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What are the difference between node,host,terminal,system,hub?

These are all different things in networking.


Hub:Where we connect all the the links for a networking connection.
Node:It can be identified as a one connection.
Host:is nothing than if you are going to send a request to the server the questi
oned system can be know as a host.
1.explain 7 osi layers briefly.
2.define router,gateways,brouter.
3.explain abt encryption & decryption.
ANS:7 OSI LAYER IS A MODEL WHICH ARE DESCRIBE OPERATION HOW YOUR PACKET GOES FRO
M ONE PC TO OTHER, THAT IS INCLUDING 7 LAYER APPLICATION,PRESENTATION,SESSION,NE
TWORK,TRANSPORT ,DATALINK,PHYSICAL LAYER.ROUTER IS A INTERNETWORKING DEVICE WHIC
H IS USED FOR CONNECTING 2 OR MORE DIFFRENT NETWORK BASICALLY ROUTER HAVE ROUTIN
G TABLE WHICH SHOW ADDRESS OF ALL NETWORK, THIS IS WORK ON NETWORK LAYER IN OSI
MODEL . GATEWAY IS A ALSOINTERNETWORKING DEVICE WHICH WORK ON ALL LAYER OF OSI M
ODEL. ENCRYPTION & DECRYPTION IS METHOD FOR PROVIDE SECURITY OF YOUR PKT,AFTER E
NCRYPTION NO ONE ACCSES YOUR PKT WITHOUT DECRYPTION.
What is the difference between tree and forest?
The basic difference is Forest is main domain who can control all tree on networ
ks.
WHAT IS MEAN BY DNS(DOMAIN NAME SYSTEM)AND WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF IT?
DNS allows you to connect to another networked computer or remote service by usi
ng its user-friendly domain name rather than its numerical IP address. Conversel
y, Reverse DNS (rDNS) translates an IP address into a domain name.A DNS server p
rovides the name resolution service required by Active Directory.DNS is used by
many applications to resolve Internet hostnames into IP addresses.
WHAT IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DIAL-UP INTERNET CONNECTION AND BROADBAND CONNECTION?
Dial up connection requires a username/password & a modem to connect to internet
.The maximum speed will be of 56kbps only. In this either the phone or the inter
net will work at a time.
While in broadband connection (it need a modem & may need user/password).It is d
irectly connected with RJ45 LAN card. Its speed ranges from 256kbps to several m
bps. In this both phone line and internet can work together.
What is the difference between hub,switch and router?
HUB is layer one device.It is used to extend the local area connection.It has on
ly one broadcast domain.If one system send the date to other system means it(dat
a) will go to all the system.The network performance goes down.All the ports in
hub share the 10Mbps frequency.So collision will occur.
SWITCH:It is layer to device.Each and every ports in switch has 10Mbps BW.All th
e ports has broadcast domain.It collision dedection and carrier sense multiple a
ccess is used detect the collisin and avoid it.It have to produce logical path b
etween two system.So its used to avoid the collision.
Router:It is a layer three device.It is used for WAN networking.It is used for i
nternetworking,packet forwarding,and packet filltering.
If you are given the IP address can u tell how many computers can be connected?W
hat do you look at?
Depending on the address given (Class A, Class B, or Class C) you can determine
how many hosts are available. This is also subject to whether the address is cla
ssless or classful. If it is classful the a Class C address can have 254 valid h
osts, a Class B can have 64,534 and a Class A can allow over 16 million hosts!
If the address is classless then more focus is on the subnet mask. To illustrate
a quick example, if you had the subnet address 255.255.255.240, you know that i
t is a Class C address, but the last octet has been subnetted. Converting 240 in
to binary gives 11110000. This means that 4 bits were used for subnetting (1111)
and four bits are left for network addresses (0000). If you did all the possibl
e ranges in binary, starting with 0000 and working all the way til 1111 you see
that you get 16 binary instances. Knowing that you cannot use the first and last
address you are left with 14, and since the .240 address splits the octet down
the middle, you get 14 subnets and 14 valid hosts.
Why should we care about the OSI Reference Model ?
What is the main purpose for creating this OSI model?
Why it is a layered model?
when osi model is nt created no to system of different manufracture can communic
ate because they all are having different protocols. and osi model give them sta
ndard protacols which are universal. hence system manufracture by different comp
anies can easily communicate.
What is subnetting?Why is it used?
A portion of a network that shares a common address component. On TCP/IP network
s, subnets are defined as all devices whose IP Address have the same prefix. For
example, all devices with IP addresses that start with 100.100.100. would be pa
rt of the same subnet. Dividing a network into subnets is useful for both securi
ty and performance reasons. IP networks are divided using a subnet mask
Supernetting is dividing the Subnet into different subnets each one of them has
its particular required needs , such as Number of Networks and Number of Hosts .
What is PING utility?
PING stands Packet Internet Gopher. This is a utility for ensuring connectivity
between computers . ICMP protocol works behind this utility. Under it , sending
node sends packets to destination node and reply is received if there is proper
communication between two.
Which protocol is used for retrieving mails?
POP3 and IMAP4 are used to retrieve mails.
IMAP4 stores a copy of message on the server whereas POP3 does not.
What is SAP?
Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the ot
her layers of network protocol stack.
What is MAC address?
The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) l
ayer in the network architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the ne
twork adapter card and is unique.
What protocol is used by DNS name servers?
DNS uses UDP for communication between servers. It is a better choice than TCP b
ecause of the improved speed a connectionless protocol offers. Of course, transm
ission reliability suffers with UDP.