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Introduction

The most special thing about this chapter is that the no. of scientists involved in developed of this concept
is remarkably large. Starting with heucippus of Miletus in 440 BC it extends to 2000's. And the research is
still going on. Even the great scientist EINSTEIN had his hands in developing this extraordinary concept.

Atomic No.

: Total no. of protons present in nucleus.

Mass No.

: Total no. of protons & Neutrons in neucleus.

Atomic No.(Z)

: no. of electrons (when atom is neutral).

Mass No.(A)

: no. of neutrons + no. of protons.

Representation

Ilustration

: Calculate no. of protons, neutrons & electrons in

Ans: Z = 35, A = 80

No. of protons = Z = 35

No. of neutrons = A - Z = 80 - 35 = 45
Calculation of Radius of Orbit:
Calculation of radius of orbit:

Derivation:

Electrons revolves in orbit.

Centripetal force acting on electron away from centre & force of attraction towards centre.

For electron to revolve in same orbit.

= 1 in CGS unit] ....................... (i)

mvr = n ....................................................... (ii)

v=

Putting value of v from eq. (ii) in eq. (i)

.................................................... (iii)
Calculation of De broglie Wavelength
Calculation of de broglie wavelength of electron from potential applied to accelerate it:

If accelerating potential v is applied,

Energy by electron = ev (charge x potential = ....)

mv2 = ev =

= =

Illustration: Calculate wavelength of spectral line in spwectra of Li 2+ ion when transition takes place b/w
two levels whose sum is 6 & difference is 2.

Ans: Let transition takes place b/w levels n1 & n2

n1 + n2 = 6 & n2 - n1 = 2

On solving n2 = 4 n2 = 2

= = R z2

Here z = 3 (Li2+ ion)

= 109,677 cm-1 x 32

= 109,677 x 9

= 109,677 x

= 5.4 x 10-6

Illustration: Calculate (i) Ist excitation energy yo electron of He+ atm.


Size of Nucleus:
Size of nucleus:

Size of nucleus (r) = (1.3 x 10-13) m1/3

r rad. of nucleus m Atomic no.

Dumb Question: Why radius of nucleus varies m1/3 i.e. r m1/3 ?

Ans: If nucleus isspherical,

density d =

d =

r3 =

r =

r = 1.3 x 10-13 x m1/3

r m1/3

..........................

amplitude of wave

Coordinates of electron are (x, y, z), E is total energy of electron, v is its potential energy, m is mass of
electron & h is planck's constant.

Significance of wave function: Square of wave function ( ) gives probability of finding electron at that
Shape of P-Orbital
Shape of p-orbital:

Shape of p-orbital is dumb bell shape.

Note: No. of spherical/radial nodes in any orbital = n - -1


No. of planar nodes in any orbital =
In s-orbital, spherical nodes & in p, d & f orbitals planar nodes.

= a(z - b)

frequency z

nuclear charge (atomic no.)

Illustration

: If straight line is at any angle 450

with intercept 1 on

-axis. Calculate frequency

when atom c No. is 50.

Ans:

= az - ab

y = mx + c

Slope = mx

-axis intercept = - ab
Modern Physics Numericals
Rule for finding Group No.:

(i) If last shell contains 1 or 2 electrons, then group no. is 1 & 2 respectively.

(ii) If last shell contains more than 2 elctrons in last shell plus.

(iii) If electrons are present in (n n - 1)d orbital in addition to ns orbital, then gp. No. is equal to total no. of
electrons present in (n - 1)d orbital & ns orbital.

Q.1. Two particles A & B are in motion. If wavelength associate with particle A is 5 x 10 -8 m. Caclulate
wavelength of B if momentum is half of A.

Ans:

But PB = PA

B = 2 A

B = 10-7 m

Q.2. Show that wavelength of a moving particle is related to its K.E. (E) as =

Ans: Acording de Broglie =

But mv2 = E v =
Modern Physics Numericals

Q.3. Wave function of 2s electron is given by . It has node at r = r 0.


Find relation b/w r0 & a 0.

Ans:

2
25 = 0 at r = r0

2
[Dumb Question: Why 25 or prob. of finding electron is zero ?

Ans: At r = r0, it has node where probability of finding electron is zero.]

In this expression, only factor can be zero is

2 - = 0 r0 = 2a0

Q.4. A dye absorbs light of = 4530 A0 & then fluorescence light of 50870 A0. 47% of absorbed energy is
reemitted out as flurescence. Calculate ratio of quanta emitted out to no. of quanta absorbed.

Let n1 photons areabsorbed. absorbed

Total energy absorbed =

E of light re-emitted out in one photon =

Let n2 photons are reemitted then,

Total energy reemitted out =

As given

Eabsorbed x = Ereemitted out


Modern Physics Numericals
HARD TYPE

Q.1. 1.8g H - atoms are excited to radiation. Spectra shows that 27% of atoms are in III rd energy level &
1.5% of atoms in IInd energy level & rest in ground state. Ionization potential of H is 13.6 ev. Calculate
(i) No. of atoms present in III, II energy level.
(ii) Total energy envolved when all atoms return to ground state.

Ans: 1g H contains = No atoms


1.8g H contains = 6.023 x 1023 x 1.8
= 10.84 x 1023 atoms

(a) No. of atoms in III shell =


21
= 292.68 x 10 atoms.

= = 162.6 x 1021 atoms.

(b) When all atoms return ti I shell, then


E' = (E3 - E1 ) x 292.68 x 1021

En = - ev

E' = (- + 13.6) x 292.68 x 1021 x 1.6 x 10-19 [ 1 ev = 1.6 x 10-19 J]


= 5.668 x 105 J
E'' = (E2 - E1) x 162.6 x 1021

= (- + 13.6) x 1.6 x 10-19 x 162.6 x 1021


= 2.657 x 105 J
E = E' + E'' = (5.668 + 2.657) x 105 J
Total energy envolved = 832.5 KJ

Q.2. Find quantum no. 'n' corresponding to excited state of He+ ion if on transitiontoground state that ion
emits two photons in succession with wavelengths 18.5 & 30.4 nm respectively.

Ans: Suppose electron in excited state is present in n 2 shell. First it falls from n2 to n1 & then from n1 to
ground state (n = 1).
(i) n2 n1 1 = 108.5 nm
(ii) n1 G.State, 2 = 30.4 nm

= 1 - 0.75 n12 =
n1 = 2

Again,

= 109677 x 22