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¾ Matrices

1

Block codes: basic definitions

• An alphabet is a discrete (usually finite) set of

symbols.

example: B = { 0; 1} is the binary alphabet

• Definition: A block code of blocklength n over an

alphabet X is a nonempty set of n-tuples of

symbols from X.

• The n-tuples of the code are called codewords.

• Codewords are vectors whose components are

symbols in X.

2

Block codes: basic definitions

by encoding messages of k information bits

using an invertible encoding function.

• Number of codewords is M = 2k , Rate R = k/n

• The rate is a dimensionless fraction; the fraction

of transmitted symbols that carry information.

• A code with blocklength n and rate k/n is called

an (n; k) code

3

Linear Block Codes

c = mG

− −

where,

c − code word (vector)

−

−

G − Generator matrix

4

Vector Space-Introduction

• An n-dimensional vector has a form

x = ( x1, x2, x3, …, xn ) .

• The set Rn of n-dimensional vectors is a vector

space.

• Any set V is called a vector space if it contains

objects that behave like vectors:

• ie, they add & multiply by scalars according to

certain rules. In particular, they must be closed

under vector addition and scalar multiplication.

• But addition & scalar multiplication need not be

defined conventionally!

5

Contd…

• Let V denote the vector space.The addition on V

is vector addition.The scalar multiplication

combines a scalar from a Field F and a vector

from V. Hence V is defined over a field F.

• V must form a commutative group under addition

• For any element a in F and any element v in V,

a.V is an element in V.

• Distributive law- a.(u+v)=a.u+a.v

• Associative law- (a.b).v=a.(b.v)

6

Contd….

Important vector spaces:

• R, R2, R3, Rn with usual + and scalar multn.

• Mmn ; the set of all m x n matrices

• Pn; all polynomials of degree ≤ n

• Consider a vector space over binary field

F2.Consider the sequence u=u0…un-1 where the

ui ‘s are from {0,1}.We can construct such 2n n-

tuples over F2.Let Vn denote this set. Vn is a

Vector space over F2

7

Subspaces

• A set W of vectors is a subspace of vector

space V if and only if W is a subset of V and

W is itself a vector space under the same

addition and scalar multiplication.

• For any two vectors u,v ε W, (u+v) ε W.

• For any element a in F and any u in W, a.u

must be in W.

8

Contd…

To test if W is a Subspace

• We should, but need not, check all the properties

of a vector space in W: most hold because W’s

vectors are also in the bigger vector space V.

• But we must check closure in W: linear

combinations of vectors in W must also lie in W.

• This means the zero & additive inverses must

be in W too.

9

Examples

• Let u1,….,uk be a set of k vectors in V over

a field F. The set of all linear combinations

of u1,….,uk forms a subspace of V.

• The set of polys of degree 2 or less is a

subspace of the set of polynomials of degree

3 or less.

• The set of integers is not a subspace of R,

because the set of scalars includes fractions,

eg 1/2.

10

Spanning Sets &Linear Independence

vector space V if every vector in V can be

expressed as a linear combination of the vectors in

S.

• Ex:( x, y, z ) = x i + y j + z k, so every vector in R3 is

a linear combination of i, j & k.

• If any vector in a set can be expressed as a

linear combination of the others, we call the

set linearly dependent. If not, the set is linearly

independent.

11

Basis set

• A set of linearly independent vectors is a

basis for a Vector space V if each vector in V

can be expressed in one and only one way as a

linear combination of the set.

• In any Vector space or subspace there exists at

least one set B of linearly independent vectors

which span the space.

• The no. of vectors in the Basis of a Vector

space is the dimension of the Vector space.

• One example of a basis are the vectors

(1,0,…,0), (0,1,…,0),…, (0,0, …, 1).

12

Orthogonality

Let u= (u0 , u1 ,.....un −1 ) and

v= (v0 , v1 ,....vn −1 )

be two n-tuples in Vn. We define the inner product(dot product) as

u.v= u0 v0 + u1v1 + ........ + un −1vn −1 where the multiplication and addition are

carried out in mod-2.. The inner product is a scalar. If u.v=0, then u and v

are said to be orthogonal to each other

The inner product has the following properties

(1) u.v=v.u

(2) u.(v+w)=u.v+u.W

(3)(au).v=a(u.v)

.

13

Matrices

A k x n matrix over F2 is a rectangular array with

k rows and n columns.

⎡ g00 g01 g02 ..... g0,n−1 ⎤

⎢ g g g ..... g ⎥

⎢ 10 11 12 1,n−1 ⎥

G=⎢ . . . . . ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ . . . . . ⎥

⎢ gk −1,0 gk −1,1 gk −1,2 ..... gk −1,n−1 ⎥

⎣ ⎦

is an element from the binary field F2.

14

• G is also represented by its k rows

g 0 , g 0 ,.....g k −1 as

⎡ g0 ⎤

⎢ g ⎥

⎢ 1 ⎥

G=⎢ . ⎥

⎢ ⎥

⎢ . ⎥

⎢⎣ g k −1 ⎥⎦

15

• If k (with k ≤ n ) rows of G are linearly

independent, then the 2k linear combinations

of of these rows form a k dimensional

subspace of the vector space Vn of all the n-

tuples over F2. This subspace is called the

row space of G

the row space of G

16

• Let S be the row space of a k x n matrix G over

F2 whose rows are linearly independent. Let Sd be

the null space of S. Then the dimension of Sd is

n-k. Consider (n-k) linearly independent vectors

in Sd. These vectors span Sd. We can form an

(n-k) x n matrix H as

⎡ h0 ⎤ ⎡ h00 h01 h02 ..... h0,n −1 ⎤

⎢ h ⎥ ⎢ h h11 h12 ..... h1,n −1 ⎥⎥

⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 10

H =⎢ . ⎥=⎢ . . . . . ⎥

⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥

⎢ . ⎥ ⎢ . . . . . ⎥

⎢⎣ g n − k −1 ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ hn − k −1,0 hn − k −1,1 hn − k −1,2 ..... hn − k −1,n −1 ⎥⎦

17

The row space of H is Sd

• Since each row gi is a vector in S and each

row hj of H is a vector in Sd, the inner

product of gi and hj must be zero. As the

row space S of G is the null space of the

row space Sd of H, S is called the null space

or dual space of H.

18

Theorem

• For any k x n matrix G over F2, with k linearly

independent rows, there exists an (n-k) x n

matrix over the same field with (n-k) linearly

independent rows such that for any row gi in

G and any hj in H, gi.hj = 0. The row space of

G is the null space of H and vice versa.

19

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