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MBA Semester 1

MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior


Assignment Set - 1

Q.1 Write a note on the characteristics of Management.


A.1: Management is a global need. It is essential to every individual, a family, educational institution,
hospital, religious organization, team of players, a government, military system, cultural body, urban
centers and business enterprise.

Management is a technique of extracting work from others in an integrated and co -ordinate


manner for realizing the specific objectives through productive use of different resources.

Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics:

1. Goal- Oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. It co -ordinates the efforts of employees


to achieve the goals of the organization. The success of management is measured by the
extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. It is imperative tha t the organizational
goals must be well -defined and properly understood by the managers at various levels.
2. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land,
labour and capital. It is the most critical input in the succes s of any organized group activity.
It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources, namely, labour, capital and
materials. These factors do not by themselves ensure production, they require the catalyst of
management to produce goods and ser vices require d by the society. Thus, management is
an essential ingredient of an organization.
3. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning,
organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. These functions ar e so interwoven that it is not
possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance.
In essence, the process of management involves decision -making and putting of decisions
into practice.
4. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resource
to achieve the desired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who
manage. Managers apply knowledge, experience and management principles for getting
the results from the work ers by the use of non -human resources. Managers also seek to
harmonize the individual goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the
organization.
5. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Its presence is evidenced
by the result of its effort-orderliness, informed employees, buoyant spirit and adequate work
output. Thus, feeling of management is result -oriented. One may not see with the naked eyes
the functioning of management but its result is apparently known.
People often remark of the effectiveness of management on the basis of the end results,
although they can’t observe it during operation.
6. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. They must have the
necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. They must
motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them.
7. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well -
defined concepts, principles and techniques which have wide applications. So it is treated
as a science. The application of these concepts, principles and techniques requires
specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by
manager are his personal possession, management is viewed as an art.
8. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority, a
hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of
authority. Generally, as we move down in the managerial hierarchy, the degree of authority
gets gradually reduced. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions
effectively.
9. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study taking the help of so
many other disciplines such as engineering, anthropology, sociology and psychology. Much
of the management literature is the result of association of these disci plines. For instance,
productivity orientation drew its inspiration from industrial engineering and human relations

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orientation from psychology similarly, sociology and operation research have also
contributed to the development of management science.

10. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. The principles and techniques
of management are equally applicable in the fields of business, education, military,
government and hospital Henri Fayola suggested that principles of management would
apply more or less in every situation. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible
and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to
be co-ordinate.
11. Organized Activities: Management is a process of organized activities. Groups of people
cannot be involved in the performance of activities without organized activities.
Management comes into existence where a group of people are involved in achieving a
common objective. The o rganized activities may take a variety of forms ranging from a
tightly structured organization to a loosely -knit organization.
12. Existence of Objectives: The existence of objectives is a basic criterion of every human
organization. The organizational objecti ves are the desired state of affairs which an
organization attempts to realize. This realization of objectives is sought through the
coordinated efforts of the people constituting an organization.
13. Decision-making: Management process involves decision makin g at all levels. Decision -
making describes the process by which a course of action is selected as the way to deal with
a specific problem. If there is only one alternative, the question of decision making does not
arise. The quality of alternatives which a manger selects determines the organization’s
performance, and the future of the organization.
14. Relationship among resources: The essence of management is integration of various
organizational resources. Resources include money, machine, materials, and peop le.
Management is concerned with the proper utilization of human resources which, in turn,
utilize other resources.
15. Working with and through people: Management involves working with people and getting
organizational objectives achieved through them. Workin g through people is interpreted in
terms of assigning activities to subordinates.

Q.2 Discuss intellectual abilities in detail.


A.2: Intellectual abilities are those needed to perform mental activities – for thinking, reasoning, and
problem solving. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests, for example, are designed to ascertain ones
general intellectual abilities.

Job differs in the demands they place on incumbents to use their intellectual abilities. Generally
speaking, the more complex a job is in terms of information – processing demands, the more general
intelligence and verbal abilities will be necessary to perform the job successfully. A careful review of
the evidence demonstrates that the tests that assess verbal, numerical, spatial and perceptual
abilities are valid predictor of job proficiency at all level of jobs.

Cognitive intelligence encompasses the aptitudes that have long been tapped by traditional
intelligence tests. Social intelligence is the persons’ ability to relate effectively to others. Emotional
intelligence is the ability to identify, understand and manage emotions. And Cultural intelligence is
awareness of cross cultural differences and the ability to function successfully in cross cultural
situations. When people have all above intelli gence, they are called people having multiple
intelligence.

For instance, it may be able to help us explain why so called smart people – those with high
cognitive intelligence, don’t necessary adapt well to everyday life, work well with others, or succeed
when placed in leadership roles. It is desired to have multiple intelligences than one.

Intellectual abilities are those required to perform mental activities IQ test are designed to ascertain
one’s general intellectual abilities examples of such tests are popular college admission tests such as,
the SAT, GMAT and LSAT the seven most commonly cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities

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are number aptitude, verbal comprehension perceptual speed, inductive reasoning, deductive
reasoning, spatial visualization and memory (dunnette 1976).

The abilities are categorized in the following table:

Dimension Description Job Example

Number aptitude Ability to do speedy and accurate arithmetic Accountant


Verbal communication Read write speaking ability Senior managers
Identify similarities and differences quickly and
Perceptual speed Investigators
accurately
Inductive reasoning Logical sequence drawing Market researcher
Ability to use logic and assess the implications
Deductive reasoning Supervisors
of the argument
Spatial Visualization Ability to imagine Interior decorator
Sales person
Memory Ability to retain and recall past experience remembering
customer’s name

Jobs differ in the demands they place on incumbents to use their intellectual abilities. A review of the
evidence demonstrates that tests that assess verbal, numerical, spatial , and perceptual abilities are
valid predictors of job proficiency at all levels of jobs.

In the regard, the theory of multiple intelligences was developed by Gardner (1983, 1993). This theory
suggests eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children
and adults. It has been claimed that our intelligence or ability to understand the world around us in
complex. Some people are better at understanding some things than others for some; it is relatively
easy to understand how an automobile works. But it is immensely difficult for some to understand
and use a musical instrument. For others music might be easy by playing football is difficult. The
several different intelligences are listed below:

1. Linguistic intelligence (“word smart”)


2. Logical-mathematical intelligence(“number/reasoning smart”)
3. Spatial intelligence(“picture smart”)
4. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence(“body smart”)
5. Musical intelligence (“music smart”)
6. Interpersonal intelligence(“self smart”)
7. Naturalist intelligence(“nature smart”)

Advantage

• High reliable.
• Verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity for a wide range of jobs.
• The validity rises with increasing complexity of the job
• Combination of aptitude tests have higher validities than individual tests alone
• May be administered in group settings where many applicants can be tested at the same
time.
• Scoring of the tests may be completed by computer scanning equipment.
• Lower cost than personality tests.

Q.3 Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon.

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A.3: Introduction

Personality type theory aims to classify people into distinct CATEGORIES. i.e. this type or that.
Personality types are synonymous with "personality styles".

Types refers to categories that are distinct and discontinuous. e.g. you are one or the other. This is
important to understand, because it helps to distinguish a personality type approach from a
personality trait approach, which takes a continuous approach.

To clearly understand the difference betwe en types and traits, consider the example of the
personality dimension of "introversion". We can view introversion as:

• A personality type approach says you are either an introvert or an extravert


• A personality trait approach says you can be anywhere on a continuum ranging from
introversion to extraversion, with most people clustering in the middle, and fewer people
towards the extremes

The following sections provide an overview of some of the more popular and commonly known
personality type taxonomies.

Allport and Odbert (1936, cited in Funder, 1999) found over 17,000 words in the dictionary which
referred to psychological differences between people, e.g., trustworthy, shy, arrogant. Typically,
modern personality taxonomies have emphasized between two, t hree, four, and five personality
types, through to identifying 16 or more subtypes.

Somatotypes - William Sheldon, 1940's

William Sheldon classified personality according to body type. He called this a person’s somatotype.

Sheldon identified three main so matotypes:

Sheldon's Somatotype Character Shape

relaxed, sociable,
Endomorph plump, buxom, developed
tolerant, comfort -loving,
[viscerotonic] visceral structure
peaceful

Mesomorph active, assertive, vigorous,


Muscular
[somatotonic] combative

Ectomorph quiet, fragile, restrained,


lean, delicate, poor muscles
[cerebrotonic] non-assertive, sensitive

To further categorize a person's somatotype, an individual is given a rating from 1 to 7 on each of


the three body types. 1 = very low; 7 = very high. For example:

• a stereotypical basketballer 1 -1-7 (ectomorph)


• Mohammed Ali 1-7-1 (mesomorph)
• a pear-shaped person 7-1-1 (endomorph)

More typically, however, the person in the street could be something like:

• a slightly lanky person 5-2-3 (a bit ecomorphic)


• a person of average height who is moderately muscular 4-5-3 (a bit mesomorphic)
• a person who is slightly heavy -set 3-3-5 (a bit endomorphic)

Sheldon measured the proportions of hundreds of juvenile delinquent boys and concluded that they
were generally mesomorphs.

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Q.4 What are the different barriers to perception?
A.4: Introduction
It is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions. Human sensory
organs like ears, eyes, nose, tongue and skin generate various impressions. In general terms,
perception is a term by which a person looks at the world and emotes out his feelings for a particular
situation. Perception helps in understanding perciever’s own mindset and also helps in
understanding human behavior in the organization. T he barriers to perception are stereotyping,
halo-effect, similar to the effect or projection, selective perceptions, dis tribution and contrast effects.

Perception is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in
order to give relevance and significance to our environment.

Human beings are blessed with sensory organs such as ears, eyes, nose, tongue and skin. Through
these sensory organs we generate various impressions and expressions. These actions allow our mind
to take due attention on the selective ones only which has importance and significance in our life.
This is called perception. In a nutshell, perception is the process by which individuals organize and
interpret their sensory impressions in order to give rele vance and significance to our environment.

The dictionary meaning of the word “perceive “ means is to take in mentally, to become aware
through the senses. It is defined as the way a person looks at the world and his feelings on a
particular situation.

Baron defines perception as the process where in we select, organize, and interpret various inputs
from our sense organs.

Robbins defines perception as a process in which people organize and interpret their expressions
arising from the sense organs in orde r to give the feedback to the environment around.

Many others have also defined perception which concludes the fact that functions of the workers
are duly affected by three classes of variables – the objects or events being perceived, the
environment in which perception occurs and the individual does the perceiving.

Perception is very important as it enables the organization to adapt to a complex and ever
changing factors through perceptual constancies. It helps in evaluating various factors of
organization such as size, shape, functions, targets, location, time etc., which gives a concrete idea
about the functioning of an organization.

This process includes:

1. Perceptual inputs of stimuli


2. Perceptual Mechanism
3. Perceptual Output
4. Pattern of Behavior

It is influenced by three set of factors and they are:

1. Factors in the perceiver - these are the factors related to self concept, attitudes, motives, internal
experiences and expectations.

2. Factors in the target - it includes physical appeara nce, verbal and non verbal communication,
status, occupation, personal characteristics, novelty and motion of targets, sounds, size, background
and proximity of the target.

3. Factors in the situation - it includes social context, organizational role, work setting, location and
time.

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Perception helps in understanding of human behavior in the organization. It also helps in
understanding perceiver’s own mindset and tendency in judging others may become the barriers to
accurate perception. The important barriers to accurate perception are stereotyping, halo effect,
similar to the effect or projection, selective perceptions, distribution and contrast effects.

Attributes is a significant phenomenon for understanding perception. This theory describes the
external or internal behavior in an individual. Kelly’s theory of casual attributes states that we need
to focus on three types of information namely distinctiveness, consensus and consistency, in order to
determine the internal and external behavior of an i ndividual. It has proved important concept for
managers and its main managerial activities include: advertising, maintaining safety, managing
impression, building corporate image, managing performance, evaluating performance, judging
employee’s loyalty, self assessment and development and building relationship.

Techniques involved in enhancing or encouraging perceptional skills are:

1. Giving and receiving feedback


2. Having empathy
3. Having Positive Attitudes
4. Enhancing Self Concept
5. Avoiding Common Biases
6. Communication and Correct use of Attribution

Individuals have a tendency to use a number of shortcuts when they judge others. An understanding
of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortion.

Ø Selective Perception - Any characteristic that makes a person, object, or event stand out will
increase the probability that it will perceived. It is impossible for an individual to internalize and
assimilate everything that is seen. Only certain stimuli c an be taken in selective works as a
shortcut in judging other people by allowing us to “speed -read” others, but, not without the risk
of drawing an inaccurate picture. The tendency to see what we want to see can make us draw
unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation.
Ø Halo Effect - The halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single
characteristic. For example, while appraising the lecture, students may give prominence to a
single trait, such as, enthusiasm and allow t heir entire evaluation to be tainted by how they
judge the instructor on that one trait which stood out prominently in their estimation of that
person. Research suggest that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are
she has had limited ambiguous in behavioral terms, when the traits have moral overtones, and
when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience.
Ø Contrast Effect - Individuals do not evaluate a person in isolation. Their reaction to one person
is influenced by other persons they have encountered recently. For example, an interview
situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception. Distortions in any
given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview
schedule.
Ø Projection - These tendencies to attribute one’s own characteristic tics to other people -
which are called projection -can distort perception made about others. When managers
engage in projection, they compromise their abil ity to respond to individual differences. They
tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are.
Ø Stereotyping - Stereotyping-judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to
which he or she belongs. Generalization is not without advantages (Hilton & Hipple, 1996). It is
a means of simplifying a complex world, and it permits us to maintain consistency. The
problem, of course, is when we inaccurately stereotype. In organizations, we frequently hear
comments that represent stereotype s based on gender, age, race, ethnicity and even
weight. From a perceptual standpoint, if people expect to see these stereotypes, that is what
they will perceive, whether or not they are accurate.
Ø First-Impression error - Individuals place a good deal of importance on first impression. First
impression is lasting impression. We tend to remember what we perceive first about a person,
and sometimes we are quite reluctant to change our initial impression. First – impression error
means the tendency to form la sting opinions about an individual based on initial based on
initial perceptions. Primary effects can be particularly dangerous in interviews, given that we

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form first impressions quickly and that these impressions may be the basis for long -term
employment relationship.

Q.5 Mr. Batra is the General Manager, HR of a leading Automobile company. He is having a
meeting with Mr. Chandan, a leading HR consultant. Mr. Batra is concerned about creating an
environment that helps in increasing job satisfaction among employees. Assume that you are Mr.
Chandan, the HR consultant. What suggestions will you give to Mr. Batra, for creating an
environment that increases job satisfaction?
A.5: The leaders of the organization have the responsibility for creating a high level of job satisfaction
"The aim of leadership should be to improve the performance of man and machine, to improve
quality, to increase output, and simultaneously to bring pride of workmanship to people." A
motivating environment is one that gives worker s a sense of pride in what they do. To show
supervisors and managers how to build a more productive work environment, I've created a five -
step process called the PRIDE system. Leaders can improve motivation within their organizations by
following this proc ess:
• Provide a positive working environment
• Reward and recognition
• Involve and increase employee engagement
• Develop the skills and potential of your workforce
• Evaluate and measure job satisfaction

STEP 1--PROVIDE A POSITIVE WORKING ENVIRONMENT

Creating job satisfaction begins by first providing a positive work environment., to find what
motivates people, "you have to find what turns people on." This is the most important factor in the
process. A motivating working environment requires going over and beyond the call of duty and
providing for the needs of the worker.

Walt Disney World Company provides an excellent work environment for their employees or "cast
members." Employee assistance centers are spread strategically across the theme park. Some of the
services included employee discount programs, childcare information, money orders, postage
stamps, check cashing, and bus passes. The Walt Disney Company realizes that taking care of their
employee's needs keep them motivated, on th e job and loyal to the company.

STEP 2--REWARD AND RECOGNITION

Personal recognition is a powerful tool in building morale and motivation. A pat on the back, a
personal note from a peer or a supervisor does wonders. Small, informal celebrations are many times
more effective than a once a quarter or once a year formal event.

STEP 3--INVOLVE AND ENGAGE THE WORKFORCE

People may show up for work, but are they engaged and productive? People are more committed
and engaged when there is a process for them to contribute their ideas and employee suggestions.
This gives them a sense of ownership and pride in their work.

STEP 4--DEVELOP WORKER'S SKILLS AND POTENTIAL

Training and education motivates people and makes them more productive and innovative. At
Federal Express, all customer contact people are given six weeks of training before they ever answer
the first phone call. Learning never stops and testing continues throughout their employment tenure.
Every six months customer service people are tested using an on -line computer system. Pass/fail
results are sent to each employee within 24 hours. They receive a personalized "prescription" on
areas that need reviewing with a list of resources and lessons that will help. Federal Express' intensive
training and development program has resu lted in higher motivation and lower turnover.

There are many reasons training and development makes sense. Well -trained employees are more
capable and willing to assume more control over their jobs. They need less supervision, which frees

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management for other tasks. Employees are more capable to answer the questions of customers
which builds better customer loyalty. Employees who understand the business, complain less, are
more satisfied, and are more motivated. All this leads to better man agement-employee
relationships.

STEP 5--EVALUATE AND MEASURE JOB SATISFACTION

Continuous evaluation and never ending improvement is the final step of the PRIDE system.
Evaluation is a nonstop activity that includes a specific cycle of steps. The primary purpose of
evaluation is to measure progress and determine what needs improving. Continuous evaluation
includes, but is not limited to, the measurement of attitudes, morale, and motivation of the
workforce. It includes the identification of problem areas n eeding improvement and the design and
implementation of an improvement plan. Good organizations conduct a job satisfaction survey at
least once a year.

Businesses have searched far and wide for the competitive advantage, the best equipment,
robotics, or the latest business technique. These devices provide only temporary solutions. The true
competitive advantage is trained and motivated people proudly working together, contributing
their vitality and energy toward the goals of the enterprise.

Q.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of “iMagine”, an advertising company


1. It offers cash rewards for staff members
2. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know,
maybe their friends, ex. colleagues, batch mat es and relatives.
3. It recognizes good performances and gives fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform
well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company.
What all aspects does it take care of, accor ding to Maslow’s Need Hierarchy ?
A.6.: According to the Maslow’s Need Hierarchy, human beings have wants and desires which
influence their behavior; only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior, satisfied needs cannot. The
needs are arranged in order of importance, from the basic to th e complex. The person advances to
the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. The further they
progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will
show.

The five needs are:

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· Physiological: Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs
· Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm
· Social: Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship
· Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors, such as, self -respect, autonomy, and achievement;
and external esteem factors, such as, status, recognition, and attention
· Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; include s growth,
achieving one’s potential, and self -fulfillment

Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Physiological and safety needs are
described as lower -order. Social, esteem, and self -actualization are classified as higher -order needs.
Higher-order needs are satisfied internally, whereas, Lower -order needs are predominantly satisfied,
externally.

MBA Semester 1
MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior
Assignment Set- 2

Q.1 What is emotional intelligence? Explain Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence.


A.1: Emotional Intelligence-EI –is a relatively recent behavioral model, rising to prominence with
Daniel Go leman’s 1995 book called “Emotional Intelligence”. The early Emotional Intelligence
theory was originally developed during the 1970’s and 80s by the work and writings of psychologists
Howard Gardner, Peter Salvoes and John ‘Jack’ Mayer. Emotional Intelligence is increasingly
relevant to organizational development and developing people, because the EI princip les provide
a new way to understand and assess people’s behaviors, management styles, attitudes,
interpersonal skills and potential Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration in human
resources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing an d selection, management
development, customer relations and customer service and more.

Go leman’s Model of Emotional Intelligence


Daniel Go leman and the Hay Group have identified a set of competencies that differentiate
individuals with Emotional Intelligence. The competencies fall into four clusters:
• Self- Awareness: Capacity for understanding one’s strengths and one’s weakness.
• Self- Management: Capacity for effectively managing one’s motives and regulating one’s
behavior.
• Social Awareness: Capacity for understanding what others are saying and feeling and why they
feel and act as they do.
• Relationship Management: Capacity for acting in such a way that one is able to get desired
results from others and reach personal goals.
The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the one proposed by Go
leman (1995). He viewed emotional intelligence as a total of personal and social components.
Personal competence determines how we manage ourselves, whereas social competence
determines how we handle our interpersonal relationship.
1. Personal Competence
It comprises of three dimensions of emotional intelligence, such as, self awareness, self -
regulation and motivation. Self –awareness is the ability of n individual to observe
him/herself and to recognize ‘a feeling as it happens’. The hallmarks of this ability are self -
regulation is the ability to control emotions and to redirect those emotions that can have
negative impact. Trustworthiness, integrity, tolerance of ambiguity and attitude to accep t
change are some characteristics of this ability. Motivation is the ability to channelize
emotion to achieve a goal through self -control and by moderating impulses as per the
requirement of the solution. The people who have this ability are optimistic and committed
towards organizational as well as individual goals.
2. Social Competence

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It comprises of two dimensions namely, empathy and social skills. Empathy is the ability to
feel and get concerned for others, take their perspective and to treat people accor ding to
their emotional reactions. People with this ability are experts in generating and motivating
others. Social skills are the ability to build rapport and to manage relationship with people.
People having this skill are very effective in persuasivenes s and team management. ‘Social
Skill’ is the culmination of all other components of emotional intelligence assuming that
people can effectively manage social and work relationships only when they can
understand and control their own emotion and can emphasi ze with the feelings of others.

Q.2 . Discuss the five stage model of group development proposed by Tuckman.
A.2: The most important models of group development have been cited below.
The Five- Stage Model
The Five- Stage Model of group development was proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. They
are:
a) Forming
b) Storming
c) Norming
d) Performing
e) Adjourning

a) Forming: In this stage the members are entering the group. The mail concern is to facilitate
the entry of the group members. The individuals entering are concerned with issues such as
what the group can offer them, their needed contribution the similarity in terms of their
personal needs, goals and group goals, the acceptable normative and behavioral
standards expected for group membership and recognition for doing the work as a group
member.
b) Storming: This is a turbulent phase where individuals try to basically form coalitions and
cliques to achieve a desired status within the group. Members also go through the process
of identifying to their expected role requireme nts in relation to group requirements. In the
process, membership expectations tend to get clarified, and attention shifts towards
hurdles coming in the way of attaining group goals. Individuals begin to understand and
appreciate each other’s interpersonal styles, and efforts are made to find ways to
accomplish group goals while also satisfying individual needs.
c) Norming: From the Norming stage of group development, the group really begins to come
together as a coordinated unit. At this point, close relation ship develop and the group
shows cohesiveness. Group members will strive to maintain positive balance at this stage.
d) Performing: The group now becomes capable of dealing with complex tasks and handling
internal disagreements in novel ways. The structure is stable, and members are motivated
by group goals and are generally satisfied. The structure is fully functional and accepted at
this stage. Group energy makes a transition from member’s focus on getting to know and
understand each other to performing. For permanent work groups, performing is the last
stage in their development.
e) Adjourning: A well- integrated group is able to disband, if required when its work is
accomplished, though in itself it may be a painful process for group members, emotionally.
The adjourning stage of group development is especially important for the many
temporary groups that are rampant in today’s workplaces. Members of these groups must
be able to convene quickly, do their jobs on a tight schedule, and the adjourn – often to
reconvene later, when ever required.

Groups do not always proceed clearly from one stage to the next. Sometimes several stages go on
simultaneously, as when groups are storming and performing. Groups may at times regress to earlier
stages. Another problem is th at it ignores organizational context. For instance, a study of a cockpit
crew in an airliner found that, within ten minutes, three strangers assigned to fly together for the first
time had become a high - performing group. The rigid organizational context p rovides the rules, task
definitions, information, and resources required for the group to perform, effectively.

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Q.3 What are the possible sources of organizational conflict? Explain.
A.3: Conflict occurs when ever disagreements exist in a social situation over issues (work related or
personal). Conflict is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has
negatively affected, or is about to negatively affects, something that the first party cares about
negatively affects, and s omething that the first party cares about. Conflict can be constructive or
destructive. Constructive conflict prevents stagnation, stimulates creativity, and allows tensions to be
released. However, excessive levels of conflict can hinder the effectiveness of a group or an
organization lessens satisfaction of group members, increases absence and turnover rates and
lowers productivity.

There are many sources of Organizational conflict, prominent among the source of conflict in
organizations are:

1. Line and staff competition: The growth of highly specialized, creative well -educated staff poses
unique problems for line mangers. Faced with a growing dependence of staff, line managers
must adjust to a organizations persists between line and staff because it is virt ually impossible to
define precisely the responsibility and authority relationships between the two.
2. Organization-individual disagreements: From one perspective, the conflict between the
organization and the individual centers around the individual’s failu re to fulfill the organizations
expectations regarding productivity or compliance with rules. From another the conflict is often
may be overt or hidden from view, depending on the perception each side has of the power of
the other.
3. Overlapping responsibilities: Organizations constantly change in response to personnel turnover,
expansion or contraction, the adoption of new policies, changes in external environments once
and for all. When a change occurs, one person reaches out to assu me more responsibility,
another retrenches and still another tentatively assumes responsibility for certain functions
without knowing definitely who should be performing them. Thus the stage is set for conflict.
4. Function interdependence: Conflicts between an organization’s functional units, such as sales,
accounting and manufacturing are commonplace. The sales department is at odd with
manufacturing because quality to too low or prices are too high to meet the competition.
Although departments are separated on the basis of function, they can never function as
completely autonomous unities. They must somehow resist the constant urge to view the
organization in terms of the narrow self interests.
5. Personality clashes: Individual differences in such personal qua lities as values, attitudes, abilities
and personality traits are often the cause of conflict. Two managers may learn to despise each
other thoroughly for reasons totally unrelated to their work but their performance on the job may
suffer because of it.
6. Disagreement over goals: Conflict among managers if often caused by the fact that there is
poor agreement over goals. Perhaps, an ever more common source of conflict is the clash of
the personal goals of managers and employees with the goals of the organizat ion.
7. Bottlenecks in the flow of work: Line supervisors in manufacturing must meet production
deadlines, but they are dependent upon production schedules, warehousing shipping, and
others for effective performance. A bottleneck at any point can prevent the line supervisors from
being effective and is quite naturally an occasion for interpersonal conflict.

Q.4 The environmental stressors have a great impact on work performance and adjustment of the
individual in an organization. Discuss the different catego ries of environmental stressors. [10]
A.4: Environment and internal conditions that lie beyond an individual’s control are called
environmental stressors. Such stressors can have a considerable impact on work performance and
adjustment. We can organize en vironmental stressors into the following categories:

1. Task Demands: Task demands are factors related to a person’s job. They include the design of
the individual’s job, working conditions, and the physical work layout. Changes and lack of
control are two mo st stressful demand people face at work. Change leads to uncertainty, a lack
of predictability in a person’s daily tasks and activities and may be caused by job insecurity
related to difficult economic times. Technology and technological innovation also cr eate
change and uncertainty for many employees, requiring adjustments in training, education and
skill development.

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Lack of control is a second major source of stress, especially in work environments that are
difficult and psychologically demanding. The l ack of control may be caused by inability to
influence the timing of tasks and activities, to select tools or methods for accomplishing the work,
to make decisions that influence work outcomes, or to exercise direct action to affect the work
outcomes.

2. Role Demands: The social- psychological demands of the work environment may be every bit as
stressful as task demands at work. Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a
function of the particular role he or she plays in the organization. Role c onflict results from
inconsistent or incompatible expectations communicated to a person. The conflict may be an
inter-role, intra-role or person-role conflict.
Ø Inter-Role Conflict: is caused by conflicting expectations related to two separate roles, such
as employee and parent. For example, the employee with a major sales presentation on
Monday and a sick child at home is likely to experience inter -role conflict,
Ø Intra-Role Conflict: is caused by conflicting expectations related to a single role, such as
employee. For example, the manager who presses employees for both very fast work and
high-quality work may be viewed at some point as creating a conflict for employees.
Ø Person–Role Conflict: Ethics violations are likely to cause person - role conflicts. Emp loyees
expected to behave in ways that violate personal values, beliefs or principles experience
conflict.

The second major cause of role stress is role ambiguity. Role ambiguity is created when role
expectations are not clearly understood and the employe e is not sure what he or she is to do.
Role ambiguity is the confusion a person experience related to the expectations of others. Role
ambiguity may be caused by not understanding what is expected, not knowing how to do it, or
not knowing the result of fai lure to do it.

3. Inter-Personal Demands: are pressures created by other employees. Lack of social support from
colleagues and poor interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especially
among employees with high social need. Abrasive personal ities, sexual harassment and the
leadership style in the organization are interpersonal demands for people at work.

Ø The Abrasive Person: May be an able and talented employee, but one who creates
emotional waves that others at work must accommodate.
Ø Sexual Harassment: The vast majority of sexual harassment is directed at women in the
workplace, creating a stressful working environment for the person being harassed, as well as
for others.
Ø Leadership Styles: Whether authoritarian or participative, create stre ss for different personality
with firm, directive leadership may be anxious with an open participative style. Those
comfortable with participative leadership may feel restrained by a directive style.

4. Physical Demands: Non-work demands create stress for people, which carry over into the work
environment or vice versa. Workers subject to family demands related to marriage, child rearing
and parental care may create role conflicts or overloads that are difficult to manage. In
addition to family demands, pe ople have personal demands related to non -work organizational
commitments such as religious and public service organizations. These demands become more
or less stressful, depending on their compatibility with the person’s work and family life and their
capacity to provide alternative satisfactions for the person.

Q.5 Given below are certain instances observed by a summer trainee – Ritu, while doing an
observational study at Phoenix consultants. An organization dealing with recycling of plastic
products waste etc. She makes the following observations about two key people in the organization.
1. Mr. Shah – He is a very friendly person and encourages his team members by giving them
recommendations and appreciation. This helps HR to decide about giving a bonu s or promotion to
employees.
2. Mr. Parhi- He is an aggressive person. He frequently loses his temper. Ritu observes that he
frequently punishes the non -performers and also gives them warnings regarding suspension etc.

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Now explain what base of power Mr. Shah and Mr. Parhi belong to. Explain the type of power they
use often
A.5.: Mr. Shah and Mr. Parhi belong to formal power. Formal power is derived from either one’s ability
to coerce or reward others or is derived from the formal authority vested in the individual due to his/
her strategic position in the organizational hierarchy. For example, a manager may threaten to
withhold a pay raise, or to transfer, demote, or even recommend the firing of a subordinate who
does not act as desired. Such coercive pow er is the extent to which a manager can deny desired
rewards or administer punishments to control other people. The availability of coercive power also
varies across organizations. The presence of unions and organizational policies on employee
treatment can weaken this power base significantly. Formal power may be categorized into four
types, which are as follows:

1. Coercive Power:
The coercive power base is being dependent on fear. It is based on the application, or the threat of
application, of physical sa nctions such as the infliction of pain, the generation of frustration through
restriction of movement, or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. In an
organization one can exercise power over another if they have the power to dism iss, suspend,
demote another assuming that the job is valuable to the person on whom power is being unleashed.

2. Reward Power:
The opposite of coercive power is reward power. Reward power is the extent to which a manager
can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewa rds to control other people. Examples of such rewards include
money, promotions, compliments, or enriched jobs. Although all managers have some access to
rewards, success in accessing and utilizing rewards to achieve influence varies according to the skill s
of the manager.

3. Legitimate Power:
The third base of “position” power is legitimate power, or formal authority .It stems from the extent to
which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the “boss” has a “right of
command” to control their behavior. For example, the boss may have the formal authority to
approve or deny such employee requests as job transfers, equipment purchases, personal time off,
or overtime work. Legitimate power represents a special kind of power a manager ha s because
subordinates believe it is legitimate for a person occupying the managerial position to have the right
to command. The lack of this is legitimacy will result in authority not being accepted by
subordinates. Thus this type of power has the followi ng elements:

· It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy.
· Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers.
· Legitimate power, however, is not limited to the power to coerce and reward. It enco mpasses
the acceptance of the authority of a position by members of an organization.

4. Information Power:
This type of power is derived from access to and control over information. When people have
needed information, others become dependant on them. (For example, managers have access to
data that subordinates do not have). Normally the higher the level, the more information would be
accessed by managers.

Q.6 “Window to Truth’ is a famous and old magazine. The top management decides to start the e -
edition of the magazine.
They also decide the redefine the policies and culture of “Window to Truth”
To start implementing this change, they frequently call meetings of employees. They have also
formed groups at different levels to clarify doubts and explain t he perspective of change.
Analyze the situation in the context of organizational change and elaborate why the top
management is following the discussed practices and what approach is most evident in the context.
A.6.: Organizational change may be defined as the adoption of a new idea or a behavior by an
organization. It is a way of altering an existing organization to increase organizational effectiveness
for achieving its objectives. Forces for change are of two types: Internal forces and external forces.
Internal forces are: change in the top management, change in size of the organization,

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performance gaps and employee needs and values. External forces are technology, business
scenario, and environmental factors.

One of the basic problems in managing cha nge is to overcome people’s resistance to change
successfully. Unless this problem is overcome properly, the effect of the change may not be as
functional as envisaged by the management. In many cases, even the impact of change may be
dysfunctional if chan ge is imposed upon the people by the use of formal authority. Therefore, the
role of formal authority in implementing a change may not be effective all the times; it can make
effectively by managing resistance effectively. For example, Locavini observes th at “the secret of
real success is effective management of the emotional vulnerability that accompanies
organizational change.”
Some approaches can be taken to reduce the resistance to change. Some of them are listed
below:

Education and communication: Open communication and proper education help employees to
understand the significance of change and its requirement. For that, proper initiative should be
taken to provide the information regarding the type, timing, implication, purpose and reason for
change. People should be educated to become familiar with change, its process and working.

Employee participation and involvement: People generally get more committed towards the
change, if they are directly involved in the change process. This way, they hav e the opportunity to
clarify their doubts and understand the perspective and requirement of change for the organization.
The management also gets the chance to identify the potential problems that may occur in the
workplace and the chance to prevent it. Th e fundamental idea in this process is to encourage the
person to say something about any aspect of the change.

Facilitation and support: Change agent can offer a range of supportive measures to reduce
resistance. Empathetic and considerate listening can r educe employees’ fear and anxiety towards
change. Counselling sessions to reduce stress, trauma, etc., can be an effective measure. The
management can change the basic values of the people by training and psychological counseling.
They must be taught new s kills, helped to change attitudes, and indoctrinated in new relationships.
Such educational process can be aided by training classes, meetings, and conferences. This helps in
creating receptive environment in the organization.

Negotiation and agreement: Organizations which have a fair chance to face potential resistance
from the union representatives, can defuse the resistance by involving them directly in the change
process. They should be properly briefed about the need and value of change. However, this can
be a costly proposition when there is more than one dominant union in the organization, as all the
contending parties would fight for power and recognition.

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