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# c 

m 
         ñ


c 
 
c

We know that:

In general:

This formula tells us that when multiplying powers with the same base, add the indices.
This is the à  
and is known as the 
à   
 .

Example 7

x  
Note:

Multiply the numerical coefficients first, and then apply the index law.

c 

c

We know that:

In general:
This formula tells us that when dividing powers with the same base, the index in
the denominator is subtracted from the index in the numerator.

## This is the  

and is known as the 
à   .

Example 8

x  
Note:

Simplify the numerical coefficients first, and then apply the index law.
M
 



In general:

This formula tells us that any number, except 0, raised to the power zero has a numerical value of
1.
This is the   
and is known as the  à.

Example 9

x  
c 
M
 

We know that:

In general:

This formula tells us that when a power of a number is raised to another power, multiply the
indices.
This is the à 
and is known as the 
à .

Example 10

x  
Note:

Example 11

## Simplify each of the following:

x  


c 
M
 
M


We know that:

In general:

This formula tells us that when a product is raised to a power, every factor of the product is
raised to the power.
This is the à à 
and is known as the 
à à.

Example 12

## Simplify each of the following:

x  

Example 13

x  


Example 1 of Antilog
x   
 
  

Given log 2 = 0.3010, log 3 = 0.4771, find the number of digits in 312 x 28.

x 
     

Let ë = 312 x 28
Taking logarithms to base 10 on both sides, we get
log ë = log (312 x 28)

## We know, log of a product can be written as

the sum of the logs of the factors of the product
(See Formula 5 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

## We know, in log of a power, the exponent multiplies the log.

(See Formula 7 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

##  log ë = 12 (log 3) + 8 (log 2) = 12(0.4771) + 8(0.3010)

= 5.7252 + 2.4080 = 8.1332
º Characteristic of ë = 8 º ë has 9 digits.
Number of digits in 312 x 28 = 9. Ans.

Example 2 of Antilog
x   
 
  

## Find the number of zeros between the decimal point and

the first significant figure in the value of (0.0504)12
given that log 2 = 0.3010, log 3 = 0.4771, log 7 = 0.8451.

x 
     

Let ë = (0.0504)12
(-4) 12
ë = {504 x 10 } = (504)12 x 10(-4 x 12) = (504)12 x 10(-48)

## 504 is divisible by 9 [ Since 5 + 0 + 4 = 9 is divisible by 9].

 504 = 9 x 56 = 9 x 7 x 8 = 32 x 7 x 23
(504) = (32 x 7 x 23)12= 32 x 12 x 712 x 23 x 12 = 324 x 712 x 236
12

##  ë = 324 x 712 x 236 x 10(-48)

Taking logarithms to base 10 on both sides, we get
log ë = log {3(24) x 7(12) x 2(36) x 10(-48) }

## We know, log of a product can be written

as the sum of the logs of the factors of the product
(See Formula 5 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

## We know, in log of a power, the exponent multiplies the log.

(See Formula 7 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

log ë = (24) (log 3) + (12) (log 7) + (36) (log 2) + (-48) (log 10)
= (24)(0.4771) + (12)(0.8451) + (36)(0.3010) -48(1)
= 11.4504 + 10.1412 + 10.836 - 48 = 32.4276 - 48 = -15.5724

## To make Mantissa positive, -15.5724 is written as -16 + 0.4276

Thus log ë = 16.4276º Characteristic of ë = 16
º ë has 15 zeros between the decimal point and the first significant figure.

## The number of zeros between the decimal point and

the first significant figure in the value of (0.0504)12 is 15. Ans.

Example 3 of Antilog
x   
 
  

## If log10 2 = 0.3010, show that log5 64 = 2.584

x 
     

Let ë = log5 64

We know, log of a quantity to a base can be written as the ratio of log of the quantity and
log of the base.
(See Formula 8 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

## We know, in log of a power, the exponent multiplies the log.

(See Formula 7 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

## We know, log of a quotient can be written

as the difference of the logs of the numerator
and denominator of the quotient
(See Formula 6 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

##  ë = {6 (log 2)}»{log 10 - log 2} = 6(0.3010)»(1 - 0.3010)

= (1.806)»(0.699) = 2.5837 § 2.584 (proved.)

Exercise of Antilog
x   
 
  

## 1. Given log 2 = 0.3010, find the number of digits in 12831.

2. Find the number of zeros between the decimal point
and the first significant figure in the value of (0.0432)10
given that log 2 = 0.3010, log 3 = 0.4771
3. If log10 3 = 0.4771, show that log30 81 = 1.292

## For Answers to the problems in Logarithm Tables,

see at the bottom of the page.

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