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c 

m 
         ñ


c 
 
c

We know that:

In general:

This formula tells us that when multiplying powers with the same base, add the indices.
This is the à  
and is known as the 
à   
 .

Example 7

x  
Note:

Multiply the numerical coefficients first, and then apply the index law.

c 

c

We know that:

In general:
This formula tells us that when dividing powers with the same base, the index in
the denominator is subtracted from the index in the numerator.

This is the  


and is known as the 
à   .

Example 8

x  
Note:

Simplify the numerical coefficients first, and then apply the index law.
M
 



In general:

This formula tells us that any number, except 0, raised to the power zero has a numerical value of
1.
This is the   
and is known as the  à.

Example 9

x  
c 
M
 

We know that:

In general:

This formula tells us that when a power of a number is raised to another power, multiply the
indices.
This is the à 
and is known as the 
à .

Example 10

x  
Note:

Always remove brackets first.

Example 11

Simplify each of the following:

x  


c 
M
 
M


We know that:

In general:

This formula tells us that when a product is raised to a power, every factor of the product is
raised to the power.
This is the à à 
and is known as the 
à à.

Example 12

Simplify each of the following:


x  

Example 13

x  


Example 1 of Antilog
x   
 
  

Given log 2 = 0.3010, log 3 = 0.4771, find the number of digits in 312 x 28.

x 
     

Let ë = 312 x 28
Taking logarithms to base 10 on both sides, we get
log ë = log (312 x 28)

We know, log of a product can be written as


the sum of the logs of the factors of the product
(See Formula 5 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

Œ log ë = log (312) + log (28)

We know, in log of a power, the exponent multiplies the log.


(See Formula 7 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

Œ log ë = 12 (log 3) + 8 (log 2) = 12(0.4771) + 8(0.3010)


= 5.7252 + 2.4080 = 8.1332
º Characteristic of ë = 8 º ë has 9 digits.
Number of digits in 312 x 28 = 9. Ans.

Example 2 of Antilog
x   
 
  

Find the number of zeros between the decimal point and


the first significant figure in the value of (0.0504)12
given that log 2 = 0.3010, log 3 = 0.4771, log 7 = 0.8451.

x 
     

Let ë = (0.0504)12
(-4) 12
ë = {504 x 10 } = (504)12 x 10(-4 x 12) = (504)12 x 10(-48)

504 is divisible by 9 [ Since 5 + 0 + 4 = 9 is divisible by 9].


Π504 = 9 x 56 = 9 x 7 x 8 = 32 x 7 x 23
(504) = (32 x 7 x 23)12= 32 x 12 x 712 x 23 x 12 = 324 x 712 x 236
12

Œ ë = 324 x 712 x 236 x 10(-48)


Taking logarithms to base 10 on both sides, we get
log ë = log {3(24) x 7(12) x 2(36) x 10(-48) }

We know, log of a product can be written


as the sum of the logs of the factors of the product
(See Formula 5 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

log ë = log {3(24)} + log {7(12)} + log {2(36)} + log {10(-48)}

We know, in log of a power, the exponent multiplies the log.


(See Formula 7 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

log ë = (24) (log 3) + (12) (log 7) + (36) (log 2) + (-48) (log 10)
= (24)(0.4771) + (12)(0.8451) + (36)(0.3010) -48(1)
= 11.4504 + 10.1412 + 10.836 - 48 = 32.4276 - 48 = -15.5724

To make Mantissa positive, -15.5724 is written as -16 + 0.4276


Thus log ë = 16.4276º Characteristic of ë = 16
º ë has 15 zeros between the decimal point and the first significant figure.

The number of zeros between the decimal point and


the first significant figure in the value of (0.0504)12 is 15. Ans.

Example 3 of Antilog
x   
 
  

If log10 2 = 0.3010, show that log5 64 = 2.584

x 
     

Let ë = log5 64

We know, log of a quantity to a base can be written as the ratio of log of the quantity and
log of the base.
(See Formula 8 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

Œ ë = (log 64)»(log 5) = (log 26)»{log (10»2)}

Numerator is logarithm of a power:

We know, in log of a power, the exponent multiplies the log.


(See Formula 7 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

Denominator is logarithm of a quotient:

We know, log of a quotient can be written


as the difference of the logs of the numerator
and denominator of the quotient
(See Formula 6 in Logarithms; Link given above.)

Œ ë = {6 (log 2)}»{log 10 - log 2} = 6(0.3010)»(1 - 0.3010)


= (1.806)»(0.699) = 2.5837 § 2.584 (proved.)

Exercise of Antilog
x   
 
  

1. Given log 2 = 0.3010, find the number of digits in 12831.


2. Find the number of zeros between the decimal point
and the first significant figure in the value of (0.0432)10
given that log 2 = 0.3010, log 3 = 0.4771
3. If log10 3 = 0.4771, show that log30 81 = 1.292

For Answers to the problems in Logarithm Tables,


see at the bottom of the page.

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