголы. Пособие содержит дискуссионные вопросы для обсуждения
актуальных тем развития компьютерных технологий и Интернета.

© О.М. Казакова, 2019

© ФГБОУ ВО «Алтайский государственный университет», 2019


Unit 1. The Role of Computers……………………………….p.3

Unit 2. Parts of a Computer…………………………………..p. 6

Unit 3. Vocabulary…………………………………………….p. 11

Part 1. Basic Vocabulary……………………………….p. 11

Part 2. Phrasal Verbs……………………………………p. 17

Unit 4. Different Types of Computers………………………..p. 21

Unit 5. Choosing an IT Career Path…………………………..p. 26

Unit 6. The Rise of the World Wide Web……………………..p. 37

GLOSSARY……………………………………………………p. 43

Unit 1

The Role of Computers

Read and translate the text.

Computers play a major role in our daily lives. They are used in various places, such
as industries, schools, government offices, and shops. The following paragraphs
describe the use of computers in various fields.


In the field of education, trainers can use computers to perform various tasks such as
deliver training through audio-visual learning aids, maintain student records to track
performance, search for information on different topics, and create assignments.

Business and personal finance

In the field of business, you can use computers to maintain accounts, create personnel
records, track inventory, prepare presentations and reports, manage projects, and
communicate by e-mail. You can use computer technology to view the details of your
bank account, get instant information on stock markets, trade stocks, and manage


In the field of healthcare, computers can be used to perform various tasks such as
reviewing medical records of patients. Using computers, doctors can easily search
information about latest drugs that are available to treat a disease. In addition, doctors
use computer technology to discuss and share information about various diseases.

Scientific research

Scientists use computers for research. For example, scientists use computers to view
images from space and to publish information on their recent research.

Government affairs
In government organizations, you can use computers to organize information by
storing and maintaining records. Computers are also used for providing services to
citizens. For example, you can view information on current policies and government
issues on a computer.

Arts and entertainment

You can use computers to create drawings and paintings. Photographers use
computers to edit and enhance pictures. Writers use computers to write content for
their books and to create illustrations. Using computers, writers can make changes in
the content easily and save time. You can also use computers for entertainment. You
can listen to music, watch movies, store and print photographs, send greetings, and
play games by using a computer.


You can use computers to design any type of publication ranging from simple
newsletters to fashion magazines, marketing materials, books, or newspapers.

Speak about roles of computers in different spheres. Give examples of how

computers can help improve lives of people.

Unit 2

Parts of a Computer

Read and translate the text using the GLOSSARY on page 43 in this book.

A computer has various parts, and each part performs a specific function. They can
be divided into the following groups:

1. Input devices
2. Output devices
3. Central processing unit and memory
4. Motherboard
5. Expansion cards
6. Storage devices
7. Ports and connections

1. Input devices

You use input devices to provide information to a computer, such as typing a letter or
giving instructions to a computer, to perform a task. Some examples of input devices
are described in the following list.


A device that you use to interact with items displayed on the computer screen. A
standard mouse has a left and a right button. You use the left button to select items
and provide instructions by clicking an active area on the screen. You use the right
button to display commonly used menu items on the screen.


A set of keys that resembles a keyboard on a typewriter. You use the keyboard to
type text such as letters or numbers into the computer.


A device that you can use to talk to people in different parts of the world. You can
record sound into a computer by using a microphone. You can also record your
speech and let the computer convert it into text.


A device that is similar to a photocopy machine. You can use this device to transfer
an exact copy of a photograph or document into a computer. A scanner reads a page
and translates it into a digital format that a computer can read. For example, you can
scan photographs of your family using a scanner.


A device that is similar to a video camera. It allows you to capture and send live
pictures to other users. For example, a webcam allows your friends and family to see
you when you are communicating with them.

2.Output devices

You use output devices to get feedback from a computer after it performs a task.
Some examples of output devices are described in the following list.


A device that is similar to a television. It is used to display information in visual

form, using text and graphics.


A device that you use to transfer text and images from a computer to a paper or to
another medium, such as a transparency film. You can use a printer to create a paper
copy of whatever you see on your monitor.


A device that allows you to hear sounds. Speakers may either be external or built into
the computer.

3.Central processing unit and memory

The central processing unit (CPU) is a device that interprets and runs the commands
that you give to a computer. It is the control unit of a computer. The CPU is also
referred to as the processor. Memory is where information is stored and retrieved by
the CPU. There are three main types of memory.

Random access memory (RAM)

It is the main memory and allows you to temporarily store commands and data. The
CPU reads data and commands from RAM to perform specific tasks. RAM is
volatile, which means it is available only while the computer is turned on. The
contents of RAM must be copied to a storage device if you want to save the data in
the RAM.

Read only memory (ROM)

It is the memory that retains its contents even after the computer is turned off. ROM
is nonvolatile, or permanent, memory that is commonly used to store commands,
such as the commands that check whether everything is working properly.

Flash memory

It is a nonvolatile memory that retains data even after a computer is turned off.
Unlike in ROM, you can erase or modify stored information.


The motherboard is the main circuit board inside a computer. It has tiny electronic
circuits and other components on it. The motherboard connects input, output, and
processing devices together and tells the CPU how to run. Other components on the
motherboard are the video card, the sound card, and the circuits that allow a computer

to communicate with devices like a printer. The motherboard is sometimes called a
system board.

5.Expansion Cards

An expansion card is a circuit board that can be attached to a motherboard to add

features such as video display and audio capability to your computer. An expansion
card improves the performance of your computer and enhances its features.
Expansion cards are also called expansion boards. Some types of expansion cards are
described in the following list.

Video card

It is connected to a computer monitor and is used to display information on the


Network interface card (NIC)

It allows a computer to be connected to other computers so that information can be

exchanged between them.

Sound card

It converts audio signals from a microphone, audio tape, or some other source to
digital signals, which can be stored as a computer audio file. Sound cards also
convert computer audio files to electrical signals, which you can play through a
speaker or a headphone. You connect microphone and speakers to a sound card.

6.Storage devices

You use storage devices to store computer information. Storage devices come in
many forms. Some examples are hard drive or disk, CD-ROM, floppy disk, and
DVD-ROM. Storage devices can be divided into two types, internal storage devices
and external storage devices. Some common storage devices are described in the
following list

Hard disk

A magnetic disk that is usually the main storage device on most computers. It can be
an external or an internal device.

Floppy disk

A portable storage device that allows you to store a small amount of data. A
disadvantage of this disk is that it can be easily damaged by heat, dust, or magnetic

7. Ports and connections

A port is a channel through which data is transferred between input/output devices

and the processor. There are several types of ports that you can use to connect a
computer to external devices and networks. Some types of ports are described in the
following list.

Universal serial bus (USB) port

You use this to connect peripheral devices such as a mouse, a modem, a keyboard, or
a printer to a computer.

1. Describe different computer parts, show them on a real computer or draw a

picture of them.
2. What parts are essential and what are optional?

Unit 3


Part 1. Basic Vocabulary

Exercise 1. Match the problems with their solutions

What’s wrong with my Computer?
1. The monitor and the hard drive don’t work.
2. The monitor is dark.
3. The mouse doesn’t work.
4. I can’t type a letter.
5. I can’t get the Internet.
6. The disc drive doesn’t work.
7. My computer has crashed.
8. I think I’ve got a virus.
9. Nothing works on my computer.
10. It still doesn’t work.
a) Press control, alt, delete and shut it down.
b) You need to get a copy of Word on disc and put it in your computer.
c) Ask for help.
d) It’s not turned on.
e) You are putting your disc in the wrong way.
f) You need to sign up with an internet provider.
g) It’s not plugged into the computer.
h) They are not plugged in.
i) Turn it off and turn it on again.
j) Buy an anti-virus disc.

Exercise 2. Read and translate these conversations where people are asking for
assistance at an Internet cafe.
E-mail and the Internet

1. Customer: How do I go online?

Assistant: You're already connected to the
Internet. Do you want to send e-mail?
Customer: No, I just want to browse the web for a
Assistant: OK, just open the search engine or enter the web address and
press 'enter'.

2.Customer: I can't access my company's website. Can

you help?

Assistant: Have you put in the correct address?

Customer: Yes, I'm sure I have.

3.Customer: How do I reply to this e-mail? Sorry, I'm not very good with

Assistant: That's OK. Just hit 'reply', then compose your message, then
press 'send'.

Customer: Then can I forward the message to myself at my home address?

Assistant: Yes. Make sure you enter the right address, or the e-mail will
bounce [come back]. Let me know if you would like a hard copy of your e-mail and
I'll show you how to print out your work. [a copy on paper]

4.Customer: What do I do if I want to download this picture?

Assistant: You have to save it to a disk. I can sell you one if you don't have

5.Customer: Can I send an attachment with this


Assistant: Yes, you click here and then attach

the file.

Customer: I'd like to visit a chat room. Is that OK?

Assistant: No problem. Select this option here. Then just ask if you need my

Exercise 3. Read and translate the text about a mobile phone. Then describe one
that you have or would like to have.

Mobile phone technology

My new mobile's great. I love using predictive text now. The screen is small but it
displays images brilliantly. I've got some fantastic ring tones. I can record short
video clips and send them to my friends and I can access my e-mails on it. I've
downloaded some new games with great graphics on it. I use it all the time but I
hardly ever make calls on it!

Exercise 4. Read and translate the sentences. Can you

add any other advantages and disadvantages of

Some advantages and disadvantages of computers today
+ On the web you can access information on any subject you want to.
-As well as getting useful e-mails, you also receive a lot of spam, [junk e-mails]
+ Good web design is making it easier to navigate websites, [find your way round]
-Computer criminals are getting better at hacking into other people's
computers.[illegally going into other people's computer files]
+ People are maintaining their web pages better, so information is kept up-to-date.
-Computers still crash and you have to waste time re-installing your programs.
+ Broadband connections are widely available now. This makes online shopping
much easier.
-Whenever you need to do something really important at work, the computers seem
to be down, [not be working]
+Burning a CD is a quick and easy way to back up your work.
-It is very easy to accidentally delete or erase a file. [get rid of / destroy a file]
+ Being able to hold records on computer makes it much easier for businesses to keep
track of customers and of orders.

Exercise 5. Match the words on the left with their collocations on the right.
browse a file

be connected online

enter to the Internet

access a chat room

compose the web

attach a website

go an option

visit address

select a message

Exercise 6. Choose the correct collocation.

1 It is very important for websites to be maintained / backed into.

2 Sam spends hours every evening accessed / connected to the Internet.
3 I don't crash / receive as much spam as I used to.
4 Is it an easy website to navigate / reinstall.
5 How can I burn / enter a CD on this computer?
6 It's a good idea to keep a hard / fast copy of all important documents.
7 Be very careful not to select / delete your work.
8 Do you do a lot of computer / online shopping?

Exercise 7. Answer this computer quiz using collocations.

1 What may you have to do with your computer programs if your computer
2 What must you do regularly so you don't lose the document you are
working on?
3 What must you be careful not to do accidentally?
4 What should you check if you're not able to access a web page you want to
look at?
5 What is Google?
6 If you don't put the right address on an e-mail, what will happen?
7 How do you reply to an e-mail that you have received?
8 If you want to get a picture from the Internet and save it to your own
computer, what do you have to do?
9 If you want to send a message you have received on to someone else, what
do you do?
10 If you want to e-mail a document to someone, what do you normally do?
11 If you want to work on a document at home, where will you e-mail the
12 What feature on a mobile phone allows you to text someone more rapidly?

Exercise 8. Complete these sentences.

1 Her phone has got a very irritating…..tone.

2 Has your computer got a broadband…..?
3 Some people think that too many records about us are…..on computer these
4 Did you read about that teenager who…..into the Pentagon's main
5 I want a mobile phone that will let me…..my e-mails when I am away from
6 My sister e-mailed me this wonderful video…..of her new baby.
7 This computer screen has great resolution and so displays…..very well.
8 In this computer exercise you have to…..the right answer, A, B, C or D.

What do you think? Work with a partner to talk about the sentences below, decide
if you agree with them or disagree with them.
1. Computers are cleverer than humans.
2. The modern world cannot work without computers.
3. Humans can’t live without computers.
4. Using a computer is bad for your health.
5. Computers are good for education.
6. If you want a good job you need to know about computers.
7. One day the world will be ruled by computers.
8. Everyone should know how to use a computer.
9. People should be free to say whatever they want on the Internet.
10. Computers will never be as clever as humans.

In your discussion use the following phrases:
In my opinion………………
As I see it…………..
That’s right because………………
That’s wrong because………………
I agree (NOT I’m agree)
I disagree (NOT I’m disagree)

Vocabulary. Part 2

Phrasal Verbs

Exercise 1. Read and translate the following dialogues and a table. Pay attention to
the words in bold.

Working with files or documents

1. Ron: It would be a disaster if I lost all this work I've done.

Martin: Well, you should back your work up every day [make a copy of
computer information so that you do not lose it]. I keep a back-up of important files
on floppies or a CD-ROM [noun: extra copy for safety].
2. Professor Dell: I have to put all these statistics into my research paper. I hate
typing figures; I'm so slow.
Rana: Well, why don't you save time and pay one of your students to
type/key them in? [put information into a computer using a keyboard]
3. Kirsty: I find it difficult to read my work on screen. It doesn't seem real
Trevor: Well, why don't you print it out? [produce a printed copy of a
document that has been written on a computer]
Kirsty: Yes, I always find it easier to read a printout myself, [noun:
printed copy of an electronic document]
4. Luke: I can't see the detail on this picture file, it's too small.
Anne: No problem. You can just zoom in by clicking on this icon
here [show a clear and detailed picture of something]. And then you can just zoom
out [show something in less detail] by clicking on this little icon here.

Note that with the verbs back up, type in, key in and print out, the object can go either
before or after the particle, e.g. back a file up or back up a file.

Exercise 2. Study the table, read and translate the verbs and sentences.

Using a network and the Internet

phrasal verb meaning example
log in/on put your name into a You can log on/in using my
computer so that you can password if you want to use the
start using it computer.
log off/out finish using a computer Don't forget to log off/out when
system you've finished.
hack into sth get into someone else's Someone hacked into the
computer system without computers at work and destroyed
permission in order to look important data.
at information or do
something illegal
pick up sth connect to the Internet I'll take my laptop so 1 should be
or pick sth and access e-mails able to pick up my e-mails while
up I'm away.
scroll across/ move across/down/up a web Scroll up to the top of the page.
down/up page or other document on a
(sth) computer screen

Exercise 3. Imagine that you are writing a report on a computer in your office
or college. Write the things from the box below in the order in which you would
do them.

back up your work

log off
key in your report
log on
print out your work

Exercise 4.Complete each of these sentences, using a phrasal verb expression from
the previous page.
1) If you find it hard to see the detail in the picture, .......... …..so you can see more.
Then click on the same icon again to ............................ and the picture will go back to
normal size.
2) Although I'll be working away from the office for a couple of weeks, I'll still be
…………………. my e-mails every day.
3) If you ……………..to the bottom of the page, you'll find the data you want.
4) I…...... ........................ to this brilliant new website last night. Let me give you the
address so that you can check it out.
5) On these disks you'll find a ...........................of all the data connected with the
6) Do you think you could let me have a ....................... of that screen? I don't have
the time to write down all the details.

Exercise 5.Choose the correct word to complete these sentences.

1. Joe was very upset when he realised that someone had hacked . …….his

a) off b) on c) into d) out
2. For security reasons, always log .......... when you leave your computer
unattended for any period of time.
a) on b) in c) out d) up
3. My secretary is very quick at keying .........data.
a) onto b) on c) into d) in
4. It took ages to print the whole report ............
a) out b) down c) up d) in
5. The ability to zoom .............. is particularly useful when you are working on
detailed diagrams.
a) out b) in c) up d) on
6. Larry went into a cybercafé in Bangkok to pick…...his e-mails.
a) out b) on c) off d) up

Unit 4

Different Types of Computers


Read and translate the following words and their definitions:

1. barebone
computers which are sold incomplete or in kits that require extra components to be
Assembling a barebone computer is usually less expensive and certainly more
configurable than buying a ready-made one off the shelf.

2. convergence
the evolution of devices towards common functionality
The iPhone is a good example of convergence, because it has all the features of a
PDA, mobile phone, and an MP3 player in one package.

3. desktop computer
a personal computer typically in the shape of a tower or box with a connected
keyboard, mouse, and monitor
Desktop computers are seen in nearly every office and home today.

4. embedded system
a computer using a relatively slow and specialized processor and ROM chip,
normally used to control a particular device such as a washing machine or an MP3
Nearly all electronics you can buy today are controlled by embedded systems.

5. form factor
the size, configuration, or physical arrangement of a computing device
It's hard to buy components for a computer if you don't know the particular form

6. laptop
a portable computer with a built-in screen, integrated keyboard, and battery power
As laptop computers have become more powerful and affordable, they are steadily
replacing the more traditional desktop computer.

7. legacy system
an older device or application that continues to be used because of the high cost of
replacing it
Mainframes and minicomputers used to be cutting edge; now they are known as
legacy systems.

8. PC (personal computer)
a computer designed for use by one person at a time
When people use the term 'PC', they are often referring to a desktop computer
running Windows.

9. PDA (personal digital assistant)

a legacy handheld computer often running Palm OS or Windows CE and used as a
contact organizer, game machine, work tool, or access controller
In the 1990's the modern traveling businessman depended on his PDA to organize all
his contacts and appointments.

10.print server
hardware or software designed to connect a network device with a printer
The secretary could not get a hard copy because the print server was broken.

a specialized computer which connects two networks
The wifi router allowed the entire office to share a single Internet connection.

a type of computer intended primarily for central distribution of data to other
computers on the same network

Because servers hold large amounts of centralized data, it is critical to have daily
backup routines in place.

a hand-held multimedia computer optimized for communication and featuring a touch
screen and internet connection
Almost everyone owns a smart phone today because they serve so many purposes and
have become much more affordable over time.

a computer designed to perform intensive tasks such as weather prediction, big data
calculations, or space research.
A typical supercomputer may have up to 100 processors and speeds are measured in
tens of gigaflops.

a portable computer shaped in the form of a notebook and capable of advanced
handwriting recognition via use of a stylus or on-screen keyboard.
Bill Gates predicted the rise of the tablet PC in 2001, but not much happened until
Apple released the first iPad in 2010.

computers designed to be worn on the wrist, head, or other places on the body often
to improve mobility.
Smart watches and VR goggles are two popular forms of wearables.

a high quality computer, typically with lots of RAM, plenty of CPU power, and a
high quality video card
The engineer's latest 3d modeling project was so GPU intensive, that he wouldn't
even begin it until his new workstation arrived.

Read and translate the text about different types of computers and what makes
them unique.

Computers were not always things you could carry around with you, or even have in
your bedroom. Sixty years ago, computers (such as ENIAC) were as big as entire
apartments. They were difficult to use and not very powerful by today's standards.
They also cost a lot of money to build and operate. So computers were only used by
large organizations such as governments, international corporations, and universities.

Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, computers captured the public's imagination in
literature, films, and TV. More and more companies wanted computers, even if they
didn't always have a good reason to own one. As a result, computers gradually
became smaller, cheaper, and more practical to own. This was thanks in part to
companies like IBM, which mass-produced computers for the first time and promoted
them to medium and large businesses to do things like payroll, accounting, and other
number-crunching tasks.

In the 1970s and 1980s a new type of computer started to gain in popularity. It was
called the PC or personal computer. For the first time in history, computers were now
for everyone. The PC started a revolution which affects nearly everything we do
today. The ways we work, play, communicate, and access information have all been
radically reshaped due to the invention and evolution of the PC.

PCs are everywhere you look today. At home, at the office, and everywhere in
between. Many people still mistakenly believe the term PC is synonymous with a
desktop computer running Windows. This is not really true. Really, any computer
you use by yourself for general purposes could be called a PC. You probably already
own at least one of these types of PCs:

- - laptop
- - desktop computer
- - PDA or personal digital assistant
- - workstation

Besides PCs, there are other types of computers you probably see at work or school.
These include:

- file servers

- print servers

- web servers

But not all types of computers are so obvious as the ones above. There are still other
kinds of computers that fit inside of other devices and control them. These computers
are known as embedded systems.

Embedded systems can be found in traffic lights, TV sets, refrigerators, coffee

machines and many more devices. Embedded systems are typically controlled by
inexpensive, specialized processors which can only handle very specific tasks.

Types of computers go in and out of fashion as times changes. Older kinds of

computers which were very popular in the 20th century ( 1900's ) are now referred to
as legacy systems. These include:

- mainframes
- minicomputers
- IBM clones

New types of computers are always coming out and replacing or augmenting existing
computer types. Examples of new types of computers emerging would be netbooks,
tablet, and even wearable computers.

As you complete this unit, you will learn to differentiate between different computer
types. Keep in mind that the lines between computer types are constantly being
blurred. This phenomenon is known as convergence.

Answer the questions:

1. What is meant by the term 'convergence'?

2. Why did companies in the 1980's shift away from mainframes and move
towards personal computers?

3. Write a short essay discussing the following sentence. "Today's supercomputer

is tomorrow's legacy system."

Unit 5

Choosing an IT Career Path


Read and translate the following words and their definitions:

1. BA (business analyst)
a position responsible for the interpretation of business rules and delivering them to
technical systems
A business analyst spends a lot of time gathering relevant business requirements in
the initial stages of an IT project.

2. CIO (chief information officer)

an executive position responsible for internal processes and practices; normally has a
stronger business administration background than technical background
The CIO's work is often quite varied, ranging from managing a company's IT budget
to overseeing staff outsourcing.

3. CTO (chief technical officer)

an executive position responsible for all scientific and technological issues related to
a company; normally has a strong technical and somewhat less strong management
The CEO decided to fire the CTO after the company's IT department lost a year of
financial records due to poor backup procedures.

4. DBA (database administrator)

a person in charge of managing and maintaining relational databases and their access
The requirements for the DBA job position were: advanced SQL, performance tuning,
and disaster recover for ORACLE systems.

5. database developer
a position responsible for programming and optimizing databases
The database developer spent three months refactoring the company database to
obtain 3NF (third normal form).

6. enterprise architect
a high-level position responsible for understanding a business's overall needs and
then designing an IT structure to support it
The firm hired an enterprise architect to oversee the development of the new software

7. graphic designer
a position responsible for the creation of images, typography, mock-ups for an
organizations's front end systems; normally works under a company Art Director
The graphic designer had an iMac with a 27" screen, a graphics tablet instead of a
mouse, and the latest version of Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop software.

8. information architect
a position responsible for making complex data structures easy to understand and
navigate; especially critical at the beginning of new software development projects to
ensure the application performs in a useful way for it's intended end-users
The information architect came prepared to the meeting with some wireframes and a
glossary of target vocabulary for the project.

9. IT manager
a job position acting as a bridge between upper management and IT; one who
encourages personal development in IT staff; the boss of an IT worker
The IT Manager said the new junior developer's attitude was unacceptable.

10.IT security manager

a position responsible for setting best practices for securing wi-fi networks, servers,
backups, laptops, and VPNs.
The IT security manager ran a password cracker on his own network users to sniff
out weak passwords.

11.IT support engineer

a position responsible for on-demand support for end users including: fixing
hardware, installing software, and troubleshooting minor network issues
An IT support engineer must be able to troubleshoot and fix almost any hardware,
software, or network problem that can affect an end user's PC.

12.network administrator
a position responsible for maintenance of all aspects of a computer network; often a
specialist in TCP/IP, Linux, and related routing technology such as Cisco
"The Network is down" is a phrase a good network administator never wants to hear.

13.PM (project manager)

a position responsible for organizing and delivering a project on time and on budget;
often acts a bridge between developers and stake-holders
Software project managers are increasingly turning to Scrum and other Agile
practices to get good results from their teams.

14.QA manager (quality assurance manager)

a job title whose responsibilities include ensuring appropriate performance for a
software project and organizing and instructing testers
The QA manager organized a massive usability test to try to squash bugs before the
software's release date.

15.software developer
a position responsible for gathering information around a programming task and
performing it
Software developers often specialize in a specific software framework or paradigm
such as Java applications, Python, or CSS.

16.software tester
a job title whose responsibilities include ensuring that a software project meets
established quality guidelines.
The software tester spent all day documenting a nasty bug in the ERP software.

17.technical writer
a position responsible for the creation and maintenance of documentation relating to
an IT project including online help, user guides, white papers, and design
The technical writer wanted to write novels when she was young, but now she is
documenting accounting software applications for IBM.

Read and translate the text:

In this article we will discuss the top IT job positions available around the world now.
So read the rest of the article, reflect on which career most suits your personality...
and then go for it!

There are several things to keep in mind when determining what field of IT to go
into. Keep an eye on job web sites such as DICE.com or Monster.com to see which
jobs are most in-demand. Keep in mind that for many jobs described below, there are
several levels of positions available. For instance there are "junior", "senior", and
"lead" software developer positions available. You probably can't start out you career
as a lead developer. You have to know your own limits.

Be honest with yourself. If you don't have previous experience, good contacts, or a
good degree from a well-known university, you will be more successful in getting a
lower-level job. Also, find out what the job you are applying for typically pays in
your area. If you are young, living in a financially depressed area, or really need a
job, keep your salary expectations a bit lower than the average. This will make your
chances much higher than normal to get hired. Once you have "job experience" then
you will be in a good position to ask for more money. Sometimes the best way to get
more money is to quit your job and work for another similar company. This may
sound cruel or thankless, but that is how business works in the real world.

Everyone who works hard deserves a raise every year. How do you show your IT
manager that you are a good performer? Easy. Show up on time, be dependable, be
active in the meetings, and always do a little bit more than is asked of you. Also
equally important is to be well-liked by members of your team. Read on for more

Learn something new every day

IT is an area where people are judged largely by how much they know. If money and
a high job position are important to you, you can quickly raise your level by telling
your manager that you want harder tasks and more responsibility. IT Managers
normally love it when employees ask for more responsibility. When you meet with
your manager, set goals for yourself and meet or exceed those goals. Here are some
things you can do to increase your worth to your company:

1. learn a new programming language

2. take a certification such a Microsoft, Linux Professional Institute, or Cisco
3. study to be a ScrumMaster or another type of project manager.

Meeting set goals can have beneficial results when it's time to renegotiate salaries,
survive a round of layoffs, or get a promotion.
Appearance and attitude is very important!
Take an active interest in things outside IT: such as sports, politics, music, and film.
This will make socializing at company events easier for you. If you are disliked in the
company then you will not get promotions or important projects.

Be courteous, helpful, and respectful to others

In my own career, I have been in some good IT departments and some bad ones. In a
good IT department, the engineers are known for sharing knowledge and helping
each other. In bad IT departments, the engineers are secretive and hide knowledge.
How can everyone get better if some people are selfish with what they know?
Information wants to be free. You must set it free. Despite the fact that I have been to
several universities, graduate school, and have collected many IT certifications, I
have still learned much more about IT from my fellow engineers than from all my
higher education combined. So my advice is to be kind and respect your fellow IT
staff. They are your family for eight hours every day, forty hours every week!

When you start a new job, realize how some people are nice to you and some people
ignore you. Which kind of person do you want to be? When you get a new junior
team member, try to help them and include them in decisions. Make sure they have
someone to eat lunch with. If you party after work with your co-workers, invite new
employees with you. Being nice to new people can have many rewards, both
emotionally and financially.

Back in the 90's we used to have a saying, "Think globally, act locally." What this
means is that just by being nice and pleasant yourself, you can make the whole world
a more nice and pleasant place as well.

Have your own mind and your own opinions

State your opinions in meetings and give good reasons and facts to back up your
opinions. But don't be stubborn or insistent if things don't go your way. And whatever
you do, please don't be passive-aggressive! Passive-aggressive behavior is when you
think something bad about a person or an idea, and then you talk badly behind
someone's back (when that person is not around). This is very destructive behavior to
both yourself and your IT department.

Okay, now we are ready now to investigate some popular IT job positions. I will rate
the following jobs based on the following criteria: respect, qualities, salary, dress, and
fun factor. I will also include some notes. These are subjective opinions. Some are
even intentionally funny. If you disagree with me, please feel free to flame me.

CTO (Chief Technical Officer), CIO (Chief Information Officer)

Respect: Very High

Qualities: Business savvy, technical mindset, good people skills

Average Salary: $150,000

Dress: Business suit and very clean

Fun Factor: Only fun if you are a workaholic or on a power trip.

Notes: These jobs are highly competitive and usually political, so your chances are
low. Sorry.

Enterprise Architect

Respect: High

Qualities: Good technical, business, and design skills

Salary: $100,000

Dress: Clean and presentable with collared shirt and pants

Fun Factor: Fun job because you get to talk to all other departments

Notes: Responsible for all solutions that work; not responsible for ones that don't

IT Manager

Respect: Medium-High

Qualities: Detail oriented, punctual, critical, supportive

Salary: $70,000

Dress: Business Casual

Fun Factor: Can be fun but often very stressed

Notes: They always seem to be working

Technical Writer

Respect: Medium

Qualities: Excellent writing skills, good technical mind

Salary: $50,000

Dress: Business Casual

Fun Factor: Writers are often good at telling stories

Graphic Designer

Respect: Low-Medium

Qualities: Excellent drawing and illustration skills, good color matching and artistic

Salary: $50,000

Dress: Casual

Fun Factor: Generally fun people and sometimes a bit moody

Notes: Not as 'square' as the rest of the IT department. All good designers seem to
have tattoos, piercings, and a fashion sense.

Software Developer

Respect: Medium

Qualities: Creative, persistent, insatiable thirst for knowledge

Salary: $70,000

Dress: Casual Dress is normally the rule (t-shirt and jeans)

Fun Factor: If you don't have fun being a developer then you have the wrong job;
other people might not understand your sense of humor though ;)

Notes: Companies have a lot of developers compared to other positions listed.

Therefore your chances of becoming a developer are good if you have the skills and
more importantly the desire.

Project Manager

Respect: Medium

Qualities: Cooperation, leadership, and organization skills

Salary: $60,000

Dress: Business Casual (collared shirt and nice jeans or pants)

Fun factor: This tends to be a high stress position with long hours. If that sounds fun
then go for it!

Database Developer / Database Administrator

Respect: Medium-High

Qualities: Detail-oriented, high business knowledge

Salary: $80,000

Dress: Business Casual

Fun Factor: If processing giant data sets excite you, then this job is for you.

IT Security Manager

Respect: High

Qualities: Military outlook on life, defensive, pro-active

Salary: $70,000

Dress: Smart, clean dress is very important

Fun Factor: Are you kidding me? This guy is basically a cop!

System Administrator

Respect: Medium-High

Qualities: God complex, often eat fast food and drink a lot of soda

Salary: $75,000

Dress: If they were allowed to, they would probably dress as World of Warcraft

Fun Factor: Sysadmins can be patronizing; but they can be fun as well, especially
after they have a few beers. They are often eager to show others that they are just
"normal people". But this is not usually true.

Notes: Never anger a sysadmin! Why? They have access to everything in the

Software Tester

Respect: Low-Medium

Qualities: Detail-oriented, persistent, curious

Salary: $40,000

Dress: Same as developers

Fun Factor: They are normally seen hanging out with developers, trying to talk about

Notes: Testers play a vital role in software development that cannot be understated. If
you don't have a single tester on your team, you are probably in trouble.

IT Support Engineer

Respect: Low (except when someone needs help fixing their computer, then it's really

Qualities: Must be good at dealing with technically incompetent people

Salary: $35,000

Dress: Casual

Fun Factor: Often an endless source of funny stories about technically incompetent

Notes: Do not kill the end-users!

Answer the questions:

1. Which of the listed careers would you like to pursue? Why?

2. Research three more IT job positions not listed in this unit reading. Write a
short description about the roles and responsibilities.

Unit 6

The Rise of the World Wide Web


Read and translate the following words and their definitions:

ARPANET (Advanced Projects Research Agency Network)

developed by the US military for defense purposes, this was first global network with
packet switching
The current public Internet owes a big debt to ARPANET, which was the original
global network.

a central high speed network that connects smaller, independent networks
Homeland Security is worried that an attack on the Internet backbone could cripple
the country for weeks or months.

BBS (Bulletin Board System)

a predecessor to modern websites, these were early online communities that users
could dial into using a modem
The network administrator ran his own BBS as a boy back in the 1980s.

a text file created by web sites which contains personal information about an end user
The web's use of cookies is quite controversial because most users have no idea that
their information is being collected and stored on their computer.

domain name
the unique name which identifies a web site.
The domain name of Microsoft Corporation is microsoft.com

The transfer a file or files from a remote computer to the user's computer
The professor asked us to download the example database from the school's server.

e-commerce (electronic commerce)

The term for buying and selling goods and services over the world wide web
Although e-commerce started out small, it has grown into a multi-billion dollar

A symbol that uses the characters on a computer keyboard to convey emotion an
email or instant message, such as the smiley face :)
One of the most popular emoticons is perhaps the wink and smile ;) which is used to
convey irony or satire.

A document cross-reference technique enabling the retrieval of a related document or
resource simply by clicking on an underlined word or image.
The man made a hyperlink from his personal homepage to his friend's business.

any electronic cross-referencing document first prophesized by Vannevar Bush in
The woman asked her professor if the textbook was available as hypertext.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)

the coding or tagging syntax used to write documents for web browsers
A good web developer will know most HTML tags without looking in a book.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator)

the address which specifies the location of a file on the Internet
One uses a URL to go directly to a particular web site.

to transfer a file from a local computer to a remote computer
The boy decided to upload a picture of his new girlfriend to his Facebook page.

WWW (World Wide Web)

a global hypertext system operating on the Internet that enables electronic
communication of text and multimedia.
The World Wide Web is the best thing to happen to computing since birth of the PC.

W3C (World Wide Web Consortium)

an organization which develops specifications and guidelines for the World Wide
The W3C recommends that Web developers no longer use font tags in their HTML

Read and translate the text.

By the early 1990s, people were using computers in many different ways. Computers
were already installed in most schools, offices, and homes. They were commonly
used for writing papers, playing games, financial accounting, and business
productivity applications. But very few people used them for communication,
research, and shopping the way we do now. A man named Tim Berners-Lee changed
all that. In 1990, Lee added an exciting hypertext and multimedia layer to the
Internet and called it the World Wide Web. The rest, as they say, is history.

Believe it or not, the Web was not the first attempt at building a worldwide online
community. Cutting edge geeks have been using online services such as Compuserve
all the way back to the early 1980's. There were thousands of other privately run
Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) as well, which served the general interest of curious
nerds and researchers from around the world. Perhaps the most ambitious project was
the French system Minitel, but it never caught on in the rest of the world and

eventually faded into obscurity. Experiences on these BBS was poor by today's
standards. There was no graphics or even color. There was no sound except of course
the obnoxious beeps and gurgles a modem makes when it it initiates a dial-up
connection to a server. Bandwidth was also very slow compared to today's speeds.
Typical operating speeds were between 300 and 1200 baud. Today, a typical
broadband connection is thousands of times faster than this.

The Web was not built for geeks. It was built for everyone. It was built with very
high ideals. No single company, government, or organization controls it. It was new
and exciting. New ideas and words appeared almost daily. Obscure technical terms
became household words overnight. First it was email. Then it was URL and domain
name. Then rather quickly came spam, homepage, hyperlink, bookmark, download,
upload, cookie, e-commerce, emoticon, ISP, search engine, and so on. Years later
we are still making up new words to describe our online world. Now we "google" for
information. We "tweet" what's happening around us to others. The new words never
seem to stop!

Just because the web seems so chaotic and unorganized compared to more structured
companies and governments, doesn't mean it's total anarchy. In 1994, Tim Berner's
Lee started the W3C, a worldwide organization dedicated to setting standards for the
Web. This group is probably the most respected authority for what should and should
not be Web standards. W3C's mission is to lead the Web to its full potential.

As a student of English and Technology, you will hear people use the words 'Internet'
and 'World Wide Web' almost interchangeably. They are, of course, not the same
thing. So what is the difference between the two? Perhaps a simple answer is that the
Internet is the biggest network in the world, and the World Wide Web is a collection
of software and protocols on that network. I guess a more simple way to put it is, the
World Wide Web is an application that runs on The Internet.

The original backbone of the Internet is based on an old military network called
ARPANET which was built by ARPA in the late 1960's. ARPANET was built so
information could withstand a nuclear war. The idea was not to have a single point of
failure. This means if part of the ARPANET was blown up in a nuclear war, the rest
of it will still work! What made ARPANET so successful was its packet-switching
technology, invented by Lawrence Roberts. The idea is that "packets" of information
have a "from" address and a "to" address. How they get from point "a" to point "b"
depends on what roads are open to them. Packet switching is a very elegant thing.
Without it, the Internet would simply not work.

People view the World Wide Web through a software application called a web
browser or simply a "browser" for short. Some popular examples of web browsers
include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Apple
Safari. Browsers allow people to search, view, and even add and edit data on the
World Wide Web.

The Web is not supposed to be a passive experience. Creating new pages for the Web
is getting easier all the time. Web editing software is specially designed to work with
hypertext languages such as HTML, which is the original specification for the Web.
Web editing software normally allows for the WYSIWYG creation of text, images,
and hyperlinks between related documents. With web applications such as wikis,
MySpace and FaceBook, a typical user can create his or her first online presence in a
matter of hours.

In the year 1999, the Internet suffered its first financial crash. Many companies
selling products and services on the Web were not living up to sales expectations.
This was known as the Dot Com Bubble. There were many reasons why this
happened, but perhaps the two most important reasons were a combination of slow
connection speeds and too much optimism. Very few people had fast internet
connections and many people thought the Internet was "just a passing fad". But we
know now that the Internet is not a fad. So what happened? Web 2.0 happened!

What is Web 2.0? It's very hard to say. It's just a phrase to describe a transition from
the pre-existing state of 'Web 1.0', which was slow, static, and unusable, to a new,
'second web', which was faster, more dynamic, and more usable for the average
person. How did these things happen? Easy. Broadband modems enabled sites like
video-streaming YouTube to become possible. Better design and development
practices enabled social media sites like MySpace and then Facebook to attract
hundreds of millions of users. Finally, search engine technology improved on sites
like Google where people could actually find the information they were looking for.

What will be the future of the Web? Easy. More speed and more power. In the future,
digital distribution on the Internet is likely to replace all other forms of media
distribution including CDs, DVDs, and even radio and television broadcasts.

I personally feel lucky to be alive in the age of the Web. It is one of the coolest things
ever invented. It is unlikely that such another wonderful and major revolutionary
invention will occur in our lifetime. But I can still dream about the Next Big Thing.
And who knows? Maybe you will invent it.

Answer the questions:

1. Was the Internet built for science geeks or the general public? What about the
World Wide Web?

2. Did online communities exist before World Wide Web? If so, can you give
some examples?

3. Do you think the Web will ever go away? Will it be ever replaced by
something better?


Applications - Приложения
Authentication - Проверка подлинности
Authorization - Авторизация
Central Processing Unit (CPU) - Центральный процессор (ЦП)
Chat Program - Программа чата
Communication Channel - Канал связи
Communication Programs - Программы для общения
CPU Speed - Скорость процессора
Data - Данные
Database Programs - Программы для работы с базами
Desktop - Рабочий стол
Desktop Computers - Настольные компьютеры
E-mail - Электронная почта
Folder - Папка
Graphical User Interface (GUI) - Графический интерфейс пользователя
Graphics Programs - Программы для работы с графикой
Handheld Computer - Карманный компьютер
Hardware - Оборудование
Icon - Значок
Input Devices - Устройства ввода
Internet Service Provider (ISP) - Поставщик услуг Интернета
Intranet - Интрасеть
Laptop Computers - Ноутбуки
Local Area Network (LAN) - Локальная сеть (LAN)
Network Drives - Сетевые диски
Notification Area - Область уведомлений
On-premises software - Локальное ПО
Private Cloud - Частное облако
Public Cloud - Общедоступное облако
Server - Сервер
Setup Wizard - Мастер установки
Software - Программное обеспечение
Spreadsheet Programs - Редакторы электронных таблиц
Storage Devices - Запоминающие устройства
System Unit - Системный блок
Tablet Computer - Планшетный компьютер
Taskbar - Панель задач
The Web - Всемирная паутина
Wallpaper - Фоновый рисунок, обои
Wide Area Network (WAN) - Глобальная сеть (WAN)
Word-processing Programs - Текстовые редакторы
Workstation - Рабочая станция


1. Computer Basics by Microsoft

2. www.onestopenglish.com
3. McCarthy M., O’Dell F. English Collocations in Use, Cambridge, 2017
4. McCarthy M., O’Dell F. English Phrasal Verbs in Use, Cambridge, 2008
5. https://www.english4it.com/


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