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Nov-09

NOTES:

The papers listed here have been obtained by search SPE and IPTC papers post 2005 on the SPE's OnePetro
The papers relating to reservoir engineering have been catergorised for inclusion on the reservoirengineering.org.uk website

The affiiations searched were;

Total No Papers Reservoir Engineering Related


BP 551 175
Shell 575 279
Chevron 482 238
ConocoPhillips 191 68
Marathon 55 37
Total 255 129
Schlumberger 1130 563
Imperial College, London 95 53
Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh 235 175
(Anywhere in Article)
Total 3569 1717

Total number of papers published post 2005 = 10,000

35% of papers published categorised


Paper
Organisation Source No. Chapter Section
BP SPE 90680 Well Testing Analysis
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 109860 Well Testing Analysis - Closed Chamber Tests

CHEVRON SPE 110272 Well Testing Analysis - Fluivial Reservoir


Heriot Watt University SPE 110272 Well Testing Analysis - Fluivial Reservoir
SHELL SPE 102304 Well Testing Analysis - Fractured Water Injector
SHELL SPE 98098 Well Testing Analysis - Fractured Well

CHEVRON SPE 105134 Well Testing Analysis - Horizontal Wells


SCHLUMBERGER SPE 105134 Well Testing Analysis - Horizontal Wells
SHELL SPE 104480 Well Testing Analysis - Horizontal Wells
BP SPE 100836 Well Testing Analysis - Low Permeability
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 110576 Well Testing Analysis - Multi-Fractured Wells
BP SPE 104581 Well Testing Analysis - Multilaterals
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 116969 Well Testing Analysis - Multilayer Reservoir

CHEVRON SPE 113903 Well Testing Analysis - Multiphase


SCHLUMBERGER SPE 104059 Well Testing Analysis - Naturally Fractured Reservoir
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 120515 Well Testing Analysis - Radius of Investigation
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 123115 Well Testing Analysis - Real Time Evaluation
SHELL SPE 109053 Well Testing Connected Volume Estimation
BP IPTC 11691 Well Testing Connected Volume Estimation
BP SPE 102483 Well Testing Connected Volume Estimation
TOTAL SPE 102483 Well Testing Connected Volume Estimation
SHELL SPE 115720 Well Testing Connected Volume Estimation
BP SPE 102484 Well Testing Deconvolution
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 102575 Well Testing Deconvolution
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 123555 Well Testing Exploration Wells
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 114594 Well Testing Fracture Diagnostics
CONOCO SPE 117435 Well Testing Horizontal WElls
SHELL SPE 88735 Well Testing HP/HT
SHELL SPE 108665 Well Testing HP/HT
BP IPTC 11672 Well Testing Interference testing
Imperial College SPE 100993 Well Testing Lean gas Condensate
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 109279 Well Testing Mini-DST
SHELL SPE 109279 Well Testing Mini-DST
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 113650 Well Testing MiniDST Interpretation
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 118148 Well Testing Multiphase Metering
TOTAL SPE 118148 Well Testing Multiphase Metering
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 110873 Well Testing Multiphase Metering
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 116003 Well Testing Multiphase Metering
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 114127 Well Testing Multiphase Metering
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 115478 Well Testing Multiphase Metering
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 90992 Well Testing Multiphase Metering
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 101475 Well Testing Multiphase Metering
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 103223 Well Testing Multiphase Metering
Heriot Watt University SPE 121949 Well Testing Multi-well Decovolution
Heriot Watt University SPE 122409 Well Testing Numercial Analysis
Heriot Watt University SPE 100951 Well Testing Numerical Analysis
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 105271 Well Testing Numerical Modelling
SCHLUMBERGER SPE 107967 Well Testing Production Analysis
SHELL SPE 99971 Well Testing Production Monitoring
Heriot Watt University SPE 128359 Well Testing PTA
TOTAL SPE 128359 Well Testing PTA
Heriot Watt University SPE 100993 Well Testing PTA
Imperial College SPE 89904 Well Testing PTA
Imperial College SPE 89905 Well Testing PTA

Imperial College SPE 94018 Well Testing PTA


Heriot Watt University SPE 120893 Well Testing PTA
Heriot Watt University SPE 113323 Well Testing PTA Interpretation
Heriot Watt University SPE 107521 Well Testing PTA Interpretation
TOTAL SPE 110820 Well testing Real gas Flow Analysis
Heriot Watt University SPE 107209 Well Testing Rel Perm Determination

CHEVRON SPE 112732 Well Testing Sand Prediction


SCHLUMBERGER SPE 103040 Well Testing State of the Nation
Imperial College SPE 100136 Well Testing State of the Nation

Imperial College SPE 102079 Well Testing State of the Nation


SCHLUMBERGER SPE 102106 Well Testing Streaming Potential Measurement
TOTAL SPE 115820 Well testing Testing by Production Logging
BP SPE 113888 Well Testing Uncertainty
MARATHON SPE 124271 Well Testing Value of Information
TOTAL SPE 105685 Well Testing Vertical Interference Test
TOTAL SPE 103216 Well testing Wellbore Storage Analysis
Subject
Deconvolution
amber Tests

PTA/Seismic Attribute
PTA/Seismic Attribute
PFO
SRT

Carbonate Reservoir
Carbonate Reservoir
PTA
Rate Dependent Transient Flow
Stacked Reservoirs

Layer Properties

2 Phase
Partial Penetration
Reserve Estimation

PTA

Design and Interpretation


Image Log
Thermal Transient Analysis
Annular Pressure Buildup Behaviour
Gas Condensate
Temperature Data
Analysis
Deepwater
Deepwater
Gas
Challenging Conditions
Challenging Conditions
Gas Condensate
Heavy Oil
Reliability
Validation
Streamline
Heterogeneity
Full Field Simulations
Integral Derivative Function
Optmisation/Automation
Flow Regime Identification
Flow Regime Identification
Gas Condensate
Gas Condensate
Gas Condensate

Gas Condensate
Challenging Conditions
Deconvolution/Decline Curve
Wavelet Method
Average Pressure Approximation

Pre Drill DST Prediction


Advances in Interpretation and Measurement
Analysis Approaches

Evolution of Deconvolution
Technology Application

Test Interpretation
West Brae Field
Permeability Anisotropy
Deconvolution
Title
Practical Considerations for Pressure-Rate Deconvolution of Well-Test Data
A New Approach for Interpreting Pressure Data To Estimate Key Reservoir Parameters From Closed-Chamber Tests
Integrating Pressure Transient Test Data With Seismic Attribute Analysis to Characterize an
Offshore Fluvial Reservoir
Integrating Pressure Transient Test Data With Seismic Attribute Analysis to Characterize an Offshore Fluvial Reservoir
Application of New Fall-Off Test Interpretation Methodology to Fractured Water Injection Wells Offshore Sakhalin
New Analysis of Step-Rate Injection Tests for Improved Fracture Stimulation Design

Challenges Encountered During a Comprehensive Test Analysis for a Horizontal Well in a Thin,
Carbonate Reservoir of the Greater Burgan Field, Kuwait
Challenges Encountered During a Comprehensive Test Analysis for a Horizontal Well in a Thin, Carbonate Reservoir of the Gr
Horizontal Well" Pressure Transient Analysis for Gulf of Mexico Reservoirs (Adapting the Slant Well Solution to Layered Media
Analysis of Rate Dependence in Transient Linear Flow in Tight Gas Wells
A Unique Methodology for Evaluation of Multi-Fractured Wells in Stacked-Pay Reservoirs Using Commingled Production and R
Transient Behavior of Multilateral Wells in Numerical Models: A Hybrid Analytical-Numerical Approach
Identifying Layer Permeabilities and Skin Using a Multi-Layer Transient Testing Approach in a Complex Reservoir Environmen

Use of Transient Testing Data To Calculate Absolute Permeability and Average Fluid Saturations
Pressure Transient Analysis of Partially Penetrating Wells in a Naturally Fractured Reservoir
Radius of Investigation for Reserve Estimation From Pressure Transient Well Tests
Real-Time Evaluation of Pressure Transients: Advances in Dynamic Reservoir Monitoring
Use of Advanced Pressure Transient Analysis Techniques To Improve Drainage Area Calculations and Reservoir Characterisa
Evaluating Connected Reservoir Volume for Optimizing Reservoir Management in Farragon Field, an Offshore North Sea New
The Use of Well Testing for Evaluation of Connected Reservoir Volume
The Use of Well Testing for Evaluation of Connected Reservoir Volume
Magnetic Resonance in Chalk Horizontal Well Logged With LWD
Deconvolution of Multiwell Test Data
An Investigation of Recent Deconvolution Methods for Well-Test Data Analysis
Advanced Methods to Design and Interpret Exploration Well Tests---Two Case Studies
Estimating Fracture Permeability and Shape Factor by Use of Image Log Data in Welltest Analysis
Thermal Transient Analysis Applied to Horizontal Wells
Transient Behavior of Annular Pressure Buildup in HP/HT Wells
HP/HT Gas-Condensate Well Testing for Shell's Onyx SW Prospect
The New Interference Test: Reservoir Connectivity Information from Downhole Temperature Data
Well Test Analysis in Lean Gas Condensate Reservoirs: Theory and Practice
Mini-DST Applications for Shell Deepwater Malaysia
Mini-DST Applications for Shell Deepwater Malaysia
A New Method for Gas Well Deliverability Potential Estimation Using MiniDST and Single Well Modeling: Theory and Example
Extending the Range of Multiphase Metering to Challenging High Water Cut Gas-Lifted Wells: TOTAL ABK Field Application
Extending the Range of Multiphase Metering to Challenging High Water Cut Gas-Lifted Wells: TOTAL ABK Field Application
Testing Gas Condensate Wells in Northern Siberia With Multiphase Flowmeters
Improving Reservoir Characterization Using Accurate Flow-Rate History
Reliability of Multiphase Flowmeters and Test Separators at High Water Cut
Field Validation Processes for Multiphase Wet Gas Surface Well Testing Solutions: Example From the Yamburgskoe Arctic Ga
High-Accuracy Wet-Gas Multiphase Well Testing and Production Metering
Production Well Testing Optimization Using Multiphase Flow Meters (MPFM)
Field Experience in Multiphase Gas-Well Testing: The Benefit of the Combination of Venturi and Gamma Ray Fraction Meter
Multi-Well Deconvolution Algorithm for the Diagnostic, Analysis of Transient Pressure With Interference From Permanent Dow
New Advance in Numerical Well Testing Through Streamline Simulation
Fighting Against Nonunique-Solution Problems in Heterogeneous Reservoirs Through Numerical Well Testing
Linking Well-Test Interpretations to Full Field Simulations
Application of the β-Integral Derivative Function to Production Analysis
Well-Test Optimization and Automation
Statistical Diagnosis (VEMST) of Flow Regime: Alternative to Pressure Derivative Approach in Pressure Transient Analysis—
Statistical Diagnosis (VEMST) of Flow Regime: Alternative to Pressure Derivative Approach in Pressure Transient Analysis—
Well Test Analysis in Lean Gas Condensate Reservoirs: Theory and Practice
Condensate-Bank Characterization From Well-Test Data and Fluid PVT Properties
Well Test Analysis of Horizontal Wells in Gas/Condensate Reservoirs
Estimating Productivity-Controlling Parameters in Gas/Condensate Wells From Transient Pressure
Data
Pressure Transient Well Testing Encountered Complexities: A Case Study
Application of Deconvolution and Decline-Curve Analysis Methods for Transient Pressure Analysis
Analyzing Transient Pressure From Permanent Downhole Gauges (PDG) Using Wavelet Method
Application of Convolution and Average Pressure Approximation for Solving Nonlinear Flow Problems--Constant Wellbore Pre
Using Drillstem and Production Tests To Model Reservoir Relative Permeabilities

Deepwater Exploration Well Pre-Drill DST Sanding Potential Prediction Using Probabilistic and
Deterministic Approaches
A Digital Pressure Derivative Technique for Pressure Transient Well Testing and Reservoir Characterization
New Approaches in Well Testing

From Straight Lines to Deconvolution: The Evolution of the State of the Art in Well Test Analysis
Streaming Potential Applications in Oil Fields
Method and Application of Cyclic Well Testing with Production Logging
Evaluation of Confidence Intervals in Well Test Interpretation Results
The Value of Well Testing—Optimisation of the West Brae Field
A New Technique To Determine Horizontal and Vertical Permeabilities From the Time-Delayed Response of a Vertical Interfer
Explicit Deconvolution of Wellbore Storage Distorted Well Test Data
Author Abstract
Michael M. Levitan, SPE, BP plc; Gary E. Crawford, SPE, WTS; and AndrewSummary
Hardwick,Pressure-rate
SPE, BP plc deconvolution provides e
N.M.A. Rahman, SPE, Schlumberger, and M.S. Santo and L. Mattar, SPE, Fekete Abstract
Assocs.
A new technique for analyzing and model
Akshay Sahni, SPE, Ken Kelsch, SPE, Hathaiporn Samorn, and Chalatpon
Boonmeelapprasert, SPE, Chevron Abstract Interpreting pressure transient tests in co
Akshay Sahni, SPE, Ken Kelsch, SPE, Hathaiporn Samorn, and Chalatpon Abstract
Boonmeelapprasert,
InterpretingSPE,
pressure
Chevron
transient tests in co
P.J. van den Hoek, SPE, Shell Intl. E&P B.V.; D. Volchkov, SPE, and G. Burgos,
Abstract
SPE,It Sakhalin
is well established
Energy; and
within
R.A.the
Masfry,
Industry
SPEth
K. Lizak, Shell; K. Bartko, Saudi Aramco; F. Self, G. Izquierdo, and M. Al-Mumen,
Abstract
Halliburton
Prehydraulic fracture diagnostic pumping

A.K. Ambastha, SPE, and M. Anderson, SPE, Chevron Corp.; H. Gandhi,


SPE, Kuwait Oil Co.; and P.-D. Maizeret, SPE, Schlumberger Abstract Mauddud reservoir in the Greater Burgan
A.K. Ambastha, SPE, and M. Anderson, SPE, Chevron Corp.; H. Gandhi, SPE, Abstract
Kuwait
Mauddud
Oil Co.; and
reservoir
P.-D.inMaizeret,
the Greater
SPE, Burgan
Schlu
P.S. Fair, Shell International Exploration and Production Inc. Introduction There are three objectives of this pap
M. Ibrahim, Suez Canal U., and R.A. Wattenbarger, Texas A&M U. Abstract Many tight gas wells (permeability less th
J.F. Manrique, Occidental Oil and Gas Corporation, and B.D. Poe Jr., Schlumberger
Abstract We present a unique methodology desig
C. Aguilar, SPE, BP Alaska, and E. Ozkan, SPE, H. Kazemi, SPE, M. Al-Kobaisi,
Abstract
SPE,This
andpaper
B. Ramirez,
presentsSPE,
an extension
Colorado ofSchoo
tran
Moustafa Eissa, Sameer Joshi, and Kamaljeet Singh, SPE, Schlumberger, and Abstract
Ajay Bahuguna
Conventionalandpressure
Mohamed transient
Elbadri,testing
GNPOC u

Medhat M. Kamal and Yan Pan, Chevron Energy Technology Company Abstract A new well testing analysis method is pre
K. Slimani, Sonatrach; D. Tiab, U. of Oklahoma; and K. Moncada, Schlumberger
Abstract Often and for many reasons the wellbore
Fikri J. Kuchuk, SPE, Schlumberger Abstract Although it is often used in pressure tran
C. Contreras, SPE, S. Bodwadkar, SPE, and A. Kosmala, SPE, Schlumberger Abstract Reservoir engineers operating in mature
Kui-Fu Du, SPE, NAM, The Netherlands Abstract This paper presents several field exampl
Julio Herbas, SPE, Munawar Usman, SPE, Ronnie Parr and Jordy Buter, BPAbstract
Exploration
The Farragon
Operatingfield
Company
discovered
Limitedin April 20
M.M. Levitan, SPE, and M.J. Ward, SPE, BP plc.; J.-L. Boutaud de la Combe, Abstract
SPE, Total
In itsS.A.;
searchandforM.R.
newWilson,
oil and Well-Test
gas reserves So
M.M. Levitan, SPE, and M.J. Ward, SPE, BP plc.; J.-L. Boutaud de la Combe, Abstract
SPE, Total
In itsS.A.;
searchandforM.R.
newWilson,
oil and Well-Test
gas reserves So
Arve K. Thorsen, SPE, Tor Eiane, SPE, and Holger Thern, SPE, Baker Hughes, Abstract
and This
Paalpaper
Fristaddescribes
and Stephengeological
Williams,
andSPE,
petro
Michael M. Levitan, SPE, BP plc Summary The deconvolution analysis technique th
M. Onur, SPE, and M. Cinar,* SPE, Istanbul Technical University; D. Ilk, SPE,
Summary
P.P Valko,
In this
SPE,work
and we
T.A.present
Blasingame,
an investigation
SPE, Te
A.J.G. Carnegie, Schlumberger; Stephen Ball, Premier Oil Vietnam; Pierre-David
Abstract
Maizeret,
TwoTwoDrill
Schlumberger
Case
stem
Studies
tests (DST)
Vietnam;
were andconducte
David
Hassan Bahrami, Sharif University of Technology; Jamal Siavoshi, Husky Energy
Abstract
Canada;
The identification
Soodabeh Esmaili
of fractures
and Mohammad
is essential
Anh N. Duong, SPE, ConocoPhillips Canada Abstract The effectiveness of heat injection into a
P. Oudeman, SPE, Shell Int. E&P, M. Kerem, SPE, Shell Int. E&P Summary Pressure buildup caused by fluid therm
Arild Foss�, Expro; Derek MacKenzie, Norske Shell; Odd Steinveg and Eric Abstract
Henderson,
This paper
Expro;covers
and Bart
the van
HPHT denGas-Conde
Bosch, Ha
D.A. Hutchinson, N. Kuramshina, A. Sheydayev, S. Day, BP Abstract The Chirag Field located offshore in the C
A.C. Gringarten, M. Bozorgzadeh, S. Daungkaew, and A. Hashemi, SPE, Imperial
AbstractCollege,
Gas condensate
London reservoirs exhibit a com
S. Daungkaew, J.H. Harfoushian, and B. Cheong, Schlumberger; and O. Akinsanmi
Abstract and
Exploration
J.Yeo, Shell;
and appraisal
and S. Toulekima,
campaigns Santo
for
S. Daungkaew, J.H. Harfoushian, and B. Cheong, Schlumberger; and O. Akinsanmi
Abstract and
Exploration
J.Yeo, Shell;
and appraisal
and S. Toulekima,
campaigns Santo
for
N.Karthik Kumar, SPE, Sameer Joshi, SPE and Raj Banerjee, SPE, Schlumberger,
AbstractK.M.Sundaram,
This paper presentsONGCtechniques for interp
David Costa; Total ABK, Jean-Paul Couput, Total; Florian Hollaender, BrunoAbstract
PinguetFlow
and Thomas
meteringKoshy;
using conventional
Schlumberger separa
David Costa; Total ABK, Jean-Paul Couput, Total; Florian Hollaender, BrunoAbstract
PinguetFlow
and Thomas
meteringKoshy;
using conventional
Schlumberger separa
B. Theuveny, Schlumberger; I.A. Zinchenko, Yamburggazdobycha Gazprom; Abstract
Y. Shumakov,
A number Schlumberger
of tests were performed in Yam
E.J. Pinilla, SPE, C.H. Pardo, SPE, L.M. Warlick, SPE, and Y.M. Al-Shobaili,Abstract
SPE, Saudi
Well Aramco,
testing isand
oneM.N.
of theAftab,
mostA. effective
Khan, anm
Kelechi Isaac Ojukwu, Petroleum Development Oman, and John Edwards, Schlumberger
Abstract The use of multiphase flowmeters (MPFM
B. Theuveny, Y. Shumakov, and A. Zhandin, Schlumberger, and I. Zinchenko, Abstract
GazpromSurface welltesting of Gas-Condensate w
D.I. Atkinson, Schlumberger Cambridge Research; �. Reksten, 3-Phase Measurements
Summary DedicatedA/S; G.wet-gas
Smith, Schlumberger;
flowmeters are and nowH
M. Metwalli Hassan and M. Bekkoucha, ADCO, and M. Abukhader, Schlumberger Abstract Production testing using portable Multipha
B.G. Pinguet, G. Roux, and N. Hopman, Schlumberger Abstract Using multiphase flowmeters in field ope
Zheng Shi-Yi, SPE, and Wang Fei, Heriot-Watt University Abstract Permanent Down-hole Gauge (PDG) has
Yao Jun, China University of Petroleum, and Zheng Shiyi, SPE, Heriot-Watt Abstract
UniversityNumerical well testing technique has bee
Zheng Shi-Yi, SPE, Heriot-Watt U. Abstract Numerical well testing started in about a
Faisal M. Al-Thawad, SPE, and Jim S. Liu, SPE, Saudi Aramco, and Raj Banerjee,
AbstractSPE,
Theand
objective
Dominic
of this
Agyapong,
study was
SPE,to investig
Schlum
D. Ilk, N. Hosseinpour-Zonoozi, S. Amini, and T.A. Blasingame, Texas A&MAbstract
U. In this work we present the application of
R. Cramer, Shell Global Solutions; C. Moncur, Shell Global Solutions B.V.; and
Abstract
L. Berendschot,
Much can beShell
doneGlobal
to improve
Solutions
the Well T
Victor T. Biu, Total E&P Nigeria, Emmanuel O. Biu, University of Port Harcourt,
Abstract
and Mike
Before
O. Onyekonwu,
the early eighties
Laseridentification
Engineering of C
Victor T. Biu, Total E&P Nigeria, Emmanuel O. Biu, University of Port Harcourt,
Abstract
and Mike
Before
O. Onyekonwu,
the early eighties
Laseridentification
Engineering of C
A.C. Gringarten, M. Bozorgzadeh, S. Daungkaew, and A. Hashemi, SPE, Imperial
AbstractCollege,
Gas condensate
London reservoirs exhibit a com
Manijeh Bozorgzadeh, SPE, and Alain C. Gringarten, SPE, Imperial CollegeSummary
London Published well-test analyses in gas/con
A. Hashemi , SPE, Imperial College London; L.M. Nicolas , SPE, Gaz de France;
Summaryand A.C.
Gas/condensate
Gringarten , SPE,
reservoirs
Imperial
usually
College
exhi

Manijeh Bozorgzadeh, SPE, and Alain C. Gringarten, SPE, Imperial CollegeSummary The ability to predict well deliverability is
Pooyan Karami and Abolfazl Hashemi Petropars Oil and Gas Company NationalAbstract
Iranian
Pressure
Oil Company
transient testing is one of the m
Zheng Shiyi, SPE, and Wang Fei; Heriot-Watt University; Edinburgh; Scotland
Abstract Traditionally well testing is completed by a
Zheng Shi-Yi and Li Xiao-Gang, Heriot-Watt U. Abstract Reservoir pressure monitoring during its p
M. Zhakupov, SPE, Total S.A., and D. Ilk, SPE, and T.A. Blasingame, SPE, Abstract
Texas A&M Real
U.gas" flow problems (i.e. problems w
John D. Matthews, SPE, Jonathan N. Carter, SPE, Robert W. Zimmerman, SPE,Summary
Imperial
Relative
College,
permeabilities
London are fundamenta
Xianjie Yi, James E. Sabolcik, and Harvey E. Goodman, Chevron Energy
Technology Company, and Brent W. Walton, Chevron International
Exploration & Production Company Abstract Sand control decisions are often made ba
A.F. Veneruso, SPE, and J. Spath, SPE, Schlumberger Abstract The pressure derivative has become the
S.N. Zakirov, I.M. Indrupskiy, E.S. Zakirov, SPE, D.P. Anikeev, A.I. Tarasov,Abstract
and O.V.Modern
Bradulina,
methodology
Inst. of theofRussian
well testing
Academ
is th

A.C. Gringarten, Imperial C. Abstract Well test analysis has been used for man
M.-Y. Chen, B. Raghuraman, SPE, I. Bryant, SPE, and M. Supp, Schlumberger Abstract Two successful field tests of streaming p
J. Rochon, SPE, V. Jaffrezic, SPE, and J.L. Boutaud de La Combe, SPE, TOTAL AbstractExploration
One of the
& predicaments
Production; M.ofAzari,
traditional
SPE ,weS.
Azi, A. C.*, SPE, Imperial College, Gbo, A.**, SPE, Imperial College, Whittle,Abstract
T.***, SPE,
Uncertainty
Baker Atlas
in well
andtest
Gringarten,
analysis results
A.C., SP
fro
Mike Tharagonnet, SPE, Marathon Oil Corporation Abstract The purpose of this paper is to increase t
James J. Sheng, Baker Hughes Abstract Vertical and horizontal permeabilities are
O. Bahabanian, D. Ilk, N. Hosseinpour-Zonoozi, and T.A. Blasingame, SPE,Abstract
Texas A&MTheU.analysis/interpretation of wellbore st
ate deconvolution provides equivalent representation of variable-rate well-test data in the form of characteristic constant rate drawdown sys
ique for analyzing and modeling the pressure data from both flow and buildup periods in closed chamber tests (CCT) has been developed.

pressure transient tests in complex faulted and stratigraphic environments can be difficult. In fluvial depositional environments where sand
pressure transient tests in complex faulted and stratigraphic environments can be difficult. In fluvial depositional environments where sand
ablished within the Industry that injection of (produced) water almost always takes place under fracturing conditions. Particularly when large
ic fracture diagnostic pumping analysis has recently improved with the use of new analysis techniques such as G-Function derivative plots

eservoir in the Greater Burgan field is a thin carbonate reservoir containing light oil in a 10-20 ft target zone with “good porosity.� Ma
eservoir in the Greater Burgan field is a thin carbonate reservoir containing light oil in a 10-20 ft target zone with “good porosity.� Ma
re three objectives of this paper. The first objective is to present a generalized geometric skin for deviated wells for all angles up to 89.9�
as wells (permeability less than 0.1 md) exhibit linear flow through their transient period. This transient period may last for years in some ca
a unique methodology designed for evaluation and optimization of multi-fractured wells in stacked pay reservoirs using commingled produc
presents an extension of transient well index approach to simulate pressure transient behavior of multilateral wells. This approach uses an
al pressure transient testing using a pressure gauge positioned at a fixed depth in a well has historically been the main source of permeab

esting analysis method is presented. The method allows for calculating the absolute permeability of the formation in the area influenced by
or many reasons the wellbore does not completely penetrate the entire formation yielding a unique early-time pressure behavior. Some of t
s often used in pressure transient testing radius of investigation still is an ambiguous concept and there is no standard definition in the pe
ngineers operating in mature fields across the world struggle to get necessary reservoir data to make their exploitation plans more realistic.
presents several field examples of applying two independent methods of increasing tested area estimation and improving reservoir characte
n field discovered in April 2003 is a low relief pancake shaped reservoir located in the UK sector of the North Sea. This relatively small of
h for new oil and gas reserves the oil industry moves to more and more remote areas of the world and to technically challenging areas of de
h for new oil and gas reserves the oil industry moves to more and more remote areas of the world and to technically challenging areas of de
escribes geological and petrophysical evaluation of a new structure of a mature field to evaluate the reservoir potential in un-produced rese
volution analysis technique that evolved with development of the deconvolution algorithms by von Schroeter et al. (2004) Levitan (2005) a
k we present an investigation of recent deconvolution methods proposed by von Schroeter et al. (2002 2004) Levitan (2005) and Levitan

ation of fractures is essential during exploration drilling and well completion of naturally fractured reservoirs since they have a significant im
eness of heat injection into a target formation has a great impact on the efficiency of bitumen and heavy oil recovery and energy savings un
buildup caused by fluid thermal expansion in sealed annuli of high-presure/high-temperature (HP/HT) wells can have serious consequence
covers the HPHT Gas-Condensate Exploration Well 6406/9-1 on the Onyx SW prospect of the Norway Sea in the late spring of 2005 (Figu
Field located offshore in the Caspian Sea of Azerbaijan uses permanent downhole gauges to record continuous pressure and temperature
nsate reservoirs exhibit a complex behavior when wells are produced below the dew point due to the existence of a two-fluid system reserv
and appraisal campaigns for deepwater environments are a continuous challenge in today’s operations. Data acquisition in such enviro
and appraisal campaigns for deepwater environments are a continuous challenge in today’s operations. Data acquisition in such enviro
presents techniques for interpretation of Mini-Drill Stem Test (MiniDST) for establishing commingled Absolute Openhole Flow Potential (AO
ng using conventional separation-based technologies in low-pressure high gas rate environments typical of gas-lifted wells is a very difficult
ng using conventional separation-based technologies in low-pressure high gas rate environments typical of gas-lifted wells is a very difficult
f tests were performed in Yamburggasdobycha Gazprom's fields in Northern Siberia area to evaluate the performance of multiphase flowm
is one of the most effective means to characterize hydrocarbon reservoirs under dynamic conditions. Such characterization of reservoirs is
multiphase flowmeters (MPFM) for well test measurements is increasingly becoming a standard practice replacing conventional test separa
ltesting of Gas-Condensate with multiphase flowmeters is still considered a challenge for production metering. Traditional means of well tes
wet-gas flowmeters are now commercially available for the measurement of gas and liquid flow rates and offer a more compact measurem
esting using portable Multiphase Flow Meters (MPFM) was implemented in ADCO Field “B with objectives to quantify the water and gas
phase flowmeters in field operations has now become a widely accepted practice especially in the range of Gas Volume Fraction (GVF) of 0
Down-hole Gauge (PDG) has been widely installed in the oilfield around the world in recent years. One of the challenges in analyzing long-
well testing technique has been regarded as the future of well testing in tackling non-linear heterogeneous reservoir testing problems. Finite
well testing started in about a decade ago. The technique was developed to tackle well testing problems in heterogeneous reservoirs. Integr
ve of this study was to investigate a workflow where well test data could be used more effectively in history matching of full-field reservoir si
we present the application of the β-integral derivative function for the interpretation and analysis of production data. The β-derivative functi
be done to improve the Well Testing through effective use of minimal electronic instrumentation on the well head and the test separator. Th
early eighties identification of flow regime has been a difficult task for reservoir engineer and welltest analyst until the emergence of the der
early eighties identification of flow regime has been a difficult task for reservoir engineer and welltest analyst until the emergence of the der
nsate reservoirs exhibit a complex behavior when wells are produced below the dew point due to the existence of a two-fluid system reserv
well-test analyses in gas/condensate reservoirs in which the pressure has dropped below the dewpoint are usually based on a two- or thre
ensate reservoirs usually exhibit complex flow behaviors owing to the buildup of condensate banks around the wells when the bottomhole p

to predict well deliverability is a key issue for the development of gas/condensate reservoirs. We show in this paper that well deliverability d
nsient testing is one of the most useful reservoir description methods. It provides valuable information about the reservoir/well-bore charact
well testing is completed by analysing transient pressure due to constant production rate. However in the oil industry practice engineer of
essure monitoring during its production life is to evaluate its performance to ensure the effective extraction of hydrocarbon from the reservo
ow problems (i.e. problems where the gas properties are specifically taken as implicit functions of pressure temperature and composition)
ermeabilities are fundamental to any assessment of reserves and reservoir management. When measurements on core samples are availa

l decisions are often made based on a deterministically predicted Safe Drawdown Pressure (SDP) without proper regard to the amount of u
re derivative has become the primary interpretation tool for diagnosing well and reservoir behavior. In many situations however the derivati
ethodology of well testing is the result of efforts of many scientists for more than 50 years. It is mainly based on the theory of single-phase f

alysis has been used for many years to assess well condition and obtain reservoir parameters. Early interpretation methods (using straight
sful field tests of streaming potential measurements in oil fields have been carried out: one in a horizontal oil production well and one in a v
redicaments of traditional well testing is the requirement of shutting-in a well to conduct a pressure buildup test for the purpose of obtaining
n well test analysis results from errors in pressure and rate measurements from uncertainties in basic well and reservoir parameters; from
e of this paper is to increase the data in circulation regarding the value of well testing on established fields.� The results of five phases o
horizontal permeabilities are important parameters for designing well completion and predicting well performance. In the past to determine
s/interpretation of wellbore storage distorted pressure transient test data remains one of the most significant challenges in well test analysis
onstant rate drawdown system response.�Deconvolution allows one to develop additional insights into pressure transient behavior and e
CT) has been developed. It can be used for estimating the key reservoir parameters such as reservoir pressure permeability and skin. The

environments where sand continuity is a significant uncertainty pressure transient test interpretation can generate several non-unique solu
environments where sand continuity is a significant uncertainty pressure transient test interpretation can generate several non-unique solu
ns. Particularly when large volumes of very contaminated water are injected –either for voidage replacement or disposal- large fractures m
G-Function derivative plots after-closure analysis and step-rate tests.OnePetro
This paperOnePetro
analyzes various types and combinations of step-rate inje

“good porosity.� Matrix permeability is low and natural fracture density can be variable in this reservoir.� Thus this reservoir must b
“good porosity.� Matrix permeability is low and natural fracture density can be variable in this reservoir.� Thus this reservoir must b
or all angles up to 89.9� extending Cinco’s slant well solution to smaller bed sizes where the line source approximation is not a valid
y last for years in some cases. It has been learned that this behavior differs in many ways from radial flow behavior. This paper reports ano
using commingled production. The specialized diagnostic procedures are based on rate-transient analyses and uses historical production
s. This approach uses an analytical solution for the well index at early times and switches to the numerical well index at late times. The use
e main source of permeability and skin estimation in formations. However if a well is completed as a multi-layer commingled producer then

in the area influenced by the test and the average saturations in this area. The method applies to two-phase flow in the reservoir (oil and w
ssure behavior. Some of the main reasons for partial penetration in both fractured and unfractured formations are to prevent or delay the
andard definition in the petroleum literature. The pressure diffusion corresponds to an instantaneous propagation of the pressure signal in th
ation plans more realistic.� Pressure transients are the most effective way to understand the dynamic behavior of the reservoir.� Loss
mproving reservoir characterisation based on utilising the entire well test
OnePetro
history rather than just a single pressure build-up (PBU) or drawdo
ea. This relatively small offshore field was developed with two sub-sea horizontal wells tied to existing production facilities. Initially the light 3
lly challenging areas of deep water.� Development of hydrocarbon resources in these environments is extremely expensive.� To be e
lly challenging areas of deep water.� Development of hydrocarbon resources in these environments is extremely expensive.� To be e
ential in un-produced reservoir zones. The well was drilled in a carbonate with variations in rock quality and with minor sub-faulting occurrin
(2004) Levitan (2005) and Levitan et al. (2006) became a useful addition to the suite of techniques used in well-test analysis. This decon
evitan (2005) and Levitan et al. (2006) and Ilk et al. (2006a b). These works offer new solution methods to the long-standing deconvolution

they have a significant impact on flow contribution. There are different methods to characterize these systems based on formation properti
ery and energy savings under many steam heating processes such as the startup phase of SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) (Butle
have serious consequences such as casing failure or tubing collapse. To determine whether mitigation was required for a HP/HT developm
e late spring of 2005 (Figure 1 and 2). The well test design and execution is presented in the paper including; up front planning job design
pressure and temperature in the active producers. Bottom-hole pressure data is used extensively to understand interwell communication an
a two-fluid system reservoir gas and liquid condensate. Different mobility zones develop around the wellbore corresponding respectively t
a acquisition in such environments requires reservoir information of the highest quality before expensive development plans can be put in p
a acquisition in such environments requires reservoir information of the highest quality before expensive development plans can be put in p
enhole Flow Potential (AOFP) in deep water exploration wells in India. These gas bearing reservoirs are vertically heterogeneous with high
ted wells is a very difficult operation. Owing to low retention times of the gas the quality of separation and existing instrumentation is often
ted wells is a very difficult operation. Owing to low retention times of the gas the quality of separation and existing instrumentation is often
ance of multiphase flowmeters in gas-condensate reservoir applications. The remoteness of the operation and the roughness of winter wea
cterization of reservoirs is as accurate as the data used for interpretation.
OnePetro
It is therefore essential to have accurate measurements of both
g conventional test separators. These MPFMs are usually tested and calibrated in laboratory controlled flow loops using idealized fluids in s
aditional means of well testing have been deployed for years and used consistently for reservoir and production management. However it c
more compact measurement solution than does the traditional separator approach. The interpretation models of traditional multiphase flow
quantify the water and gas production evaluate the performance of slugging/intermittent wells for procurement actions evaluate the produc
olume Fraction (GVF) of 0 to 85%. There is still some doubt about the performance of this type of device especially in the High (92-96%) or
allenges in analyzing long-term real-time
OnePetro
dynamic data such as transient pressure from PDG is the diagnostic and analysis of data with inte
oir testing problems. Finite difference and finite element methods were used before in the construction of the well testing model which was
geneous reservoirs. Integration of geoscience and well testing for improved fluvial reservoir characterisation was the first project of this kind
ng of full-field reservoir simulation models and also in situations where existing simulation models could be used in well test interpretation.
ta. The β-derivative function was recently proposed for the analysis and interpretation of pressure transient data [Hosseinpour-Zonoozi et
and the test separator. The purpose of this paper is to describe Shell tools and experiences using the resulting real time data to enable w
the emergence of the derivative approach. This approach has helped to reduce the uncertainties of the interpretation of welltest result bec
the emergence of the derivative approach. This approach has helped to reduce the uncertainties of the interpretation of welltest result bec
a two-fluid system reservoir gas and liquid condensate. Different mobility
OnePetro
zones develop around the wellbore corresponding respectively t
ly based on a two- or three-region radial composite well-test interpretation model to represent condensate dropout around the wellbore and
lls when the bottomhole pressure drops below the dewpoint pressure. The formation of this liquid saturation can lead to a severe loss of we

per that well deliverability depends mainly on the gas relative permeabilities at both the endpoint and the near-wellbore saturations as well
eservoir/well-bore characteristics (e.g. homogeneity heterogeneities phase segregation stimulation effectiveness interventions etc.) and
ustry practice engineer often has to deal with the transient pressure resulted from variable flowing rate history. This is particularly true in the
rocarbon from the reservoir. Continuous reservoir monitoring offers a window of prospects to increase well productivity while reducing oper
erature and composition) are particularly challenging because the diffusivity equation for the "real gas" flow case is strongly non-linear.�
n core samples are available however they often predict initial water production that is not experienced by individual wells. For example d

regard to the amount of uncertainty associated with the value of SDP.OnePetro


These uncertainties can be large when planning a Drillstem Test (DS
ions however the derivative of the measured pressure data is uninterpretable or worse misinterpreted because of various artifacts collecti
he theory of single-phase flow. Few publications consider two-phase flow. However they were also generally reduced to single-phase inve

n methods (using straight-lines or log-log pressure plots) were limited to the estimation of well performance. With the introduction of pressu
duction well and one in a vertical water injection well. Pressure transients were created and the streaming potentials generated by these tra
r the purpose of obtaining well and reservoir properties. This deterrent factor is more prominent in prolific wells due to loss of revenue and
eservoir parameters; from the quality of the match with the interpretation model; and from the non-uniqueness of the interpretation model. Y
he results of five phases of optimisation resulting in a 17% increase in field production following the change out of the multiphase flow mete
e. In the past to determine the permeabilities from a vertical interference test some investigators proposed correlations or type curves base
enges in well test analysis.� Deconvolution (i.e. the conversion" of a variable-rate distorted pressure profile into the pressure profile for a
e transient behavior and extract more information from well-test data than is possible by using conventional analysis methods.�In some c
permeability and skin. There are two aspects of the proposed approach - straight-line analysis and modeling. A novel approach is taken to d

e several non-unique solutions all of which may match test data. Using seismic attribute analysis to constrain pressure transient test interp
e several non-unique solutions all of which may match test data. Using seismic attribute analysis to constrain pressure transient test interp
disposal- large fractures may be induced over time. Unfortunately not much work has been carried out to date to provide methodologies f

Thus this reservoir must be exploited using horizontal wells.� Recently a 2 270 ft long horizontal well has been drilled in an area interpr
Thus this reservoir must be exploited using horizontal wells.� Recently a 2 270 ft long horizontal well has been drilled in an area interpr
proximation is not a valid assumption. The second objective of this paper is to extend the slant well solution to layered reservoirs without re
or. This paper reports another import difference between linear flow and radial flow – rate sensitivity. It has been shown and accepted for
uses historical production data (rates and cumulative) and the results from production logs to; 1) determine the flow rates for each individua
dex at late times. The use of the transient well index eliminates the need for excessive grid refinement around the well. In this paper we ha
ommingled producer then this conventional approach makes it difficult to measure the permeability and skin of individual layers. Greater M

in the reservoir (oil and water or oil and gas). Future expansion to three-phase flow is possible. Current analysis methods yield only the eff
re to prevent or delay the intrusion of unwanted fluids into the wellbore i.e. water coning.� A similar early-time pressure behavior may be
of the pressure signal in the entire spatial domain when a flow rate or pressure pulse is applied to the sandface (beginning of a drawdown o
of the reservoir.� Loss of production and cost of acquiring data versus the benefits has always been a classical management dilemma.ï

facilities. Initially the light 34�API oil was produced by natural flow and subsequently gas-lift has been used for artificial lift. A few months
ly expensive.� To be economically viable the newly discovered fields must be developed and effectively exploited with very few wells. T
ly expensive.� To be economically viable the newly discovered fields must be developed and effectively exploited with very few wells. T
minor sub-faulting occurring. Gamma Resistivity Density Neutron and Image services were used in the horizontal part of the well in additi
-test analysis. This deconvolution algorithm however is limited to the pressure and rate data that originate from a single active well on the
ng-standing deconvolution problem and make deconvolution a viable tool for well-test and production-data analysis. However there exists

ased on formation properties and fluid flow behaviour such as logging and testing. Pressure-transient testing has long been recognized as a
d Gravity Drainage) (Butler 1991). However this parameter is hard to calculate due to many unknown variables such as variations in opera
ed for a HP/HT development annular pressures in an appraisal well were studied with a dedicated field test which consisted of running a p
front planning job design technology selection and review of the test results vs. the objectives for the well test. The paper also addresses
nterwell communication and reservoir properties but bottom-hole temperature data had seen little use. However we now find that flowing b
rresponding respectively to the original gas in place (away from the well) the condensate drop-out and capillarity number effects (close to
ment plans can be put in place. New technology real time monitoring and integrated reservoir data are essential to understand such reservo
ment plans can be put in place. New technology real time monitoring and integrated reservoir data are essential to understand such reservo
heterogeneous with high permeability. MiniDST’s are conducted using the inflatable straddle packer system of wireline formation teste
g instrumentation is often doubtful leading to an under-estimate of liquid rates. An aggravating factor is that such wells are often producing
g instrumentation is often doubtful leading to an under-estimate of liquid rates. An aggravating factor is that such wells are often producing
e roughness of winter weather conditions combined with the complexity of the fluid compositions create unique challenges to the successfu

using idealized fluids in steady state conditions. However for high water-cut high gas-volume-fraction and low pressure unstable flow thes
management. However it can be difficult to compare data sets obtained with different measurement devices. Multiphase flow meters have b
raditional multiphase flowmeters emphasize the liquid rate measurements and have been used to well test and meter mostly liquid-rich flow
tions evaluate the production test data measured by the conventional test separators and improve the testing duration and strategy. The p
lly in the High (92-96%) or Very High GVF (96-98%) ranges. Most of the purchasers put a cut off in the GVF range of 85-92% following the
testing model which was proved worked well for the most practical cases. In this study streamline simulation techniques was further deve
he first project of this kind supported by the oil industry that time. When approaching non-unique solution problems in heterogeneous reser
in well test interpretation. The need to effectively use information available from well test analysis in full-field simulation has long been reco
Hosseinpour-Zonoozi et al (2006)] and we demonstrate that the β-integral derivative and its auxiliary functions can be used to provide the
eal time data to enable well test optimization and automation. 1.0 Introduction The purpose of well testing is to periodically determine oi
ation of welltest result because key regions of radial flow and boundary features required for reservoir characterization description and eval
ation of welltest result because key regions of radial flow and boundary features required for reservoir characterization description and eval

t around the wellbore and initial gas in place away from the well. Gas/condensate-specific results from well-test analysis are the mobility an
ead to a severe loss of well productivity and therefore lower gas recovery. Several studies have examined various ways to minimize the p

lbore saturations as well as on the reservoir permeability. We then demonstrate how these parameters and the base capillary number can
ss interventions etc.) and quantitative information about reservoir parameters (e.g. permeability fracture length average reservoir pressu
his is particularly true in the case when transient pressure data is from a PDG over a relatively long period of production time. Another well
ctivity while reducing operating costs through an improved and more accurate well performance. These are achieved through analyzing the
is strongly non-linear.� Whereas different methods exist which allow us to approximate the solution of the real gas diffusivity equation a
dual wells. For example dry oil production occurs from portions of reservoirs where the local water saturation is relatively high even though

of various artifacts collectively termed noise. While various noise-smoothing techniques have been used there are valid concerns that smo
uced to single-phase inverse problems. During the last several years authors have been developing an alternative trend in well testing. I

the introduction of pressure derivative analysis in 1983 and the development of complex interpretation models that are able to account for d
als generated by these transients were measured by arrays of permanent electrodes placed in the boreholes.�The electrodes are partiall
ue to loss of revenue and problems associated with crossflow or when bringing a well back on production. Moreover in case of commingled
he interpretation model. Yet well test analysis results are usually reported as unique values often with unrealistic precision. Most well test
of the multiphase flow meter (MPFM) are presented.� Background on the West Brae field and the uses of the original MPFM will be discu
ations or type curves based on simplified point source solutions. However it is impossible for these correlations or type curves to cover the
o the pressure profile for an equivalent constant rate production sequence) has been in limited use as a "conversion" mechanism for the las
sis methods.�In some cases it is possible to interpret the same test data in terms of larger radius of investigation.� There are a numb
ovel approach is taken to develop the analytical solutions and procedures for both liquid and gas wells. Approximate solutions for the early-

ssure transient test interpretation leads to better understanding of reservoir heterogeneities and boundaries and is the central theme of thi
ssure transient test interpretation leads to better understanding of reservoir heterogeneities and boundaries and is the central theme of thi
o provide methodologies for predicting and measurement of the size of waterflood-induced fractures. This contrasts to the vast amount of w

n drilled in an area interpreted to have high fracture density.� A comprehensive test program including flowing and static pressure surve
n drilled in an area interpreted to have high fracture density.� A comprehensive test program including flowing and static pressure surve
ered reservoirs without reservoir crossflow i.e. no significant vertical permeability between individual layers within the reservoir. The third ob
n shown and accepted for years that real gas pseudo-pressure can be used to apply analytical solutions to transient radial flow. However i
ow rates for each individual stage in a multi-fractured well 2) apply rate-transient solutions that use rate-normalized-pressures and superpo
well. In this paper we have improved the accuracy of the transient well index approach and have provided for a flexible and easily impleme
dividual layers. Greater Munga field of the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) in Sudan has several wells that comming

methods yield only the effective permeability for the dominant flowing phase and the “total mobility of all phases. The new method uses
pressure behavior may be due to the presence of plugged perforations. Drilling problems associated with high mud losses when the well en
beginning of a drawdown or injection) of a well. However the initial pressure propagation is not diffusive but it propagates like a wave with a
al management dilemma.� With the advent of digital oilfield technology the pressure and hence the deterioration in well deliverability can

artificial lift. A few months after first oil the field was consistently achieving production rates higher than predicted which led to a decision to
ited with very few wells. This forces the oil companies to concentrate on high quality reservoirs that yield highly productive wells with large
ited with very few wells. This forces the oil companies to concentrate on high quality reservoirs that yield highly productive wells with large
al part of the well in addition to Magnetic Resonance. To achieve the best possible real-time wellbore placement reservoir navigation and c
a single active well on the structure. It is ideally suited for analysis of the data from exploration and appraisal well tests. The previously men
is. However there exists no study presenting an independent assessment of all these methods revealing and discussing specific features

ong been recognized as a reservoir characterization tool. Although welltest analysis is a recommended technique for fracture evaluation b
uch as variations in operational conditions and steam saturation along the horizontal wellbores heat return rates and losses to the vertical
h consisted of running a pressure/temperature memory gauge in a casing/casing annulus of a well and testing the well several times durin
he paper also addresses how health safety and environmental considerations were handled. Traditional well testing methods and equipm
we now find that flowing bottom-hole temperature detects interwell communication – with interference delay times consistent with pressu
number effects (close to the well). Condensate drop-out causes a non-reversible reduction in well productivity which is compensated in pa
o understand such reservoirs. Another challenge presented by thinly bedded reservoirs is the presence of vertical heterogeneity and varying
o understand such reservoirs. Another challenge presented by thinly bedded reservoirs is the presence of vertical heterogeneity and varying
of wireline formation tester. A MiniDST transient sequence consists of a single or multiple flow periods induced using a downhole pump fo
wells are often producing at high water-cuts thus leading to significant uncertainty on oil rates. To solve such metering challenges with a la
wells are often producing at high water-cuts thus leading to significant uncertainty on oil rates. To solve such metering challenges with a la
hallenges to the successful acquisition of well test data. The paper discusses the challenges and potential benefits of deployment in line mu

essure unstable flow these controlled conditions are far from reality which can lead to unforeseen errors in the field. Recent experience sho
iphase flow meters have been proved for multiphase production metering by many operation companies worldwide. However in artic envir
meter mostly liquid-rich flow streams. These models were not developed for the measurement of gas flow rates particularly those of wet gas
ration and strategy. The program included in addition a set of elements to qualify the multiphase meters results before use and considered
e of 85-92% following the type of technology. These criteria are often based on past experience or special cases which could be several ye
chniques was further developed for numerical well testing purpose in which production history reservoir heterogeneity multi-well interferen
ms in heterogeneous reservoirs the traditional analytical approach based on the ideal reservoir conditions failed. An option to get an approx
ulation has long been recognized. However only limited benefit could be obtained by reconciliation of the analytical well test model with the
an be used to provide the characteristic signatures for unfractured and fractured wells. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ap
o periodically determine oil gas and water flows for accounting reporting and surveillance purposes. Hydrocarbon allocation provides offic
ation description and evaluation have been adequately diagnose. However the approach is complex for non-mathematician and an alterna
ation description and evaluation have been adequately diagnose. However the approach is complex for non-mathematician and an alterna

nalysis are the mobility and storativity ratios between the regions and the condensate-bank radius. For a given region however well-test a
us ways to minimize the pressure drop in order to reduce liquid dropout and related problems. One solution implemented over the past deca

ase capillary number can be obtained from pressure-buildup data by using single-phase and two-phase pseudopressures simultaneously.
average reservoir pressure skin wellbore storage etc). The study of pressure transient testing in one of the Iranian giant oilfields was init
uction time. Another well testing method is to analyse transient flowing rate as a result of the constant well bottom hole flowing pressure. T
ved through analyzing the long term real time dynamic transient pressure obtained from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) which will
gas diffusivity equation all of these approximate methods have limitations (including numerical models). The purpose of this work is to pro
elatively high even though the relative permeability data would predict a water cut in the range of 30 to 60%. This lack of agreement means

e valid concerns that smoothing procedures may adversely affect the well-test interpretation. In contrast measurements from new pressure
ive trend in well testing. Its distinctive features are: creation of bi-directional two-phase flow in the near-wellbore region or forced creatio

at are able to account for detailed geological features well test analysis has become a very powerful tool for reservoir characterization. A ne
The electrodes are partially insulated from the other completion components but nonetheless record high signal-to-noise ratio responses. Th
er in case of commingled reservoirs conventional buildup provides only average values of permeability skin and pressure. An innovative
precision. Most well test interpretation software programmes use non-linear regression to determine the reservoir parameters that provide
original MPFM will be discussed.� The challenges of monitoring and optimising a subsea field without any measurement at a well level a
r type curves to cover the variety of scenarios found in the real world. In the recent years people start to use regression analysis to match
ion" mechanism for the last 25 years.� Unfortunately standard deconvolution techniques require accu-rate measurements of flowrate an
on.� There are a number of specific issues of which one has to be aware when using pressure-rate deconvolution.�In this paper we
ate solutions for the early-time and late-time pressure behavior are derived from the rigorous solution and are used for developing the basis

is the central theme of this paper.� Additionally seismic data can guide the design of pressure transient tests especially the test duratio
is the central theme of this paper.� Additionally seismic data can guide the design of pressure transient tests especially the test duratio
ts to the vast amount of work that has been done for stimulation (e.g. propped) fractures. Injection Fall-Off (IFO) test analysis offers a chea

and static pressure surveys modified isochronal test two buildup tests and FloScan Imager (FSI) log has been carried out to evaluate th
and static pressure surveys modified isochronal test two buildup tests and FloScan Imager (FSI) log has been carried out to evaluate th
the reservoir. The third objective of this paper is to present a methodology for the analysis of high angle well pressure transient tests. This
ent radial flow. However it has been noticed that analytical solutions can be in serious error when applied to transient linear flow. Specifical
d-pressures and superposition-in-time to evaluate response accordingly to the fracture flow periods 3) estimate reservoir and fracture effec
lexible and easily implementable approach to place multilaterals in conventional Cartesian-grid reservoir models. Introduction Pressure-tr
everal wells that commingle production from the Aradabia Bentiu-2 and Bentiu-3 formations. These formations are highly variable in terms

es. The new method uses the surface flow rates and fluid properties of the flowing phases and the same relative permeability relations use
d losses when the well encounters fractures often prevent well penetration of the total formation thickness. Penetration in naturally fracture
pagates like a wave with a finite speed. If we have a pressure gauge at a distance we will only start to detect a pressure change (drop or in
on in well deliverability can be continuously and cost effectively monitored.� This paper illustrates how real-time data can be used to mak

d which led to a decision to enhance the application of early extensive reservoir engineering studies aiming to better understand the reservo
roductive wells with large reserves per well.� High costs prohibit extensive appraisal activity and drive development decisions based on v
roductive wells with large reserves per well.� High costs prohibit extensive appraisal activity and drive development decisions based on v
reservoir navigation and continuous follow-up on the horizontal log interpretation was performed during drilling. For the first time a low grad
tests. The previously mentioned deconvolution algorithm can not be used with the data that are acquired during startup and early field deve
scussing specific features associated with the use of each method in a unified manner. The algorithms used in this study for evaluating the

e for fracture evaluation but its use is still not well understood. Analysis of pressure transient data provides dynamic reservoir properties su
and losses to the vertical section above the target formation. This paper proposes a new technique to estimate cooling time and formation
e well several times during a 3-month period after which the gauge was retrieved and the data were read out. First of all comparison of t
ting methods and equipment have evolved over the years adapting to changing requirements. This has resulted in requirements for more c
es consistent with pressure transient analysis – and can be used to estimate interwell permeability. To explain our observations we propo
hich is compensated in part by capillarity number effects. All these effects can be identified and quantified from well test data. Tests in con
heterogeneity and varying layer flow properties. Wireline formation testers have been commonly used to acquire formation pressures pres
heterogeneity and varying layer flow properties. Wireline formation testers have been commonly used to acquire formation pressures pres
using a downhole pump followed by a pressure buildup. The objectives of a MiniDST are sampling estimation of reservoir properties such a
tering challenges with a large majority of their wells operating above 95% gas fraction under metering conditions and water cuts often highe
tering challenges with a large majority of their wells operating above 95% gas fraction under metering conditions and water cuts often highe
s of deployment in line multiphase flowmeters in the difficult operating environment of Northern Siberia. The reduced logistics and the abili

ld. Recent experience shows that in certain conditions the various types of multiphase flowmeters react quite differently to the measureme
de. However in artic environmental conditions like those of Yamburgskoe gas-condensate field with low ambient temperature and producti
articularly those of wet gas. A new interpretation is described that allows a traditional multiphase flowmeter to operate in a dual mode either
efore use and considered parallel testing with conventional separators to allow fair comparison of results. More than 50 wells were tested d
which could be several years old. A split in terms of naming is even commonly accepted in the multiphase business between Multiphase F
eneity multi-well interference as well as oil-water two phase flow problems were all considered. Streamline well testing model was develope
An option to get an approximate solution for the problem is to solve the non-linear pressure diffusivity equation through well test numerical m
al well test model with the numerical full-field model. We present a more complete approach where a more integrated approach using a com
r is to demonstrate the application of the production data" formulation of the β-derivative function (i.e. the β-integral derivative) for the purp
n allocation provides official reports of well and reservoir production for lease owners petroleum revenue tax purposes and management
hematician and an alternative method for improving its interpretation and reducing the difficulty of its practical application haven’t been d
hematician and an alternative method for improving its interpretation and reducing the difficulty of its practical application haven’t been d

gion however well-test analysis cannot uncouple the storativity ratio from the region radius and the storativity ratio must be estimated inde
mented over the past decade is the use of horizontal wells. There is a lack of published knowledge on the flow behavior of horizontal wells

ressures simultaneously. These parameters can in turn be used to estimate gas relative permeability curves. Finally we illustrate this appro
nian giant oilfields was initially undertaken to estimate important well and reservoir flow parameters and characterize heterogeneities in the
m hole flowing pressure. The method is so-called decline curve analysis. However in reality because of production constraints or changes i
Gauges (PDG) which will provide input and vital information for improving the existing reservoir model for flow simulation. Reservoir monit
rpose of this work is to provide a direct solution mechanism for the case of time-dependent real gas flow which uses an approach that comb
lack of agreement means that effective reservoir management is hampered because it is difficult for simulation models to mimic the observ

ements from new pressure gauge systems can now provide the stability and resolution required to characterize/quantify complexities of the
re region or forced creation of two- or three-phase fluid flow; interpretation of well test results based on 1D 2D or 3D multiphase optimiz

rvoir characterization. A new milestone has been reached recently with the introduction of deconvolution. Deconvolution is a process which
o-noise ratio responses. These field experiments have demonstrated that the streaming potentials arising from pressure transients can be m
d pressure. An innovative periodic well testing technique named WTPL (Well Testing by Production Logging) has been developed in which
r parameters that provide the best match between actual rate and pressure data and a given interpretation model. The non-linear regressio
surement at a well level and the benefits associated with well testing are presented.� The five phases used to optimise this six producer
ression analysis to match the responses at the source interval and the observation point. With regression analysis we face the problem of n
asurements of flowrate and pressure — at downhole (or sandface) conditions.� While accurate pressure measurements are commonpla
tion.�In this paper we identify and discuss these issues and provide practical considerations and recommendations on how to produce c
d for developing the basis for the straight-line analysis. A derivative function is utilized to ascertain if the data contains any portion of reserv

especially the test duration to evaluate key seismic anomalies.� Other data such as production history core data formation evaluation fr
especially the test duration to evaluate key seismic anomalies.� Other data such as production history core data formation evaluation fr
test analysis offers a cheap way to infer the dimensions of induced fractures from welltests.� This paper presents a new methodology fo

carried out to evaluate this well. The material discussed in this paper provides a good basis for evaluating long-term production potential o
carried out to evaluate this well. The material discussed in this paper provides a good basis for evaluating long-term production potential o
ssure transient tests. This paper compares the high angle and horizontal well solutions showing Cinco’s slant well solution is valid prov
sient linear flow. Specifically the slope of the departs from the analytical value as the flow rates or degree of drawdown become higher. Th
eservoir and fracture effective properties and 4) evaluate the completion efficiency. The field examples presented in the paper demonstra
Introduction Pressure-transient responses of wells are conventionally analyzed and interpreted by using analytical solutions of diffusion e
e highly variable in terms of the reservoir properties oil types and pressure regimes. A selective inflow performance (SIP) test was carried

permeability relations used in characterizing the reservoir and predicting its future performance. The method has been verified by comparin
tration in naturally fractured reservoirs is usually minimal (10 to 20%) but with the right mud it can reach 50% and in some cases 100%.�
ressure change (drop or increase) after a few seconds or minutes even if we have a perfect pressure gauge with 0.0 psi resolution. After th
e data can be used to make decisions on when to invest in pressure transient tests and when a test is run how to minimize the downtime.ï

er understand the reservoir mechanism volumes in place and their implications for field depletion plans. Data from permanent pressure ga
ment decisions based on very few wells.� Whilst these limited penetrations are often logged extensively using modern formation evaluati
ment decisions based on very few wells.� Whilst these limited penetrations are often logged extensively using modern formation evaluati
For the first time a low gradient Magnetic Resonance (MR) while drilling technology was deployed in a virgin carbonate horizontal well on th
tartup and early field development that normally involve several producing wells. The paper describes a generalization of deconvolution to m
s study for evaluating the von Schroeter et al. and Levitan methods represent our independent implementations of their methods based on

mic reservoir properties such as average permeability fracture storativity and fracture conductivity. An infusion of geological knowledge help
cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity by using thermal transient analysis (TTA) along the horizontal wellbore under a steam heating
First of all comparison of the magnitude of the observed annular pressures with the burst and collapse ratings of the casings shows that ann
in requirements for more complex data gathering over a shorter time with much stricter environmental and safety constraints. Coupled with
our observations we propose that FBHT responds to the impact of pressure changes. The principal result is a change in the producing GOR
well test data. Tests in condensate reservoirs however tend to be difficult to interpret. Build-up and/or drawdown data are usually dominate
formation pressures pressure and reservoir fluid samples for a number of decades. Many hardware technologies and interpretation metho
formation pressures pressure and reservoir fluid samples for a number of decades. Many hardware technologies and interpretation metho
reservoir properties such as permeability (k) skin(s) radial extrapolated pressure (p*) and estimating AOFP. AOFP is an important gas wel
and water cuts often higher than 90 % TOTAL ABK has evaluated different well testing & monitoring strategies based on multiphase meter
and water cuts often higher than 90 % TOTAL ABK has evaluated different well testing & monitoring strategies based on multiphase meter
uced logistics and the ability to monitor in real time the true evolution of the gas and condensate wells provide an in-depth view of the actua

erently to the measurement challenges of transient flows in high water cut and high gas volume fractions (GVF).� Some meters can be u
temperature and production rate regulation restrictions this process had to be revalidated and the operational capabilities confirmed with a
rate in a dual mode either as a multiphase meter or as a wet-gas meter in 90 to 100% gas. The new interpretation model was developed fo
han 50 wells were tested during this campaign. All these wells were selected carefully to represent anomalies that need to be investigated fo
ess between Multiphase Flow Meter and Wet Gas Meter. With the recent dedicated Gas Mode developed by Schlumberger it is now possi
sting model was developed to analyze pressure draw down and build up under these field conditions. In the developed well testing mathem
ough well test numerical modelling and simulation. Well test analysis and interpretation conducted on this basis is called numerical well test
ated approach using a common model is advocated. . The benefits of such a workflow can be summarized as follows: •�� Improve
ral derivative) for the purpose of estimating reservoir properties contacted in-place fluid and reserves. Our main objective is to introduce a
rposes and management reports as well as feeding into hydrocarbon reserve figures and reservoir simulations which are used for major fie
ication haven’t been discovered most especially where there is inconsistency in data sampling. The statistical approach (VEMST) utiliz
ication haven’t been discovered most especially where there is inconsistency in data sampling. The statistical approach (VEMST) utiliz

tio must be estimated independently to obtain the correct bank radius. In most cases the storativity ratio is calculated incorrectly which exp
ehavior of horizontal wells in gas/condensate reservoirs. The limited studies in this area (Muladi and Pinczewski 1999; Dehane et al. 2000;

ally we illustrate this approach with both simulated pressure-buildup data and an actual field case. Introduction and Background In gas/con
ize heterogeneities in the Fn limestone formation; However during the course of interpretation numerous engineering complexities were en
n constraints or changes in operating procedures the down-hole flowing pressure seldom remains at a constant level over a long period of
mulation. Reservoir monitoring during field development can amplify the understanding of the reservoir depletion compartmentalization an
es an approach that combines the so-called average pressure approximation (a convolution for the right-hand-side non�linearity) and th
models to mimic the observed reservoir production without use of data that may bear little resemblance to measurements. After a brief discu

uantify complexities of the well/reservoir system which may otherwise have gone unnoticed. In this paper we endeavor to reconcile the adv
or 3D multiphase optimization problems. Obviously in this case well testing techniques are rather more complicated. They become scie

olution is a process which converts pressure data at variable rate into a single drawdown at constant rate thus making more data available
essure transients can be measured accurately under borehole conditions.�Numerical methods have been developed to interpret these m
s been developed in which a cyclic wave function is imposed in the wellbore by modulating the flowrate. The analysis of the acquired rate fu
. The non-linear regression evaluates the match quality as a standard correlation between each parameter. This however only estimates t
optimise this six producer well system are detailed along with the economic benefits seen.� These economic benefits are compared to t
s we face the problem of non-unique solutions. Sometimes an estimated permeability is outside a reasonable range when analyzing noisy
surements are commonplace the measurement of sandface flowrates is rare essentially non-existent in practice. As such the "deconvolu
ations on how to produce correct deconvolution results.�We also demonstrate reliable use of deconvolution on a number of real test exam
tains any portion of reservoir-dominated flow. Two synthetic data examples are presented to illustrate the process. �Important contributi

ata formation evaluation from well logs analog information on channel geometry etc. is also important in getting a better understanding of r
ata formation evaluation from well logs analog information on channel geometry etc. is also important in getting a better understanding of r
nts a new methodology for IFO test analysis of fractured waterflood wells. This methodology derives the dimensions of induced fractures a

erm production potential of horizontal wells exploiting tight and thin reservoirs with reservoir pressures close to the bubble-point pressure.
erm production potential of horizontal wells exploiting tight and thin reservoirs with reservoir pressures close to the bubble-point pressure.
t well solution is valid provided the bed is sufficiently thick. As a practical matter the standard horizontal well is rare. Most of the horizontal w
down become higher. This paper demonstrates the rate/drawdown sensitivity of transient linear flow. Then a correction factor is presented
d in the paper demonstrates the application of the production optimization methodology in practice. The approach permits quantification of
cal solutions of diffusion equation for relatively simpler reservoir architectures. For more complex reservoir situations involving multi-phase
ce (SIP) test was carried out during production logging (PL) jobs in some of these wells and it indicated that the productivity index (P.I.) of t

been verified by comparing the results from analyzing several synthetic tests that were produced by a numerical simulator with the input va
d in some cases 100%.� Such well completions are referred to as limited-entry restricted-entry or partially penetrating wells. The transie
0.0 psi resolution. After the initial propagation pressure starts to diffuse or propagates as diffusion and we start to observe pressure chang
o minimize the downtime.� The case studies presented here are for wells on electrical submersible pumps in various types of reservoirs a

om permanent pressure gauges installed in the two open-hole gravel-packed horizontal producers was analysed to improve understanding
modern formation evaluation tools the acquired static data cannot confirm that the wells will drain sufficient reserves. Evaluation of reservoi
modern formation evaluation tools the acquired static data cannot confirm that the wells will drain sufficient reserves. Evaluation of reservoi
onate horizontal well on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The MR Service was run to obtain porosities (incl. partitioning of movable and bou
ation of deconvolution to multiwell pressure and rate data. Several approaches and ideas for multiwell deconvolution are investigated and e
f their methods based on the material presented in their papers not the original algorithms implemented by von Schroeter et al. and Levita

geological knowledge helps reducing uncertainty associated with any well-test interpretation. The static properties of naturally fractured res
ore under a steam heating process. A novel concept of a heating ring is also introduced to measure the heat storage in the heated bitumen
he casings shows that annular pressure buildup is a serious consideration in casing design. Such design is to be based on theoretical mod
constraints. Coupled with increased needs for more accurate reservoir data for prospect evaluation this has put a higher emphasis on upfr
nge in the producing GOR which in turn depends on the speed and magnitude at which a pressure change is transmitted through the rese
data are usually dominated by wellbore phase redistribution effects and the main analysis challenge is to distinguish between reservoir effe
s and interpretation methods have been developed to acquire better quality reservoir information. Dual packer wireline formation testers offe
s and interpretation methods have been developed to acquire better quality reservoir information. Dual packer wireline formation testers offe
FP is an important gas well flow parameter and is used to determine the commerciality of discovered prospects. We use a two step approac
ased on multiphase metering use. A compact dual-energy gamma-ray Venturi multiphase flow meter (MPFM) was selected and placed und
ased on multiphase metering use. A compact dual-energy gamma-ray Venturi multiphase flow meter (MPFM) was selected and placed und
n-depth view of the actual well performance. The evolution of the real dynamics of the wells stabilization after a change of choke can be ob

¿½ Some meters can be unreliable in measuring oil rates in certain conditions which leads to inaccurate estimation of the wells' potential an
pabilities confirmed with all of the logistical challenge of this environment. A number of recommendations to prevent and mitigate the impac
n model was developed for a commercially available multiphase flowmeter consisting of a venturi and a dual-energy composition meter. Th
need to be investigated for possible proactive actions. Some of these wells were tested more than once to qualify and validate the product
lumberger it is now possible to test both gas and oil wells with the same hardware. The focus put in the past few years on a combination o
eloped well testing mathematical models along each streamline equations were solved all together numerically to derive transient pressure
called numerical well testing. This technique has been proved through study and research in the past few years to be an effective way to
ows: •�� Improved well test interpretation by using simulation models that have been built using geological geophysical petro-phy
objective is to introduce a new practical tool for the analysis/interpretation of the production data using a new diagnostic rate and pressure d
hich are used for major field decisions e.g. where to drill the next out-step well. Surveillance is key to determining well and reservoir behav
al approach (VEMST) utilized simple statistical tools such as StatDiff StatDev and StatExp derived from time series analysis to identify pos
al approach (VEMST) utilized simple statistical tools such as StatDiff StatDev and StatExp derived from time series analysis to identify pos

ated incorrectly which explains why condensate bank radii from well-test analysis often differ greatly from those obtained by numerical com
999; Dehane et al. 2000; Harisch et al. 2001) focused on well performance rather than on well-test behavior. There has been no evidence o

nd Background In gas/condensate reservoirs a condensate bank forms around the wellbore when the bottomhole pressure (BHP) falls bel
ering complexities were encountered due to the nature of well behavior and reservoir conditions led to the masking of the actual reservoir re
evel over a long period of time. Deconvolution is a technique which can be used to convert measured transient pressure due to variable s
compartmentalization and efficiency of water injection also the presence of any flow barriers (such as activated fault). On this basis reser
de non�linearity) and the Laplace transformation.� For reference Mireles and Blasingame used a similar scheme to solve the real gas
ements. After a brief discussion of relative permeability the focus of this paper is first to examine the uncertainties in the data that are used

eavor to reconcile the advances in well-test interpretation and in measurement technology. Specifically we describe a new technique for d
icated. They become science-intensive. On the other hand they firstly extend the list of parameters and relations determined - those requ

aking more data available for interpretation than in the original data set where only periods at constant rate can be analyzed. Consequently
loped to interpret these measurements to offer distributed characterization of matrix permeability at various depths of investigation and effe
ysis of the acquired rate function and the resulting pressure wave then provides formation characteristics such as permeability and skin in th
however only estimates the match errors and does not incorporate the other errors that must be accounted for to understand the overall u
benefits are compared to the economic case used to justify the replacement of the original MPFM. Introduction Subsea fields tied back to e
nge when analyzing noisy data from real tests. In a wireline vertical interference test we perform a drawdown test followed by a buildup tes
As such the "deconvolution" of wellbore storage distorted pressure test data is problematic — in theory this process is possible but in p
a number of real test examples. Introduction Evaluation and assessment of pressure transient behavior in well-test data normally begins w
. �Important contributions made in this study are as follows: The analysis procedure is simple enough to implement in a spreadsheet

better understanding of reservoir description. While we briefly discuss all relevant data the focus of this paper is primarily on integrating se
better understanding of reservoir description. While we briefly discuss all relevant data the focus of this paper is primarily on integrating se
ns of induced fractures and the extent to which these are contained to the target injection layer. Furthermore the paper focuses on the app

e bubble-point pressure. Test data interpretation highlights successful development of inflow and tubing performance relationships bubble
e bubble-point pressure. Test data interpretation highlights successful development of inflow and tubing performance relationships bubble
re. Most of the horizontal wells drilled in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) are better approximated by the deviated well model because they transec
ection factor is presented which corrects the slope of the plot and improves the accuracy of and OGIP as calculated from production/press
h permits quantification of the reservoir and fracture properties on a layer-by-layer or frac stage-by-stage by evaluating the production well
ons involving multi-phase flow and reservoir heterogeneity numerical simulation is usually the only resort. Numerical simulators generally f
roductivity index (P.I.) of the individual layers varies widely ranging from 1.5 to 15 b/d/psi. This illustrated the need for a method to estimat

simulator with the input values. Use of the method with field data is also described. The new method could be applied wherever values of a
etrating wells. The transient flow behavior in these types of completions is different and more complex compared to that of a fully penetratin
o observe pressure change at a given space and time above the pressure gauge resolution and natural background noise which could be a
arious types of reservoirs across Latin America. The paper briefly discusses the three pillars of digital oilfield; technology processes and pe

o improve understanding of the reservoir. Average reservoir pressure productivity index and connected volume were interpreted from build
ves. Evaluation of reservoir connectivity over large distances from the well requires relatively long and expensive well tests. In this paper w
ves. Evaluation of reservoir connectivity over large distances from the well requires relatively long and expensive well tests. In this paper w
oning of movable and bound fluids) HC saturations and permeability estimates. Fluid saturations based on traditional methods and the MR
tion are investigated and evaluated. The paper presents the results of this investigation and demonstrates performance of the deconvolutio
Schroeter et al. and Levitan. Three synthetic cases and one field case are considered for the investigation. Our results identify the key issue

s of naturally fractured reservoirs such as fracture distribution fracture aperture matrix block size and fracture porosity can be obtained from
ge in the heated bitumen at the time of testing. Heating ring can be considered analogous to a drainage area in a conventional pressure tra
based on theoretical models for annular pressure buildup. The data acquired with the test serve to validate these models. The data demon
a higher emphasis on upfront planning and improved technical performance together with extensive use of advanced fluid data gathering m
nsmitted through the reservoir. The effect is pronounced when flowing pressures are below bubble-point and compounded by Chirag’s
ish between reservoir effects boundary effects fluid behavior and wellbore phase redistribution perturbations. The paper compares theore
eline formation testers offer an alternative an additional way to selectively straddle a section of a reservoir and provide the capability to cond
eline formation testers offer an alternative an additional way to selectively straddle a section of a reservoir and provide the capability to cond
e use a two step approach in establishing commingled AOFP of gas wells. First we conduct a multiple station MiniDST run and interpret th
s selected and placed under field trial to assess whether this technology could reduce the uncertainty on oil production by removing any im
s selected and placed under field trial to assess whether this technology could reduce the uncertainty on oil production by removing any im
change of choke can be observed and monitored accurately with the in-line Venturi – Dual Energy gamma ray multiphase flowmeter. The

n of the wells' potential and associated uncertainty in plans for production optimization. For example the inaccuracies in measured oil rates
ent and mitigate the impact of the hydrate and document major benefits of multiphase well testing are based on the accumulated operationa
gy composition meter. This combination results in excellent predictions of the gas flow rate; the liquid rate prediction is made with acceptab
y and validate the production test results by the MPFM. Production test results were carefully analized and compared with the results of tes
years on a combination of robust and simple measurements (Venturi and gamma ray) in multiphase flow-metering solutions for any type of
derive transient pressure solutions for draw downs and build ups. Results such as pressure distributions field saturation maps and the dis
to be an effective way to solve the problems not only for single phase flow in heterogeneous formation but also for multi-phase (heterogen
al geophysical petro-physical and dynamic data. •�� Improved history matching of simulation models by incorporating transient p
gnostic rate and pressure drop diagnostic function. This paper provides the following contributions for the analysis and interpretation of gas
g well and reservoir behaviour and ensuring optimal well productivity and integrity. Routine well testing is an established procedure. Wells
es analysis to identify possible unseen features diagnose key flow regime for reservoir description and act as checkmate/alternative to the
es analysis to identify possible unseen features diagnose key flow regime for reservoir description and act as checkmate/alternative to the

obtained by numerical compositional simulation. In this study a new method is introduced to estimate the storativity ratios between the diffe
re has been no evidence of condensate dropout effects in published horizontal-well-test data. This paper presents preliminary results from

e pressure (BHP) falls below the dewpoint pressure. This creates three different saturation zones around the well. Close to the wellbore hig
g of the actual reservoir response: 1) a high permeable reservoir with high degree of heterogeneities with high skin and high wellbore stora
pressure due to variable sand-face rate into the transient pressure response as a result of equivalent constant flowing rate. This technique c
fault). On this basis reservoir management can be more accurate and realistic. In contrast to the data obtained from the traditional well tes
eme to solve the real gas flow problem conditioned by the constant rate inner boundary condition. In this work we provide a direct solution
s in the data that are used for the predictions. This then provides a numerically structured approach to adjustments that need to be made to

ibe a new technique for differentiating well-test-pressure data the digital pressure derivative technique. This approach produces the most a
s determined - those required for up-to-date 3D flow simulations. Added features include relative permeabilities for oil gas and water cap

e analyzed. Consequently it is possible to see boundaries in deconvolved data a considerable advantage compared to conventional analy
s of investigation and effective fracture transmissibility. While streaming potentials have been observed in many laboratory rock experimen
permeability and skin in the vicinity of the well. This technique eliminates the disadvantage of shutting-in a well and maintains the productio
o understand the overall uncertainty on the analysis. The paper presents a practical methodology for the determination of error bounds in w
ubsea fields tied back to existing infrastructure are a cost-effective way of accessing reserves that could not support the cost associated wi
t followed by a buildup test. Because of the delay of response the pressure at the observation probe continues to drop for some time durin
ocess is possible but in practice without accurate measurements of flowrates this process can not be employed.� In this work we provi
est data normally begins with examination of test data on different analysis plots [e.g. a Bourdet (1983 1989) derivative plot a superpositio
plement in a spreadsheet but is more accurate than the currently available methods. Calculating influx rates during the drawdown period i

primarily on integrating seismic amplitude response with pressure transient test interpretation.� The interpretation of the pressure trans
primarily on integrating seismic amplitude response with pressure transient test interpretation.� The interpretation of the pressure trans
e paper focuses on the application of this methodology to a waterflood offshore Sakhalin in the Russian far East. The methodology is based

ance relationships bubble-point pressure estimation as well as quantification of reservoir parameters.� This paper describes unique chal
ance relationships bubble-point pressure estimation as well as quantification of reservoir parameters.� This paper describes unique chal
odel because they transect all beds within the reservoir to ensure complete drainage of the reservoir. Since shales dividing the reservoir int
ted from production/pressure performance. Introduction Many wells in tight gas reservoirs have long-term performance which exhibit only
uating the production well history as an extended drawdown and in combination with direct physical measurements of the flow rates and flo
ical simulators generally focus on the long-term performance of reservoirs. These simulators are not very sensitive to the short-term charac
ed for a method to estimate the permeability and skin of each layer. This information was needed for reservoir model calibration well produc

plied wherever values of absolute permeability or fluids saturations are used in predicting well and reservoir performance. Probably the majo
to that of a fully penetrating well. This paper proposes a method for identifying on the pressure and pressure derivative curves the unique
nd noise which could be as high as 0.1 psi. One of the constant background noises is the effect of tidal forces. In this work we present ne
hnology processes and people and how they work together to achieve continuous reservoir and production optimization.� Reservoir ana

were interpreted from build-up & drawdown tests. The calculated oil in place volumes were history matched with multiple Material Balance ru
well tests. In this paper we review a number of critical points associated with design and execution of such tests.� The key here is to ens
well tests. In this paper we review a number of critical points associated with design and execution of such tests.� The key here is to ens
tional methods and the MR were evaluated and compared by core data enhancing the understanding of the measurement and the reservo
mance of the deconvolution algorithm on synthetic multiwell test data. Introduction Pressure-rate deconvolution is a way of reconstructing th
sults identify the key issues regarding the successful and practical application of each method. In addition we show that with proper care a

rosity can be obtained from processing of Image Log data. Simulation of naturally fractured reservoirs needs defining fracture permeability
conventional pressure transient analysis. The proposed cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity calculated along the horizontal wellb
models. The data demonstrate that in general the theoretical models overpredicted pressure buildup in the annulus. This overprediction w
ced fluid data gathering methodologies. This paper demonstrates how the above was addressed for the Onyx SW and how the results com
mpounded by Chirag’s steeply dipping reservoir having gradients versus depth in saturation temperature bubble-point and solution-GO
he paper compares theoretical well test behaviors in vertical and horizontal wells as obtained from compositional simulation with actual beh
ovide the capability to conduct controlled local production and interference as well as to enable the capture of reservoir fluids. Formation pe
ovide the capability to conduct controlled local production and interference as well as to enable the capture of reservoir fluids. Formation pe
niDST run and interpret the data to estimate reservoir parameters (k s and p*). We also compute non-Darcy flow coefficient (D) using Swif
uction by removing any impact of imperfect separation. 20 tests were performed considering 15 wells over a period of 10 days to assess MP
uction by removing any impact of imperfect separation. 20 tests were performed considering 15 wells over a period of 10 days to assess MP
multiphase flowmeter. The importance of the hydrate detection and mitigation processes is essential in the performance of successful tests i

cies in measured oil rates could be greater than the gain expected from a stimulation or restoration. An inaccurate measure of oil rate also
e accumulated operational experience from the operations of various multiphase flowmeters in the area. Most of the gas condensate wells
on is made with acceptable accuracy and no additional measurements. The wet gas and low-liquid-volume-fraction interpretation model is
ared with the results of test separators for fair evaluation and interpretation of well’s behaviour. The comparison indicated that the multip
g solutions for any type of well based on the advantages and benefits of the� industry recognized Vx* Technology.� In this paper we
turation maps and the distribution of streamlines can all be produced through the developed simulator and visualized. It was proved throug
for multi-phase (heterogeneous fluid properties) flow in heterogeneous formation. This paper will present study result and new developmen
y incorporating transient pressure data. •�� Use common data models like fluid (PVT) and SCAL data. Existing commercial well te
s and interpretation of gas production data using the β-integral derivative function: Schematic diagrams of various production data function
ablished procedure. Wells are for the most part manually diverted to a gravity separator or multi-phase meter and oil water and gas phase
eckmate/alternative to the derivative approach to interpret complex features. Result from channel sand low and high permeability reservoir
eckmate/alternative to the derivative approach to interpret complex features. Result from channel sand low and high permeability reservoir

ity ratios between the different zones from buildup data when the saturation profile does not change during the buildup. Application of the m
s preliminary results from a study aimed at establishing an understanding of the near-wellbore well-test behavior in horizontal wells in gas/c

. Close to the wellbore high condensate saturation reduces the effective permeability to gas resulting in severe well productivity decline (K
in and high wellbore storage 2) Partial penetration behavior due to asphaltene plugging on the sand-face/left fish in hole 3) an obvious hu
wing rate. This technique can also be used to derive the transient flowing rate due to equivalent constantpressure of a reservoir system from
rom the traditional well test such as DST pressure data from PDG is large in quantity (long term up to six years) noisy multiple phase flow
e provide a direct solution scheme to solve the constant pressure inner boundary condition problem. Our new semi-analytical solution was d
s that need to be made to data so that history matching of simulation models can be achieved. The relative permeabilities rather than satu

oach produces the most accurate and representative dp/dt curve by incorporating knowledge of both reservoir and pressure-gauge physics
or oil gas and water capillary pressures and full tensor permeability. Secondly these parameters and relations characterize the effective

ared to conventional analysis where boundaries are often not seen and must be inferred.�This has a significant impact on the ability to c
aboratory rock experiments we believe these are the first streaming potential transients to be measured in an oil field. The field experimen
nd maintains the production with a modulating periodic pattern. In addition the WTPL can be easily applied to commingled reservoirs to est
nation of error bounds in well test analysis and illustrates its application with well tests from an oil reservoir and a gas condensate reservoir
port the cost associated with a new platform development.� A specific challenge with subsea developments is the repair following a failur
o drop for some time during the buildup period at the source interval. The maximum pressure drop at the observation probe with regard to th
.� In this work we provide explicit (direct) deconvolution of wellbore storage distorted pressure test data using only those pressure data.
rivative plot a superposition (semilog) plot or a Cartesian plot].�Each of these plots provides a different view of the pressure transient be
ng the drawdown period is not an essential part of the analysis or modeling. Thus any noise in the data would not aggravate the accuracy

ation of the pressure transient test is done numerically guided by an initial interpretation of point bar and channel system geometry from sei
ation of the pressure transient test is done numerically guided by an initial interpretation of point bar and channel system geometry from sei
The methodology is based on an exact solution to the fully transient elliptical fluid flow equation around a closing fracture with changing con

per describes unique challenges encountered in interpreting transient pressure data from this horizontal well due to multi-phase flow and sh
per describes unique challenges encountered in interpreting transient pressure data from this horizontal well due to multi-phase flow and sh
s dividing the reservoir into multiple vertical compartments provide the impetus for drilling a high angle transect instead of a horizontal well
mance which exhibit only linear flow not radial flow during the transient period. Wells have been observed which stay in the transient linea
ts of the flow rates and flowing pressures. Such a unique procedure provides a great advantage since parameters such as; permeability (ke
e to the short-term characteristics of flow in the near-wellbore region which is the focus of the short-term pressure-transient tests. For exa
del calibration well productivity prediction low productivity diagnosis and remedial action selection. Two solutions were proposed to GNPO

rmance. Probably the major impact would be in reservoir simulation studies where the need to transform well testing permeability to simulat
rivative curves the unique characteristics of the different flow regimes resulting from these types of completions and to obtain various reser
n this work we present new formulae for radius of investigation in radial-cylindrical reservoirs and new techniques for general systems. The
ization.� Reservoir analysis for wells on electrical submersible pumps (ESP) is challenging due to the restrictions imposed by the downh

ultiple Material Balance runs which used BP’s TDRM Top Down Reservoir Modelling1 process. This powerful tool is designed to evalu
¿½ The key here is to ensure that the data acquired during the test will contain sufficient information to draw conclusions about the reservo
¿½ The key here is to ensure that the data acquired during the test will contain sufficient information to draw conclusions about the reservo
surement and the reservoir. For post-processing the MR data were integrated and interpreted together with the other measurements perfor
a way of reconstructing the characteristic pressure transient behavior of a reservoir-well system hidden in the test data by well-rate variatio
ow that with proper care and attention in applying these methods deconvolution can be an important tool for the analysis and interpretation

ning fracture permeability shape factor and fracture porosity in the fracture model. However in most simulation studies due to high uncerta
along the horizontal wellbore can be used to assess the effectiveness of the conduction heating. Cooling time in this paper is defined as th
ulus. This overprediction was more pronounced at higher temperatures (and pressures) than at lower temperatures which could not be exp
W and how the results compared with the set goals. The application of the latest technologies in Gas-Condensate well testing was used on
ble-point and solution-GOR. Field examples highlight the strong cause-effect relationship between producer-injector and producer-produce
simulation with actual behaviors selected from more than twenty different gas condensate reservoirs. An interpretation methodology is desc
ervoir fluids. Formation permeability anisotropy skin factor vertical connectivity and zonal productivity index are additional reservoir inform
ervoir fluids. Formation permeability anisotropy skin factor vertical connectivity and zonal productivity index are additional reservoir inform
w coefficient (D) using Swift & Kiel expression and then use an analytical pseudo-steady state equation to establish single point AOFP for ea
d of 10 days to assess MPFM performance and repeatability in a wide range of conditions. In most cases it was found that the meter’s
d of 10 days to assess MPFM performance and repeatability in a wide range of conditions. In most cases it was found that the meter’s
mance of successful tests in the Siberian gas well environment. The paper details the methodology of the comparison of the well test rates

e measure of oil rate also leads to a poor reconciliation factor and poor estimation of reserves. By resolving these inaccuracies and allocatin
the gas condensate wells in the Yamburgskoe gas-condensate field are flowing with liquid unloading issues in a slug flow regime that can
on interpretation model is described together with the multiphase flowmeter. Examples of applying this model to data collected on flow loop
on indicated that the multiphase meter results were relevant and accurate. In conclusions the water cut measured by MPFM was almost thre
ogy.� In this paper we will review the benefit of the combination of Venturi and gamma ray fraction meter and its application to gas well
zed. It was proved through both theoretical study and a practical field example that the developed streamline well testing algorithm is faste
esult and new development in numerical well testing in recent years. These are based on research and studies from a number of M.Sc. and
Existing commercial well test and near wellbore modeling software packages were used to carry out this task. These packages provide eng
s production data functions using the β-integral derivative formulation (type curves). Analysis/interpretation of production data using the β
d oil water and gas phases are measured discreetly. Tests are periodically conducted for example once a month or once a week. The du
high permeability reservoir infinite conductivity fractures dual porosity and/or permeability reservoir show same trend as the derivative appr
high permeability reservoir infinite conductivity fractures dual porosity and/or permeability reservoir show same trend as the derivative appr

uildup. Application of the method is illustrated with the analysis of a transient-pressure test in a gas/condensate field in the North Sea. The a
in horizontal wells in gas/condensate reservoirs with a focus on the existence of different mobility zones caused by condensate dropout. W

well productivity decline (Kniazeff and Nvaille 1965; Afidick et al. 1994; Lee and Chaverra 1998; Jutila et al. 2001; Briones et al. 2002). This
in hole 3) an obvious hump effect due to phase segregation inside the well 4)Pre and Post acid pressure transient response behaviors in
of a reservoir system from measured variable pressure. Once having these tasks completed the traditional well test analysis methods incl
noisy multiple phase flow and multiple rate. The key for the analysis of such data set to extract reservoir information is to develop a techniq
mi-analytical solution was developed and implemented in the form of a direct (non-iterative) numerical procedure and successfully verified a
eabilities rather than saturations and fluid properties are shown to be the least certain of the relevant data. The second focus in the paper

d pressure-gauge physics. This technique is efficient and straightforward to implement and may be used on both real-time and recorded da
characterize the effective (realistic) pore space. It is the effective not absolute pore space where the real reservoir flow processes take pl

nt impact on the ability to certify reserves. The paper reviews the evolution of analysis techniques over the last half-century and shows how
field. The field experiment results together with forward and inverse modeling studies indicate many possible applications of transient stre
mmingled reservoirs to estimate the individual permeability and skin for each layer. This effort has also resulted in the development of a dow
gas condensate reservoir in the North Sea in order to evaluate typical error bounds for the most common parameters such as permeability-
he repair following a failure in later life.� The increased cost associated with intervening to repair either wells or subsea infrastructure is o
ion probe with regard to the maximum pressure drop in the source interval is time-delayed. Using this time delay and the maximum pressur
only those pressure data. The value of this work is that we provide explicit tools for the analysis of wellbore storage distorted pressure data
f the pressure transient behavior hidden in the test data by well-rate variation during a test.�Integration of these several views into one c
ot aggravate the accuracy of calculations. The complete analytical solution for modeling the entire CCT data will allow one to investigate po

system geometry from seismic attribute analysis. The analysis of the build-up pressure derivative clearly shows the impact of point bar bou
system geometry from seismic attribute analysis. The analysis of the build-up pressure derivative clearly shows the impact of point bar bou
fracture with changing conductivity face skin and multiple reservoir mobility zones. It also captures the case that during closure the fractur

to multi-phase flow and short production time.� Impact of derivative shape on model selection is also discussed.� The effects of analy
to multi-phase flow and short production time.� Impact of derivative shape on model selection is also discussed.� The effects of analy
stead of a horizontal well penetrating a single compartment this paper provides insight into the impact of shales dividing the reservoir into n
stay in the transient linear flow regime for several years. Some of these wells have hydraulic fractures and some do not. It is usually not pr
s such as; permeability (keffective) fracture length (Xf effective) conductivity (kfbf)effective and dimensionless conductivity (CfD� or FCD
re-transient tests. For example the conventional transmissibility and well indices used in numerical simulation may adequately represent flu
s were proposed to GNPOC; use the conventional technique of isolating each layer and testing it separately or carry out a commingled mul

ng permeability to simulator input values is eliminated and an additional parameter (fluids saturations) becomes available to help history ma
nd to obtain various reservoir parameters such as vertical and horizontal permeability fracture properties and various skin factors. Both n
for general systems. The new formulation takes into account the production rate from the system formation thickness and gauge resolutio
ns imposed by the downhole equipment.� Our work presented here focuses on developing workflows and interpretation techniques for th

ul tool is designed to evaluate reservoir engineering uncertainties in a wide range of scenarios considering multiple variables providing much
clusions about the reservoir connectivity and to estimate the reservoir volume that is in communication with the well.� We discuss the we
clusions about the reservoir connectivity and to estimate the reservoir volume that is in communication with the well.� We discuss the we
ther measurements performed in the well delivering an accurate and consistent reservoir description. First part of the horizontal part of the
st data by well-rate variation during a test. The deconvolution analysis technique that evolved with development of the deconvolution algorith
analysis and interpretation of variable rate/pressure reservoir performance data. Introduction Applying deconvolution for well-test and prod

tudies due to high uncertainties in estimating fracture permeability and shape factor values these parameters are initially assumed in the m
this paper is defined as the theoretical time required to cool the heated formation to the initial formation temperature. A longer cooling time
es which could not be explained by mechanical factors such as casing ballooning. The influence of these factors was quantified by analyzi
well testing was used on this job. Experiences from this were later used as the basis for other gas-condensate prospects including those in
ctor and producer-producer pairs giving evidence of a new interference testing method with wide potential application. Chirag Field The Ch
ation methodology is described which uses time-lapse analyses deconvolution and different analytical and numerical tools to identify the p
additional reservoir information that can be obtained from a mini-Drill Stem Test (mini-DST) and a Vertical Interference Test (VIT). Pressure
additional reservoir information that can be obtained from a mini-Drill Stem Test (mini-DST) and a Vertical Interference Test (VIT). Pressure
h single point AOFP for each of the tested zones. Second we extend routine forward modeling and incorporate features such as scaled pe
found that the meter’s performance compares favorably with that of the test separator located in line. Furthermore the high-frequency
found that the meter’s performance compares favorably with that of the test separator located in line. Furthermore the high-frequency
ison of the well test rates of gas and condensate against traditional means of measurement presently deployed in Siberia. It is based on a r

inaccuracies and allocating oil correctly to wells it is possible to invest in right opportunities thereby saving unnecessary expenditure. The f
slug flow regime that can be observed and monitored accurately with multiphase flow meters. The importance of slug flow regime identifica
data collected on flow loops are presented with comparison to reference flow rates. The data from the Sintef and NEL flow loops show an e
by MPFM was almost three times more than those measured by test separators. This ratio is matched well with the actual field water volum
its application to gas well testing. Today the use of the entire information of a gamma ray spectrum gamma ray (more than 2 rays) allows
l testing algorithm is faster robust and reliable to use for complicated well test interpretations. Introduction The classic well test interpretat
om a number of M.Sc. and M.Phil. projects at Heriot-Watt University. Due to the continuous support from the oil industry since the fluvial res
ese packages provide engineering interfaces to the simulator that make their respective workflows easy. However there were a number of
oduction data using the β-integral derivative formulation. Introduction This work introduces the new β-integral derivative functions (β[qBD
h or once a week. The duration of purge and test periods are usually fixed for example 30 minutes to purge the test separator and eight
end as the derivative approach and also diagnose unseen features such as dual permeability geologically interpreted as layered reservoir
end as the derivative approach and also diagnose unseen features such as dual permeability geologically interpreted as layered reservoir

eld in the North Sea. The analysis uses single-phase pseudopressures and two- and three-zone radial composite well-test interpretation mo
by condensate dropout. We used a 3D fully compositional model to develop derivative shapes to be expected from horizontal-well-test data

Briones et al. 2002). This decline is reduced at high gas rates and/or low capillary forces which lower condensate saturation in the immedi
ent response behaviors in a successful diversion acidizing operation 5)An interference response behavior due to a nearby well bore shut in.
est analysis methods including decline-curve analysis can be applied to analyse the field data. This paper presents study results based on
tion is to develop a technique in handling the data i.e. to make the data analyzable but not losing the true information contained in the data
and successfully verified against numerical simulation. Introduction Mireles and Blasingame [Mireles and Blasingame (2003)] developed a
second focus in the paper is to explore the reasons why the relative permeability data are so uncertain. The evidence points to the fact that

real-time and recorded data. No modifications to gauges or other hardware are necessary. The technique enables analysts to customize th
oir flow processes take place. Turning to the effective pore space improves the degree of certainty in 3D modeling and enables proper use

alf-century and shows how improvements have come in a series of step changes twenty years apart. Each one has increased the ability to d
pplications of transient streaming potentials in oil and gas fields for reservoir characterization and reservoir monitoring. Streaming Potential
the development of a downhole flow modulation tool capable of creating the cyclic flow patterns needed for the new testing method. Introd
ters such as permeability-thickness permeability skin effect fracture horizontal well lengths and distances to boundaries. Differences in e
r subsea infrastructure is often a challenge to justify.� A lack of industry data on the benefits of interventions to repair for example failed
and the maximum pressure drop at the observation probe we developed a new technique to estimate vertical and horizontal permeabilities
ge distorted pressure data — specifically we utilize the following techniques: —� Russell method (1965) (very approximate approach)
e several views into one consistent picture allows one to recognize understand and explain the main features of the test transient pressure
allow one to investigate possible test durations for CCTs and also to refine the parameters determined from approximate analyses. The p

he impact of point bar boundaries and connectivity across point bars. For the reservoir evaluated there was fluid and pressure communicat
he impact of point bar boundaries and connectivity across point bars. For the reservoir evaluated there was fluid and pressure communicat
during closure the fracture generally shrinks from adjacent geological layers. It is demonstrated that the analyses based on the storage and

d.� The effects of analysis methodologies based on specific flow regimes vs. total model fitting single- vs. multi-phase production treatm
d.� The effects of analysis methodologies based on specific flow regimes vs. total model fitting single- vs. multi-phase production treatm
dividing the reservoir into non-communicating layers. The presence of even two shales dividing a reservoir into three noncommunicating lay
do not. It is usually not practical to analyze tight gas wells with build-up tests but long term production and pressure data can be used for a
nductivity (CfD� or FCD) can now be obtained for each individual fracture stage. In addition to the effective properties the methodology
y adequately represent fluid movement between relatively large grid blocks as well as the fluid withdrawal or injection at well blocks over re
rry out a commingled multi-layer transient (MLT) test with a PL tool. In an MLT test in addition to the normal PL runs individual pressure tr

vailable to help history match the reservoir performance. This work will also help in predicting well flow rates and where absolute permeabi
arious skin factors. Both naturally fractured and unfractured (homogeneous) reservoirs have been investigated. For unfractured and homog
kness and gauge resolution. It is shown that the conventional radius of investigation formula (Earlougher 1977) for radial-cylindrical system
pretation techniques for this unique environment. Having sensors downhole provides operators with an opportunity to get pressure drawdo

e variables providing much greater confidence in the obtained results. Full field multidimensional numerical simulation models with updated
ell.� We discuss the well test sequences used for this purpose the tools and operational aspects of well test execution the data acquisiti
ell.� We discuss the well test sequences used for this purpose the tools and operational aspects of well test execution the data acquisiti
the horizontal part of the well was drilled with conductive drilling fluid and the latter part with non-conductive drilling fluid. Lab measuremen
the deconvolution algorithms by von Schroeter et al. (2004) Levitan (2005) and Levitan et al. (2006) became a useful addition to the suite
ution for well-test and production data analysis is important because it provides the equivalent constant rate/pressure response of the well/r

e initially assumed in the model and they are usually tuned during history matching which can be time consuming and also affect other histo
ure. A longer cooling time indicates a higher net heat gain in the formation while the calculated thermal diffusivity is used to predict wellbore
was quantified by analyzing the transient pressure response of the annulus. Neither could permanent leakoff of completion fluids explain th
ospects including those in the Russian sector of the Barents Sea. This paper focuses in particular on Fluid Sampling Surface Well Testing
ation. Chirag Field The Chirag Field in Azerbaijan (Fig-1 and 2) is located offshore in the Caspian Sea. It is part of the Azeri-Chirag-Gunesh
rical tools to identify the probable causes of the pressure data behavior: two-region and three-region analytical composite models to repres
ence Test (VIT). Pressure transient analysis of a mini-DST data however in such reservoirs is challenging due to the associated uncertaint
ence Test (VIT). Pressure transient analysis of a mini-DST data however in such reservoirs is challenging due to the associated uncertaint
eatures such as scaled permeability data rock types and hydraulic flow units through interpretation of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
more the high-frequency high-resolution output of the meter allowed the operator to assess well efficiency and stability and to understand
more the high-frequency high-resolution output of the meter allowed the operator to assess well efficiency and stability and to understand
Siberia. It is based on a rigorous mass balance approach which enables to consider properly the mass transfer effects when comparing fl

essary expenditure. The factors that affect multiphase flowmeter measurement can range from excessive gas-volume-fraction low line pre
slug flow regime identification relates to the selection of stable flow intervals for surface sampling and further recombination factor determin
NEL flow loops show an error (including the reference meter error) in the gas flow rate better than � 2% reading (95% confidence interv
he actual field water volumes. The GOR measurements were varying from one well to another but majority of wells showed more gas produ
(more than 2 rays) allows a real-time or an a posteriori quality control and improvement of the overall performance of the meter in any type
classic well test interpretation methods based on analytical solutions had become an important tool in the petroleum engineer’s toolkit f
dustry since the fluvial reservoir characterisation project numerical well testing has been extensively conducted in the Institute of Petroleum
r there were a number of situations where manual intervention and workarounds were necessary. We would like to propose an easy to use
erivative functions (β[qBDdiB(tBDdB)] and β[pBDdiB(tBDdB)]) — where these functions are defined to identify the transient transition and
test separator and eight hours to test the well. The manual well testing process is subject to error and uncertainty – the wrong well ma
eted as layered reservoir system and also double porosity model with high degree of accuracy. Introduction In the oil and gas industry ac
eted as layered reservoir system and also double porosity model with high degree of accuracy. Introduction In the oil and gas industry ac

well-test interpretation models to yield the condensate-bank radius. The calculated condensate-bank radius is validated by verifying analyti
m horizontal-well-test data in gas/condensate reservoirs below the dewpoint under various conditions. We then analyzed actual well-test da

e saturation in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore resulting in a corresponding increase in the gas relative permeability. This is called the
a nearby well bore shut in. The paper also presents how transient well testing in conjunction with dynamic pressure-production data have h
nts study results based on synthetic cases and numerical well testing. Deconvolution codes were developed for the study. It was proved tha
ation contained in the data. This paper presents techniques using wavelet transform method for such purpose. These have been developed
ame (2003)] developed a closed form Laplace domain solution for the flow of a real gas from a well producing at a constant rate in a bound
ence points to the fact that oil emplacement and the subsequent geological history of the reservoirs have not been considered sufficiently in

s analysts to customize the differentiation based on the measured-data quality without a need for subjective smoothing algorithms. Exampl
ng and enables proper use of well test results in the process of history matching 3D reservoir models. The developed approach displayed

s increased the ability to discriminate between potential interpretation models and to verify the consistency of the analysis. This has increas
ring. Streaming Potential In reservoir rocks there exists a thin charged double layer at the interface between the rock matrix and the water
ew testing method. Introduction In developed fields a pressure buildup test is the main tool for monitoring well productivity (permeability an
undaries. Differences in error bounds between hand and computer analysis are also discussed. Introduction Uncertainty in well test analys
repair for example failed meters or instrumentation often means any forecasted uplift is based on a ‘best guess’ and hard to quant
d horizontal permeabilities based on the line source solutions. We have also worked out a novel numerical scheme. The new technique is c
ry approximate approach). —� "Beta" deconvolution (1950s and 1980s). —� "Material Balance" deconvolution (1990s). Each met
the test transient pressure behavior.�Recently a new method of analyzing test data in the form of constant rate drawdown system respo
oximate analyses. The presented technique is also applicable for analyzing drillstem test (DST) data as long as the flowing fluid does not

and pressure communication across the point bars and this was reflected in the transient pressure analysis of the build-up and also from hi
and pressure communication across the point bars and this was reflected in the transient pressure analysis of the build-up and also from hi
based on the storage and linear flow regimes can be integrated into one analysis in order to reduce error bounds. The method is applied t

i-phase production treatment and assumptions regarding effective well length on the computed values of reservoir parameters emphasize
i-phase production treatment and assumptions regarding effective well length on the computed values of reservoir parameters emphasize
ree noncommunicating layers can decrease the expected productivity of a high angle well by as much as 50%. Next a methodology for inte
ure data can be used for analysis. Previous papers have presented methods of analysis1-5. The analysis of these wells comes from plottin
operties the methodology allows for estimation of the drainage area and skin for unfractured zones and fracture half-length and conductivity
ction at well blocks over relatively large time steps when the transient radius of investigation of the well is sufficiently large. Furthermore the
uns individual pressure transient stations are also recorded at the top of each contributing layer. �The MLT test measures the flow rate a

where absolute permeability changes with time (e.g. from compaction). Results showed that the values of absolute permeability in water-o
or unfractured and homogeneous formations a spherical or hemispherical flow regime occurs prior to the radial flow regime whenever the
or radial-cylindrical systems which is given as (Equation) yields very conservative estimates and it could be as high as 30 to 50% lower. R
ity to get pressure drawdown and buildup data when the ESP starts and stops.� For the wells we monitor 10% of these unscheduled ev

ation models with updated volumes from new 3D seismic reinterpretations history matched the field performance confirming previous clas
ecution the data acquisition the well test analysis techniques the accuracy and the degree of uncertainty of test results.� We illustrate
ecution the data acquisition the well test analysis techniques the accuracy and the degree of uncertainty of test results.� We illustrate
ng fluid. Lab measurements for the two mud filtrates were performed to understand the influence of the two different drilling fluid types on th
useful addition to the suite of techniques used in well-test analysis. It has been implemented in commercial well-test analysis software and
ure response of the well/reservoir system affected by variable rates/pressures (von Schroeter et al. 2002 2004; Levitan 2005; Levitan et al

and also affect other history match parameters. Reservoir simulation results and predictions might be inaccurate if the values of fracture pr
is used to predict wellbore conditions and the type of fluid saturation along the horizontal wellbore. Thus a combination of cooling time and
ompletion fluids explain the discrepancy between theory and test. Leakoff of the annular fluids which was seen to dominate pressure deve
pling Surface Well Testing and Subsea equipment. As several service companies were involved on this particular job we have only include
f the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli (ACG) development and the principal production zone is the Middle Pliocene Pereriv sand. There are currently
omposite models to represent the various mobility zones around the wellbore; a voronoi-grid numerical simulator to represent discontinuous
the associated uncertainties such as layer flow compartments and flowing fluid viscosity. This paper discusses the use of integrated reserv
the associated uncertainties such as layer flow compartments and flowing fluid viscosity. This paper discusses the use of integrated reserv
gnetic Resonance (NMR) and wireline petrophysics into a model. The model is built in two different ways. One is based on numerical simu
ability and to understand the behavior of the gas lift system. It was shown that such wells have a tendency to behave erratically at very high
ability and to understand the behavior of the gas lift system. It was shown that such wells have a tendency to behave erratically at very high
effects when comparing flowrates at different measurements conditions of pressure and temperature. The presence of hydrates despite th

ume-fraction low line pressures solids and unsteady flow. In 2007 an in-situ comparison was made of two types of multiphase flow meter
mbination factor determination. This information is also extremely important for well completion design. There is good agreement between t
ng (95% confidence interval) at line conditions; the absolute error (including the reference meter error) in the measured total liquid flow rate
s showed more gas production by the phase tester compared with test separators specially for the low potential unsteady wells. In terms o
e of the meter in any type of conditions. This statement will be presented through a campaign of tests done in South America. First of all we
um engineer’s toolkit for many years. Unfortunately analytical solutions are possible only for models of ideal reservoirs which were limi
n the Institute of Petroleum Engineering at Heriot-Watt University. This technique has been used to tackle well testing practical problems as
to propose an easy to use software that can provide a complete workflow for regular use. Introduction The link between reservoir simulatio
e transient transition and boundary-dominated flow regimes from production data analysis. We have utilized two different formulations —
nty – the wrong well may be put on test the wrong instrumentation may be used the instrumentation range may be incorrect and instrum
he oil and gas industry accurate reserve estimate well capacity and efficient reservoir management in field development depend on precise
he oil and gas industry accurate reserve estimate well capacity and efficient reservoir management in field development depend on precise

idated by verifying analytical well-test analyses with compositional simulations that include capillary number and inertia effects. Introduction
nalyzed actual well-test data that exhibit such derivative characteristics using a uniform flux horizontal well with wellbore storage and skin m

meability. This is called the capillary-number effect positive coupling viscous stripping or velocity stripping (Boom et al. 1995; Henderson e
re-production data have helped to clarify the boundary effect on a build up test; the modified build up secondary derivative based on the ps
he study. It was proved that deconvolution algorithm works well in the case with single phase oil but breaks down when dealing with cases
hese have been developed recently through an industry sponsored research Project. The procedures include PDG data visualization de-no
a constant rate in a bounded circular reservoir.� More importantly they proposed a new approach that uses pseudopressure to linearize
n considered sufficiently in preparing core samples before making measurements. Greater reliance on drillstem and early production tests is

othing algorithms. Examples are presented using field measurements to illustrate the technique. Introduction The pressure derivative as d
loped approach displayed noticeable advantages when applied to carbonate formations. In this case it enables more reliable characterizat

analysis. This has increasing drastically the amount of information that can be extracted from well test data and more importantly the conf
rock matrix and the water in the pores. The matrix surface is usually negatively charged and the water is positively charged. When the wat
oductivity (permeability and skin) and reservoir pressure. However operators are reluctant to perform such a test as it involves shutting-in t
ertainty in well test analysis results from errors in pressure and rate measurements from uncertainties in basic well and reservoir paramete
ss’ and hard to quantify.� Because of the lack of such data with which management support can be attained opportunities to increa
e. The new technique is compared with the previous methods and shows its superiority in accuracy. In addition our technique can be used
olution (1990s). Each method has been validated using both synthetic data and literature field cases and each method should be considere
e drawdown system response has emerged with development of robust pressure-rate deconvolution algorithm. (von Schroeter et al. 2001
the flowing fluid does not reach the surface. Introduction Due to economics time constraints and environmental issues there has been in

build-up and also from historical production data. The results presented in this paper illustrate the value of integrating geology geophysics
build-up and also from historical production data. The results presented in this paper illustrate the value of integrating geology geophysics
s. The method is applied to a number of examples in a waterflood offshore Sakhalin. Here start-up of injection wells was accompanied by r

ir parameters emphasize the attention required to obtain meaningful interpretation from horizontal well tests.� FSI data was instrumental
ir parameters emphasize the attention required to obtain meaningful interpretation from horizontal well tests.� FSI data was instrumental
ext a methodology for interpreting high angle well tests is introduced that attempts to address the problems of non-uniqueness associated
e wells comes from plotting vs. and observing the slope and the end of the straight line tesr (end of the transient linear flow period). From
alf-length and conductivity for the hydraulically fractured reservoir layers. The methodology is applicable to all types of reservoirs however
tly large. Furthermore these simulators fail to account for the flow convergence near the well accurately at shorter times unless very small
st measures the flow rate and wellbore pressure above each producing layer for different surface flow rates during the infinite-acting phase.

ute permeability in water-oil cases could be reproduced within 3% of the correct values and within 5% of the correct values in gas-oil cases
ow regime whenever the penetration ratio is twenty percent or less.� A half-slope line on the pressure derivative is the unique characteri
igh as 30 to 50% lower. Radius of investigation if fundamental for understating of the tested volume; i.e. how much reservoir volume is inv
% of these unscheduled events provided much coveted reservoir information without having to stop the production intentionally.� For the s

confirming previous classical reservoir engineering conclusions. The outcome before the first 18 months of field life demonstrated the val
results.� We illustrate this application of well testing for reservoir connectivity with several real test examples.� Introduction Well tes
results.� We illustrate this application of well testing for reservoir connectivity with several real test examples.� Introduction Well tes
ent drilling fluid types on the MR measurements. In the absence of oil based mud filtrate invasion the MR data show better agreement with
est analysis software and is routinely used for analysis of well tests. This deconvolution algorithm however is applicable only for the case
Levitan 2005; Levitan et al. 2006; Ilk et al. 2006a b; Kuchuk et al. 2005). With the implementation of permanent pressure and flow-rate mea

if the values of fracture properties in the model are not reliable. This paper shows using image log data associated with welltest analysis in
nation of cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity can be employed to assess the effectiveness of heat injection during various steam h
o dominate pressure development during a previous test in a well with a cement shortfall between casings does not play a significant role i
r job we have only included some general and limited content for the other services involved. Introduction The Onyx South West explorati
sand. There are currently ten producers and six peripheral water injectors active in Chirag. Production exported through the Baku-Tblisi-Ce
o represent discontinuous boundaries; a multilayered analytical simulator to account for the geological description and a compositional simu
e use of integrated reservoir information obtained from Downhole Fluid Analyzers (DFA) borehole images and numerical simulation mode
e use of integrated reservoir information obtained from Downhole Fluid Analyzers (DFA) borehole images and numerical simulation mode
based on numerical simulator and another based on cumulative permeability-thickness product for the gas bearing zones using average r
ave erratically at very high frequency leading to fast and significant variations of the well productivity that could not be captured by conven
ave erratically at very high frequency leading to fast and significant variations of the well productivity that could not be captured by conven
nce of hydrates despite the extremely low water content of the effluent is detected by the multiphase flowmeter which therefore provides al

of multiphase flow meters and two separators to determine the most appropriate well test device for X Field in the Sultanate of Oman. X F
ood agreement between the slug frequencies obtained with nodal simulations and the actual dynamic measurements from the meter – an
sured total liquid flow rate at line conditions was better than � 2 m3/h (< � 300 B/D: 95% confidence interval). This new interpretation
unsteady wells. In terms of oil production rate the difference between the phase testers and test separators was marginal in high potential
uth America. First of all we will show how the entire information of a gamma ray spectrum permits a quality control in real time and allows t
eservoirs which were limited to the assumption of homogeneous isotropy formation infinite boundary single layer reservoir and the unifor
ting practical problems as well as for academic research. There will be five aspects to be covered in this paper. These are: Numerical wel
etween reservoir simulation and well testing has been growing steadily for several years. Raghavan et al1 . have reviewed its developmen
different formulations — β[qBDdiB(tBDdB)] is used for "rate decline" analysis (based on q/Dp functions) and β[pBDdiB(tBDdB)] is used fo
ay be incorrect and instrumentation may be dysfunctional. After the well test is complete the final result may be good bad or suspect he
opment depend on precise analysis and result of reservoir monitoring techniques such as pressure transient analysis. This prompted the in
opment depend on precise analysis and result of reservoir monitoring techniques such as pressure transient analysis. This prompted the in

nertia effects. Introduction and Background When the bottomhole flowing pressure falls below the dewpoint in a gas/condensate reservoir
wellbore storage and skin model and appropriate reservoir boundaries. The condensate drop effects in the production tests have been acco

m et al. 1995; Henderson et al. 1998 2000a; Ali et al. 1997a; Blom et al. 1997). High gas rates on the other hand induce inertia (also referr
derivative based on the pseudo-steady state extrapolation of the preceding drawdown period shows a constant trend which recognized as c
when dealing with cases having multi-phase flow and well interference effects in the data. These aspects need to be addressed in the futu
G data visualization de-noising smoothing and “break point (due to drop of rate and well shut-in) identification through analyzing field e
eudopressure to linearize the spatial portion of the diffusivity equation (i.e. the left-hand�side (LHS)) as was done traditionally but for th
nd early production tests is therefore crucial for deriving reservoir relative permeabilities until laboratories are able to mimic oil emplaceme

e pressure derivative as described by Bourdet et al. has become the primary tool for diagnosing well and reservoir behavior.1 It provides t
more reliable characterization compared to laboratory core experiments including determination of formation type (i.e. single- or dual-po

more importantly the confidence in that information. Introduction Results that can be obtained from well testing are a function of the range
ely charged. When the water moves under a pressure gradient an electrical current is generated. This electric current is the source of the s
as it involves shutting-in their producing well. Shutting-in results in loss of revenue and in some wells with hydrate problems or excessive w
ell and reservoir parameters; from the quality of the match with the interpretation model; and from the non-uniqueness of the interpretation m
ed opportunities to increase production from subsea fields are being missed. The Marathon-operated West Brae field falls into this categor
ur technique can be used in any situation with different test configurations. Application issues in real testing conditions are discussed. Fina
ethod should be considered valid for practical applications (the Russell method was not used). Our primary technical contribution in this wo
on Schroeter et al. 2001 2004; Levitan 2005). Deconvolved drawdown system response is another way of presenting well-test data. Press
issues there has been increased interest in short-term tests for determining key parameters such as reservoir pressure permeability skin

ating geology geophysics and production data with well test interpretation for a fluvial reservoir. Introduction The integration of geology w
ating geology geophysics and production data with well test interpretation for a fluvial reservoir. Introduction The integration of geology w
ells was accompanied by regular IFO testing in order to monitor fracture growth over time. The interpreted fracture dimensions were compa

FSI data was instrumental in interpreting effective length of the well. Overall this test program yielded information that was critical in mana
FSI data was instrumental in interpreting effective length of the well. Overall this test program yielded information that was critical in mana
n-uniqueness associated with well angle and average bed thickness. Finally several example analyses are provided illustrating pressure an
nt linear flow period). From these values and OGIP can be calculated. The equations for this analysis are given in Table 1. The value of pe
pes of reservoirs however most of our field experience has taken place in the evaluation and optimization of stacked-pay tight permeability
r times unless very small grid and time steps are used. Grid refinement around well has been used both to improve numerical calculation o
g the infinite-acting phase. These individual layer flow rates and pressure transients are used to calculate the individual layer properties. GN

ct values in gas-oil cases. Errors in calculating the fluid saturations were even less. One of the main advantages of this method is that the r
ve is the unique characteristic identifying the presence of the spherical flow. This straight line can be used to calculate spherical permeabilit
ch reservoir volume is investigated for a given duration of a transient test? For exploration wells the reservoir volume investigated is one o
intentionally.� For the scheduled pressure transient events the data acquisition rates were actively changed to ensure sufficient high qu

life demonstrated the value of extensive application of reservoir and petroleum engineering techniques in a very early stage of the field life
¿½ Introduction Well testing is one of the techniques used for reservoir and well evaluation.� Well testing studies dynamic reservoir beh
¿½ Introduction Well testing is one of the techniques used for reservoir and well evaluation.� Well testing studies dynamic reservoir beh
ow better agreement with saturations from core confirming the quality and reliability of the MR data. Comparison of the MR T2 distribution
pplicable only for the case when there is just one active well in the reservoir. It is ideally suited for analysis of exploration and appraisal well
ressure and flow-rate measurement systems the importance of deconvolution has increased because it is now possible to process the well

ed with welltest analysis in order to determine dynamic fracture parameters such as fracture permeability and shape factor for reservoir simu
ion during various steam heating processes. By knowing the effectiveness of each heating scenario the process can be selected and optim
not play a significant role in this fully cemented and sealed annulus. This left (1) the properties of the completion fluids differing from the pro
Onyx South West exploration well 6406/9-1 was the second well to be drilled within licence PL 255 (Table 1). The first well 6406/5-1 in the
hrough the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is 140 Mstb/D with 900 GOR (scf/stb) and less than 1% watercut; water injection is 140 Mb
n and a compositional simulator to verify the fluid behavior. It is shown that in addition to the usual well test analysis results it is possible to
umerical simulation models to minimize these uncertainties. A systematic pressure transient analysis method for mini-DSTs is also introduc
umerical simulation models to minimize these uncertainties. A systematic pressure transient analysis method for mini-DSTs is also introduc
ng zones using average reservoir pressure and temperature for the whole zone of interest. The success of single well simulation has given
ot be captured by conventional means and could potentially lead to erroneous results as well as sub-optimal well performance. The field te
ot be captured by conventional means and could potentially lead to erroneous results as well as sub-optimal well performance. The field te
hich therefore provides also confirmation of the hydrate build up curve. The challenges to collect representative samples of condensate an

e Sultanate of Oman. X Field wells are artificially lifted and have a high water cut of 80%. The reconciliation factor (also known as the back
ents from the meter – an impossible task for conventional measurements based on separator or batch processing of the liquid. Surface w
). This new interpretation model offers a significant advance in the metering of wet-gas multiphase flows and yields the possibility of high a
marginal in high potential wells and between 20-40% higher by MPFM in low potential wells. These findings helped in optimizing reconciliat
l in real time and allows tracking of fluid composition change over time. Then we will focus on high producing gas wells clean-up that have
er reservoir and the uniform distribution of pressure and saturation. When such assumptions are not valid then numerical well testing or nu
hese are: Numerical well testing forward modelling Numerical well testing for reservoir model calibration Numerical well testing for future
reviewed its development in their work . They found that there are three broad areas where there are growing industry interests: 1. The us
pBDdiB(tBDdB)] is used for "pressure" analysis (based on Dp/q functions). The application (i.e. the use of β[qBDdiB(tBDdB)] or β[pBDdiB(
good bad or suspect hence results are usually subject to a manual validation process. This begs a number of questions related to well t
ysis. This prompted the introduction of the fluid flow diffusivity model using only one fraction of data by Muskat (1934) and Theis (1935). Ho
ysis. This prompted the introduction of the fluid flow diffusivity model using only one fraction of data by Muskat (1934) and Theis (1935). Ho

gas/condensate reservoir retrograde condensation occurs and a bank of condensate builds up around the producing well. This process cr
tion tests have been accounted for through changes in the values of the total skin effect. Finally we used a compositional model to verify th

induce inertia (also referred to as turbulent or non-Darcy flow effects) which reduces productivity. Well productivity is thus a balance betwe
end which recognized as close boundary effect. Introduction Well test analysis is a well-known and widely applied reservoir characterization
o be addressed in the future investigations. Introduction Traditionally reservoir properties such as permeability and outer boundary conditio
n through analyzing field examples provided by the sponsors. After this process transient pressure data (extracted drawn-down and build u
one traditionally but for the right-hand�side (RHS) (i.e. the "time" portion) Mireles and Blasingame used a special convolution formulatio
e to mimic oil emplacement within rock samples as experienced in the reservoir. The main source of data is the abandoned UK North Sea

oir behavior.1 It provides the basis for modern well-test interpretation methodology and has become a customary and requisite feature in co
ype (i.e. single- or dual-porosity) and parameters and relations required for 3D dual-porosity simulations. In the paper the authors pres

are a function of the range and the quality of the pressure and rate data available and of the approach used for their analysis. Consequentl
rent is the source of the streaming potential. Experimental Installations Two separate experiments have been undertaken in shallow produ
e problems or excessive water production it also could be difficult to bring the well back on production. Moreover closing a well for a press
ness of the interpretation model (Horne 1994). Yet well test analysis results are usually reported as unique values often with unrealistic pre
field falls into this category.� Straddling blocks 16/06a and 16/07a in the UK Central North Sea approximately 140 miles north east of Ab
itions are discussed. Finally two field tests are analyzed using this technique. Previously these tests could not be analyzed to determine ve
ical contribution in this work is the adaptation of various deconvolution methods for the explicit analysis of an arbitrary set of pressure trans
nting well-test data. Pressure--rate deconvolution removes the effects of rate variation from the pressure data measured during a well-test
ressure permeability skin and fluid properties. Closed chamber tests (CCTs) are attractive due to their simplicity reliability and reduced im

e integration of geology with well test interpretation has been discussed by Massaonnat and Bandiziol (1991) and subsequently by Corbett
e integration of geology with well test interpretation has been discussed by Massaonnat and Bandiziol (1991) and subsequently by Corbett
e dimensions were compared with predicted dimensions using a recently developed in-house waterflood fracture simulator. The fracture len

n that was critical in managing sustained production from this well characterizing the effects of the natural fractures on production behavior
n that was critical in managing sustained production from this well characterizing the effects of the natural fractures on production behavior
ded illustrating pressure analysis of high angle wells. These examples support the applicability of this high angle pressure analysis techniqu
n Table 1. The value of permeability can be calculated if the value of Ac can be estimated. For example Ac can be estimated for a hydraul
ked-pay tight permeability reservoirs and low conductivity fractures where other forms of conventional reservoir characterization techniques
ve numerical calculation of bottom-hole pressure during transient period and flow convergence. However a cursory grid refinement may no
vidual layer properties. GNPOC decided to go in for the MLT testing option and two wells were analyzed. In the first well MLT testing show

of this method is that the relative permeability curves used in calculating the results and later on in using the results are the same ensuring
ulate spherical permeability and spherical skin values.� These parameters are then used to estimate vertical permeability anisotropy inde
ume investigated is one of the main objectives of running drillstem test (DST) or production tests.�Therefore how far pressure may diffus
o ensure sufficient high quality data.� Also the length of the test was decided in real time to make sure that the test was long enough to

early stage of the field life as it resulted in a 25% increase in estimated oil recovery. This paper outlines the general methodology applied th
dies dynamic reservoir behavior in response to changing flow conditions at the well.� The dynamic reaction of well bottomhole pressure t
dies dynamic reservoir behavior in response to changing flow conditions at the well.� The dynamic reaction of well bottomhole pressure t
of the MR T2 distribution and volumetric with image data indicates that even fine variations in rock quality and lithology are reliably resolve
oration and appraisal well tests. The previously described deconvolution algorithm cannot be used for well-test analysis when there are sev
ossible to process the well test/production data simultaneously and obtain the underlying well/reservoir model (in the form of a constant rate

pe factor for reservoir simulation. In this study sensitivity analysis has also been performed on fracture permeability fracture porosity and m
can be selected and optimized not only to save heat energy and steam consumption but also to enhance bitumen recovery. This paper is
uids differing from the properties of the base fluid (water) and (2) temporary leakoff to near-wellbore fracture systems through the microann
e first well 6406/5-1 in the Tott East prospect was drilled in 2002 to intersect sands of the Middle–Lower Jurassic Garn Ile and Tofte form
water injection is 140 Mbw/D. The structure is an elongated anticline with dips of up to 45 degrees an overall hydrocarbon column height o
sis results it is possible to obtain parameters required for reservoir simulation and well productivity forecasting such as gas relative permea
mini-DSTs is also introduced. Reservoir parameters obtained from mini-DSTs in thinly laminated deepwater reservoirs are then compared w
mini-DSTs is also introduced. Reservoir parameters obtained from mini-DSTs in thinly laminated deepwater reservoirs are then compared w
well simulation has given us the capability to forecast total AOFP for multiple zones using commingled approach. Furthermore we also inc
performance. The field test proves that the multiphase metering solution used in this trial can be used successfully and is presenting a reli
performance. The field test proves that the multiphase metering solution used in this trial can be used successfully and is presenting a reli
samples of condensate and gas to ensure proper set-up of the multiphase flowmeter and thus the correct computation of gas and condensa

r (also known as the back allocation factor) before this well test campaign was 0.54. The comparison was made on twelve wells producing t
ng of the liquid. Surface well testing to control changes of reservoir parameters PVT composition and production back-allocation performa
ds the possibility of high accuracies to meet the needs of gas-well testing and production allocation applications without the use of separato
ed in optimizing reconciliation and allocation of the water and gas production. In addition to the above findings phase testers helped in rese
s wells clean-up that have been successfully tested using the Vx technology in Gas Mode in 2005. Exceptional results against conventional
umerical well testing or numerical simulation of well tests was proposed (Zheng et al. 1995). One of the most important characteristics of nu
rical well testing for future production forecast (well test design) Numerical well testing for reservoir monitoring Numerical well testing in he
dustry interests: 1. The use of numerical models to predict the effect of the geological model upon the well test response 2. The condition
diB(tBDdB)] or β[pBDdiB(tBDdB)]) is essentially a matter of preference — there is no substantive difference in the application of these fun
questions related to well test optimization and automation: - When should the well be re-tested? Some wells are tested too often some
934) and Theis (1935). However in 1949 Van Everdingen and Hurst simplified the complex model using Laplace transformation in flow prob
934) and Theis (1935). However in 1949 Van Everdingen and Hurst simplified the complex model using Laplace transformation in flow prob

ucing well. This process creates concentric zones with different liquid saturations around the well (Fevang and Whitson 1996; Kniazeff and
ositional model to verify the results obtained from conventional well-test analysis. It was found that condensate deposit near the wellbore y

ity is thus a balance between capillary number and inertia effects (Boom et al. 1995; Henderson et al. 1998 2000a; Ali et al. 1997a 1997b;
reservoir characterization technique. The objectives of a well test usually fall into three major categories: Reservoir evaluation Reservoir m
d outer boundary conditions can be derived by analyzing transient data obtained from the measurement gauge in the well bore. There are t
d drawn-down and build up) can then be analyzed using current traditional methods and software. The analysis results such as skin factor a
ecial convolution formulation to account for the pressure-dependent non-linear term.� Consequently the Mireles and Blasingame semi-a
abandoned UK North Sea reservoir Maureen (Block 16/29a). Inevitably during the 36 years since discovery some data have been misplace

and requisite feature in commercial well-test interpretation software.2–6 In many situations however the derivative of the measured data
he paper the authors present a review of results obtained up to date. Introduction The modern computer simulation could only be efficien

eir analysis. Consequently at any given time the extent and quality of an analysis (and therefore what can be expected from well test inter
ndertaken in shallow producing oil fields in Indiana U.S.A. to test the utility and reliability of electrode arrays to measure streaming potentia
closing a well for a pressure buildup test might damage the near wellbore by asphaltine deposits or by water crossflow from higher pressu
s often with unrealistic precision. This has been exacerbated by the use of hand calculators and later on computers and well test interpret
140 miles north east of Aberdeen the field was initially discovered in 1975.� With recoverable reserves initially estimated at 60 MMBBL
e analyzed to determine vertical permeability using published methods because of the poor data quality. Introduction In this paper we pres
rary set of pressure transient test data which are distorted by wellbore storage — without the requirement of having measured sandface fl
asured during a well-test sequence and reveals underlying characteristic system behavior that is controlled by reservoir and well properties
reliability and reduced impact on the environment. However the existing methods used for analyzing this kind of test data are based on th

subsequently by Corbett et al. (1998). The latter paper concludes that the integration of geoscience and well testing results in reduction of
subsequently by Corbett et al. (1998). The latter paper concludes that the integration of geoscience and well testing results in reduction of
simulator. The fracture lengths as interpreted from IFO test analysis appeared to be systematically lower than the predicted ones and a num

es on production behavior as well as quantifying reserves for this tight reservoir. Introduction The Mauddud reservoir is a thin underdevel
es on production behavior as well as quantifying reserves for this tight reservoir. Introduction The Mauddud reservoir is a thin underdevel
ressure analysis technique through the early arrival of the late time reservoir pseudo-radial flow found in the well tests. In addition an exa
be estimated for a hydraulic fracture of known fracture length. However in some tight gas wells there is no hydraulic fracture and linear flow
aracterization techniques are technically difficult and/or cost-prohibitive. The optimization methodology allows evaluation of the fracture pe
ory grid refinement may not produce the desired accuracy; thus increasing the need for very fine grid that requires more computational pow
rst well MLT testing showed that one of the layers had a very high permeability compared to the other layers. It depleted much faster and h

lts are the same ensuring consistent process. The impact of this study will be to expand the use of the information already contained in tra
rmeability anisotropy index and skin.��� For a naturally fractured formation the type curves of the pressure and pressure derivati
ow far pressure may diffuse (radius of investigation) during a transient test is very important for exploration well testing. Introduction The c
test was long enough to meet the objectives but not too long to increase the cost without additional benefits.� Thus with real-time techn

ral methodology applied that drove the implementation of optimized reservoir management strategies. Introduction Preliminary classical res
well bottomhole pressure to rate changes depends on the reservoir and well properties.� Hence studying the dynamic pressure behavior
well bottomhole pressure to rate changes depends on the reservoir and well properties.� Hence studying the dynamic pressure behavior
hology are reliably resolved by the MR data. Prior to logging old core data was used to refine the constants used in the Timur-Coates MR p
alysis when there are several active wells operating in the field and the bottomhole pressure measured in one well during a well test is affe
he form of a constant rate pressure response). New methods of analyzing well-test data in the form of a constant-rate drawdown system re

ity fracture porosity and matrix block size in real simulation models in order to show importance of accurate determination of fracture param
n recovery. This paper is limited to the new heating operation processes. Introduction Knowing the heat influx distribution along a horizonta
ems through the microannuli between cement sheaths and casings as explanations for the observed overprediction. Therefore estimates o
c Garn Ile and Tofte formations2. Well 6406/9-1 Onyx SW was planned as a vertical exploration well with a HTHP pressure regime. The
drocarbon column height of up to 1000 meters and an average stratigraphic thickness of 130 meters in the Pereriv. The two most permeab
uch as gas relative permeabilities at the end point critical oil saturation and the base capillary number. Introduction Gas condensate reser
rvoirs are then compared with other available static and dynamic reservoir information such as petrophysical data core analysis well tests
rvoirs are then compared with other available static and dynamic reservoir information such as petrophysical data core analysis well tests
. Furthermore we also included production tubular and choke in our simulation model for well deliverability estimation. Our technique has r
lly and is presenting a reliable alternative or complement to conventional test separators for flow metering in low-pressure high water cut we
lly and is presenting a reliable alternative or complement to conventional test separators for flow metering in low-pressure high water cut we
ation of gas and condensate rates are presented and a number of solutions are described. A discussion of the validity of samples for full re

n twelve wells producing to X Field station. Each well was tested for 12 hours in series using an existing inline MPFM a low pressure produ
n back-allocation performance is one of the key parts of gas-condensate field development in Russia. A number of multiphase welltesting o
without the use of separators. Introduction There has been considerable focus in recent years on the development of new flow-measureme
ase testers helped in reservoir management decisions and optimization of testing duration and frequency per well testing remote wells slu
sults against conventional test separator have been presented in previous paper (Ref [10]) with a maximum error of 2-3% for the gas. The c
ortant characteristics of numerical well test analysis is that the reservoir geological factors (such as reservoir heterogeneities pressure dep
umerical well testing in heterogeneous reservoir saturated with heterogeneous fluids (multi-phase e.g. gas-condensate reservoirs) Case s
sponse 2. The conditioning of geo-statistically generated geologic models to well test response and 3. The history matching of numerical
he application of these functions. Some analysts prefer the "pressure" analysis format because of the similarity with pressure transient analy
e tested too often some wells are not tested enough. What is the optimum? - What are the minimum purge and test times for a given we
ransformation in flow problem and published solutions of the diffusivity equation which is the basis of pressure transient analysis.
ransformation in flow problem and published solutions of the diffusivity equation which is the basis of pressure transient analysis.

hitson 1996; Kniazeff and Nvaille 1965; Economides et al. 1987). The zone away from the well where the reservoir pressure is still above th
eposit near the wellbore yields a well-test composite behavior similar to what is found in vertical wells but superimposed on horizontal-well

a; Ali et al. 1997a 1997b; Blom et al. 1997; Mott et al. 2000.). Well-deliverability forecasts for gas/condensate wells are usually performed
oir evaluation Reservoir management and Reservoir description. Reservoir evaluation is to reach a decision as how best to produce a giv
the well bore. There are two types of transient data. (1) Constant rate transient pressure which is due to fixed flowing rate so the well bot
esults such as skin factor and reservoir effective permeability can be evaluated in a time lapse fashion to reveal information about the dynam
es and Blasingame semi-analytical solution eliminates the use of pseudotime for this case. Although being rigorous the Mireles and Blasin
e data have been misplaced. Nevertheless sufficient data exist to highlight the potential need for a paradigm shift in understanding how rel

ive of the measured data is uninterpretable or worse mis-interpreted because of various artifacts of the measuring and differentiating proc
ation could only be efficient provided that 3D reservoir models would be saturated with reliable data. Traditional core studying practices we

pected from well test interpretation) are limited by the state-of-the-art in both data acquisition and analysis techniques. As data improve an
easure streaming potential. Vertical Well Cemented Arrays Electrode arrays were permanently installed in a water injection well and oil pro
ssflow from higher pressured zones to more depleted layers. Another limitation of a conventional buildup test is in its application to commin
ters and well test interpretation software for performing well test analysis calculations because engineers students and professionals alike
estimated at 60 MMBBL and too small to justify a platform facility the field was tied back to the Brae Alpha platform through a single 30 00
tion In this paper we present a new technique to estimate vertical permeability from the time delay and horizontal permeability from the m
ving measured sandface flowrates. Objectives The objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive study of the analytic techniques tha
servoir and well properties and is not masked by the specific rate history during the test. In contrast to a Bourdet derivative plot or to a supe
test data are based on the Horner method using the approximate rates during the flow period. As such the estimated reservoir parameter

ing results in reduction of uncertainty in reservoir description especially in fluvial reservoirs.� Zheng et al. (2003) illustrate this integratio
ing results in reduction of uncertainty in reservoir description especially in fluvial reservoirs.� Zheng et al. (2003) illustrate this integratio
predicted ones and a number of explanations for this difference are presented in the paper. 1.�� Introduction Injection Fall-Off (IFO

ervoir is a thin underdeveloped low permeability carbonate reservoir unit within the Greater Burgan field. The matrix permeability is low and
ervoir is a thin underdeveloped low permeability carbonate reservoir unit within the Greater Burgan field. The matrix permeability is low and
l tests. In addition an example well exhibiting a loss of layers (i.e. reservoir permeability thickness (kh)) with production and the restoration
lic fracture and linear flow probably occurs because of a natural fracture system. The value of can be thought of as a flow capacity for thes
aluation of the fracture performance efficiency in terms of the reservoir response and contribution identification of non-fractured zones byp
s more computational power and time. In addition special grid structures are often required to capture the details of flow convergence arou
epleted much faster and had early water breakthrough. Consequently a water shut-off job is planned for this layer. In the second well MLT

n already contained in transient data and surface flow rates of all phases. The results will provide engineers with additional parameters to im
sure and pressure derivative reveal that the combination of partial penetration and dual-porosity effects yields unique finger prints at early a
sting. Introduction The challenge in estimating reserves from pressure transient well test data very often arises in oil and gas explorations
Thus with real-time technology we were able to overcome the shortcomings of traditional well testing and address the concerns of both eng

n Preliminary classical reservoir engineering studies performed on the Farragon field during the first year of oil production suggested a big
ynamic pressure behavior in response to appropriately designed sequence of well rate changes provides a way to evaluate some of these
ynamic pressure behavior in response to appropriately designed sequence of well rate changes provides a way to evaluate some of these
in the Timur-Coates MR permeability equation. MR permeability showed changes in reservoir quality. Values will be calibrated when Timur-
ll during a well test is affected by the production from other wells operating in the same reservoir. The deconvolution algorithm has to be ge
-rate drawdown system response and production data in the form of a constant-pressure rate system response have emerged with develop

mination of fracture parameters. Introduction Naturally fractured reservoirs differ from homogeneous reservoirs from many points of view: g
stribution along a horizontal wellbore is crucial for determing the effectiveness of a heating process such as SAGD startup. However direct
on. Therefore estimates on the basis of pure water properties considering the annulus to be a perfectly pressure-tight vessel can be cons
HP pressure regime. The HPHT conditions in the well were marginal; however it was designed and executed as if under full HPHT conditio
iv. The two most permeable intervals the Pereriv-B and Pereriv-D have a total thickness of 80 meters with 20% porosity and 200 md perm
on Gas condensate reservoirs are becoming more common as deeper depths are being targeted in the exploration for oil and gas. The beh
core analysis well tests
core analysis well tests production logs and single probe wireline formation tests in order to obtain accurate interpretation results of high
ation. Our technique has resulted in immense saving in rig time and cost since the workflow allowed delivering answers which enabled us to
pressure high water cut wells under gas lift providing operational flexibility and additional information of interest to optimize well productivity
pressure high water cut wells under gas lift providing operational flexibility and additional information of interest to optimize well productivity
alidity of samples for full reservoir fluid characterization provides insights on the benefits and limitation of sampling in multiphase flow combi

PFM a low pressure production test separator a second mobile MPFM a 1440psi separator and a multiphase tracer technique. The objec
of multiphase welltesting operations have been successfully performed recently that show acceptable performance capability and the benef
nt of new flow-measurement techniques for application to surface well testing and flow-measurement allocation in multiphase conditions wit
testing remote wells slugging/intermittent wells due to system back pressure testing wells located on platforms not equipped with testing
of 2-3% for the gas. The current paper will also put a special emphasis on the salinity change. Introduction A 3 phase flow measurement r
erogeneities pressure dependent properties and irregular boundary et al.) and exploitation factors (such as production history multiple ph
ensate reservoirs) Case studies and filed examples selected for this paper will be used to demonstrate procedures; methods developed an
ory matching of numerical models to observed well test data. The first has been the subject of interest for some time. Most well testing soft
h pressure transient analysis while others are more comfortable with "rate decline" analysis."
d test times for a given well at a given point-in-time? - What can be done to ensure that the quality of the test result is adequate? - W
ansient analysis.
ansient analysis.

ir pressure is still above the dewpoint contains the original gas. The condensate bank around the wellbore contains two phases reservoir
mposed on horizontal-well behavior which makes it much more complex. Introduction Many studies (Fussel 1973; Barnum et al. 1995; Afid

ells are usually performed with the help of numerical compositional simulators. Compositional simulation requires fine gridding to model the
how best to produce a given reservoir or to know its deliverability properties and size. Thus the attempt is to determine the reservoir cond
owing rate so the well bottom hole flowing pressure is a function of time; (2) Constant pressure transient rate created by setting the bottom
formation about the dynamic changes of the reservoir. Introduction With the increased reliability and technology improvement more and m
us the Mireles and Blasingame solution relies on evaluation of the non-linear term based on the average reservoir pressure predicted from
in understanding how relative permeabilities should be obtained for reservoir simulation. Introduction There are many examples of dry oil

ng and differentiating process collectively termed noise.7–9 Various algorithms have been used in an effort to eliminate or reduce the ine
ore studying practices well and formation testing procedures do not quite meet the appropriate requirements. Reliable relative permeabi

ques. As data improve and better interpretation methods are developed more and more useful information can be extracted from well test
er injection well and oil production well in a Mansfield sandstone reservoir in Indiana. 1 2 A 16-electrode array was cemented into the annu
n its application to commingled reservoirs where it only provides a total permeability-thickness and an average skin value. Usually permeab
ts and professionals alike seem to believe that because the tools they use display eight decimal places all eight places are accurate. Cons
orm through a single 30 000 ft long 11.4 in. internal diameter flowline.� Gas lift is supplied to the field using a shared flowline capable of u
al permeability from the maximum pressure drop at the observation probe in a vertical interference test consisting of a drawdown period foll
the analytic techniques that can be used to explicitly deconvolve wellbore storage distorted well test data using only the given pressure data
derivative plot or to a superposition plot which display the pressure behavior for a specific flow period of a test sequence deconvolved draw
mated reservoir parameters are susceptible to significant errors. This study presents a new systematic approach for interpretation of pressu

3) illustrate this integration using geological petrophysical seismic attribute and well test data from a fluvial reservoir in the Gulf of Thailan
3) illustrate this integration using geological petrophysical seismic attribute and well test data from a fluvial reservoir in the Gulf of Thailan
on Injection Fall-Off (IFO) test analysis offers one of the cheapest ways to determine the dimensions of induced fractures. Unfortunately h

trix permeability is low and consequently the few vertical wells completed in the 10-20 ft target zone exhibit low or no productivity. In the 19
trix permeability is low and consequently the few vertical wells completed in the 10-20 ft target zone exhibit low or no productivity. In the 19
uction and the restoration of reservoir kh with remedial stimulation substantiates this work.
as a flow capacity for these wells. The drawdown/rate dependency of this analysis is quite different than analysis of radial flow. This differen
f non-fractured zones bypassed zones (zones without a frac) under-designed fractures low conductivity values (and steps for improving it
of flow convergence around complex wellbores and to simulate the associated transient flow regimes add to the overall complexity of the n
. In the second well MLT analysis showed that the upper layer had poorer permeability as compared to the lower layers. However this laye

additional parameters to improve and speed up the prediction of well and reservoir performances in just about all studies. Background Info
que finger prints at early and transition periods. These unique characteristics are used to calculate several reservoir parameters including t
n oil and gas explorations as well as in other oil industry applications. Thus determining radius of investigation during a pressure transient
s the concerns of both engineers and the management.� Case studies are presented where production enhancement opportunities were

oduction suggested a bigger than originally estimated volume of initial oil in place. This was in-line with the production performance which
o evaluate some of these properties.� This technique has been historically used for evaluation of formation permeability large-scale rese
o evaluate some of these properties.� This technique has been historically used for evaluation of formation permeability large-scale rese
be calibrated when Timur-Coates constants are derived from the core plugs from this well. Introduction The Oseberg field is located in the
ion algorithm has to be generalized so that it is possible to remove not only the effects of rate variation of the well itself but also the pressur
ave emerged with development of robust pressure/rate (von Schroeter et al. 2002 2004; Levitan 2005; Levitan et al. 2006; Ilk et al. 2006a

om many points of view: geological petrophysical production and economics. We may think of fractured reservoirs as initially homogeneou
D startup. However direct estimates of the net heat influx in the target formation during startup are difficult to measure mainly due to the unc
-tight vessel can be considered a worst-case estimate for pressure buildup and a safe basis for design. Introduction Pressure buildup in t
f under full HPHT conditions. Maximum anticipated surface pressure with anticipated reservoir fluids to surface was deemed to be less tha
porosity and 200 md permeability. Introduction The need to monitor understand and model temperature and its impact is important across
on for oil and gas. The behaviors of such systems are complex and are still not fully understood especially in the near-wellbore region. Wel

erpretation results of highest consistency. Field examples will be discussed which show that smaller scale pressure transient tests often ha
swers which enabled us to determine AOFP without resorting to conventional four points deliverability testing. Introduction Deliverability te
o optimize well productivity. Introduction: Field and Wells Description Monitoring Testing Needs In 1972 a year after the creation of the UA
o optimize well productivity. Introduction: Field and Wells Description Monitoring Testing Needs In 1972 a year after the creation of the UA
g in multiphase flow combined with proper conditioning of the samples. The paper further elaborates on the comparison of the fluid compos

acer technique. The objective to determine the most reliable technique(s) of measuring oil production rates was accomplished and now the
e capability and the benefits of this methodology compared to the parallel production measurement with a traditional gas separator. This no
multiphase conditions without separating the phases. This has resulted in new technology from the industry for both gas and oil production
not equipped with testing facilities easy mobility of the phase meters between different locations replacement of portable test separators a
phase flow measurement requires as minimum information the velocity for each phase (i.e. 3 velocity measurements) and 2 holdups (i.e. fra
duction history multiple phase effects multiple layer partial penetration flooding mode and multiwell rate or pressure well controls et al.) t
es; methods developed and illustrate field applications. Introduction Analytical drawdown solution for analysing transient pressure data (te
me. Most well testing software with numerical option focus on this aspect. There are a number of papers that has been published in the las

result is adequate? - What performance indicators can be put in-place to maximize test quality? - What can be done to automate the e

ns two phases reservoir gas and liquid condensate and has a reduced gas mobility except in the immediate vicinity of the well at high pro
3; Barnum et al. 1995; Afidick et al. 1994) have reported significant losses of well deliverability in gas/condensate reservoirs because of con

fine gridding to model the formation of the condensate bank with the required accuracy (Ali et al. 1997a). Non-Darcy flow and capillary-num
ermine the reservoir conductivity (kh or permeability-thickness product) initial reservoir pressure and the reservoir limits (or boundaries). A
ated by setting the bottom hole flowing pressure as constant so the flowing rate is a function of time i.e. transient rate. Transient data in ca
mprovement more and more Permanent Down hole Gauges (PDG) have been installed in oilfields around the world especially in more ch
r pressure predicted from material balance. They did not assess the nature and applicability of the average pressure approximation (APA)
many examples of dry oil production from portions of reservoirs where the local water saturation is relatively high (Matthews 2004). On the

eliminate or reduce the inevitable noise associated with the numerical differentiation of measured data.10 11 Unfortunately these procedure
Reliable relative permeability functions and vertical to lateral permeability ratios are among the key input data for 3D simulations. Well and

e extracted from well test data. Early well test analysis techniques were developed independently from one another and often gave widely
s cemented into the annulus of each well (Fig. 1). The lowest eight joints of casing were coated to insulate the casing and prevent short-circ
n value. Usually permeability is then distributed between different layers based either on small-scale permeability measurements (mainly fr
places are accurate. Consequently distances to boundaries are often reported with a resolution of a tenth of a foot skin with two decimal d
hared flowline capable of up to 12 MMSCFD at the current platform compression discharge pressure. �The field was originally completed
of a drawdown period followed by a buildup period. We first describe the previous techniques on the subject emphasizing on vertical perm
nly the given pressure data and the well/reservoir information. Introduction Previous Work: For the elimination of wellbore storage effects in
quence deconvolved drawdown response is a representation of transient pressure behavior for a group of flow periods included in deconvo
for interpretation of pressure data from CCTs based on the notion of a stepped change in wellbore storage. A schematic is presented in F

voir in the Gulf of Thailand. More recently Zheng (2006) concludes that numerical well test interpretation which incorporates reservoir geol
voir in the Gulf of Thailand. More recently Zheng (2006) concludes that numerical well test interpretation which incorporates reservoir geol
fractures. Unfortunately hardly any work has been carried out to date in order to provide a methodology for interpreting the pressure transie

r no productivity. In the 1990s 16 horizontal wells were drilled whose production performance is discussed in Ref. 1.� In 2005 three hor
r no productivity. In the 1990s 16 horizontal wells were drilled whose production performance is discussed in Ref. 1.� In 2005 three hor

of radial flow. This difference was demonstrated with reservoir simulation. Then a correction method was developed to improve the accurac
and steps for improving it) re-fracturing candidates and identification of remaining well potential deliverability. Introduction Optimization of
overall complexity of the numerical computation. Objective The objective of this paper is to improve the representation of single- and dual
layers. However this layer holds good oil reserves. Hence this well is a good candidate for future side tracking into the upper layer in ord

studies. Background Information Design and analysis of transient well testing was initially developed for single phase flow in the reservoir.
oir parameters including the storage capacity ratio interporosity flow coefficient permeability and pseudo-skin. Equations have been devel
uring a pressure transient test becomes critically important. It may also be called transient drainage radius. Although it is often used in press
cement opportunities were uncovered as a result of scheduled and unscheduled events on wells producing with ESPs.� The results show

ction performance which was consistently above the initial expectations. Basic Decline Curve Analysis Pressure Transient Test interpreta
meability large-scale reservoir heterogeneities and boundaries reservoir connectivity well productivity and for diagnosing possible well pr
meability large-scale reservoir heterogeneities and boundaries reservoir connectivity well productivity and for diagnosing possible well pr
berg field is located in the northern part of the North Sea 130 km NW of Bergen Norway. The sea depth in the area is 100 metersi.
itself but also the pressure interferences with other wells in the reservoir. As a result we would be able to reconstruct the true characteristi
al. 2006; Ilk et al. 2006a b) and rate/pressure (Kuchuk et al. 2005) deconvolution algorithms. In this work we focus on the pressure/rate d

irs as initially homogeneous systems whose physical properties have been deformed or altered during their deposition. As a consequence
sure mainly due to the uncertainties in: ��������- ����heat loss in the vertical section �����
tion Pressure buildup in tubing-casing or casing-casing annuli is in general undesirable. Although casing design should take into account
was deemed to be less than 690 bar. Anticipated bottom hole static temperatures were anticipated in excess of 150�C. This well was dril
mpact is important across all engineering and geologic disciplines in a producing field. The particular area wellbore temperature sensing is
near-wellbore region. Well tests in particular are difficult to interpret. A discussion of the state-of-the-art in gas condensate well test interpr

ure transient tests often have an advantage over full scale well tests testing in terms of providing detailed layer flow behavior vertical conne
roduction Deliverability testing of gas wells is based on theory of transient and pseudosteady flow of gases (Lee 1982). Traditionally diffe
fter the creation of the UAE Federation Total was granted a concession to develop the Abu Al Bukhoosh field. At that time the reserves to
fter the creation of the UAE Federation Total was granted a concession to develop the Abu Al Bukhoosh field. At that time the reserves to
arison of the fluid composition between traditional surface sampling methods and multiphase testing methods. The utilization of the dynam

ccomplished and now the reconciliation factor is 1.03. This paper describes the comparison how the results were analyzed and the comp
nal gas separator. This novel comparison and qualification process of multiphase flow meters also provides a better understanding of the ap
oth gas and oil production. Today there are wet-gas flowmeters dedicated to the metering of wet-gas flows and multiphase meters for the
portable test separators and cost optimization. This paper presents the experience gained using a mobile multiphase well testing unit for p
nts) and 2 holdups (i.e. fractions) knowing that the sum of the 3 holdups is equal to 1. Numerous techniques exist to try to achieve these 5 m
sure well controls et al.) taken into account can be more comprehensive and complicated so the well testing interpretation model are more
ransient pressure data (test) is derived by solving a second order partial deferential diffusivity equation. Uncertainty is resulted from the inve
been published in the last few years 2 3 4 Currently we are interested in a consistent and integrated workflow for the latter two areas. Cor

be done to automate the entire well test process from determining which well needs to be tested automatically putting that well on test mi

inity of the well at high production rates where the relative permeability to gas is greater than in the bank because of capillary number effec
reservoirs because of condensate blockage. The level of productivity decline depends on several factors including critical condensate satu

rcy flow and capillary-number effects (Mott 2003)are accounted for through empirical correlations which require inputs such as the base ca
oir limits (or boundaries). Also the near wellbore condition is examined in order to evaluate whether the well productivity is governed by wel
t rate. Transient data in case (1) can be analyzed using method developed for transient well testing while in case (2) the traditional decline
orld especially in more challenging environments such as the deepwater reservoirs offshore. With the innovative and more robust PDG des
ure approximation (APA) but exhaustively validated the APA approach using numerical simulation for the case of a constant rate inner bou
(Matthews 2004). On the occasions when relative permeability data are available predictions of the expected water cut are not zero but ty

rtunately these procedures in addition to being cumbersome have undesirable side effects. They can alter the shape of the original data
3D simulations. Well and formation testing procedures presented in this paper together with appropriate interpretation algorithms enable d

her and often gave widely different results for the same tests1. This has had several consequences: (1) an analysis was never complete be
sing and prevent short-circuiting of the electrode array through the casing. The electrodes were mounted outside the insulation. They were
y measurements (mainly from cores) or on the flow profile derived from interpretation of the results from production logging testing PLT (w
ot skin with two decimal digits and permeabilities greater than 100 mD within 0.1 mD i.e. with resolutions better than 0.1% which is utterly
d was originally completed with six horizontal screened producers and one vertical water injector.� Production started on 20 October 199
phasizing on vertical permeability. Then we describe the mathematical model numerical schemes and verification of the technique. Next is
wellbore storage effects in pressure transient test data a variety of methods using different techniques have been proposed.� An appro
eriods included in deconvolution. As a result deconvolved system response is defined on a longer time interval and reveals the features of
hematic is presented in Fig. 1 to illustrate the process of CCTs. This is essentially equivalent to drillstem tests (DSTs) when the formation f

ncorporates reservoir geology and heterogeneity (rock and fluid) is the future of well testing. Raghavan et al. (2000) provide another examp
ncorporates reservoir geology and heterogeneity (rock and fluid) is the future of well testing. Raghavan et al. (2000) provide another examp
reting the pressure transient data of fractured water injection wells. This contrasts to the vast amount of work that has been carried out in th

. 1.� In 2005 three horizontal wells including one tri-lateral as discussed in Ref. 2 have been drilled to further exploit this tight reservoir.
. 1.� In 2005 three horizontal wells including one tri-lateral as discussed in Ref. 2 have been drilled to further exploit this tight reservoir.

ed to improve the accuracy of analysis of transient linear flow. Solutions for Radial Flow It has long been accepted that radial flow transien
roduction Optimization of the productivity of an oil or gas well is a process of evaluating all of the available practical completion and operat
ntation of single- and dual-lateral wells in numerical models for more accurate and computationally efficient simulation of pressure-transient
nto the upper layer in order to exploit the untapped reserves in this layer. In this paper we will discuss the MLT testing technique introdu

hase flow in the reservoir. Most of the well testing work done today assumes that a dominant phase flows in the reservoir and uses the equ
quations have been developed for calculating the skin for three partial completion cases: top center and bottom. The analytical solution wa
gh it is often used in pressure transient testing radius of investigation still is an ambiguous concept and there is no standard definition in th
SPs.� The results show that more than 70% of wells can benefit from stimulation potentially increasing production up to 300%.� To m

Transient Test interpretations material balance and numerical simulation models demonstrated consistency with field trends and with ana
iagnosing possible well productivity problems. Depending on test objectives a well test may last from several days to several weeks and e
iagnosing possible well productivity problems. Depending on test objectives a well test may last from several days to several weeks and e
ea is 100 metersi.
truct the true characteristic well-pressure responses to unit-rate production of each producing well in the reservoir. These responses reflect
us on the pressure/rate deconvolution for analyzing well-test data. For over a half century pressure/rate deconvolution techniques have be

sition. As a consequence it is not always easy to match the behavior of these systems specifically to forecast their production during simul
ction ��������- ����steam quality along the horizontal segment ��������- ��
n should take into account high pressures at the casing head (e.g. caused by leakage or thermal expansion of the annular fluids) high-pres
50�C. This well was drilled using a semi submersible drilling rig. The Geological objectives for the well were to test the Middle and Lowe
re temperature sensing is very importance as both early1-6 and recent work7 8 have showed its value. However such wellbore temperatur
ondensate well test interpretation was published in 2000 by Gringarten et al.[1] with an extensive review of the related literature. To summa

w behavior vertical connectivity and flow potential in thinly bedded environments. It will also be noted that the radius of investigation of a m
1982). Traditionally different testing procedures like flow-after-flow isochronal and modified isochronal are used to estimate parameters re
that time the reserves to be produced were estimated at 194 MMstbo the field having an expected life span of 15 to 20 years. Today aft
that time the reserves to be produced were estimated at 194 MMstbo the field having an expected life span of 15 to 20 years. Today aft
he utilization of the dynamic information obtained from the multiphase flowmeter to complement the understanding of the reservoir performa

e analyzed and the comparative error associated with each technique.


er understanding of the aptitude of conventional means to collect rate in the case of wet gas wells in Northern Siberia.
multiphase meters for the metering of multiphase liquid flows. The common approach to wet-gas measurement relates gas and liquid flow
hase well testing unit for production testing. The challenges presented by the nature of these operations and the requirements for successf
to try to achieve these 5 measurements ([Ref [1 2 and 9]). Meanwhile a multiphase flowmeter is measuring at line conditions the differen
rpretation model are more close to the real reservoir model.
ty is resulted from the inverse nature of the problem. In general ideal assumptions are made in order to solve a mathematical model. This g
or the latter two areas. Corbett et. al.5 . used a numerical model of braided fluvial reservoirs to calculate well test responses. A “geo-skin

utting that well on test minimizing durations automatically validating the test result and electronically sending the result to recipient system

e of capillary number effects (Danesh et al. 1994; Boom et al. 1995; Henderson et al. 1998; Mott et al. 1999).
ng critical condensate saturation relative permeabilities non-Darcy flow and high capillary number effects. Retrograde condensation occu

nputs such as the base capillary number (i.e. the minimum value required to see capillary-number effects) the reservoir absolute permeab
uctivity is governed by wellbore effects (such as skin and storage) or by the reservoir at large. Skin effect is not always just due to wellbore
(2) the traditional decline curve analysis method will be used. Both these cases will yield information about the tested reservoir such as m
and more robust PDG design this has gradually replaced the conventional production tests and well tests to provide engineers with a cost
a constant rate inner boundary condition. The effort of Mireles and Blasingame should be considered to be an empirical demonstration of
ater cut are not zero but typically in the range of 30 to 60%. A particular example is that of the abandoned UK North Sea reservoir Maureen

shape of the original data or create false oscillations at late times and during infinite-acting radial flow. The current practice is to use centurie
tation algorithms enable determining relative permeabilities for oil gas and water capillary pressures and full tensor permeability. For carb

is was never complete because there always was an alternative analysis method that had not been tried; (2) interpreters had no basis on w
the insulation. They were in electrical contact with the cement but not with the metal casing. The casing was perforated with oriented perfor
n logging testing PLT (with questionable uniform skin assumption). In both cases such a distribution can result in erroneous reservoir cha
than 0.1% which is utterly ridiculous.
started on 20 October 1997 with a production rate of 35 000 BOPD achieved by June 1998.� A selection of reservoir properties are give
n of the technique. Next issues in practical application of the presented technique are discussed. Application of this technique to two field te
n proposed.� An approximate "direct" method by Russell (1966) "corrects" the pressure transient data distorted by wellbore storage into
nd reveals the features of transient behavior that otherwise would not be observed with conventional analysis approach. The deconvolution
STs) when the formation fluid does not get produced at the surface. The flow period is the one when the downhole valve X is open and the

0) provide another example of a fluvial gas condensate reservoir where the integration of geologic and geophysical interpretations with mea
0) provide another example of a fluvial gas condensate reservoir where the integration of geologic and geophysical interpretations with mea
has been carried out in the area of pressure transient analysis for wells with propped fractures. Both pressure transient tests during hydrau

exploit this tight reservoir.� This paper discusses challenges encountered during testing and analysis of the first horizontal well drilled in
exploit this tight reservoir.� This paper discusses challenges encountered during testing and analysis of the first horizontal well drilled in

ed that radial flow transient solutions can be approximated by analytical solutions in terms of m(p) regardless of flow rate. Constant rate so
cal completion and operating condition scenarios that can be applied to a well to achieve maximum productivity. The objective is to significa
ation of pressure-transient responses. Also a practical approach will be presented to model the dual-lateral wells in uniformly distributed Ca
testing technique introduce a workflow for the analysis and then will discuss the results of the analyses for two examples from GNPOC. B

eservoir and uses the equations developed for single phase flow to calculate well and reservoir properties. It is reasoned that using the sing
The analytical solution was obtained by combining the partially penetrating well model in a homogeneous reservoir with the pseudo-steady
no standard definition in the petroleum literature. For instance it is defined at http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/ as the calculated maximu
ction up to 300%.� To make proactive decisions and act on the recommendations generated from these production enhancement opport

h field trends and with analogous fields although the production period by the time the first studies were performed was quite short. Transi
ys to several weeks and even months.� The longer the test the larger is the reservoir volume investigated during the test.� When use
ys to several weeks and even months.� The longer the test the larger is the reservoir volume investigated during the test.� When use

r. These responses reflect the reservoir and well properties and could be used for recovering these properties by the techniques of pressur
olution techniques have been applied to well-test pressure and rate data as a means to obtain the constant-rate behavior of the system (Hu

ir production during simulation.


½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½- ����distribution of steam along the wellbore ��������- ����operational cond
e annular fluids) high-pressure differences always hold the risk of the casing bursting or collapsing at weak points leading to loss of produc
test the Middle and Lower Jurassic; Garn Ile Ror/Tofte and Tilje Formations for the presence of Hydrocarbons (see Table 2 for details). Th
such wellbore temperature monitoring and interpretation has focused on the immediate region of the well. At Chirag we find that temperatu
ated literature. To summarize a characteristic of gas condensate production is the creation of a condensate bank when the bottomhole pre

dius of investigation of a mini-DST is limited typically within tens of feet. This paper demonstrates using field examples that reservoir bound
to estimate parameters required to provide deliverability estimates. The turbulent or non-Darcy flow effects close to the wellbore which ap
15 to 20 years. Today after 36 years and a cumulative production of 510 MMstbo oil is still being produced and will continue to be for man
15 to 20 years. Today after 36 years and a cumulative production of 510 MMstbo oil is still being produced and will continue to be for man
g of the reservoir performance is discussed. Introduction Recent advances in the wet gas multiphase well testing have recently enabled the

relates gas and liquid flows to a pseudo-gas flow rate" calculated from the standard single-phase equations. This addresses the need for g
requirements for successful well tests are reviewed. The importance of well testing experience and multiphase flow metering expertise is hi
ne conditions the different flowrates; therefore it is necessary to associate two other measurements for PVT Conversion from line to standa
mathematical model. This gives rise to the limit of its practical application. Very often analytical solution can be derived when a mathematica
esponses. A “geo-skin concept was developed from these data to be used in a full-field model. He and Chambers6 presented a method

e result to recipient systems and then selecting the next well to test? The purpose of this paper is to discuss Shell E&P experiences and

grade condensation occurs when the flowing bottomhole pressure falls below the dewpoint pressure (Kniazeff and Naville 1965; Gringarten

servoir absolute permeability and the relative permeability curves. These are usually determined experimentally but laboratory measurem
ways just due to wellbore damage. If a well has limited entry or only partially penetrates the formation then flow cannot enter the well over
ested reservoir such as model and associated parameters. However in practice the conditions described in cases (1) and (2) are hard to m
ide engineers with a cost effective means for long term real time reservoir monitoring and management (Rossi et al. 2000; Chiriti et al. 20
mpirical demonstration of validity of the APA for all (realistic) values of pressure. Again the need for such a (direct) solution arises in the an
th Sea reservoir Maureen (Cutts 1991). This lack of agreement means that effective reservoir management is hampered because it is difficu

practice is to use centuries-old analytical techniques developed by Newton and Stirling for interpolating digitally sampled data. When view
sor permeability. For carbonate reservoirs it also becomes possible to identify reservoir type and evaluate full set of parameters required

rpreters had no basis on which to agree on analysis results; and (3) the general opinion was that well testing was useless given the wide ra
orated with oriented perforations so as not to damage the electrodes and the connecting cables. After perforation electrical current leaked t
n erroneous reservoir characterization. In addition in case of significant skin contrast between layers the total permeability-thickness can b

servoir properties are given in Table 1 to give some idea of the productivity of the reservoir. Table 1 – West Brae Properties ���
is technique to two field test examples is presented. Prior Arts Burns1 generated type curves based on the uniform-flux solution by integra
d by wellbore storage into the equivalent pressure function for the constant rate case.� Despite its simplicity it has several shortcomings
roach. The deconvolution discussed in this paper is based on the algorithm first described by von Schroeter Hollaender and Gringarten (2
e valve X is open and the wellhead valve Y is closed. This flow period resembles a perforation inflow test. In contrast the buildup period is

al interpretations with measurements from flow tests helped in reservoir characterization. The authors discussed the advantages of using n
al interpretations with measurements from flow tests helped in reservoir characterization. The authors discussed the advantages of using n
ansient tests during hydraulic fracture stimulation (called “minifrac tests) (e.g.1) and pressure transient tests during production after stim

st horizontal well drilled in the 2005 program. The first Mauddud horizontal �well of the 2005 program is a 2 270 ft long horizontal well ta
st horizontal well drilled in the 2005 program. The first Mauddud horizontal �well of the 2005 program is a 2 270 ft long horizontal well ta

low rate. Constant rate solutions have been emphasized but it can also be shown that constant pwf flow can also be approximated by ana
The objective is to significantly increase the productivity of the well to maximize the financial performance of multi-fractured wells. From a p
n uniformly distributed Cartesian grid. This approach involves proper accounting for the orientation length and friction-head loss of the mu
examples from GNPOC. Based on the success of these cases multi-layer transient testing is estabilished as a preferred testing technique i

asoned that using the single-phase flow equations while working with actual field data one ends up obtaining the effective permeability of th
ir with the pseudo-steady model for a naturally fractured reservoir. The interpretation of pressure tests in both systems i.e. fractured and u
as the calculated maximum radius in a formation in which pressure has been affected during the flow period of a transient well test. This de
ction enhancement opportunities is still a challenge that needs to be addressed. For fields with large numbers of ESP wells a time snap of

ed was quite short. Transient test data were interpreted to determine the reservoir properties and to estimate the connected volumes. Mate
ng the test.� When used for exploration and reservoir appraisal these tests normally involve flowing hydrocarbons to surface and dispos
ng the test.� When used for exploration and reservoir appraisal these tests normally involve flowing hydrocarbons to surface and dispos

the techniques of pressure-transient analysis. Multiwell deconvolution thus becomes in a way a general technique for interference well-tes
ehavior of the system (Hutchinson and Sikora 1959; Coats et al. 1964; Jargon and van Poollen 1965; Kuchuk et al. 1990; Thompson and R

½ï¿½ï¿½operational conditions and ��������- ����additional effects of convection heating.


s leading to loss of production (Vargo et al. 2002) or in the worst case loss of the well (Nelson 2002). For this reason most operating comp
see Table 2 for details). The stacked reservoirs were sandstones with intercalated shales belonging to the Fangst and B�t Groups. Sepa
ag we find that temperature data also contains interwell information. Chirag uses permanent downhole gauges (PDHG) to record pressure
when the bottomhole pressure drops below the dew point[2] pressure. This reduces the gas relative permeability[3] around the well and le

mples that reservoir boundaries can be detected when sufficient radius of investigation is achieved. In addition the understanding of limitatio
e to the wellbore which appear as rate-dependent or non-Darcy skin requires gas wells to be tested at a number of rates with the above m
will continue to be for many years to come (Fig. 1). In order to achieve such a result extensive continuous efforts have been deployed ove
will continue to be for many years to come (Fig. 1). In order to achieve such a result extensive continuous efforts have been deployed ove
have recently enabled the measurement in the field of reliable rates of gas condensate and water in gas and condensate wells. The need

addresses the need for gas measurement in the presence of liquids and can be applied to a limit of liquid flow [or gas volume fraction (GV
w metering expertise is highlighted. The paper also explains the unique benefits of the multiphase well test data in identifying and evaluatin
version from line to standard conditions (i.e. Pressure and Temperature Sensors). The most common technique used in the industry to mea
rived when a mathematical model is made ideal. Non-ideal case (real case) is analysed using solutions derived from ideal model. This is ve
bers6 presented a methodology to verify and update geostatistically-based full-field reservoir simulation models using numerical well testin

ell E&P experiences and real time software applications relating to the above well test optimization and automation issues.

d Naville 1965; Gringarten et al. 2000) creating three regions in the reservoir with different liquid saturations. Away from the well an outer

but laboratory measurements at near-wellbore conditions are very difficult and expensive to obtain. An alternative as shown in this paper
cannot enter the well over the entire producing interval and the well will experience a larger pressure drop for a given flow rate than a well th
s (1) and (2) are hard to maintain so the transient data obtained will either be variable rate transient pressure or variable bottomhole press
al. 2000; Chiriti et al. 2001; Ballinas et al. 2002; Mason et al.; Weaver et al. 2005). The published leading research in handling PDG dat
ct) solution arises in the analysis of both gas well test data and gas well production data — where both analyses have traditionally used ap
mpered because it is difficult for simulation models to mimic the observed early reservoir production without use of data that may bear little r

sampled data. When viewed in the frequency domain these techniques are clearly high-pass and band-pass filters which exaggerate high
et of parameters required for 3D multiphase dual porosity simulations. New Technique for Well Testing in Oil Reservoirs The theory and

useless given the wide range of possible results. Significant progress was achieved in the late 70’s and early 80’s with the develo
electrical current leaked through the perforation holes to the metal casing. The electrical insulation of the casing was imperfect but function
rmeability-thickness can be underestimated. This paper introduces a new well testing method named “Well Testing by Production Logg

e Properties ��������������� Reservoir Depth�������������


orm-flux solution by integrating a unit impulse point source with respect to time and space. The boundary effect is considered by the image
has several shortcomings such as limited accuracy and erroneous skin factor estimation.� In short the Russell (1966) method should no
laender and Gringarten (2001 2004). An independent evaluation of the von Schroeter et al. algorithm by Levitan (2005) confirmed that wit
ast the buildup period is the one when the downhole valve X is closed and the wellhead valve Y is closed. The closing of the downhole va

he advantages of using numerical interpretation of well tests as compared to classical analytical interpretation.� They also noted that su
he advantages of using numerical interpretation of well tests as compared to classical analytical interpretation.� They also noted that su
uring production after stimulation (that is build-up tests) (e.g.2-5) have been studied extensively. The theories as developed in Refs.1-5 by

0 ft long horizontal well targeting an area interpreted to have high fracture density (see well schematic in Figure 1). The main purpose of th
0 ft long horizontal well targeting an area interpreted to have high fracture density (see well schematic in Figure 1). The main purpose of th

o be approximated by analytical solutions regardless of the level of drawdown. Figs. 1 and 2 demonstrate this point. These figures show th
-fractured wells. From a performance perspective the optimum production and completion would be the one that results in the maximum ec
riction-head loss of the multi-lateral segment crossing a grid block. The proposed approach can be easily implemented in the conventional
eferred testing technique in this complex reservoir environment.

effective permeability of the specific phase whose flow rate and fluid properties are used in the analysis (Earlougher 1977 p.18). Another a
stems i.e. fractured and unfractured reservoirs is performed using Tiab’s Direct Synthesis (TDS) technique for analyzing log-log press
transient well test. This definition is not completely accurate when we apply an instantaneous source during which pressure may diffuse to
ESP wells a time snap of reservoir properties could be periodically obtained to track changes in pressure skin and permeability for real tim

connected volumes. Material balance provided oil in place results consistent with those from the pressure transient tests a quantitative insi
ons to surface and disposal of some of these hydrocarbons through flaring.� Completion of a reservoir appraisal well and subsequent we
ons to surface and disposal of some of these hydrocarbons through flaring.� Completion of a reservoir appraisal well and subsequent we

ue for interference well-test analysis. The problem however is that the interference pressure signals produced by other wells are small com
al. 1990; Thompson and Reynolds 1986; Baygun et al. 1997). A thorough review and list of the previous deconvolution algorithms can be fo

son most operating companies adhere to annular-pressure-management schemes for onshore and platform wells which prescribe bleedin
and B�t Groups. Separate by shale intervals (Not Ror) typically formed intra-formational seals. The main objective of the Onyx SW wel
PDHG) to record pressure and temperature in the active producers. The bottom-hole pressure (BHP) data is used extensively to understan
[3] around the well and leads to a loss of well productivity [4-7] with some wells even ceasing production completely due to condensate loa

e understanding of limitations and advantages will allow the proper selection of test types in order to meet specific objectives and maximize
of rates with the above mentioned tests so as to be able to estimate the non-Darcy flow coefficient by separating the mechanical skin comp
s have been deployed over the years to further develop Abu Al Bukhoosh resources in response to the growing maturity of the field. A rem
s have been deployed over the years to further develop Abu Al Bukhoosh resources in response to the growing maturity of the field. A rem
ndensate wells. The need for inline measurement has been made more acute in the last few years to tackle the following issues: Mitigatio

gas volume fraction (GVF)] though the accuracy of this approach decreases with decreasing GVF. The accurate determination of liquid ra
n identifying and evaluating various well performance anomalies and how the measurements are used to monitor well production over time.
used in the industry to measure flowrates is the Venturi (or differential measurements); all manufacturers are using one or several Venturi a
om ideal model. This is very much what happened in well testing in the oil industry. Engineers use analytical model and solutions (type curv
sing numerical well testing . The authors pointed out the difficulty in history matching during a simulation study due to the large uncertaintie

ay from the well an outer region has the initial liquid saturation; next nearer the well there is a rapid increase in liquid saturation and a dec

e as shown in this paper is to obtain them from well-test data. Well-test analysis is recognized as a valuable tool for reservoir surveillance
ven flow rate than a well that fully penetrates the formation. This geometric effect gives rise to the partial penetration skin effect. There are o
variable bottomhole pressure transient rate. Therefore the transient well testing or decline curve analysis methods cannot be applied direct
earch in handling PDG data is from Chevron and Stanford University (Kikani and He 1998). By examine simulated and field examples the
have traditionally used approximate methods such as the pressure or pressure-squared methods [Rawlins and Schellhardt (1935) Aronofs
data that may bear little resemblance to measurements. The focus of this paper is first to examine the uncertainties in the data that are us

s which exaggerate high frequency noise and distort the true dp/dt curve. The data is typically smoothed by subjectively choosing the poin
servoirs The theory and practice of transient well tests has been developing for more than 50 years starting mainly from the well-known w

ly 80’s with the development of an integrated methodology based on signal theory and the subsequent introduction of derivatives. It wa
was imperfect but functional as indictated by field test results. Horizontal Well Sand Control Completion A second field experiment utilized
esting by Production Logging (WTPL) which does not require shutting down the production in order to obtain formation permeability and sk

¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 5 500 ft ��������������� Initial Pressure�ï


considered by the image method. He used type-curve matching method to estimate vertical permeability by time match and horizontal perm
(1966) method should not be used. Rate normalization techniques [Gladfelter et. al. (1955) Fetko-vich and Vienot (1984)] have also been
(2005) confirmed that with some enhancements and safeguards it can be used successfully for analysis of real well-test data. There are se
losing of the downhole valve reduces the effective wellbore storage and increases the chance of capturing the data dominated by the reser

½ They also noted that sub seismic features may be identified and their properties estimated by conducting flow tests. Rooij et al. (2002) st
½ They also noted that sub seismic features may be identified and their properties estimated by conducting flow tests. Rooij et al. (2002) st
developed in Refs.1-5 by now are well-accepted “textbook methodologies. This paper deals with the subject of pressure fall-off analys

). The main purpose of the well is to understand the contribution of the fractures and determine to which extent they enhance the well prod
). The main purpose of the well is to understand the contribution of the fractures and determine to which extent they enhance the well prod

nt. These figures show the results of simulated transient radial flow for a wide variety of rate and drawdown values. Specifically note that a
results in the maximum economic benefit to the operator. In practice the optimum completion design and operating condition well/reservo
ented in the conventional reservoir simulators without compromising the computation time. Outline After a summary of the pertinent literatu

her 1977 p.18). Another approach is to use the Perrine method (Perrine 1956; Martin 1959; Miller et al. 1967) where a “total flow mobili
or analyzing log-log pressure and pressure derivative plots. TDS uses analytical equations to determine reservoir and well characteristics w
h pressure may diffuse to a long distance. Therefore to understand the radius of investigation first we look at the pressure distributions in
nd permeability for real time optimization. Introduction One of the main objectives of every operating company is to optimize reserves in ord

nt tests a quantitative insight into the production mechanism and water front displacement. Water breakthrough occurred in the deeper wel
al well and subsequent well testing is a long and very expensive operation which carries significant operational risks.� A decision to perfo
al well and subsequent well testing is a long and very expensive operation which carries significant operational risks.� A decision to perfo

other wells are small compared to the pressure signal caused by the production of the well itself. These pressure interference signals are d
lution algorithms can be found in von Schroeter et al. (2004). The primary objective of applying pressure/rate deconvolution is to convert the

s which prescribe bleeding off pressure through the wellhead once a predetermined pressure level (e.g. 20% of the minimum internal yield
ective of the Onyx SW well test was to investigate the stacked formations Ile Ror/Tofte and Tilje by conducting a multi-zone DST with each
d extensively to understand interwell communication and reservoir properties but bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data had seen little use. H
ely due to condensate loading in the wellbore.[5] This “condensate banking effect however is compensated by “velocity stripping w

c objectives and maximize the full potential use of acquired data for field development plans in thinly laminated deepwater environments.
the mechanical skin component from the total skin factor (st ). All these multirate methods of interpretation require well tests of quite long d
maturity of the field. A remarkably wide variety of means and techniques have been deployed throughout its development to curb the decline
maturity of the field. A remarkably wide variety of means and techniques have been deployed throughout its development to curb the decline
ollowing issues: Mitigation of the carry over in gas line out of conventional separator Increasing need for high resolution of GCR measure

e determination of liquid rates by wet-gas meters is restricted in range. The application and performance of multiphase meters has been w
well production over time. Introduction Accuracy of the flow test results performed by the existing test separators in ADCO fields was an is
g one or several Venturi and most of the time coupled with a density nuclear measurement. The fraction measurement techniques are mor
el and solutions (type curves) for well test analysis. The final results are justified by a “matching between analytical solution and measu
ue to the large uncertainties associated with reservoir properties in flow simulation models particularly for permeability. This is because of lim

iquid saturation and a decrease in the gas mobility. Liquid in that region is immobile. Closer to the well an inner region is formed in which li

for reservoir surveillance and monitoring and provides estimates of a number of parameters required for reservoir characterization reservo
on skin effect. There are other operation issues which may have influence on the pressure drop such as asphaltene deposition. Asphalten
s cannot be applied directly before having the specified conditions met the criteria. A mathematical algorithm called deconvolution can solve
d and field examples the wavelet method has been recognized as a useful tool in dealing with the long term transient pressure data from P
Schellhardt (1935) Aronofsky and Jenkins (1954)] or rigorous but tedious pseudovariables [Al-Hussainy et al (1966) and Agarwal (1979)]."
ties in the data that are used for the predictions. The Maureen reservoir--its data were placed in the public domain for research and training

ectively choosing the points used in the calculation a sufficient distance from the point of interest.11 Regardless of which method of numeri
inly from the well-known work of Miller Dyes and Hutchinson.[1] According to S. Holditch [2] the SPE 2001 library contained 4341 papers

uction of derivatives. It was found that although reservoirs are all different in terms of depth pressure fluid composition geology etc. the
nd field experiment utilized a 21-electrode array deployed in a horizontal well that was drilled in a thin oil column within a Cypress formation
mation permeability and skin. WTPL imposes short periodic variations of flowrate which result in similar cyclic pressure variations. The result

½ï¿½ Initial Pressure���������������������� 2 500 psi �����ï¿


match and horizontal permeability by pressure match. Kamal2 also generated a series of type curves assuming spherical flow into the point
not (1984)] have also been employed to correct for wellbore storage effects and these rate normalization methods were successful in some
well-test data. There are several enhancements that distinguish our form of the deconvolution algorithm. The original von Schroeter algorithm
ta dominated by the reservoir-dominated flow. A typical DST chart is presented in Fig. 2 highlighting the flow and buildup periods we are in

ests. Rooij et al. (2002) studied point bar geometry connectivity and well test signatures in fluvial systems focusing on the lateral connecti
ests. Rooij et al. (2002) studied point bar geometry connectivity and well test signatures in fluvial systems focusing on the lateral connecti
of pressure fall-off analysis on fractured water injection wells. In this area the situation is entirely different from the one above in the sense

hey enhance the well productivity. A pressure transient test program was carried out to establish the potential of the well and shed light on
hey enhance the well productivity. A pressure transient test program was carried out to establish the potential of the well and shed light on

s. Specifically note that all the semi-log straight line slopes are parallel to the analytical solutions in Figs. 1 and 2. This means that when p
ing condition well/reservoir production option used will commonly be the optimum solution indicated on an economic basis or at least a rea
ary of the pertinent literature and background we first present the improvement of well transmissibility for a single lateral. Then we discuss

ere a “total flow mobility is calculated as shown in equation1 Equation (1) Several studies addressed transient testing under specific m
and well characteristics without using type-curve matching. These characteristics are obtained from unique fingerprints such as flow regim
pressure distributions in a 1D radial-cylindrical homogeneous reservoir produced by a fully completed vertical well in which after the wellb
to optimize reserves in order to maximize their assets value.� For the reservoir engineers in the brown fields (mature fields) the challeng

ccurred in the deeper well # 2 6 months after 1st oil. The water cut was matched and the water breakthrough in the shallower well # 1 has
sks.� A decision to perform a well test and accept these costs and risks should only be supported if the test will provide the information th
sks.� A decision to perform a well test and accept these costs and risks should only be supported if the test will provide the information th

e interference signals are delayed in time and the time delay depends on the distance between respective wells. All this makes multiwell dec
onvolution is to convert the pressure data response from a variable-rate test or production sequence into an equivalent pressure profile that

the minimum internal yield pressure of the affected casing) is reached.


multi-zone DST with each interval being tested separately. Testing of two zones with a third as a contingency was planned to cover the for
data had seen little use. However we now find that flowing BHT (FBHT) detects interwell communication with interference delay times con
by “velocity stripping which increases the gas mobility in the immediate vicinity of the wellbore.[8] “Velocity or “viscous stripping

epwater environments.
e well tests of quite long durations (Horne and Kuchuk 1988). Kabir (2006) suggested a two step approach based on multirate transient dr
opment to curb the decline in production and extend its life such as phased development secondary reservoirs development well activatio
opment to curb the decline in production and extend its life such as phased development secondary reservoirs development well activatio
solution of GCR measurements to determine changes in fluid properties on choke changes Higher repeatability measurements to confirm

phase meters has been well documented through technical papers and industry forums and after several years of development is maturing
in ADCO fields was an issue rose long time ago. Field reports always indicated that the actual production volumes of
ement techniques are more versatile and we could split them between low energy gamma ray measurement the most common one and ele
ytical solution and measured transient pressure data. Assumptions made are ignored while perusing “perfect match during the analysis
bility. This is because of limited core sampling from the reservoir and difference in scale between grid block and core permeability. Well test

egion is formed in which liquid saturation is higher than a critical condensate saturation and both the oil and gas phases are mobile. Finally

r characterization reservoir simulation and well-productivity forecasting. In gas/condensate reservoirs when the BHP is below the dewpoin
ene deposition. Asphaltene may manipulate the reservoir property or skin factor. Unstable asphaltene can form a separate phase that migh
ed deconvolution can solve this problem. Deconvolution technique is capable of transferring the transient pressure as a result of variable ra
sient pressure data from PDG. Athichanagorn and Horne (1999) from Stanford developed a multi-step procedure for the processing and inte
66) and Agarwal (1979)]."
n for research and training purposes by Phillips after it was abandoned (Gringarten et al. 2000)--provides the main source of information. Th

of which method of numerical differentiation is used and regardless of the manipulations employed to reduce the scatter in the resulting deri
y contained 4341 papers devoted to vertical horizontal and interference well tests etc. Yet many papers and monographs absent in the li

position geology etc. their behaviors in well tests were made of a few number of basic components that were the same everywhere every
within a Cypress formation sandstone reservoir. 3 4 The well was completed openhole with sand screens and a gravel pack. External casing
sure variations. The resulting reservoir response is recorded bottomhole using a PLT string. The amplitude ratio and phase lag of the press

psi ��������������� Gas/Oil Ratio����������������


pherical flow into the point source and observation point. Prats’s solution3 is based on a continuous point source of a constant rate usi
were successful in some cases.� The most appropriate appli-cation of rate normalization is its use for pressure transient data influenced
nal von Schroeter algorithm reconstructs only the logarithm of log-derivative of the pressure response to constant rate production. Initial res
buildup periods we are interested in. In this study Dt is the elapsed time since the beginning of inflow of fluid and Dtp is the duration of flo

ng on the lateral connectivity between point bars.� Their work investigated the effect of different types of channel fill sequences on well t
ng on the lateral connectivity between point bars.� Their work investigated the effect of different types of channel fill sequences on well t
he one above in the sense that until recently 6-7 there existed no practical methodology dedicated to pressure fall-off analysis on fractured

he well and shed light on the reservoir structure.� Different phases of the test program can be summarized as (see Figures 2 and 3). In
he well and shed light on the reservoir structure.� Different phases of the test program can be summarized as (see Figures 2 and 3). In

2. This means that when permeability is calculated from the semi-log straight line slope it will tend to be accurate. However it was found th
mic basis or at least a reasonable melding of the optimum economic and technical options considered. An innovative robust and unique p
e lateral. Then we discuss the addition of a second lateral to the model. We finally compare the accuracy of the numerical model against a

nt testing under specific multiphase flow conditions. Examples include work on solution-gas-drive reservoirs (Raghavan 1976) gas condens
rprints such as flow regime lines and points of intersection of these lines that are found on the log-log plot of pressure and pressure deriva
ell in which after the wellbore storage effect the flow regime is predominantly radial before the effect of any outer boundary. Note that this m
mature fields) the challenge in defining the exploitation strategy is the lack of critical reservoir information such as pressure and permeability

the shallower well # 1 has been predicted to occur after some 20 months of the field production start. Full field numerical reservoir simulati
provide the information that is critical to shaping the appropriate reservoir development plan. There are alternative techniques for evaluatio
provide the information that is critical to shaping the appropriate reservoir development plan. There are alternative techniques for evaluatio

All this makes multiwell deconvolution an extremely difficult problem.


valent pressure profile that would have been obtained if the well were produced at a constant rate for the entire duration of the production h

s planned to cover the formations of interest. Results from the well logging narrowed this to execution of a two zone DST from a cost vs. be
erference delay times consistent with pressure transient analysis (PTA) i.e. it can be used to estimate interwell permeability. The FBHT da
y or “viscous stripping (also called “positive coupling)[9-13] occurs at high capillarity number a dimensionless parameter that repres

d on multirate transient drawdown tests followed or preceded by a buildup. Firstly he estimates reservoir parameters (k s D and p*) with t
development well activation optimization of production mechanisms use of emerging technologies understanding heterogeneities and rep
development well activation optimization of production mechanisms use of emerging technologies understanding heterogeneities and rep
measurements to confirm slow trends Circumventing hydrate formation issues downstream of surface production chokes plugging up contr

f development is maturing (Scheers 2004). Some multiphase measurement techniques can perform better and the meters provide a more

most common one and electromagnetic measurement. The former is the simplest option to get the multiphase meter as less complex as po
match during the analysis. Results derived by such an approach are rather misleading. Well testing – a very useful engineering dynamic
ore permeability. Well test data is ideal for bridging the gap between core and grid block permeabilities because it samples the reservoir on

hases are mobile. Finally in the immediate vicinity of the well there is a region with lower liquid saturation owing to capillary number effect

BHP is below the dewpoint pressure the effective permeability to gas in the near-wellbore region and at initial liquid saturation can be estim
separate phase that might plug the oil-bearing rock formation near a well1. At the discussing oilfield in the southwest of Iran one well demo
e as a result of variable rate into an equivalent constant rate transient pressure. It also can convert a series of transient pressure due to va
or the processing and interpretation of long-term pressure data through the analysis of both simulated and actual field data. Their study fou

n source of information. The data examined are viscosity saturation and relative permeability. Having established which data are the mos

catter in the resulting derivative data the analyst is often left with data not entirely representative of the well/reservoir system under investig
onographs absent in the library have been published in Russia. Here we would only refer to several of the latter.[3-9] The distinctive featu

same everywhere every time. Well test analysis was about finding these components which could be achieved in a systematic way follow
avel pack. External casing packers subdivided the annulus into three zones. An electrical valve which also recorded the annular and tubing
and phase lag of the pressure relative to the flowrate can then be analyzed to provide formation properties such as permeability and skin fac

¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 290 scf/bbl ��������������� Porosityï


urce of a constant rate using the method of images. He derived a simple form of drawdown solution at large times. He treated perforation in
e transient data influenced by continuously varying flowrates. The application of rate normalization requires the sandface rate measuremen
rate production. Initial reservoir pressure is supposed to be determined in the deconvolution process along with the deconvolved drawdown
d Dtp is the duration of flow period. When Dt > Dtp it indicates a time within the shut-in period. The basis of the CCTs lies in the principles

nel fill sequences on well test signatures and connectivity across channel fills.� Toro-Rivera et al. (1994) summarized that flow character
nel fill sequences on well test signatures and connectivity across channel fills.� Toro-Rivera et al. (1994) summarized that flow character
ll-off analysis on fractured water injectors. The very limited interest in fall-off test analysis on fractured water injectors may be well related t

(see Figures 2 and 3). Initial clean-up on full choke followed by a shut-in period to let the reservoir return to its initial pressure Initial 8-hou
(see Figures 2 and 3). Initial clean-up on full choke followed by a shut-in period to let the reservoir return to its initial pressure Initial 8-hou

However it was found that this is not true for linear flow. Effect of Drawdown on Transient Linear Flow (Constant pwf) A plot of vs. gives
ative robust and unique production optimization methodology is reported in the paper that permits the quantification of the well and reservo
numerical model against analytical solutions under various conditions of heterogeneity and skin effect. Literature Review Blanc et al. (199

havan 1976) gas condensate reservoirs (Jones and Raghavan 1988) water flooding reservoirs (Abbaszadeh and Kamal 1989) and coal-b
ssure and pressure derivative. It isapplied to both drawdown and buildup tests. Several numerical examples are included to illustrate the ste
boundary. Note that this may not be true for wells in nonhomogeneous and heterogeneous formations and reservoirs. Nevertheless unders
pressure and permeability.� Many times old information based on few scattered measurements is propagated to make important decisio

umerical reservoir simulation studies were then performed confirming previous results from the classical reservoir engineering analyses. Th
ve techniques for evaluation of formation rock properties through well logging and the use of modern formation evaluation tools.� These
ve techniques for evaluation of formation rock properties through well logging and the use of modern formation evaluation tools.� These

uration of the production history. If such an objective could be achieved with some success then as stated by Levitan the deconvolved res

ne DST from a cost vs. benefit stand point. Key performance indicators One of the most important and basic requirements in the Norwegi
permeability. The FBHT data also signals if a voidage change occurs from a location updip or downdip of the producer as increased suppor
ess parameter that represents a ratio of viscous to capillary forces:[14 15]

eters (k s D and p*) with transient data rather than doing the traditional deliverability calculation with four points. Then he uses these param
g heterogeneities and replacement and upgrading of equipment. The Abu Al Bukhoosh oil field is located 80 km offshore Abu Dhabi. It is a
g heterogeneities and replacement and upgrading of equipment. The Abu Al Bukhoosh oil field is located 80 km offshore Abu Dhabi. It is a
chokes plugging up controls in separators Remote unmanned operations Lowering of risk associated with well testing in gas well operatio

he meters provide a more compact solution than the traditional separation approach. It is not surprising that the use of multiphase flowmete

eter as less complex as possible. Indeed the high energy gamma ray being already present for density measurement the addition of a sec
eful engineering dynamic measurement itself is flawed due to this practice.
samples the reservoir on the scale of the grid block size. The authors recognized that well tests would not fully cover the full field model. Th

to capillary number effects which represents the ratio of viscous to capillary forces. Such a region has been inferred from a number of exp

uid saturation can be estimated with single-phase pseudopressures (Al-Hussainy et al. 1966) and a two- or three-region radial composite w
west of Iran one well demonstrates the problem of asphaltene plugging in an obvious draw down. One full well test campaign was designed
ansient pressure due to variable or step rate history such as that from the traditional DST into an equivalent constant bottom hole flowing p
field data. Their study found that the use of long-term data requires special handling and interpretation techniques due to the instability of i

d which data are the most uncertain the paper then includes a brief discussion of the transition zone and oil emplacement to understand th

rvoir system under investigation. In this paper we describe a new technique for differentiating well test pressure data called the digital pres
3-9] The distinctive feature of the works mentioned is that virtually all the techniques for well test data interpretation are based on the sing

in a systematic way following a well-defined process. The outcome was a well test interpretation model which defined how much and wha
ded the annular and tubing pressure controlled inflow to each zone (Fig. 2). The 21 centralizers acted as electrodes to form an electrode a
s permeability and skin factor. A specific flow modulation device was developed to generate periodic bottomhole rate and pressure oscillat

½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Porosity�����������������������������ï¿
. He treated perforation interval and measuring interval as two points. He used the pressure drop data to estimate vertical permeability. As
andface rate measurements and generally yields a shifted results trend that has the correct slope but incorrect intercept in a semilog plot (i
he deconvolved drawdown system response. However inclusion of the initial pressure in the list of deconvolution parameters often causes
CCTs lies in the principles of slug tests originally designed for testing water wells. Ferris and Knowles1 were the early investigators who trie

arized that flow characteristics of a fluvial reservoir can be better understood by the integrated interpretation of well test pressure data in a
arized that flow characteristics of a fluvial reservoir can be better understood by the integrated interpretation of well test pressure data in a
ctors may be well related to the fact that most operators have been traditionally unaware that their water injectors are fractured. Only in rece

itial pressure Initial 8-hour flow period on 24/64 choke to perform flowing surveys and attempt to take a bottom hole sample followed by a 2
itial pressure Initial 8-hour flow period on 24/64 choke to perform flowing surveys and attempt to take a bottom hole sample followed by a 2

t pwf) A plot of vs. gives a straight line with slope for the analytical solution. The slope of this plot can be used to calculate the value of . Th
ion of the well and reservoir in situ properties on a layer-by-layer zone-by-zone or frac stage-by-stage basis by evaluating the drawdown p
Review Blanc et al. (1999) applied an unsteady-state radial flow equation for vertical wells known as transient well index to simulate pres

d Kamal 1989) and coal-bed-methane reservoirs (Kamal and Six 1991). Results from the previously mentioned studies have been helpful in
ncluded to illustrate the step-by-step application of the proposed technique. Introduction Over the last four decades naturally fractured res
oirs. Nevertheless understanding the fundamental radial flow regime is essential to interpreting pressure transient testing and its radius of
to make important decisions.� In case of production engineers the continuous degradation in inflow due to skin affects their return on inv

engineering analyses. This provided the basis to justify an important increase in the field volumes and recoveries and for the initiation of fu
aluation tools.� These methods allow estimation of the short-term productivity of the well.� However these techniques cannot confirm
aluation tools.� These methods allow estimation of the short-term productivity of the well.� However these techniques cannot confirm

vitan the deconvolved response would remove the constraints of conventional analysis techniques (Earlougher 1977; Bourdet 2002) that h

quirements in the Norwegian and international oil industry is to have control of the activities offshore to act on issues in a proactive manner
ucer as increased support downdip of a producer causes FBHT to increase while increased support updip of a producer (or from the oppos

Then he uses these parameters to predict future deliverability by forward simulations with an analytic tool.
offshore Abu Dhabi. It is a large NE-SW anticline affected by NW-SE trending faults which straddles the border between the United Arab E
offshore Abu Dhabi. It is a large NE-SW anticline affected by NW-SE trending faults which straddles the border between the United Arab E
esting in gas well operations through elimination of active control systems and reduction of the volumes of pressurized hydrocarbons conta

se of multiphase flowmeters has grown significantly the worldwide number doubling in little over a 2-year period (Mehdizadeh et al. 2002).

ment the addition of a second radionuclide or an appropriate chemical source could provide the two energy levels required to do the fraction
over the full field model. Therefore they found it useful to calculate property multipliers around each well and then interpolate multipliers to u

red from a number of experimental core studies at low interfacial tension and high flow rates (Henderson et al. 1998; Ali et al. 1997). The e

region radial composite well-test-interpretation model (Chu and Shank 1993; Gringarten et al. 2000; Daungkaew et al. 2002) whereas the
t campaign was designed to find out the reason of pressure fluctuation through production.
tant bottom hole flowing pressure transient rate. Along with the widely application of permanent down-hole gauge (PDG) currently in the oi
s due to the instability of in-situ permanent data acquisition systems extremely large volume of data incomplete flow rate history caused b

lacement to understand the nature of the uncertainties in relative permeability measurements and in particular measurements of the irredu

data called the digital pressure derivative technique (DPDT). The DPDT produces the most accurate and representative dp/dt curve by inco
tion are based on the single-phase flow theory. Here we present well testing procedures based on the creation of two-phase bidirectiona

efined how much and what kind of knowledge could be extracted from the data. The interpretation model also determined which of the vario
des to form an electrode array that spanned the 694-ft-long completion. Each electrode was connected to a single conductor that was linked
rate and pressure oscillations. This tool can be combined with standard production logging tools and can be configured for both production

½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ 0.29 p.u. ��������������� Permeability����ï


e vertical permeability. As we will see later the pressure drop is actually mainly affected by horizontal permeability.
ercept in a semilog plot (incorrect skin factor). Johnston (1992) showed that "material balance deconvolution" is a practical approach for th
parameters often causes the algorithm to fail. For this reason the authors do not recommend determination of initial pressure in the decon
early investigators who tried to extract transmissibility to water from late-time data captured from slug tests by using a straight-line techniqu

ell test pressure data in a geologically coherent fashion.


ell test pressure data in a geologically coherent fashion.
are fractured. Only in recent years this situation has started to change. Unfortunately one of the consequences of the lack of a dedicated

ole sample followed by a 2.5-day initial build-up to get a first estimate of the reservoir pressure and key parameters Modified isochronal tes
ole sample followed by a 2.5-day initial build-up to get a first estimate of the reservoir pressure and key parameters Modified isochronal tes

calculate the value of . The equation for this is shown in Table 1.


evaluating the drawdown production performance of the well in combination with direct physical measurements of layered reservoir flow rat
well index to simulate pressure transients more accurately. They defined a well-block radius that varied with time and was different from the

udies have been helpful in providing answers to production and reservoir engineering applications like wellbore conditions productivity indi
es naturally fractured reservoirs have been a topic of continuous research due to the fact that many producing fields of the world are found
nt testing and its radius of investigation; i.e. how much reservoir volume if investigated for a given duration of a transient test? For explorati
n affects their return on investment.� For operations engineers operating artificially lifted systems the main concern is to make sure that

and for the initiation of further studies aiming to investigate alternate exploitation schemes to increase the final recovery further. Geology a
echniques cannot confirm that the well is connected to a sufficiently large volume and will be able to drain sufficient reserves.� Well test
echniques cannot confirm that the well is connected to a sufficiently large volume and will be able to drain sufficient reserves.� Well test

977; Bourdet 2002) that have been built around the idea of applying a special time transformation [e.g. the logarithmic multirate superposi

ues in a proactive manner and to capture experience data. For the Onyx SW well the operator used their KPI system to the fullest in close
roducer (or from the opposite flank) causes FBHT to decrease. To explain our observations we propose that FBHT responds to the impact

between the United Arab Emirates and Iran. Currently on Total ABK field well testing of around 65 oil producers is performed on two test s
between the United Arab Emirates and Iran. Currently on Total ABK field well testing of around 65 oil producers is performed on two test s
rized hydrocarbons contained in the testing systems Permanent monitoring requirements More of these requirements for wet gas well tes

(Mehdizadeh et al. 2002). Multiphase-flowmeter interpretation emphasizes the liquid rate measurement and the application of multiphase f

required to do the fraction measurement [Ref 2]. This leads to a compact and efficient solution.
interpolate multipliers to untested areas in the reservoir.

98; Ali et al. 1997). The existence of the fourth region is important because it counters the reduction in productivity caused by liquid dropou

et al. 2002) whereas the reservoir absolute permeability may be determined with two-phase steady-state pseudopressures (Raghavan et a

e (PDG) currently in the oil industry deconvolution technique will be potentially a very useful tool to process transient data so both tradition
flow rate history caused by unmeasured and uncertain rate changes and dynamic changes in reservoir conditions and properties througho

measurements of the irreducible water saturation. From this a new avenue of research related to oil emplacement can be identified that if p

ntative dp/dt curve by incorporating knowledge of both reservoir and gauge physics. It is efficient and straightforward to implement and may
of two-phase bidirectional fluid flows in the vicinity of a well. As an example the following sequence of operations[10 11] is carried out for

ermined which of the various published analysis methods were applicable and when. Importantly the integrated methodology made well tes
conductor that was linked to the surface acquisition unit so that there was no requirement for downhole electronics. There were 7 electrode
gured for both production and injection wells in several casing/tubing sizes for both high and low flowrates. In commingled wells it can be s

rmeability�������������������������� 6 000 md ����ï

a practical approach for the analysis of pressure transient data distorted by wellbore storage effects.� In particular this approach remedi
tial pressure in the deconvolution process (von Schroeter et al. 2004). It becomes an input parameter and has to be evaluated through othe
ng a straight-line technique. Much later Cooper et al.2 and Ramey et al.3 developed complete type-curve analysis techniques for estimatin

of the lack of a dedicated method of analysis is that fall-off tests on injectors are generally interpreted in the wrong way even if one realises

rs Modified isochronal test: Three 8-hour flowing and shut-in periods followed by a 6-day extended flow period and a 14-day build-up Pres
rs Modified isochronal test: Three 8-hour flowing and shut-in periods followed by a 6-day extended flow period and a 14-day build-up Pres

layered reservoir flow rates and wellbore flowing pressures. Methodology The completion and production optimization methodology repo
and was different from the steady- and unsteady-state definitions of the well-block radius proposed in the earlier studies by Peaceman (197

onditions productivity indices and average reservoir pressures.


elds of the world are found in such type of formations. These reservoirs differ in geological and petrophysical properties from homogeneous
ansient test? For exploration wells the reservoir volume investigated is one of the main objectives of running DST or production tests. There
cern is to make sure that equipment is running efficiently and to avoid catastrophic failures.

covery further. Geology and Reservoir Description The Farragon reservoir lies in sands of Palaeocene age close to several existing fields
ent reserves.� Well testing still remains the only method for direct evaluation of reservoir connectivity over large distances from the well.
ent reserves.� Well testing still remains the only method for direct evaluation of reservoir connectivity over large distances from the well.

thmic multirate superposition time (Agarwal 1980)] to the test pressure data so that the pressure behavior observed during individual flow p

tem to the fullest in close cooperation and supported by the corresponding service company systems. The objectives set for the job were c
HT responds to the impact of pressure changes. The principal result is a change in the producing GOR which in turn depends on the speed

is performed on two test separators. Total ABK wishes to improve the accuracy of testing its production wells by using a multi-phase flowm
is performed on two test separators. Total ABK wishes to improve the accuracy of testing its production wells by using a multi-phase flowm
ments for wet gas well testing have already been presented in Theuveny et al [1]. The basics of the gas well testing with dual energy gamm

application of multiphase flowmeters has been predominantly for liquid-rich flow stream allocation and well testing."
y caused by liquid dropout. The various mobility zones described above can be identified by well-test analysis using a variety of analytical

pressures (Raghavan et al. 1999; Xu and Lee 1999). In this paper we show that well-test analysis can provide additional parameters such

ient data so both traditional well testing and decline curve analysis methods can be used not only for different data sets but also for the sa
s and properties throughout the life of the reservoir. Soliman et al. (2001) demonstrated the importance of using wavelet transform for well

can be identified that if pursued may lead ultimately to better reservoir-management models.

ard to implement and may be used on either real-time or recorded data. No modifications to gauges or surface hardware are necessary. Fu
ns[10 11] is carried out for this purpose.

methodology made well test analysis easy to learn and repeatable. The evolution of the state-of-the art in well test analysis throughout these
cs. There were 7 electrodes in each zone at a spacing of 20 ft. A schematic drawing of the electrode array mounted on the outside of insul
mmingled wells it can be sequentially deployed above each producing zone to provide permeability and skin values for each layer. Field ex

000 md ��������������� Productivity Index�������������ï¿

ular this approach remedies the issue of a poor skin factor estimate that is typically obtained using rate normalization.� Material balance

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