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Your Partner for Explosion Protection

Principles of
Explosion Protection
Table of Contents

Foreword 3

The history of explosion protection 4 Pressurization ”p”:

EN 50 016/VDE 0170/0171, Part 3 25
Fundamental principles of explosion
protection 6
Explosive atmosphere 6 Sand filling ”q”:
Ignition sources 6 EN 50 017/VDE 0170/0171, Part 4 26
Flash point 7
Flameproof enclosure ”d”:
Primary and secondary explosion EN 50 018/VDE 0170/0171, Part 5 27
protection 8
Increased safety ”e”:
Potentially explosive atmospheres 9 EN 50 019/VDE 0170/0171, Part 6 28

Zone classification 9 Encapsulation ”m”:

EN 50 028/VDE 0170/0171, Part 9 29
EC directives on explosion protection 11
Intrinsic safety ”i”:
Directive 94/9/EC of the European EN 50 020/VDE 0170/0171, Part 7 30
Parliament and Council dated · Technical terms 30
March 23rd, 1994 ATEX Directive 12 · Fundamental data 30
Scope of application 12 · Limiting ignition curves 31
Essential safety requirements 13 Safety levels of intrinsically safe and
Groups and categories of apparatus 13 associated electrical apparatus 31
Putting in circulation and Constructional requirements 32
commissioning of apparatus 15 Types of limiting modules 32
Procedures in event of unsafe · Isolation of intrinsically safe circuits
apparatus 15 from non-intrinsically safe circuits 32
Marking 15 Apparatus for intrinsically
Provisional arrangements 15 safe circuits 32
Design of intrinsically safe circuits 33
CE marking 16 Working on and testing of intrinsically
safe circuits 33
Apparatus safety law (GSG) 18
Decree concerning the putting into Intrinsically safe electrical systems ”i”
circulation of apparatus and protective EN 50039 / VDE 0170/0171, Part 10 34
systems for use in potentially explosive
atmospheres – explosion protection Cap lamps for use in mines susceptible
decree (ExVO) 18 to firedamp
Directive 1999/92/EC of the European EN 50033/VDE 0170/0171, Part 14 35
Parliament and Council dated
December 16, 1999 19 Zone 0 apparatus
Structure of Directive 1999/92/EC 19 EN 50284/VDE 0170/0171, Part 12 36
Zone classification 19
Explosion protection document 20 Zone 2 apparatus 37
Type of protection ”n”
Decree on health and safety protection EN 50 021/VDE 0170/0171, Part 16 37
relating to the provision of work equipment
and the use thereof during operation, Electrical apparatus for use in areas with
safety during the operation of installations combustible dusts 39
requiring supervision and the organisation Ignition sources 39
of operational safety provisions (Operatio- Electrical apparatus for use in areas
nal Safety Decree – BetrSichV) 21 with combustible dust with protection
by the enclosure 39
Electrical apparatus for use in potentially
explosive atmospheres 22 Electrical installations in potentially
Principles 22 explosive atmospheres
Assessment of explosion hazard 41
Types of protection for explosion- Obligations of the manufacturer 42
protected apparatus 24 Obligations of the installer 42
Obligations of the operator 43
General requirements acc. to EN 50 014 24

Oil immersion ”o”:

EN 50 015/VDE 1070/0171, Part 2 25

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Selection criteria for electrical apparatus 44
Fundamental installation requirements 45
Electrical protection and monitoring
devices 46
Cables 46
Additional requirements 46

Maintenance and repair of

explosion-protected apparatus 48
Rules, regulations and decrees 48
Maintenance 48
Special safety measures 48
Operation 49
Constant supervision 50
Servicing 50
Repairs 51

Definition of potentially explosive

atmospheres and requirements for
explosion-protected apparatus on the
world market 52
NEC 52
Table of comparison NEC IEC/EN 52

IP degrees of protection 54

Table 1
Procedure for the assessment of the
zone classification acc. to BetrSichV,
EX-RL and VDE 0165 55

Table 2
Explosion protection at a glance 56

Annex 1
Sample of an installation certificate 57

Annex 2
Sample of a hot work permit 58

Annex 3
Bibliography 59

Annex 4
Harmonized standards to Directive
94/9/EC 60

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This publication provides a brief survey of the

essential aspects of explosion protection. The
statutory regulations define the obligatory duties
of manufacturers, installers and operators of
electrical installations in explosive atmospheres.
Important information can also be found in the
directives of the employers” liability insurance
associations and the VDE regulations.
At the end of this publication there is a list of
literary references for the interested reader.

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The history of
explosion protection

In 1909 Concordia Elektrizitäts-Aktiengesell- Machines containing slip rings or commutators

schaft, later called CEAG, began to manufacture had to be designed so that the slip ring or com-
firedamp protected electrical miners lamps for mutator space was at least enclosed and
the mining industry. Up to that time, only lamps thoroughly purged under overpressure with
with a naked flame had been available. The first extraneous air or a suitable gas. Purging had to
contributions regarding safety had been made in start prior to switching on the machine, or the
1815 by the English chemist, Sir Davy who machine had to have a flameproof enclosure.
developed an oil lamp that prevented the propa- This requirement applied to any locations that
gation of the flame through a close meshed were subject to the hazard of gas or vapour/air
screen. mixtures.

The fundamental experiments made by Dr.-Ing. The guiding principles issued in 1935 on the
e.h. Carl Beyling, a mining engineer, relating to mounting of electrical installations in hazardous
safety against firedamp of specially protected production areas and storage rooms (VDE
electrical motors and apparatus in coal mines 0165/1935) were to be the first German regulati-
was a decisive step in the development of ons on the protection of hazardous installations.
explosion protection. The governing design prin-
ciples of firedamp protection devices on electri- The fundamental revision of these regulations
cal machines, transformers and switchgear began with the VDE regulations 0171 ”Con-
dating from 1912 were based on the results of structional regulations for explosion protected
these experiments. As protective measures, the apparatus” which finally came into force in 1943.
following types of protection were accepted: They provided the manufacturers of electrical
equipment for use in explosive atmospheres
Miner”s lamp • Flameproof enclosure (at that time called with the necessary documents for a safe design
closed encapsulation) and construction. This regulation not only
• Plate encapsulation described the individual types of protection and
• Oil immersion their scopes of application, but also included a
• Close meshed screen number of constructional specifications and
introduced the identification marking (Ex) for the
Since 1924 only incandescent lamps were per- electrical apparatus made in compliance with it.
mitted for lighting hazardous areas, the luminous
element of which was hermetically sealed. The The governing principles and specifications of
incandescent lamps had to be protected with the VDE regulations 0165 and 0171 constituted
strong glass bells which also tightly enclosed the the basis of the police decree dated October 13,
lampholder. 1943 for electrical apparatus in hazardous loca-
tions and in mines subject to the hazard of fire-
Light switches had to be installed outside of the damp. The police decree primarily aimed at the
hazardous locations, and in the case of a failure manufacturers of electrical apparatus. It laid
or the lack of explosion-protected lighting, down that explosion protected electrical equip-
access to these locations was only permitted ment was only allowed to be put in circulation,
with safety lamps. Therefore, in general electrical installed and operated if it conformed to the so-
installations in hazardous locations were dispen- called VDE regulations and had successfully
sed with. passed the type and routine tests specified wit-

The factory inspectorate division was chosen to

be the competent authority to define what
extent a room or plant might
be subject to the hazard of explosion.

The decree of 1963 regarding electrical installati-

ons in explosive atmospheres (ExVO), today cal-
led ElexV, not only imposed the obligation to
have the explosion protected apparatus tested
by the Federal Physico-Technical Institute (Phy-
sikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB) or the
Mining Test Station (BVS), but also the obliga-
tion to obtain the design approval from the aut-
horities of the competent federal state.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 4

In 1975 the Council of the European Community This directive was converted into national law on
issued basic directives on explosion protection. 03.10.2002 in the ”Decree on health and safety
The European standards for hazardous areas protection relating to the provision of work
were worked out by CENELEC, the European equipment and the use thereof during operation,
committee for electrotechnical standardization. safety during the operation of installations requi-
In Germany the new European standards EN 50 ring supervision and the organisation of opera-
014 to EN 50 020 were adopted as VDE stan- tional safety provisions (Operational Safety
dards as part of the national standards works. Decree – BetrSichV). The BetrSichV replaces the
These new standards DIN EN 50014 to ElexV for explosion protection. However, within
50020/VDE 0170/0171, Parts 1 to 7, designa- the scope of the transitional regulations, the
ted as VDE regulations, came into force on ElexV can still be applied for installations that
May 1, 1978, and the new statutory provisions were commissioned before 03.10.2002.
on July 1, 1980.

By means of this statutory order now called

ElexV, the expertise of the testing establish-
ments and the design approval are replaced by
a type sample test. The type sample test is car-
ried out by any authorized testing establishment
of the member states of the EU. The certificates
of conformity and inspection granted on the
basis of the said test are mutually acknowledged
as type sample test certificates by all member
states of the EU.
Research papers by
The directive 94/9/EC for the harmonization sta-
C. Beyling, mining engineer
tutory provisions of the member states relating
to apparatus and protective systems for use
according to the rules in potentially explosive
atmospheres, issued on March 23, 1994 by the
European Parliament and Council, substitutes
any directives concerning explosion protection
existing on a European level as from July 1,
2003. The European Parliament determined
March 1, 1996 as the date for conversion of this
new directive into national law.

On December 12, 1996 the directive 94/9/EC

was converted into national law by the second
decree concerning the equipment safety law
and the changes relating to the equipment
safety law by the explosion protection decree
(ExVO). With this decree the acetyl decree, VbF
and Elex were also assimilated with the Euro-
pean law. On account of a transition period up
till June 30, 2003, manufacturers, testing autho-
rities and operators were now confronted with
various decrees that were similarly worded.

On January 28, 2000 the second important

directive relating to explosion protection was
published in the official gazette of the European
communities. The directive 1999/92/EC relating
to minimum requirements for the improvement
of the health protection and the safety of
employees who may be endangered by potenti-
ally explosive atmospheres was issued on
December 16, 1999 by the European Parliament
and council.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 5

Fundamental principles of
explosion protection

Explosive atmosphere If, in the event that an explosive mixture is igni-

ted, people are directly or indirectly endangered,
An explosive atmosphere is built up of a mixture this is then classed as a potentially explosive
of flammable gases, vapours, mists or dusts atmosphere. Whether or not an atmosphere is
with air, including the usual constituents such as potentially explosive can be roughly assessed. In
humidity. After ignition, a reaction in the explo- enclosed rooms, regardless of their size, 10 lit-
sive atmosphere is automatically propagated res of explosive atmosphere are already consi-
under atmospheric conditions. dered hazardous. If the volume of the room is
less than 100 m3, this also applies to smaller
Atmospheric conditions are defined as an abso- quantities.
lute pressures ranging from 0.8 to 1.1 bar and
mixture temperatures from -20° to + 60°C.
Ignition sources
Although it is often not mentioned, a normal
oxygen content of air of ca. 21 per cent by Ignition sources that can cause an explosion,
volume is just as important. This limitation is are:
necessary, as the essential safety parameters • Electric sparks and arcs, e. g.
for the explosion protection of flammable sub- – when circuits are opened and closed,
stances are a function of the pressure, tempera- – when electrostatically charged components
ture and oxygen content and can only be consi- are discharged,
dered to be sufficiently constant if they are wit- – at the contact points of switchgear,
hin the limits stated above for these parameters. – when cables are ruptured,
– in the event of a short-circuit, or electric
The European directives and their implementary compensating currents
decrees are, however, based on this definition. • mechanical sparks produced by friction,
impact and grinding
In addition to this, the risk of explosion exists • hot surfaces such as live conductors in
when two other conditions are fulfilled at the windings of motors, heat conductors,
same time: bearings, shaft bushings
• electrostatic charges as a result of a
• The proportion of flammable matter is so separating process involving at least one
high that an explosive mixture can be chargeable substance. (Running down of foils
formed. over rollers, driving belts, filling and
• There is an ignition source in the same area emptying of liquids and powdery substances.)
that can ignite the mixture.
Although of minor importance, the following igni-
Such a mixture is capable of exploding when, tion sources should also be mentioned:
under atmospheric conditions its concentration • glowing particles
is within certain limits specific to the type of sub- • flames
stance. The lower explosive limit defines the • compression and shock waves e. g. when
concentration up to which a mixture is not yet vacuum flasks and fluorescent lamps break
capable of exploding. The upper explosive limit • electromagnetic waves in the optical region of
defines the concentration up to which the mix- the spectrum
ture is capable of exploding. Under conditions • ultrasonics: causes temperature rise
other than atmospheric, the explosion limits • radiation
change. As the proportion of oxygen increases, – high-frequency
e. g. the upper explosive limit is raised. – radioactive radiation
– X-radiation
Generally, the explosive limits are indicated in • chemical reactions
percent by volume. Percent by volume, abbre-
viated %/vol., means the volume percent of the
combustible matter in the mixture. The lower
explosive limit of hydrogen is 4.0 % by volume,
and the upper explosive limit 75.6 % by volume.
The safety coefficients define quantitative data
about the properties of most of the known sub-

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Flash point Easily flammable
Class of hazard Flash point
• Solid substances and preparations that can
An explosion hazard can also result when a be easily ignited by the short-term effect of an
flammable liquid evaporates at the surface. This ignition source and that continue to burn or AI < 21° C
results in a vapour/air mixture which, under given glow after the ignition source has been remo-
conditions, forms an explosive atmosphere. ved AII 21 to 55° C
• Liquid substances and preparations with a
In order to do so, the temperature must have flash point below 21 ºC, but that are not highly
flammable AIII > 55 to 100° C
reached the flash point of the liquid. The flash
point is the lowest temperature at a pressure of
1013 hPa (normal air pressure) at which vapours Flammable B < 21° C, at 15° C
develop in such a quantity that a flammable mix- • Liquid substances and preparations with a soluble in water
ture forms above the liquid. flash point of at least 21°C and max. 55 ºC

In accordance with the ”Technical directive on The old classification may still be applied for exi-
flammable liquids” (TRbF), flammable liquids are sting installations during the transitional period
divided into four classes according to their flash stated in the Operational Safety Decree.
If they are whirled up, combustible dusts that
When the Operational Safety Decree (BetrSichV) are evenly distributed in a layer of less than
came into force, this classification was replaced 1 mm and at normal room heights can also
by the classification according to the Hazardous completely fill a room with an explosive dust/air
Substance Decree: mixture.

Highly flammable More details on this subject can be found in the

• Liquid substances and preparations with a chapter ”Potentially explosive atmospheres”.
flash point below 0 ºC and a boiling point of
max. 35 ºC
• Gas-like substances and preparations that are
flammable at a normal temperature and nor-
mal pressure when they come into contact
with air

Oil terminal

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 7

Primary and secondary
explosion protection

Avoiding the danger of an explosion is always Ventilation

Examples for the avoidance preferable to any protection against explosion. The formation of a hazardous explosive atmos-
of flammable substances An explosion can be prevented if the creation of phere can be prevented or restricted by ventila-
an explosive atmosphere can be excluded. tion. In rooms above ground level and without
Flammable Substitute Measures to this end are summarized under the special ventilation, the air is renewed by natural
substance heading Primary Explosion Protection. ventilation once per hour. By way of compari-
son, the exchange of air in cellar rooms takes up
Avoidance of flammable substances to 2.5 hours. The concentration of the mixture
Flammable solvents Hydrous solutions Flammable substances should, whenever possi- can, however, only be calculated if the escaping
and detergents ble, be substituted by substances that are not quantity per unit of time of a flammable sub-
capable of forming an explosive mixture. stance is known and if an equal distribution can
Flammable Non-flammable be assumed.
pulverized filling substances Observance of the flash point
Here distinction is made between two The natural flow conditions in a room can be
substances assessed by an expert on ventilation, who will
then usually recommend an artificial ventilation.
Compared to natural ventilation, it ensures the
Raising the flash point exchange of larger quantities of air and a more
The flash point of a flammable liquid must be at carefully directed air flow. Moreover, the con-
least 5 K above the processing temperature or centration occurring can be determined with a
the room temperature. In the case of water- considerably higher degree of reliability. On the
soluble, flammable substances this can be other hand, the drawback of a ventilation by
achieved by adding water. technical means is that it needs constant servi-
cing. In addition to this, precautions have to be
Lowering the processing temperature taken in case the installation should operate at a
With this method it is necessary to apply techni- lower output or fail altogether.
cal measures (e.g. cooling) to ensure that the
processing temperature is always at least 5-10 Explosion-proof design
K lower than the flash point. It is, however, The explosion-proof design is a constructional
necessary to keep faults, standstills, leakages measure that does not prevent an explosion, but
and other influence factors safely under control. restricts its effect to a harmless degree. The
apparatus must be designed in such a way that
Limitation of the concentration it withstands the maximum explosion pressure
The build-up of an explosive atmosphere can be and, in extreme cases, even the detonation
prevented if it is possible to limit the concentra- pressure. With pipes and other long, stretched-
tion of a substance to the range below the lower out constructions a detonation is easily possible.
or above the upper explosive limit. If the explosion-proof design is not able to with-
This can frequently be achieved with gases. Dif- stand the increased pressure, effective pressure
ficulties arise in the event of gas leaks or if the relief must be provided.
ignition range has to be passed when the plant
is started or switched off.
With liquid substances, the concentration is Secondary explosion protection
usually kept below the lower explosive limit, After all the possibilities of primary explosion
since it requires a very high effort to keep the protection have been exhausted, there can still
concentration in the upper range. be areas where a hazardous explosive atmos-
Such measures cannot be applied for dusts, phere occurs. These areas are called hazard-
since it is practically impossible to achieve an ous areas or potentially explosive atmospheres.
even distribution. Secondary explosion protection with protective
measures against ignition that render ignition
Inertisation sources ineffective applies for such areas.
If the proportion of oxygen in a mixture is less Secondary explosion protection encompasses
than 10 percent by volume, then, as a general all electrical apparatus for use in hazardous
rule, an explosive mixture does not exist. In areas.
order to reach such a low proportion, so-called
inert gaseous substances such as nitrogen, car-
bon dioxide, water steam or halogenated
hydrocarbon are added to the mixture until the
desired concentration is obtained.
If the percent by volume of the inert gas to the
flammable gas is in the minimum ratio of 25:1,
an explosive atmosphere cannot build up,
regardless of the quantity of air added.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 8

Potentially explosive

Zone classification Cavities such as pits or pump sumps can

usually accommodate these explosive gases for
Potentially explosive atmospheres are divided longer periods, so that here it is also necessary
into six zones in accordance with EC-Directive to expect a Zone 0 area.
1999/92. This was converted into German law in
the Operational Safety Decree BetrSichV. With apparatus for Zone 0, ignition sources
The classification is based on the probability of must be protected against explosion even if the
the build-up of a potentially explosive atmos- occurrence of failures is only rare. Hence, the
phere. In addition, distinction is made between apparatus must meet the following require-
flammable gases, vapours and mists on the one ments:
hand, and flammable combustible dusts on the Should one type of protection fail or should
other. two faults occur simultaneously, sufficient pro-
Information on the zone classification can also tection against explosion must still be ensured.
be found in the Explosion Protection Rules of
the Employers” Liability Insurance Association The constructional requirements EN 50284 (VDE
for the Chemical Industry and EN 60079-10. 0170/0171, Part 12-1) state that the necessary
explosion protection is attained if the apparatus
Classification of potentially explosive
atmospheres • is built in accordance with the type of protec-
Zone 0 tion ”ia” to EN 50 020, or
An area in which an explosive atmosphere com- • conforms to at least one type of protection
prising a mixture of air with flammable gases, according to EN 50 015 to EN 50 020, and if
vapours or mists is present for long periods or the scope of the protective measures includes
frequently. a second independent type of protection.
Zone 1
An area in which an explosive atmosphere com- For example, flameproof luminaires were addi-
prising a mixture of air with flammable gases, tionally pressurized, or intrinsically safe appara-
vapours or mists can form occasionally under tus were additionally encapsulated acc. to EN
normal operating conditions. 50 028. According to the directive 94/9/EC,
Zone 2 apparatus for Zone 0 must comply with the
An area in which an explosive atmosphere com- Category 1G.
prising a mixture of air with flammable gases,
vapours or mists does not normally occur or In Zone 0 the hazard of an ignition due to elec-
only occurs for a short period under normal ope- trostatic charge is particularly high. For this rea-
rating conditions. son the relevant standard DIN EN 50 284 con-
Zone 20 tains extremely detailed requirements that
An area in which an explosive atmosphere in the exceed the requirements of DIN EN 50 014.
form of a cloud of combustible dust found in the
air can be present for long periods or frequently. Zone 1
Ex-control switch and ex-safety switch with pipe fixing, Zone 21 Flammable or explosive substances are made,
certified for use in Zones 1 and 21 An area in which an explosive atmosphere in the processed or stored in Zone 1. This includes the
form of a cloud of combustible dust found in the area surrounding charging doors and in the
air can form occasionally under normal opera- close vicinity of filling and discharging facilities,
ting conditions. the vicinity of fragile equipment, pipes and
Zone 22 glands on pumps and slides that do not seal
An area in which an explosive atmosphere in the adequately. It is likely that an ignitable concen-
form of a cloud of combustible dust found in the tration will occur during normal operation. Igni-
air normally does not occur or occurs for a short tion sources that occur during normal, trouble-
period only under normal operating conditions. free operation and those that usually occur in
Notes: the event of operating disturbances, must be
1. Layers, deposits and accumulations of com- explosion-proof.
bustible dust are to be considered in the same The chapter ”Electrical apparatus for use in
way as any other source that form an explosive potentially explosive atmospheres” describes the
atmosphere individual types of protection. According to
2. ´Normal operation` is understood as being Directive 94/9/EC, Zone 1 apparatus must com-
when installations are being used within their ply with the Category 2G.
design parameters.

Which explosion protected electrical apparatus

may be used in the individual zones?

Zone 0
Zone 0 mainly encompasses areas such as the
inside of enclosed containers, pipes and appa-
ratus that contain flammable liquids. The res-
pective operating temperature lies above the
flash point. The potentially explosive atmosphere
Ex-protected torch for use in Zone 0: specially certified for lies above the surface of the liquid and not in the
the increased requirements in this hazardous area
liquid. Most gases of flammable liquids are hea-
vier than air and spread in a similar way to

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 9

Zone 2 Zone 22
Zone 2 encompasses areas around Zone 0 and Under normal operating conditions it is not
Zone 1, as well as areas around flanged joints necessary to expect the occurrence of an explo-
on pipelines in enclosed rooms. Furthermore, it sive dust/air mixture in Zone 22. It is only neces-
includes such areas in which, due to natural or sary to expect an explosive atmosphere due, for
forced ventilation, the lower explosive limit is example, to whirled-up dust deposits in the
only reached in exceptional cases, such as the event of a breakdown. According to Directive
environment of outdoor installations. 94/9/EC, apparatus for Zone 22 must comply
Zone 2 applies to areas where flammable or with the Category 3D. According to DIN/EN
explosive substances are manufactured or sto- 50281-1-1, in the event that conductive dusts
red. The probability that an ignitable concentra- are present in an installation, the apparatus used
Ex-protected fluorescent light fitting with electronic ballast
tion will occur is rare and then exists only for a shall be in the IP degree of protection that corre-
short period. sponds to that specified for the Category 2D.
for use in Zones 2 and 22

During normal, trouble-free operation, ignition Detailed information on all zones can be found in
sources must be explosion-proof. the chapter ”Erection and operation of electrical
The use of all apparatus that satisfies the requi- installations in potentially explosive areas”.
rements for Zone 0 and Zone 1 apparatus is
According to Directive 94/9/EC, apparatus for
Zone 2 must comply with the Category 3 G.

Zone 20
Apparatus for Zone 20 shall be specially appro-
ved for this purpose, e.g. grain silos. Construc-
tional requirements for apparatus for this zone
where protection is afforded by the surrounding
enclosure, can be found in DIN EN 50281-1-1.
Further standards, e.g. for apparatus in the type
of protection Intrinsic Safety, are being prepa-
red. According Directive 94/9/EC, apparatus for
Zone 20 must comply with the Category 1D.

Zone 21
Among others, Zone 21 encompasses mills,
warehouses for coal or grain, and the area sur-
rounding filling stations. Here explosive clouds of
dust can develop due, for example, to the occa-
sional escaping of dust from the opening. The
risk of hazards due to dust deposits is often
underestimated. Explosive dust/air mixtures can
develop due to the formation of a smoulder spot
or of a low temperature carbonization gas, as
well as due to the deflagration of a low tempera-
ture carbonization gas or to the whirling-up of
gas caused by glowing combustion. According
to Directive 94/9/EC, apparatus for Zone 21
must comply with the Category 2D.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 10

EC directives on
explosion protection

ces with potentially explosive atmospheres and,

Directive 79/196/EEC Directive 94/9 EC as a result of it, graded safety features for the
”apparatus” being used.
Scope Electrical apparatus Electrical and non- Since the new directive was formulated in
electrical apparatus and accordance with the ”New Approach” of the EC,
protective systems this involved the introduction of the manufactu-
Potentially explosive gas Potentially explosive gas rer”s declaration of conformity in conjunction
with a CE marking of the products for explosion
atmospheres and dust atmospheres
protected apparatus as well.
A detailed explanation with regard to the direc-
Distinctive tive 94/9/EC is included in the chapter ”Directive
community 94/9/EC of the European Parliament and Coun-
mark for the free cil of March 23rd, 1994”.
movement of goods
The adjacent chart shows a brief comparison of
Certificate Certificate of conformity Manufacturer”s declaration the main differences between the rulings accor-
Inspection certificate of conformity ding to the old and the new directive.
by a notified body The basis is a type
certificate issued by
the notified body

Quality assurance Not referred to Required


Fields of application Regulated by standards Direct regulation

and construction of in the directive
the apparatus – Apparatus groups
– Apparatus categories
– Basic safety requirments

Marking of apparatus Regulated by standards Laid down in the directive

Free trade within the European

The basis for the free movement of goods within
the European trade area was established in the
articles of association of the EEC.

Article 100a of the contract

New version of Article 95
A series of European standards for explosion
protected apparatus was drawn up by the Euro-
pean Standards Committee for electrical appa-
ratus (CENELEC) to provide the basis for the
enforcement of the requirements. Directive
79/196/EEC of the European committee provi-
ded the legal basis.

This ”old” directive was restricted to explosion-

protected electrical apparatus and the regulati-
ons that were required for the free movement of
goods. By rigidly referring to the European stan-
dards, the normative basis for the certification of
explosion-protected electrical apparatus was
regulated by ”notified bodies”.

The ”new” directive 94/9/EC regulates the requi-

rements for ALL apparatus and protective
systems for use in potentially explosive atmos-
pheres. In addition, the directive now includes
the ”Basic safety requirements” for explosion-
protected apparatus. Manufacturers of explo-
sion-protected apparatus must provide evidence
of a quality assurance system that is to be veri-
fied by a ”notified body”. Another new features is
a description of the hazardous areas in workpla-

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 11

Directive 94/9/EC of the
European Parliament
and Council
dated March 23, 1994
- ATEX directive –
systems or contribute to it.
Set-up of the directive 94/9/EC The definitions for some terms relating to explo-
sion protection in this directive are different to
Disposing part those found in the International Electro-technical
Chapter Clause Heading Apparatus and protective systems designed for
use in hazardous areas:
I 1– 7 Scope of application, putting in circulation and free movement of goods
Apparatus is machinery, equipment, stationary
II 8– 9 Conformity assessment procedures or portable devices, control units and parts of
equipment, as well as warning and preventive
systems that, either individually or in combina-
III 10 – 11 CE marking of conformity tion, are designed for the generation, transmis-
sion, storage, measurement, control and con-
IV 12 – 16 Concluding provisions version of energy and for the processing of
materials that feature inherent ignition sources
Annexes and are, therefore, capable of causing an explo-
I Criteria of decision for the classification of groups of apparatus in categories
Protective systems are all devices that imme-
diately stop an explosion in its very beginning
II Essential safety and health requirements for the conception and construction of and/or limit the area covered by an explosion.
apparatus and protective systems for use in potentially explosive atmospheres They are put into circulation as independent
systems. The components of the apparatus
III Module: EC- type-examination defined above are not regarded as protective
IV Module: Quality assurance of the production
Components are those parts that are required
V Module: Inspection of the products for the safe operation of apparatus and protec-
tive systems without, however, fulfilling an inde-
pendent function.
VI Module: Conformity with the design
An explosive atmosphere is a mixture of air
VII Module: Quality assurance of the product with flammable gases, vapours, mists or dusts
under atmospheric conditions in which, after
VIII Module: Internal production control ignition has occurred, the process of combus-
tion is propagated to the whole unconsumed
IX Module: Individual test mixture.

X CE marking and contents of the EC certificate of conformity In a potentially explosive atmosphere the
atmosphere can become explosive due to local
and operational conditions.
XI VMinimum criteria to be taken into account by the member states for the
authorization of testing laboratories The scope of application of this directive does
not include:
• medical equipment designed for use in
The purpose of this directive is the assimilation medical areas,
of the statutory stipulations of the member sta- • apparatus and protective systems with which
tes of the European Union concerning apparatus an explosion hazard is only possible if
and protective systems for use in potentially explosives or chemically unstable substances
explosive atmospheres. are present,
• apparatus intended for use in domestic and
As of July 1, 2003 it replaced any existing direc- non-commercial surroundings in which an
tives concerning explosion protection on a Euro- explosive atmosphere can only rarely be
pean level. The European Parliament fixed July formed, and then only as a result of an
1st, 1996 as the date for the conversion of the inadvertent leakage of fuel,
new directive into national law. • personal protective outfits,
• ocean-going vessels and mobile offshore
The four chapters of the disposing part are sub- plants, as well as the equipment on board of
divided into 16 clauses. In the chapters refe- these vessels or plants,
rence is made to the annexes I to XI, which • vehicles and the associated trailers that are
include 7 modules exclusively intended for the transportation
of people by air, road, rail, or water, and
Scope of application transportation means designed for the
The directive, also known as the ATEX directive, transport of goods by air, public road and
applies to apparatus and protective systems railway systems, or water. Vehicles intended
that are designed for use in potentially explosive for use in potentially explosive atmospheres
atmospheres. Safety devices and control are not excluded and,
systems for use outside of potentially explosive • possibly, products for military purposes, if this
atmospheres also come under this directive. is deemed necessary by any of the member
This applies when such devices are required for states of the European Union.
the safe operation of apparatus and protective

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 12

Essential safety requirements The German interests will be represented by the
A product is considered to be safe if, when it is German Institute for Standardizaton (DIN) and
used as directed, the essential safety and health the German Electrotechnical Commission (DKE).
requirements for the design and construction of A list of the harmonized Standards to Directive
apparatus and protective systems according to 94/9/EC can be found in Annex 4.
the directive are fulfilled.
With regard to associated equipment, the basic Groups and categories of apparatus
safety requirements only apply inasmuch as they Apparatus is subdivided into groups and cate-
are necessary for a safe and reliable functioning gories:
and handling of this equipment in order to Apparatus Group I applies to apparatus for
ensure the explosion protection. mining operations above ground and under-
ground that may be endangered by methane
In order to make it easier to furnish proof that a gas and/or combustible dusts.
piece of apparatus or a protective system con- Apparatus Group II applies to apparatus for
forms to these requirements, uniform standards use in all other areas that can be subject to
have to be established on a European level. This the hazard of an explosive atmosphere.
applies, in particular, to the non-electrical field of The apparatus group I is subdivided into the
explosion protection. In the past standards only Categories M1 and M2:
existed for electrical apparatus in Europe. These
standards, if not already in existence, shall
describe the conception, design and testing of
apparatus and devices. If standards are publis-
hed by the European Commission in the official
gazette of the European Communities as assig-
ned to a given directive, they are valid as so-cal-
led „harmonized standards”. Compliance with
these standards ensures that a product con-
forms to the basic requirements of Directive
94/9/EC (so called „presumption principle”).
These standards will be drawn up by the Euro-
pean Standardization Committee (CEN) and the
European Committee for Electrotechnical Stan-
dardization (CENELEC).

Group II apparatus with potential ignition source

Apparatus Category 1 Apparatus Category 2 Apparatus Category 3

yes no
with internal
yes combustion

Documentation Documentation
from a notified body from manufacturer
EC-Type Examination
Internal production control

Essential safety and health requirements

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 13

Category Apparatus Group I
M1 The apparatus must continue to work even in the event of infrequent
failures coinciding with an existing explosive atmosphere and must fea-
ture such protective measures against explosion that
• if one constructional protective measure fails, at least one other
independent constructional measure will ensure the required safety,
• if two independent faults occur in combination, the required safety
is still ensured.

M2 If an explosive atmosphere occurs, it must be possible to switch off the

The constructional explosion-protection measures ensure the required
degree of safety during normal operation, even under severe operating
conditions and, in particular, in cases of rough handling and changing
environmental influences.

Apparatus Group II is subdivided into the Categories 1, 2 and 3:

Category Apparatus Group II

1 The apparatus is intended for use in areas in which an explosive
atmosphere is present continuously or for long periods or fre-
Even if apparatus failures only occur infrequently, the apparatus must
ensure the required degree of safety and feature such explosion pro-
tection measures that
• if one constructional protective measure fails, at least one other
independent constructional protective measure ensures the requi
red degree of safety, or
• if two independent faults occur in combination, the required degree
of safety is still ensured.

2 The apparatus is intended for use in areas in which an explosive

atmosphere occurs occasionally.
Even in the case of frequent apparatus failures or faulty conditions that
are normally to be expected, the constructional explosion protection
measures ensure the required degree of safety.

3 The apparatus is intended for use in areas in which no occurrence of

an explosive atmosphere due to gases, vapours, mists or whirled-up
dust is to be expected. If, however, it occurs, then in all probability
only rarely or for a short period.
During normal operation the apparatus ensures the required degree of

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 14

Marking examples: Apparatus, protective systems or devices are
regarded as unsafe if, when used for their inten-
ded purpose, they represent an imminent dan-
Group II ger to the safety of people, domestic animals or
II 1G Category 1 (Zone 0 apparatus) (G = gases, vapours, mists) goods.

The member state is required to notify the com-

Group II mission of the European Union of such measu-
II 2G Category 2 (Zone 1 apparatus) (G = gases, vapours, mists) res and to give the reasons for its decision. The
commission will immediately contact the com-
panies concerned and inform all member states
Group II if these measures has are justified.
II 3G Category 3 (Zone 2 apparatus) (G = gases, vapours, mists) If the fault is the result of a standard, a commit-
tee will deal with it. Great importance is attached
to the uniformity of the practical implementation.
Group II The standing committee will review questions
II 1D Category 1 (Zone 20 apparatus) (D = dust) relating to the application of this directive.

Group II Each piece of apparatus and each protective
II 2D Category 2 (Zone 21 apparatus) (D = dust) system must be marked in a clear and indelible
manner with the following minimum data:
• manufacturer”s name and address
Group II • CE marking
II 3D Category 3 (Zone 22 apparatus) (D = dust) • designation of the series and of the type
• serial number, when required
• the year of construction
• the community marking for explosion-
protected apparatus in accordance with the
directive 76/117/EEC in conjunction with
the marking relating to the category
• the letter ”G” for apparatus group II for areas
in which explosive mixtures of gas,
Putting into circulation and vapour or mist with air mixtures are present
commissioning of products and/or the letter ”D” for areas where an
The member states must not forbid, restrict or explosive atmosphere can form due to dust.
impede the putting into circulation and commis-
sioning of apparatus, protective systems and In addition and where required, any details that
devices that conform to the terms of this direc- are indispensable for the safety of operation also
tive. Similarly, the putting into circulation of com- have to be affixed.
ponents covered by a certificate of conformity
shall not be forbidden, restricted or impeded if
they are to be built into a piece of equipment or Provisional arrangements
a protective system in line with this directive. From 1.3.1996, the date on which the directive
first became applicable, to the completion of
The EU member states assume conformity with harmonization on 1.7.2003 there was a transitio-
this directive and with the conformity asses- nal period during which the old regulations and
sment procedures if the apparatus, protective the new directive could be applied parallel to
systems and devices are accompanied by the each other. This long transition period facilitated
EC Certificate of Conformity and if the products the implementation of the new quality assurance
are provided with the CE mark. system according to the requirements of the
Products that do not yet meet the requirements directive for the manufacturers. The apparatus
of this directive may be displayed at exhibitions, must be marked clearly so that the user can tell
fairs and demonstrations, if a visible label clearly whether the ”old” or the ”new” directive was
points to the fact that it will not be possible to applied.
purchase the product until compliance with the
directive has been ensured.

Procedure in the event of unsafe

Should a member state discover that any appa-
ratus, protective systems or devices with CE
mark are unsafe, it can withdraw these from the
market and forbid their being put into circulation
or commissioning, or restrict their free circula-

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 15

CE marking

Products that fall within the scope of given • Directive 91/263/EEC

directives must be provided with the CE marking This directive only applies to ”Electrical appa-
by the manufacturer. This refers to products that ratus for use in explosive atmospheres” to a
are covered by the directives according to the very limited extent.
new concept, that include requirements relating (Products for connection to the public tele-
to the technical properties of products. communication network)
These EC directives constitute binding regulati-
ons of the ”European Union”. That means that • Directive 94/9/EC
the compliance with these requirements is the This directive is to be applied to all products
condition for marketing the products in Europe. (including non-electric products) for use in a
When a product is provided with the CE mark, potentially explosive atmosphere
the conformity of the product with the relevant
basic requirements of all directives applicable In addition to marking products with the CE
to the products is confirmed. The marking is, mark, the manufacturer must issue a declara-
therefore, an imperative requirement for the put- tion of conformity for the product. This decla-
ting into circulation of the products within the ration of conformity must clearly state
Community, as well as in the country of origin.
which directive was applied and according
The CE marking is only meant as evidence of to which standards the tests were carried
the conformity with the directives for the supervi- out.
sing authorities. It is, however, often mistaken as
a quality mark and is, therefore, also requested At present, due to the fact that the various direc-
without a legal basis by the users. tives came into force at different times and tran-
sitional periods have been determined, the
The following directives are of special impor- declaration of conformity is the only means to
tance for electrical apparatus: clearly discern which directive was taken as a
basis for the CE marking (e. g. directive
94/9/EC, applicable as of: March 1st, 1996;
• Directive 73/23/EEC obligatory application as of: July 1st, 2003).
Electrical apparatus for use within defined
voltage limits As explained in the first paragraph, this all
applies to directives according to the new con-
• Directive 89/336/EEC cept. Unlike for many other products, directives
Electromagnetic compatibility for explosion-protected apparatus already exi-
sted at a very early date. Thus, the European
• Directive 89/392/EEC interstate market had already been established
Safety of machinery for these products.

• Directive 91/263/EEC Directives 76/117/EEC; 79/196/EEC;

Telecommunication equipment 82/130/EEC

• Directive 94/9/EC These directives defined as the distinctive

Apparatus and protective systems for use in mark for the putting into circulation of explosion-
potentially explosive atmospheres protected apparatus within the whole commu-
When assessing which directives must be
applied to explosion-protected apparatus,
it is necessary to differentiate between whether
these directives are to be applied generally or
only to certain products.

• Directive 73/23/EEC
This directive does not apply to ”Electrical
apparatus for use in explosive atmospheres”
(Exclusion as per Annex II of the directive)

• Directive 89/336/EEC
Type label according to new ATEX directive 94/9/EC This directive is to be applied to any products
that may cause electromagnetic interferences
or the operation of which may be impaired by
such interferences
eLLK 92036/36
• Directive 89/392/EEC
CEAG Sicherheitstechnik GmbH
Article 1, clauses 4 and 5 of the directive
PTB Nr. Ex-92.C.1801 X clearly state that this directive is not to be
applied to explosion-protected electrical
EEx ed IIC T4 110-254 V 50-60 Hz apparatus
Lampe: G13-IEC-1305-2 110-230 V DC
Ser. Nr.: D189115 Tu ≤ 50 °C
Type label according to previous directive

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 16

Conformity assessment procedures Apparatus Groups I and II, Apparatus
for apparatus according to Categories M2 and 2
Directive 94/9/EC With internal combustion motors and electrical
Depending upon the conformity assessment apparatus, in order to be permitted to affix the
procedure to be applied, a notified body can be CE marking on the product, the manufacturer
active during the design and engineering phase, must arrange for the following procedures to be
during the production phase or during both pha- carried out and/or ensure the following measu-
ses. The applicable evaluation procedure is laid res:
down in the directive 94/9/EC in relation to the • EC-type examination by a notified body
product, the apparatus group and the apparatus and
category. • either guarantee of constructional confor-
mity or
Apparatus Groups I and II, Apparatus • verification of the required quality level by
means of the quality assurance procedure
Categories M1 and 1 for the products.
In order to be permitted to affix the CE marking The internal production control procedure shall
to his product, the manufacturer must arrange be applied for all other apparatus in these
for the following procedures to be carried out: groups and categories.
• EC-type examination by a notified body
• either an inspection of the quality assu-
Apparatus Group II,
rance for the production process or Apparatus Category 3
• an inspection of the products. In order to be permitted to affix the CE marking
to the product, the manufacturer shall apply the
internal production control procedure.

The EC declaration of conformity must be inclu-

ded with all products or batches of identical pro-
ducts that are put into circulation. This does not
apply to the report issued by the notified body
as part of the inspection of the quality assurance
system of the manufacturer or for the EC-type
examination certificate.

Conformity assessment procedure

Apparatus Group I and II I and II I and II II

Category M 1 and 1 M 2 and 2 M 2 and 2 3

Field of • any apparatus • electrical apparatus • other apparatus • any apparatus
application • if applicable • if applicable, • components (*) • safety and control
safety and safety and devices
control devices control devices • components (*)
• components (*) • components (*)
• independent protective systems • I.C. engines

Combination of EC type sample EC type sample Internal production Internal production

procedures acc. test to Annex III test to Annex III control acc. to control acc. toI
to Annexes plus quality plus quality Annex VIII Annex VIII
III to IX ass. of production ass. of product plus submitting of
acc. to Annex IV acc. to Annex VIII technical documents
or inspection of or conformity with to the designated
products acc. to Annex V design IV test lab

Alternative: Individual EC test acc. to Annex IX

(*) Components without CE mark

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 17

The Equipment Safety Law

As of January 1, 1993 electrical apparatus for

use in hazardous areas is covered by the equip-
ment safety law. Untill then, the requirements for
the qualification of equipment were based on
the Factory Act (GewO), the statutory regulati-
ons (RVO) and the Equipment Safety Law. This
split responsibilty has been eliminated.

Now all measures relating to the putting

into circulation of technical equipment are
combined in the Equipment Safety Law.
These measures serve for the protection of
employees and consumers in accordance with
the harmonized laws in the European Union.

If, however, you look for ”hazardous areas” in

the equipment safety law, you will not find them.
Instead it refers to ”installations requiring super-
vision”. These also include ”electrical installati-
ons in particularly hazardous locations”.

The equipment safety law now makes it possible

to enforce the safety requirements for installations
and parts of these requiring supervision upon the
manufacturers and importers. Moreover, it is now
easier to implement EC directives relating to the
putting into circulation of apparatus.

Decree concerning the putting

into circulation of apparatus
and protective systems for use
in potentially explosive atmos-
pheres – explosion protection
decree (ExVO)
§1 Scope
§2 Definitions
§3 Safety requirements
§4 Conditions for putting into circulation
§5 CE conformity marking
§6 Breaches of the regulations
§7 Provisional regulations

The decree concerning explosion protection

directly converts the directive 94/4/EC into
national law. It applies to all apparatus, protec-
tive systems, safety and control devices for use
in, and for, potentially explosive atmospheres.
The range of application for such apparatus
(including non-electrical apparatus) applies to
apparatus that features an inherent potential
ignition source and can cause an explosion.
Such apparatus, protective systems and devices
may only be put into circulation if they fulfil the
requirements of the directive 94/9/EC. The legis-
lative body garanted a transition period up to
June 30, 2003. Until this time apparatus could
be put into circulation according to the law from
March 23, 1994.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 18

Directive 1999/92/EC of
the European Parliament
and Council dated
December 16, 1999

Structure of Directive Reductions of and assessment of explosion

199/92/EC It is the duty of the employer to carry out mea-
sures according to the following order of prece-
Ruling part dence:
1. Prevention of explosive atmospheres,
Section Article Heading where possible by the substitution of materi-
I 1-2 General requirements als.
II 3-9 Duties of employer 2. Prevention of the ignition of explosive
3 Prevention of and protec- atmospheres.
tion against explosions 3. Harmful effects to a minimum.
4 Assessment of the explo- This concept is already known in Germany due
sion risks to the explosion protection directives of the
5 General obligations employers” liability insurance association and it
6 Coordination obligations has been put into practice for many years. The
7 Areas with explosive new aspect of this directive is the systematic
atmospheres method according to which the measures are
8 Explosion protection laid down and documented.
document After assessment of all the remaining explosion
9 Special regulations relating risks, whereby the interaction of installations, the
to working materials and materials being used, the processes and their
places of work possible interactions were taken into considera-
III 10-15 Other requirements tion, measures for the safety of employees at
work must be laid down to ensure their health
Annexes and safety at all times. Here special require-
I Classification of areas in which explo- ments are imposed regarding the coordination
sive atmospheres can be present duties of the employer at the place of work.
1. Areas in which explosive atmospheres
can be present
2. Classification of potentially explosive
Zone classification
The areas in which explosive atmospheres can
occur must be subdivided into zones according
II A Minimum requirements for the
to Annex I of the directive. Here gases and
improvement of the safety and
dusts are each divided into three zones accor-
health protection of employees
ding to the probability of their occurrence.
who could be endangered by
explosive atmospheres
Flammable gases, vapours or mists:
1. Organizational measures
2. Explosion protection measures Zone 0
An area in which an explosive atmosphere com-
B Criteria for the selection of appa- prising a mixture of air with flammable gases,
ratus and protective systems vapours or mists is present for long periods or
III Warning signs for marking areas
in which explosive atmospheres Zone 1
can occur An area in which an explosive atmosphere com-
prising a mixture of air with flammable gases,
The aim of the European directive is to lay down vapours or mists can form occasionally under
minimum requirements for the improvement of normal operating conditions.
the health protection and safety of employees
who could be endangered by explosive atmos- Zone 2
pheres. The national legislative bodies are obli- An area in which an explosive atmosphere com-
ged to implement these requirements, but may prising a mixture of air with flammable gases,
also lay down additional measures on a national vapours or mists does not normally occur or
basis. only occurs for a short period under normal
operating conditions.
The scope of application covers the areas in
which employees can be endangered by explo-
sive atmospheres. Here an explosive atmos-
phere is defined as being a mixture of flammable
gases, vapours, mists or dusts with air.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 19

Combustible dusts: - Provision of escape facilities
- Initial inspection by qualified person
Zone 20 - Measures for risk assessment
An area in which an explosive atmosphere in the • Hazards due to power failures
form of a cloud of combustible dust found in the • Manual operation of apparatus and protective
air can be present for long periods or fre- systems
quently. • Safe reduction of stored energy

Zone 21 Annex II B
An area in which an explosive atmosphere in the Criteria for the selection of apparatus and pro-
form of a cloud of combustible dust found in the tective systems
air can form occasionally under normal ope-
rating conditions. Unless otherwise specified in the explosion pro-
tection document taking into account the risk
Zone 22 evaluation, apparatus and protective systems
An area in which an explosive atmosphere in the are selected in accordance with Directive
form of a cloud of combustible dust found in the 94/9/EC.
air normally does not occur or occurs for a
short period only under normal operating con- Zone Category
ditions. 0 or 20 1
1 or 21 1 or 2
With combustible dusts it is also necessary to 2 or 22 1, 2 or 3
consider the layers, deposits and accumulations
as a source for possible explosive atmospheres. Annex III
Normal operation is understood as being when Warning sign for marking areas in which explo-
installations are used according to the specified sive atmospheres can occur.

Explosion protection document

After the employer has classified the zones and
marked these areas in accordance with Annex III
of the directive, he then has to issue the explo-
sion protection document. First all the ascertai-
ned explosion risks and the measures taken (pri- In addition to these measures, it is necessary to
mary explosion protection) are documented document how the place of work and the wor-
here, together with the zone classification. This king materials, including the warning sign, are
is followed by the documentation of the measu- safely designed, serviced and operated. The
res according to Annex IIA relating to the fulfil- measures for the safe use of working materials
ment of the minimum requirements. This inclu- are also to be documented in accordance with
des the areas of installations located in the non- Directive 89/655/EEC.
potentially hazardous atmospheres that are Before work is commenced, this document
necessary for the safety of the potentially explo- must be drawn up and revised in such a way
sive atmosphere. that any significant changes, extensions or rear-
rangements of the place of work, the working
Annex II A materials or the work process are taken into
Minimum requirements for the improvement of consideration.
the safety and health protection of employees
who can be endangered by explosive atmos- Special regulations for working materials and
pheres. places of work
- up to 30.06.03 working materials
1. Organizational measures (Annex ll A)
- Appropriate instruction of employees - from 01.07.03 new working materials
- Written instructions and work release (Annex ll A+B)
notes - from 01.07.03 new places of work (Annex ll)
• If necessary, written instructions for work - up to 30.06.03 rearrange old places of work
assignment - from 01.07.03 rearrange places of work in the
• Work release system for hazardous tasks event of changes
• Work release by authorized person
Directive 1999/9/92 EC applies the dates and
2. Explosion protection measures deadlines stated above to regulate the imposing
- Rendering any escaped Ex-atmosphere of the minimum requirements for work equip-
harmless ment and places of work for new installations,
- Design according to the highest risk as well as for the adaptation of existing installati-
potential ons in which potentially explosive atmospheres
- Avoidance of all ignition hazards can occur. As, in this case, changes are permit-
(e.g. static charge of persons) ted during the conversion of this directive into
- Taking into operation if authorized in the the national law of the member states, the res-
explosion document pective national rules and regulations shall be
- Installation and operation according to observed. It is necessary to note that, depen-
lowest explosion risk ding upon the respective situation, various time
- If necessary, warning of Ex-atmosphere limits can apply.
Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 20
Decree on health and
safety protection relating
to the provision of work
equipment and the use
thereof during work,
safety during the opera-
tion of installations requi-
ring supervision and the
organisation of operatio-
nal safety provisions (Ope-
rational Safety Decree –

With this decree, that came into force on Annex 1: Minimum requirements for work
October 3, 2002, among other things, Direc- equipment in acc. with § 7, Section
tive 1999/92/EC was converted into German 1, No. 2
law. Within the scope of the interim provisions Annex 2: Minimum requirements for the
in the BetrSichV, it replaces the ElexV for the improvement of the safety and
field of explosion protection. health protection of employees
when using work equipment
Table of contents Annex 3: Zone classification of potentially
Section 1 explosive atmospheres
General regulations Annex 4: A: Minimum requirements for the
§ 1 Scope of application improvement of the safety and
§ 2 Definitions health protection of employees
who could be endangered by
Section 2 potentially explosive atmospheres
§ 3 Assessment of degree of hazard B:Criteria for the selection of equip-
§ 4 Requirements relating to the provision ment and protective systems
and use of work equipment Annex 5: Testing of special pressure appara-
§ 5 Potentially explosive atmospheres tus according to § 17
§ 6 Explosion protection document
§ 7 Requirements relating to the quality of As this table of contents shows, the BetrSichV
work equipment does not only lay down rules for the field of
§ 8 Further protective measures explosion protection, but it also replaces a
§ 9 Information and instruction series of other decrees, e.g. the decree on
§ 10 Testing of work equipment flammable liquids or the pressure tanks
§ 11 Records decree. Due to the large scope of the rulings
of the decree, it is not necessarily easy to find
Section 3 the individual provisions of the EC Directive
Special regulations for installations discussed in the previous section immediately.
requiring supervision However, they have all been incorporated in
§ 12 Operations accordance with the European law. The Ger-
§ 13 Required permits man legislator made avail of the aforementio-
§ 14 Testing before putting into operation ned possibility to expand on the minimum
§ 15 Recurrent tests requirements of the directive during conver-
§ 16 Prescribed special tests sion into national law, inasmuch as the Ger-
§ 17 Testing of special pressure apparatus man law includes clearly defined requirements
§ 18 Accident and damage reports for testing apparatus before putting it into
§ 19 Test certificates operation for the first time, for recurrent tests
§ 20 Notice of defects and testing after apparatus repairs.
§ 21 Approved supervisory authorities
§ 22 Supervisory authorities for installations
requiring supervision owned by the
Federal Government
§ 23 Operation of portable pressure apparatus
within the boundaries of an industrial

Section 4
Joint regulations, concluding provisions
§ 24 Commission for operational safety
§ 25 Breaches of regulations
§ 26 Punishable offences
§ 27 Provisional rulings

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 21

Electrical apparatus for
use in potentially explosive

Principles There is a certain interrelation between the limit-

ing gap widths and the ratio of minimum ignition
Division into explosion groups current. In order to be able to classify gases and
It would not be economical to construct all vapours to meet the requirements of explosion
explosion-protected electrical apparatus to meet protection, it is, therefore, sufficient to define
the most stringent requirements with regard to only one of the two properties for most of the
ignition temperature, explosive force and ignition industrially employed gas/air and vapour/air mix-
capability of the gases. For this reason, electrical tures. Annex A to VDE 0170/0171/part 1/3.94 -
apparatus is divided into explosion groups and DIN EN 50 014 states the classification of a
temperature classes. number of industrially important gases and
Group I: encompasses electrical apparatus vapours according to their limiting gap width
for underground mines that are sus- and their minimum ignition current.
ceptible to the hazard of firedamp,
e.g. coal mines
Group II: encompasses electrical apparatus
for all other hazardous areas Explosion Limiting gap Ratio of
groups width minimum
in mm ignition current
Sub-division of the explosion groups
according to the explosive force and II A > 0,9 > 0,8
minimum igniting current
A sub-division into A, B and C is prescribed for II B 0,5 to 0,9 0,45 to 0,8
some types of protection for Group II electrical
apparatus. For flameproof enclosures it is based II C < 0,5 < 0,45
on the maximum experimental safe gap (MESG),
and for intrinsically safe apparatus on the mini-
mum igniting current (MIC).

Maximum experimental safe gap

In the case of electrical apparatus in which arcs
or sparks occur during normal operation, an
explosive atmosphere that has penetrated into
the enclosure can be ignited. However, the pro-
pagation of an already initiated ignition from wit-
hin the enclosure to the surrounding atmos-
phere can be prevented if the flame is forced to
pass through narrow gaps. As it passes through
the gap, heat is taken away from the flame and
the temperature is reduced to such a degree
that combustion no longer takes place and the
flame is extinguished. With electrical apparatus
in the type of protection ”Flameproof enclosure”
the classification of the gases and vapours
based on the maximum experimental safe gap
(MESG) are carried out in testing vessels with a
gap length of 25 mm. The testing vessel descri-
bed in the IEC publication 60079-1 A must be
used as the standardization method for determi-
ning the MESG.

Minimum ignition current (MIC)

As far as intrinsically safe electrical apparatus
are concerned, gases and vapours are classified
according to their ratio of minimum ignition cur-
rent. In order to ignite an explosive atmosphere,
the ignition spark must contain a minimum
energy content. The necessary minimum energy
content is a specific property of the ignitable
gases and vapours. A criterion for this is the
ratio of the minimum ignition current (MIC) to the
minimum ignition current of laboratory methane.
The MIC is determined according to a standardi-
zed method and must be carried out with appa-
ratus as defined in EN 50 020 annex B.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 22

Ignition temperature and temperature
Classification of maximum surface temperatures
on group II electrical apparatus
The maximum surface temperature of the elec-
Temperature Max. admiss. surface temperature Ignition temperatures of in- trical apparatus must not reach the ignition tem-
class of the apparatuses in °C flammable substances in °C perature of the potentially explosive atmosphere.
The ignition temperature of a flammable sub-
T1 450 > 450 stance is determined by means of a test appara-
tus. It is the lowest temperature on a heated wall
T2 300 > 300 ≤ 450 at which the flammable substance will just about
ignite in a mixture with air. The ignition tempera-
T3 200 > 200 ≤ 300 ture of liquids and gases is determined accor-
ding to the method defined in DIN 51 794. The
determination of the ignition temperature of
T4 135 > 135 ≤ 200 combustible dusts is specified in the IEC publi-
cation IEC 61241-2-1.
T5 100 > 100 ≤ 135 The ignition temperatures of the different mixtu-
res vary considerably. Whereas a mixture of air
T6 85 > 85 ≤ 100 with town gas will only ignite at 560 °C, a
mixture of air and petrol will already ignite at ca.
250 °C.
This classification makes it possible to take eco-
nomical aspects into account for the design of
the electrical apparatus. The requirements rela-
Classification of gases and vapours in explosion groups and temperature classes ting to the construction increase with the ascen-
ding order of the letters marking the explosion
T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 groups. The requirements relating to the admis-
sible temperature of the surfaces that come into
contact with the explosive atmosphere,
I Methane (decrease in surface temperature), rise with the
ascending order of the numerals for the tempe-
II A Acetone Ethylalcohol Petrol Acetaldehyde rature classes. It is, therefore, left to the manu-
Ethane I-amyl acetate Diesel fuel Ethylether facturer to decide the requirements according
Ethylacetate n-butane Aviation fuel to which he wants to design and be permitted to
Ammonia n-butylalcohol Heating mark his explosion-protected electrical appara-
Benzol oils tus. It goes without saying that apparatus that
Acetic acid n-hexane fulfils the requirements of temperature class T3
is also suitable for use in explosive atmospheres
in the temperature classes T1 and T2.

II B Town gas Ethylen

(lamp gas)

II C Hydrogen Acetylene Carbon


Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 23

Types of protection for

General requirements acc. to In accordance with the requirements of the stan-

dards, electrical apparatus built to European
EN 50 014 standards must be subjected to a type test by
an independent testing station and to a routine
According to the European standard DIN EN 50 test by the manufacturer. The type test esta-
014 (VDE regulations 0170/0171/ blishes whether the technical documents
Part 1) explosion-protected apparatus can be (description and drawings) and the test samples
designed to meet the requirements of various are in conformity with the respective standards.
types of protection. Here seven types of protec- The mechanical strength is verified by an impact
tion based on different principles are taken into and drop test.
Compliance with admissible surface and winding
Electrical apparatus for hazardous areas must temperatures is verified by measurements. Spe-
conform to the general terms of the European cial tests are specified for
standard EN 50 014 and to the specific require- • the surface resistance,
ments for the type of protection for which it is • the verification of the thermal resistance of
built. Particularly harsh operating conditions, the plastic,
effects of moisture, high ambient temperatures • the thermal shock resistance of glass parts of
and other special stresses might possibly luminaires and inspection windows.
require additional measures.
Special requirements listed in the standard must Explosion-protected electrical apparatus must
be observed for enclosures made of plastics be marked in a clearly visible position. According
and light alloys. Special requirements apply to: to EN 50 014, it is not necessary to certify or
• locks and fixings, mark apparatus where none of the values of
• bushings and connecting pieces, 1.2 V, 0.1 A, 20 µJ or 25 mW is exceeded.
• cables and conduit entries

Explosive atmosphere Explosive atmosphere Explosive atmosphere

inert gas

Oil filling filling

Oil immersion ”o” – EN 50 015 Pressurization ”p” – EN 50 016 Sand filling ”q” – EN 50 017

Explosive atmosphere Explosive atmosphere

Flameproof enclosure ”d” – EN 50 0158 EN 50 014 Increased safety ”I” – EN 50 019

Explosive Explosive atmosphere



Intrinsic safety ”I” – EN 50 020 Encapsulation ”m” – EN 50 028 ”n” – EN 50 021

Types of protection
Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 24
Oil immersion ”o” Pressurization ”p”
EN 50 015/VDE 0170/0171, Part 2 EN 50 016/VDE 0170/0171, Part 3
Definition: A type of protection for electrical appa- The type of protection Pressurization prevents
ratus where the complete electrical apparatus or the penetration of an explosive atmosphere into
parts of electrical apparatus are rendered safe the enclosure containing electrical apparatus.
by immersing them in oil, so that the explosive This is achieved by means of an inert gas inside
atmosphere cannot come into contact with the the enclosure that is maintained at a pressure
potential ignition source. above that of the surrounding atmosphere. The
With this type of protection, the ignition source is overpressure of at least 0.5 mbar can be main-
so deeply immersed in an oil-filled enclosure that tained with or without continuous purging with
a transmission of the flame to the area above the inert gas.
oil level is prevented. This requires that the ther- As a rule, air serves as an inert gas. Previously
mal output fed to the oil, the thermal energy and this type of protection was called separate
the resulting energy density be taken into ventilation ”f”.
account. There are two types of pressurization:
• Pressurization with continuous purging
This type of protection is chiefly applied to swit- • Pressurization with leakage compensation
chgear and transformers. With such switchgear,
Example of pressurized apparatus the switching arc is drawn in oil and does not, The inert gas must enter into or exit the enclo-
therefore, come into contact with the explosive sure outside of the hazardous area. With both
mixture. Besides making sure that a sufficient oil types, the enclosure of the apparatus and all its
level is provided in any operating position of the ducts must be purged prior to operation by a
switchgear, the use of a suitable oil that must not volume of gas that equals the five-fold volume of
decompose as a result of the switching arc is of the enclosure. During operation the overpres-
special importance. In addition to this, care has sure must be monitored and, if the overpressure
to be taken to ensure that the temperature of the drops, a warning signal given or the apparatus
switchgear does not rise too high. An increased switched off.
oil temperature could, in turn, become an ignition Normally, a flow gauge is used in conjunction
source. The long term quality of the oil must also with a time lag relay to monitor the purging. The
be monitored, as soot changes the properties of time lag relay starts running at the same time as
the oil. purging. As soon as the required volume of inert
gas has flown through, the time lag relay relea-
Oil-immersed switchgear was widely used by the ses the switching-on of the apparatus that is
chemical industry for the local switching of built into the enclosure. If the purging fails or
motors. As a result of the transition to remote there is a drop in the overpressure during opera-
controls and an increase in the number of tion, the flow gauge or a manometer closes a
interlocks, it has lost much of its significance. contact which switches off the apparatus or
Nowadays oil-immersed switches are only instal- gives a warning signal.
led in exceptional cases. Moreover, the use of oil- The encapsulation of the apparatus must con-
immersed switches for portable equipment is not form to a minimum degree of protection IP 40 to
permitted. They also require a lot more mainten- EN 60529. It must prevent the propagation of
ance. Repairs are more difficult, because the oil flames, sparks or ignitable particles to the
box has to be removed prior to starting. This is potentially explosive atmospheres.
often undesirable inside the work area.
Examples for pressurization ”p”
• Electrical machinery with higher rating
• Switch cabinets
• Control panels
• Switch rooms
• Transformers
• Measuring instruments
• Resistor instruments
• Liquid starters
• Luminaires
• Current and voltage transformers
• Communication devices

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 25

Sand filling ”q” Flameproof enclosure ”d”
EN 50 017/VDE 0170/0171, Part 4 EN 50 018/VDE 0170/0171, Part 5
With the type of protection Sand filling, the With this type of protection those parts that are
enclosure of an electrical apparatus is filled with capable of igniting an explosive atmosphere are
a fine-grained filling material. This prevents the built into a flameproof enclosure that withstands
development of an arc inside the enclosure that the explosion pressure if a flammable mixture is
could ignite the explosive atmosphere surroun- ignited inside it. In this way a transmission of the
ding the enclosure. In addition to this, neither an explosion to the explosive atmosphere surroun-
ignition caused by flames nor an ignition as a ding the enclosure is prevented
result of increased temperatures on the enclo-
sure surface should be possible. The flameproof enclosure principle can be com-
pared to a one-way street
With this type of protection the enclosure is • an explosive atmosphere can penetrate into
generally filled with quartz sand that has to meet the enclosure of the electrical apparatus,
specific requirements with regard to the grain • but, in the event of an explosion inside the
size, purity, moisture content and disruptive enclosure, a transmission of the explosion to
strength. A filling material other than quartz is the outside is prevented.
permitted if it conforms to the requirements. The
enclosure must preferably be made of metal. The flameproof enclosures generally feature
Other materials are only permitted if their joints for the reduction of the high gas pressure
mechanical and thermal properties have been that is generated in the event of an explosion.
subjected to a test and described in detail. In These joints have two functions. On the one
any case, the resistance to pressure must be hand, the reduction of the gas pressure, and, on
verified by a static pressure test. the other hand, the cooling down of the tempe-
rature of the explosion gas being released
The built-in electrical components must be ade- through the joint to such a degree that an explo-
Ex-floodlight for high pressure discharge lamps: quately insulated, irrespective of the insulating sive atmosphere surrounding the flameproof
flameproof enclosure in combination with a terminal effect of the filling material. With naked live parts enclosure is not ignited.
compartment in type of protection ”increased safety”
there must be sufficient space between the
parts and between the parts and the enclosure A series of experiments was carried out to
wall. determine the gap dimensions for each type of
explosive so that the flammable atmosphere
The filling material is compressed, whereby, surrounding the atmosphere is not ignited.
depending on the built-in instruments and requi- Information on the determination of the maxi-
rements, the layers of filling material must have a mum gap widths can be found in the section
specified thickness. A perforated metal sheet ”Fundamental principles of explosion protec-
may be laid in the filling as a screen to reduce tion”.
the thickness of the layers.
The type label of the flameproof apparatus must
show the explosion group. Group II C apparatus
Examples for sand filling ”q”: can also be operated in areas for the Groups II B
• capacitors and II A, and group II B in areas for Group II A.
• bell transformers
• control circuits with hot or sparking parts The temperature class of apparatus indicates
• electronic apparatus the permitted limiting temperature up to which
the outer surfaces of such apparatus may rise.

The type of protection ”d” is often used for

motors and switchgear. Very little heat is gene-
rated in switchgear, so that the surface tempe-
rature of the enclosure during operation is only
slightly higher than the temperature of the
atmosphere surrounding the apparatus. In gene-
ral, the switchgear satisfies the requirements of
the temperature classes T5 and T6 and, there-
fore, also the requirements of the classes with
higher permissible temperatures.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 26

By comparison, motors dissipate more heat, Combined types of protection
especially with higher outputs. In order not to Until now it has been common practice in Ger-
exceed the permissible limiting temperature, it many to combine a flameproof enclosure with a
may be necessary to lower the rated output of a connection box in the type of protection ”increa-
flameproof motor as compared to that of a stan- sed safety”. Such a combination is used for
dard motor. luminaires and motors.
Oil and liquids that can form explosive mixtures
with air during decomposition must not, under This has the advantage that the installer does
any circumstances, be introduced into flame- not have to open the flameproof enclosure when
proof apparatus. carrying out installation maintenance. In compli-
ance with the degree of protection IP 54, the
cable can be lead into the ”increased safety”
Examples for the application of type of type connection box.
protection ”d”
• Motors with sliprings and commutators
• Three-phase squirrel cage motors
• Switchgear with N/O and N/C contacts such
as motor protection switches, circuit breakers,
air-break contactors
• Control units, plugs and sockets
• Fusegear
• Transformers
• Measuring instruments
• Current and voltage transformers
• Resistors
• Luminaires
• Communication apparatus

Ex-distribution in type of protection ”increased

safety” with flameproof built-in components

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 27

Increased safety ”e” It is possible to establish a flexible lead connec-
tion by means of a trumpet-shaped cable
EN 50 019/VDE 0170/0171, Part 6 gland. To eliminate the possibility of damage
The protection category ”increased safety” is during normal operation, all parts of the cable
used for electrical aparatus that, under normal entry must comply with the mechanical impact
operating conditions, does not form an ignition requirements. Connection terminals must be
source. Consequently, apparatus that produces safeguarded against self-loosening and must
arcs or sparks in the course of normal operation provide sufficient contact pressure.
or apparatus that generates ”excessive” heat is
not suitable for this type of protection. There- The increased safety is ensured by means of the
fore, this type of protection is not used for improved insulation of live parts and by larger
switchgear, pushbuttons and slip ring motors. clearances and creepage distances compared
to standard apparatus. With this type of protec-
In particular, this type of protection has proved tion the limiting temperature also applies to all
economical and practical for electrical apparatus surfaces inside the enclosure.
such as terminal boxes, junction boxes, three-
phase squirrel cage motors, luminaires, solenoid All insulating material is subject to natural
valves and transformers. ageing. In order to prolong the service life of the
insulating materials of windings, compared to
It must not be possible for leakage currents or the windings in standard apparatus, the limiting
Ex-terminal box in the type of protection arcs as a result of external influences, such as temperature is decreased. This reduces the
”increased safety” water and foreign matter, to develop. Enclosu- danger of damage to the windings as a result of
res that contain uninsulated live parts must fulfil earth leakages or interturn short-circuits.
a minimum degree of protection IP 54. The
degree of protection IP44 is sufficient for enclo- The following table lists the limiting temperatures
sures that contain insulated parts only. If rotating for insulated windings in apparatus in the type of
electrical machines that are installed in clean protection ”increased safety”.
rooms and are regularly controlled by qualified
personnel, IP 20 is sufficient for group II. The
restricted operation range of use is stipulated on
the machine. All enclosures are submitted to a
mechanical impact test as part of the type test.

Limiting temperatures for Measuring Insulation class

insulated windings procedure A E B F H
All windings, except insulated R* °C 90 105 110 130 155
single-layer windings in nominal operation
T* °C 80 95 100 115 135

Single-layer insulated windings R* °C 95 110 120 130 155

in nominal operation
T* °C 95 110 120 130 155

Limiting temperature at the end of time tE R* °C 160 175 185 210 235

*) R = resistance measuring procedure, T = thermometer measuring procedure

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 28

40 Protective devices for windings shall ensure that protection has the advantage that, due to its
only the reduced limiting temperature values temperature gauges with positive temperature
specified in the table are reached. coefficient embedded in the windings, the rise in
20 temperature during the start-up period in swit-
Motors are used with overcurrent protection ching operation is monitored.
t E min

10 devices that are released in the event of difficult

starting conditions or of a failure. After several
hours of operation at nominal rating a motor rea- Examples for increased safety ”e”
5 ches its continuous operating temperature. If the • Three-phase or single-phase rotor with cage
rotor stalls due to a malfunction and the supply rotor
of voltage is not disconnected, the motor draws • Transformers
an increased current, the starting current IA, that • Current and voltage transformers
2 is the rated current IN many times over. If the • Measuring instruments
motor is not switched off, it reaches the limiting • Ballasts for luminaires
temperature after the time tE. The time tE • Luminaires
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 depends on the starting current ratio IA/IN. • Resistors
I A / IN • Liquid starters
The overcurrent protection device must switch • Accumulators
Fig. 1: Minimum values for the time tE off the motor before it reaches the limiting tem- • Communication apparatus
perature, i. e. within the time tE. The protection • Connection boxes for any electrical apparatus
C device fulfils the same function when the motor
is stalled, irrespective of whether the motor is
warm or cold. Encapsulation ”m”
θ in °C

If the rotor and the stator take different times to EN 50 028/VDE 0170/0171, Part 9
heat up, the shorter time will be taken as tE. The With the type of protection encapsulation ”m”,
1 type label and the certificate of approval of the those parts that are capable of igniting an explo-
A motor state the time tE and the ratio of the star- sive atmosphere are embedded in a compound
tE ting current IA to rated current IN. with sufficient resistance to environmental influ-
0 ences. The explosive atmosphere can neither be
The protection devices must keep the specified ignited by sparking nor by heating, both of
t (1) in h t (2) in s tripping times within a tolerance of which may occur within the encapsulation.
+/-20 %.
Fig. 2: Explanation how to calculate the time tE Duromers, thermoplastics and elastomers with
A max. permissible ambient temperature Fig. 3 shows the characteristic of a thermal relay and without fillers and/or other additivies may be
B temperature in rated operation with an example for checking. The relay, that is used as compounds. The properties of the com-
C limiting temperature
t time
set at the rated current of the motor, triggers at pound must fulfil the requirements of EN 50 028
θ temperature 7.4 times the rated current within a period that is (e.g. temperature index T1 to IEC 60216-1) wit-
1 heating-up in rated operation shorter than the time tE. The relay is suitable for hin the given temperature range.
2 heating-up with motor being stalled protecting the motor. The selection of the compound for a specific
application depends on the function that the
40 The protection devices must also switch off the compound has to fulfil in the apparatus. The
motor in the event of the failure of one phase. encapsulation must ensure the efficiency of the
Here, current-dependent thermal overcurrent type of protection, even in the event of permissi-
t in s

relays or circuit breakers can be used if, for ble overloads and certain internal fault conditi-
example, they are equipped with a phase failure ons.
11 10 protection to VDE 0660.
The compound may contain hollow spaces for
With motors in  connection the protective the accommodation of components such as
5 device must fulfil the following conditions. In the relays, transistors etc. up to a volume of 100
seized motor and with phase failure, the tripping cm3.
time shall be tested with 0.87 times the motor
starting current, whereby the tripping time must If the compound in encapsulated apparatus is
be within the time tE. This test is necessary to directly exposed to the surroundings, the com-
detect the increased temperature caused by the pound must comply with the requirements of
1 unequal loads of the windings, as it cannot be EN 50 014 for non-metallic materials.
3 4 5 6 7,4 8 identified by means of the mains-current con-
IA /IN sumption. Examples for encapsulation ”m”
• Relays, signal and control units
Fig. 3: Tripping characteristic of the thermal relay In general, electrical motors of the type ”increa- • Transistors, sensors
from cold sed safety” may only be used in continuous • Film resistors, indicators
Time tE of the motor to be protected 11 s operation and for normal, seldom recurring • Ballasts (conventional type)
IA/IN of the motor to be protected 7.4 starts so as to prevent that the rises in tempera- • Electronic ballasts
ture occurring during the start exceed the per- • Subfractional horsepower motors
missible limiting temperatures. In the case of • Solenoid valves
motors in the low-voltage range, thermal motor

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 29

Intrinsic safety ”i” Associated electrical apparatus
Associated electrical apparatus is apparatus in
EN 50 020/VDE 0170/0171, Part 7 which not all circuits are intrinsically safe, but
The most recent type of protection against which contains circuits that can affect the safety
explosion hazards by electrical apparatus and of the intrinsically safe circuits to which it is
installations is called ”intrinsic safety”. The most connected.
common types of protection were conceived for Associated apparatus can be:
electrical power engineering applications. As a – either electrical apparatus conforming to
result of increasing automation within hazardous another type of protection stated in the
areas, there has been an ever increasing ”General requirements” of the European
demand for explosion-protected measurement standard 50 014, on account of which it is
and control devices. Intrinsically safe circuits suitable for use in the respective potentially
only have a low energy content, that is not suffi- explosive atmospheres;
cient to ignite an explosive mixture. Thus, for – or electrical apparatus that does not conform
these circuits, the creation of a type of protec- to any type of protection and, therefore,
tion that makes use of this physical principle is may not be used in potentially explosive
the obvious solution. atmospheres.

Technical terms Fundamental data

FB remote I/O for Zone 1 Minimum ignition energy
Intrinsically safe circuit
Unlike all the other types of explosion protection, A minimum ignition energy is required to ignite
where the explosion protection is always related an explosive mixture. As the result of an external
to the individual apparatus, the type of protec- ignition source, for example an electric spark, a
tion ”Intrinsic safety” takes the complete circuit high temperature is generated locally in a small
into account. volume area of an explosive atmosphere, resul-
ting in combustion. The heat produced by the
spark and the ensuing combustion heats the
Definition of an neighbouring layers, while, at the same time,
”Intrinsically safe circuit” due to heat conduction, energy is dissipated to
An intrinsically safe circuit is a circuit in which no the outside. If the dissipated heat is higher than
spark or thermal effect will be produced that is the heat supplied and generated, a propagation
capable of causing the ignition of a defined of the combustion to neighbouring volume areas
explosive atmosphere, whereby the test conditi- is not possible.
ons for normal operation and defined fault con-
LB remote I/O Zone 2 in instrumantation compartment
ditions specified in the standard are to be taken Only if the amount of energy supplied by the
into account. external ignition source is sufficient for the tem-
perature of the neighbouring layers to rise above
Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus their ignition temperature, the combustion is
Depending on the design and purpose, appara- automatically propagated and an explosion
tus in the type of protection ”intrinsic safety” is results.
subdivided into ”intrinsically safe” and ”associa-
ted” electrical apparatus. The type of protection ”intrinsic safety” makes
use of this fundamental knowledge. The electri-
Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus cal values of a circuit are limited to such a
Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus is electrical degree that the minimum ignition energy requi-
apparatus in which all the circuits are intrinsically red for an ignition is not reached.
Distinction is made between the following types Definition of the minimum ignition
of intrinsically safe apparatus: energy
– Active intrinsically safe apparatus The minimum ignition energy of a gas/air or a
– Passive intrinsically safe apparatus without vapour/air mixture is the lowest possible
stored energy electrical energy occurring when a capacitor is
– Passive intrinsically safe apparatus with stored discharged that is still capable of igniting the
energy most volatile ignitable mixture of gas/air or
vapour/air at atmospheric pressure and
20 °C.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 30

Sub-division into groups 5A

Depending on their minimum ignition energy,

flammable substances are divided into the
groups I, IIA, IIB and IIC. The sub-division is 2A
identical to that according to the ignition break-
down capacity that is also decisive for to the
type of protection ”flameproof enclosure”. In the 1A
case of intrinsically safe electrical apparatus
gases and vapours are sub-divided on the basis
of the ratio of their respective minimum ignition 500 mA

current (MIC) to the minimum ignition current of I

laboratory methane. II A
200 mA
Sub-division A ratio of the MIC > 0.8
Sub-division B ratio of the MIC between
0.8 and 0.45
100 mA
Sub-division C ratio of the MIC < 0.45

Limiting ignition curves 50 mA


The energy set free in an intrinsically safe circuit

in the event of a failure must be limited to such a
20 mA
degree that the occurrence of an ignition is
unfailingly prevented.
The limiting ignition curves for the individual 10 mA
10 V 20 V 50 V 100 V 200 V 500 V
groups are established with the aid of a standar-
dized spark test apparatus.
Explosion Limiting gap Ratio of As the probability of the ignition of a mixture also Fig. 1:
groups width minimum depends on the number of switching Ohmic circuits
in mm igniting operations, according to EN 50020 at least Minimum ignition current to
current 1000 switching operations must be performed, be applied for electrical
whereby an ignition must not take place under apparatus containing cad-
II A > 0.9 > 0.8 any circumstances. mium, zinc, magnesium or
II B 0.5 upto 0,9 0.45 upto 0.8 Depending on the design of the intrinsically safe
circuit, the existence of stored energy has to be
II C < 0.5 < 0.45 taken into account. If there are capacitances in
the intrinsically safe circuit, these are loaded Safety levels of intrinsically
onto the voltage of the circuit. The energy stored
in the capacitor is 0.5 CU2 (C = capacitance, safe and associated electrical
U = voltage). In the event of a short-circuit, the apparatus
energy stored in the capacitor is released in
addition to the energy supplied by the associa- Intrinsically safe electrical apparatus and intrinsi-
ted apparatus. cally safe components of associated electrical
apparatus are divided into two safety levels,
The same conditions apply when there are induc- -ia- or -ib-.
tances in the circuit. If there is a flow of current
through an inductance, the stored energy will be Safety level -ia-
0.5 LI2 (L = inductance, I = current). This energy is If a single fault or any combination of two faults
released additionally in the event of an interrup- occurs during normal operation, the electrical
tion. apparatus of the category -ia- must not be
For these reasons all three borderline cases, i. e. capable of causing an ignition.
ohmic circuits, capacitive circuits and inductive Here the following safety factors have to be
circuits have to be taken into consideration. taken into consideration:
The European standard EN 50 020 contains Safety factor 1.5 during normal
limiting ignition curves for these conditions. operation and with one fault
Safety factor 1.0 with two faults

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 31

10.000 µF Safety level -ib- Isolation of insulated leads of intrinsi-
Category -ib- electrical apparatus must not be cally safe circuits and non-intrinsically
3000 µF
capable of causing an ignition during normal safe circuits
operation and with the occurrence of a single
1000 µF
The distance between the conductors of
insulated leads must satisfy specified
Here the following safety factors have to be
requirements. With the exception of varnishes
300 µF taken into consideration:
and similar coatings, this insulation is considered
Safety factor 1.5 in normal operation and
to be a solid insulation. The clearances are
100 µF with one fault
determined by the addition of the radial thickn-
ess of the insulation on the wires. The minimum
C = 40 Ω (Cd)
30 µF

C = 15 Ω (Cd)
Constructional requirements clearances are laid down in EN 50 020.
C =5,6 Ω (Cd) e. g. when U =/≤ 060 V 0,5 mm
10 µF
Any components on which the intrinsic safety when U =/≥ 750 V 1,4 mm
depends (with the exception of transformers
3 µF
which are subject to special conditions), must The voltage U is the sum of the voltages of the
(Sn) not be charged with more than 2/3 of their rated intrinsically safe and the non-intrinsically safe cir-
1,0 µF
current, rated voltage or rated capacity, even in cuits. This clearance is not required,
(Cd) the event of faults (e. g. mains voltage at the – if the leads of the intrinsically safe or the non-
0,3 µF input side of electronic circuits). intrinsically safe circuits are furnished with an
earthed screen, or,
0,1 µF
Types of limiting modules – if, with safety level -ib- electrical apparatus,
the insulation of the leads of the intrinsically
0,03 µF safe wires withstands an AC test voltage of
Safety barriers with diodes 2000 V. In addition to this, care must be taken
0,01 µF Sub-assemblies comprising diodes or Zener that no inductive or capacitive interferences
1V 3V 10 V 30 V 100 V 300 V 1000 V
diodes that are protected by a fuse or a resistor from the non-intrinsically safe circuit can result
may be used as safety barriers between intrinsi- in the intrinsically safe circuit.
Fig. 2: Capacitive circuits cally safe circuits and a non-intrinsically safe cir-
Minimum igniting voltages to be applied to group IIC cuit. The input current of such barriers must be
electrical apparatus. The curve marked Sn is only to such that they can be connected to a mains Apparatus for intrinsically safe
be applied to electrical apparatus not containing any supply with a maximum short-circuit current of circuits
cadmium, zinc, magnesium or aluminium. 1.5 kA.
As with all other types of protection, generally all
Apparatus with galvanic isolation associated electrical apparatus used in the in-
Transformers that, for example, are built into trinsically safe circuit and the intrinsically safe
500 mH intrinsically safe power supplies must ensure a apparatus must be tested and certified. Accor-
safe galvanic isolation between the primary and ding to EN 50014 the only exception is appara-
the secondary circuit. The data that is relevant tus where, according to the data given by the
200 mH
for the intrinsically safe circuit is determined by manufacturer, none of the values 1.2 V; 0.1 A;
the output characteristic of the transformer and 20 µJ or 25 mW is exceeded.
100 mH
any external circuits (voltage limitation by diodes,
50 mH
current limitation by resistors or by the electro- Intrinsically safe apparatus where the electrical
nics). data and the thermal behaviour can be clearly
I defined and that conform to the applicable con-
20 mH II A
Isolation of intrinsically safe structional requirements, do not need to be
II B tested or certified.
10 mH circuits from non-intrinsically This applies, for example, to:
safe circuits • switches
5 mH
• plugs and sockets
• terminal boxes
2 mH
II C Connection pieces • measuring resistors
In order to avoid any mistakes when connecting
• single semi-conductor components
or bridging conductors, the connection pieces
1 mH • coils (moving coil instruments)
for intrinsically safe circuits must be safely isola-
• capacitors
500 µH ted from the connection pieces of a non-intrinsi-
• electric position sensors (DIN 19 234)
cally safe circuit. For this purpose the connec-
tion terminals of the intrinsically safe circuit can,
200 µH It is absolutely essential to comply with the
for example, be installed at a distance of at least
general requirements according to EN 50 014
50 mm from the connection pieces of each non-
100 µH and with the requirements for the design of
5 mA 10 mA 20 mA 50 mA 100 mA 200 mA 500 mA 1A intrinsically safe circuit or they can be separated
enclosures and connection boxes with regard to
by an isolating barrier or an earthed metal bar-
the surface resistance or the choice of alumi-
rier. These barriers must either reach up to 1.5
Fig. 3: Inductive circuits nium alloy (surface resistance of plastic enclosu-
mm from the enclosure wall or they must ensure
Minimum igniting currents to be applied to res < 109 ohms).
a minimum clearance of 50 mm between the
electrical apparatus containing cadmium, zinc,
connection pieces.
magnesium or aluminium at E = 24 V.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 32

Design of intrinsically safe retical example (full utilization of the external
connected load), it can, however, be proved that
circuits the safety factor 1.5 (according to the old data)
can be reduced to 0.91 based on the new
When setting up an intrinsically safe circuit with observations. Therefore, in critical cases where
only one intrinsically safe apparatus and one there is a simultaneous occurrence of concen-
associated apparatus, the limiting values for the trated inductances and capacitances, it is
permissible external capacitance and induc- necessary to consult a specialist (manufacturer,
tance indicated on the type label of the associa- expert).
ted apparatus are binding for that circuit.

Based on the maximum possible feed-in energy

Intrinsically safe circuits with Zener
of the associated electrical apparatus, it is only barriers
necessary to check the thermal behaviour of the Normally intrinsically safe circuits must be insula-
intrinsically safe apparatus. When several intrin- ted. They may be connected to earth, if this is
sically safe circuits are interconnected (e. g. necessary for functional reasons They must,
several pieces of associated apparatus act on however, be earthed, if this is imperative for
one piece of intrinsically safe apparatus), a more safety reasons. Earthing is only permitted at one
detailed check of the intrinsic safety is required. point by connection to the potential equalization
which must exist in the whole area where the
It is necessary to determine the maximum vol- intrinsically safe circuit is set up.
tage and current values which, due to the inter-
connection, occur in a fault condition. Here the Since, with safety barriers, there is no galvanic
fault consideration in accordance with EN 50 isolation between the intrinsically safe and the
020 (for example, 1 fault with one intrinsically non-intrinsically safe circuits, for safety reasons
safe circuit or safety level -ib-) has to be applied there must be a perfect connection to earth.
to the interconnected system.
Working on and testing of int-
The simplest method is based on the assump-
tion that all the associated electrical apparatus rinsically safe circuits
takes on the sum of the maximum values of cur-
rent and voltage values. If this fault consideration As intrinsically safe circuits must be designed so
is not successful (inadmissibly high values), a that they cannot cause an ignition, it is generally
more thorough check has to be carried out permitted to work on them while they are live.
based on the assumption of the faults possible When using measuring instruments it is, howe-
for the individual categories. ver, necessary to bear in mind the fact that such
The check relating to the intrinsic safety of a cir- instruments may contain inner energy stores (e.
cuit is to be documented in detail. g. the inductance of a moving coil instrument)
that might neutralize the intrinsic safety.
Specification of permissible external
inductances and capacitances of sup-
ply units for intrinsically safe circuits
Until now the maximum values for La and Ca of
supply units for intrinsically safe circuits were laid
down by some testing and certification authori-
ties in such a way that the operator only had to
check whether the connected inductances and
capacitances La and Ca (including cables and
conductors) were always less than the maxi-
mum values. Here it was assumed that the
connected inductances and capacitances are
connected to the supply unit simultaneously and
in concentrated form, thus constituting a critical
load. These testing institutes took this simulta-
neous occurrence of La and Ca into considera-
tion for ia circuits and non-linear ib circuits. As
other testing institutes work on the assumption
that either an external capacitance (with negli-
gible inductance) or an external inductance (with
negligible inductance) is connected, they certi-
fied the data that was more favourable for the
manufacturer. Due to pressure from the market,
the testing institutes that had previously worked
on the basis of a simultaneous occurrence of
capacitance and inductance when specifying
the safety-related data now felt forced to adopt
the less restrictive approach. By way of a theo-

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 33

Intrinsically safe
electrical systems ”i”
EN 50039 / VDE 0170/0171,
Part 10

Technical terms
Intrinsically safe electrical systems
All the interconnected electrical apparatus docu-
mented in a system description, where the cir-
cuits that are to be used wholly or partly in a
potentially explosive atmosphere are intrinsically

Certified intrinsically safe electrical

An intrinsically safe electrical system for which a
certificate has been issued confirming that the
type of that electrical system conforms to the
European standards.

Provided that the electrical apparatus can be

clearly identified, a certificate for each individual
piece of electrical apparatus in an intrinsically
safe electrical system is not necessary.

Non-certified intrinsically safe

electrical systems
An intrinsically safe electrical system where the
intrinsic safety can be verified without a doubt
based on the knowledge of the electrical cha-
racteristics of the certified intrinsically safe elec-
trical apparatus, the certified associated electri-
cal apparatus and of the non-certified ”simple
apparatus” and based on the knowledge of the
electrical and physical characteristics of the
connecting leads.

System description
A document drawn up by the system design
engineer in which the electrical apparatus, the
electrical characteristics there of and the
characteristics of the connecting leads are
described. The term ”system design engineer”
designates a person who is responsible for the
intrinsic safety of the system.

Each part of an intrinsically safe electrical system

that is used in a potentially explosive atmos-
phere must be classified as safety level ia or ib.
This does not mean that the whole system has
to be assigned to one single safety level. The
safety levels ia and ib are explained in detail in
the chapter Intrinsic safety ”i”.

Further information on intrinsically safe circuits

can be found in EN 60 079-14 VDE 0165, Part 1
”Electrical installations in potentially explosive

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 34

Cap lamps for use in
mines susceptible to
EN 62013-1/
VDE 0170/0171 Part 14
The requirements relating to the design and
testing of cap lamps for use in mines suscep-
tible to firedamp (electrical apparatus for use in
Group I potentially explosive atmospheres) are
laid down in this standard

Technical terms
Cap lamp
An apparatus comprising a headpiece, a
connecting cable and rechargeable secondary
cell(s)/battery in a container.

Constructional requirements
The cap lamp must be designed in such a way
that, if a fuse or thermal cicuit breaker is used as
over-current protection,
Firedamp-protected cap lamp with nickel-cadmium • the rated voltage does not exceed 6 V,
battery • the current does not exceed 1.5 A when ope-
rated as intended,
• the lamp rating is not higher than 6 W,
• the circuit behaves as if it only contains active

The housing of the cap lamp headpiece must-

provide protection against the ingress of dust
and water according to the minimum degree of
protection IP 54.
The headpiece housing must have a special
locking device according to EN 50 014..

The transparent protective lens of the headpiece

must withstand the mechanical requirements in
accordance with EN 50 014. It must only be
possible to remove the protective lens and, if
available, the protective guard and collar after
the locking mechanism has been released.

The battery container must provide a minimum

protection against the ingress of dust and water
according to IP 54 for the electrical connections.
The fuse must be protected in such a manner
that, if it ruptures, the surrounding mixture of air
and gas (methane or charging gas) is not igni-

The flexible cable connecting the battery contai-

ner and the headpiece shall be provided with a
sheathing that is resistant to fatty acids and to

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 35

Zone 0 apparatus
EN 50 284 VDE 0170/0171
Part 12

EN 50 284 VDE 0170/0171, Part 12-1: It supplements the standards EN 50 014 and
”Special requirements for the design, testing and EN 50 020 to EN 50 028 and is intended to
marking of electrical apparatus in apparatus adapt the safety level provided for by these
Group II, Category 1G” standards to the extremely high risks.
This European standard lays down detailed
requirements for apparatus in apparatus In order to eliminate the ignition hazards that can
Group II, Category 1G. The apparatus must be emanate from the electrical circuits of the appa-
designed in such a way that it guarantees a very ratus, the necessary measure of safety must eit-
high degree of safety in normal service. her be guaranteed, even if two faults that are
Category 1 apparatus is intended for use in independent of each other occur, by applying a
potentially explosive atmospheres in which single constructional protection measure, or, if
explosive mixtures of air with gases, vapours or one constructional protection measure fails, it
mists occur continuously, for long periods or fre- must be ensured by a second, independent
quently. This standard also applies to apparatus constructional protection measures.
that is mounted in the barriers between different
potentially explosive atmospheres. It also inclu- Permissible individual constructional
des requirements for apparatus that is installed protection measures are:
outside the potentially explosive atmosphere, • Apparatus and circuits in accordance with
but that is connected electrically to Category 1 the requirements of EN 50 020, safety
apparatus (associated apparatus). level ”ia”
• Encapsulated apparatus in accordance with
the requirements of EN 50 028 supple-
mented by the additional requirements of
this standard.
Requirements according to the thickness t of the barrier
(i) t ≥ 3 mm, no additional measures Combinations of constructional
Type of construction (iii) (iv)
protection measures
(ii) Electrical apparatus must fulfil the requirements
3 mm > t ≥ 1 mm 1 mm > t ≥ 0.2 mm t < 0.2 mm
of two standards of the series EN 50 014 to EN
(“X“ symbol) (“X“ symbol)
50 020 (ib) and EN 50 028 independently of
a) Barrier each other. These combined standardized types
of protection must be based on different physi-
Less hazardous area2) – standardized
Hazardous cal protection principles. It must be possible to
type of test them independently of each other. The
protection and adjacent table illustrates the possible combinati-
– no ignitable Type of protection ons of barriers with the types of protection
Barrier apparatus sparks during Intrinsic Not permissible where barrier elements are used.
operation Safety “ib“
(e.g. no open Apparatus and parts thereof for use in Zone 0
switching must also be built in such a way that
contacts) • ignition sources due to impact or friction
sparks are excluded.
b) Barrier and gap In the case of apparatus with parts that
move during operation, light metals must
Less hazardous area2) – standardized not be used at the possible friction or
Hazardous type of impact points or at other accessible points.
protection and • no ignition hazards due to dangerous elec-
– no ignitable trostatic charges can occur. Special conditi-
Barrier3) apparatus – standardized type of protection sparks during ons apply to enclosures and parts of enclo-
operation sures made of moulded plastic
(e.g. no open
Gap3) switching Connection technique
contacts) As far as possible, connections for Zone 0
apparatus and parts thereof should be located
c) Barrier and ventilation outside the Zone 0.

Less hazardous area2) – standardized type of protection

Hazardous 3)
area1) (Gap ) – flameproof joint (broken line)
– standardized
Electrical type of
3) apparatus

1) Category 1 apparatus required

2) Category 2 apparatus or less required
3) Flameproof joint and barrier can be swapped round

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 36

Zone 2 apparatus
Type of protection ”n”
EN 50 021/VDE 0170/0171
Part 16

The type of protection ”n” applies to electrical The ”hermetically sealed devices”, the ”sea-
apparatus of the apparatus category 3G, that, led devices” and the ”encapsulated devi-
under normal and certain abnormal operating ces” are based on the fact that the explosive
conditions, are not able to ignite a surrounding atmosphere and the potential ignition source
explosive atmosphere. These operating conditi- remain safely isolated from each other. The
ons are laid down by the manufacturer as part ”enclosed switching devices” are modelled
of the electrical and mechanical design data and on the familiar type of protection ”Flameproof
it is essential that the user observe them. The enclosure” to.
aim of this type of protection is to find an econo- With EN 50 018 the ”non-ignitable compo-
mical compromise between the normal industrial nent” ignition is prevented by constructional
standard and the high safety requirements for measures, while, at the same time, the type of
the types of protection for apparatus in the gas is taken into consideration. The marking
Category 2G. ”nC” is used for this group of measures, whe-
reby the permissible type of gas (IIA, IIB, IIC)
General requirements must also be stated. The ”restricted breathing
As with the already familiar types of protection enclosure” is another permissible explosion
for the apparatus category 2G, the general protection measure with the marking with ”nR”.
requirements for electrical apparatus (e.g. sur- The enclosure is designed in such a way that an
face temperature, design, cables, clearances explosive atmosphere can only enter it in a
and creepage paths, …) also apply here. restricted measure. The ”simplified pressu-
rization” is modelled on the familiar type of pro-
tection ”Pressurization”, whereby simplified
Potential ignition sources
measures were approved. This apparatus is
Basically distinction is made between non-spar-
marked with ”nP”.
king apparatus, that does not give off any
A further explosion protection measure is the
potential ignition sparks during operation, and
”restricted energy apparatus” with the mar-
apparatus that gives off arc or sparks or produ-
king ”nL” and the marking for the suitable gas
ces hot surfaces during normal operation. In the
group (IIA, IIB, IIC). This is based on the type of
case of this apparatus, that, on principle, fea-
protection ”Intrinsic safety”, whereby the safety
tures potential ignition sources, it is necessary to
factors are less stringent.
take additional protective measures to allow its
safe operation.
As it is possible to have a combination of various
Non-sparking apparatus
explosion protection measures for apparatus
Depending upon the type of apparatus (e.g.
category 3G, it is strongly recommended that
electric machines, luminaires), non-sparking
the operator study the associated documenta-
apparatus must fulfil additional conditions, so
tion carefully, because all the safety instructions
that no potential ignition sources can develop
issued by the manufacturer must be observed
during normal operation. In addition to the appa-
for maintaining safety.
ratus category 3G, the apparatus is also marked
with ”nA”, whereby this combination of letters
stands for ”non-sparking apparatus”.

Apparatus that gives off arcs or sparks

or produce hot surfaces
Apparatus that gives off arcs or sparks or pro-
duces hot surfaces during normal operation
Explosion-protected plugs and sockets for Zones 2 and 22 must be safeguarded by additional measures in
such a way that these ignition sources cannot
ignite a surrounding explosive atmosphere. The
measures that are necessary for this are model-
led on the familiar types of protection for appa-
ratus category 2G, whereby the safety require-
ments are less stringent. Parts of apparatus can,
of course, be protected by the types of protec-
tion of EN 50 014 ff. A group of additional mea-
sures involves the safe isolation of the potential
ignition source from the explosive atmosphere
by means of the technical construction, gene-
rally a special enclosure, or designing the appa-
ratus in such a way that flame transmission
through the enclosure is not possible.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 37

Explosive atmosphere Explosive atmosphere Explosive atmosphere

Hermetically sealed devices ”nC” Sealed devices ”nC” Encapsulated devices ”nC”

Explosive atmosphere Explosive atmosphere Explosive atmosphere

Enclosed switching device ”nC” Non-sparking apparatus ”nA” Non-ignitable component ”nC”

Explosive Explosive atmosphere Explosive atmosphere

Inert gas

Retricted energy apparatus ”nL” Restricted breathing ”nR” Simplified pressurization ”nP”

Types of protection ”n”

Apparatus for
Zones 0,1 No ignitable hot surfaces

Apparatus no
designed for Zone 2 Arcs or sparks
(EN 50 021 ”n”)
Energy restriction
industrial standard
Safety factor 1 to EN 50 021

No IEC standard Written evaluation

available => ”s” by a specialist

Selection for Zone 2 to EN 60 079-14

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 38

Electrical apparatus for
use in areas with
combustible dusts

Ignition sources Requirements on electrical apparatus

in the categories 1 and 2
Combustible dust can be ignited by electrical For the main part it is necessary to fulfil the
apparatus in various ways: requirements of EN 50 014:
- by apparatus surface temperatures that are e.g. mechanical strength of enclosures, thermal
higher than the ignition or glow temperature stability, thermal shock tests.
of the respective dust. The temperature at In addition to this, it is also necessary to take
which the dust ignites is dependent on the specific requirements for dusts, that are descri-
properties of the dust, on whether it is pre- bed in the standard EN 500281-1-1, into
sent in the form of a cloud or deposits, on account. For example, with plugs and sockets it
the thickness of the layer and on the type of is necessary to ensure that no dust can fall into
heat source; the socket.
- by sparks at electrical parts such as swit- This apparatus must be tested and certified by
ches, contacts, commutators, brushes or an independent testing station.
- by the discharge of stored electrostatic Requirements for electrical apparatus
- by radiated energy (e.g. electromagnetic
in category 3
The requirements relating to the strength has
been reduced to the measure required for
- by magnetic impact or friction sparks or a
industrial apparatus. It is, however, necessary to
rise in temperature originating from the
take into account that the TI value is decisive
when selecting materials. The specified IP
To avoid ignition hazards, it is necessary that:
degree of protection for conductive dusts is 5X
- the temperature of any surfaces on which
or 6X. It should only be possible to release
dust deposits can form or that can come
locking devices that are necessary to maintain
into contact with a cloud of dust are kept
the type of protection with a tool.
at a temperature that is lower than the
limiting temperatures laid down in
EN 50028-1-2; Marking
- all parts with electric sparks or with tempe- Apparatus in categories 1 and 2
ratures above the ignition or glow tempera-
ture of the dust are built into an enclosure Name/symbol of testing station
that prevents the ingress of dust in a suit- Certification number
able manner, or 1 or 2 to show the category
Ex-installation units for use in Zones 1 and 21 - the energy of the electric circuits is limited to D for dust explosion protection followed by the
such a degree, that sparks or temperature maximum surface temperature T as defined
that could ignite combustible dust are coefficient, e.g. T 170 °C
- all other ignition sources are avoided. Apparatus in category 3

3 to show the category

Electrical apparatus for use D for dust explosion protection followed by the
in areas with combustible dust maximum surface temperature T as defined
coefficient, e.g. T 170 °C
with protection by the
enclosure The following table (page 40) lists further stan-
dards or intended standards for dust explosion
Design and testing protection.
EN 50028-1-1 VDE 0170/0171
Part 15-1-1
This European standard applies to apparatus
where protection is afforded by the enclosure
with limitation of the surface temperature. It
includes requirements for the design, construc-
tion and testing of this electrical apparatus of
apparatus group II, categories 1, 2 and 3. The
type of protection is based on the limitation of
the maximum surface temperature of the enclo-
sure and on the limitation of the ingress of dust
by the use of ”dust-tight” or ”dust-protected”
enclosures. The principles of this standard can
also be applied if the hazard is caused by fibres
or flue dusts. The use of electrical apparatus in
areas that contain both explosive gases and
combustible dusts – simultaneously or separa-
tely – requires additional protective measures.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 39

IEC 61241 Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible dust

IEC 61241-1 IEC 61241-2 IEC 61241-3 IEC 61241-4 IEC 61241-5
Electrical apparatus Methods Classification of areas Electrical apparatus; Electrical apparatus –
protected by enclosures for determining where combustible dust type of protection intrinsic apparatus
are or may be present pressurization ”p” (pD)
EN 61241-3:199X-XX

IEC 61241-1-1 IEC 61241-2-1 E DIN IEC 31H/47/CDV E DIN IEC 31H/67/CD IEC 31H/84/CD
Design and test Method for determining (VDE 0170/0171 Part 1505): (VDE 0170/0171 Part 15-4): [Intended as
EN 50281-1-1:1998-09 minimum ignition 1995-05 1997-08
VDE 0170/0171 Part 15-5]
DIN EN 50281-1-1 energy of dust [Intended as [Intended as
(VDE 0170/0171 EN 50281-2-1:1998-09 VDE 0165 Part 102] VDE 0170/0171 Part 15-4]
Part 15-1-1): 1999-10 DIN EN 50281-2-1
(VDE 0170/0171
Part 15-2-1): 1999-11

IEC 61241-1-2 IEC 61241-2-2 Notes:

Selection, installation and Method for determining Documents with figure ”6” in front were mainly prepared by IEC
maintenance minimum ignition energy Documents with figure ”5” in front were mainly prepared by CENELEC
EN 50281-1-2:1998-09 of dust
Documents in square brackets have not been published yet
DIN EN 50281-1-2 DIN EN 61241-2-2
(VDE 0165 Part 2): 1999-11 (VDE 0170/0171
Part 15-2-2): 1996-04

IEC 61241-2-3
Methods for deter-
mining the minimum
ignition energy of
dust/air mixtures
Edition: 1994-09
[under modification, work
shift to CEN/TC 305]

IEC 61241-2-4
Methods for determi-
ning minimum ignition
energy of dust
[under modification, work
shift to CEN/TC 305]

Table taken from EN 50 028-1-1 (VDE 0170/0171, part 15-1-1) 1999-10.3 page 3

In order to be able to assimilate the standards

for gas explosion protection and dust explosion
protection in the future, IEC SC 31 H has deci-
ded to rename the standards for dust explosion
protection. The following reference table illustra-
tes the connections.

Existing standards Newly assigned numbers Subject

IEC 61241-1-1 IEC 61241-0 General requirements
IEC 61241-1 Protection by enclosure
IEC 61241-1-2 IEC 61241-14 Selection and installation
IEC 61241-2-1 IEC 61241-20-1 Test procedures
IEC 61241-2-2 IEC 61241-20-2 Test procedures
IEC 61241-2-3 IEC 61241-20-3 Test procedures
IEC 61241-3 IEC 61241-10 Zone classification
IEC 61241-4 IEC 61241-2 Protection by pressurization
IEC 61241-11 Protection by intrinsic safety
IEC 61241-18 Protection by encapsulation
IEC 61241-17 Testing and maintenance
IEC 61241-19 Repairs and overhauling

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 40

Electrical installations
in potentially explosive

Assessment of the explosion 2. Zone classification

Hazardous areas are classified into zones accor-
hazard ding to the frequency and the duration of the
presence of potentially explosive atmospheres.
The BetrSichV §3 (2) obligates the employer to
do the following: ”If, according to the provisions 2.1 Zone 0
of § 16 of the hazardous substance decree, the An area in which an explosive atmosphere con-
formation of potentially explosive atmospheres sisting of a mixture with air of flammable substan-
cannot be prevented, the employer shall assess ces in the form of gas, vapour or mist is present
1. the probability and duration of the occurrence continuously or for long periods or frequently.
of potentially explosive atmospheres,
2. the probability of the presence, activation and 2.2 Zone 1
taking effect of ignition sources, including elec- An area in which an explosive atmosphere con-
trostatic discharges, and sisting of a mixture with air of flammable sub-
3. the extent and anticipated effects of explosi- stances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is
ons.” likely to occur occasionally during normal opera-
This assessment is the basis for the required 2.3 Zone 2
classification into potentially explosive atmos- An area in which an explosive atmosphere con-
pheres according to §5 of the BetrSichV. This sisting of a mixture with air of flammable sub-
classification shall be carried out according to stances in the form of gas, vapour or mist is not
Annex 3, BetrSichV. likely to occur during normal operation but, if it
does occur, it will persist for a short period only.
Annex 3
Zone classification of explosive atmospheres 2.4 Zone 20
1. Preliminary remark An area in which an explosive atmosphere in the
The following zone classification applies to areas form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is pre-
in which the measures in accordance with §§ 3, sent continuously or for long periods or fre-
4 and 6 are to be taken. This classification quently.
determines the scope of the required measures
according to Annex 4, Section A. Layers, depo- 2.5 Zone 21
sits and accumulations of combustible dust are An area in which an explosive atmosphere in the
to be treated in the same way as any other form of a cloud of dust in air is likely to occur
source that can form an explosive atmosphere. occasionally during normal operation.
Normal operation is defined as being the condi-
tion under which installations are used within the 2.6 Zone 22
scope of their design parameters. An area in which an explosive atmosphere in the
form of a cloud of combustible dust in air is not
likely to occur during normal operation but, if it
does occur, it will persist for a short period only.

For the sake of completeness, the old zone

classifications for areas with combustible dust
are listed here. Provided that no changes have
been made to installations, these continue to
apply during the interim period (max. until 2007).

Zone 10
Zone 10 covers areas in which an explosive
atmosphere is present for long periods or fre-

Zone 11
Zone 11 covers areas in which the occurrence
of an explosive atmosphere as the result of the
stirring-up of dust deposits is to be expected
occasionally for short periods.

The results of the hazard assessment shall be

recorded in an Explosion Protection Document.
According to § 6 (2) of the BetrSichV, this shall,
above all, specify:
1. that the explosion hazards have been deter-
mined and assessed,
2. that appropriate measures have been taken,
in order to fulfil the explosion protection goals,
3. which areas were classified into zones in
accordance with Annex 3
4. for which areas the minimum requirements in
accordance with Annex 4 apply.
Example of application: Explosion-protected apparatus in an oil terminal

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 41

In accordance with § 6 (3), the Explosion Pro- Obligations of the installer
tection Document shall be drawn up before
work commences. It shall be revised if any Electrical installations in potentially explosive
changes, extensions or modifications are made atmospheres shall be installed in compliance
to the work equipment or the work processes. with the statutory regulations. The BetrSichV
has been in force here since 03.10.2002. ElexV
Once the zones have been determined, the local applied until this time. As with the ElexV, the
areas in which the occurrence of an explosive BetrSichV also requires that the latest technolo-
atmosphere is to be expected shall be marked gical developments be taken into consideration.
in a clearly discernible and durable manner with
the prohibition sign V2 ”Fire, open flames and Extract from BetrSichV:
smoking prohibited” (Fig. 1) and the warning § 12
sign ”Warning – explosive atmosphere” (Fig. 2”) Operation
in accordance with VBG 1, VBG 125 and DIN (1) Installations requiring supervision shall be
40012, Part 3. installed and operated in keeping with the
Fig. 1: Prohibition sign V2 latest technological developments. The rules
The following are useful when assessing the and findings determined by the Committee
”Fire, open flames and smoking prohibited”
degree of hazard and determining the zone clas- for Operational Safety and published by the
sification: Federal German Ministry of Labour and
The Explosion Protection Regulations (EX-RL), Social Order in the Federal Work Sheet shall
rules and regulations for the avoidance of be taken into consideration for maintaining
hazards due to explosive atmospheres with the latest technological developments.
collection of examples, As long as the Committee for Operational Safety
EN 1127-1, Explosive atmospheres – Explosion does not issue any other specifications, the
protection – Part 1: Fundamental principles and latest technological developments are determi-
methods ned, among other things, by the valid standards.
EN 60079-10, DIN VDE 0165, Part 101, Classifi- Thus, apparatus shall be installed in accordance
cation of potentially explosive atmospheres with with VDE 0165 ”Regulations for the setting-up
flammable gas. of electrical installations in hazardous areas”
and VDE 0100 ”The setting-up of power plants
Assistance for the drawing-up of the explosion with rated voltages up to 1000 V.” Inasmuch as
Fig. 2: Warning sign ”Warning – explosive atmosphere”
protection document can be found in the the provisions of VDE 0101 ”The setting-up of
NAMUR reference document NE 99, ”Explosion power plants with rated voltages of more than
Protection Document”. 1 kV” and/or VDE 0800 ”Telecommunication”
apply to the respective installations, these must
Obligations of the manufacturer also be observed.

The manufacturer shall develop and manufac- With regard to areas with combustible dust, the
ture electrical apparatus for use in potentially German translation of EN 50281-1-2 as the Ger-
explosive atmospheres in accordance with the man standard DIN VDE 0165, Part 1-2, ”Electri-
requirements of Directive 94/9/EC. cal apparatus with protection by the enclosure –
If specified in the standards, testing by an inde- selection, installation and maintenance, in the
pendent testing station must be arranged. The edition dated November 1999, applies.
approvals issued by the testing station and/or
the declarations issued by the manufacturers If the installer is not also the operator, the instal-
are to be placed at the disposal of the operator. ler shall issue an installation certificate at the
It is the duty of the manufacturer to manufacture operator”s request. This certificate confirms that
each piece of electrical apparatus in such a way the electrical installation conforms to the valid
that it complies with the test documentation and requirements. If such a certificate is available,
the test samples. Finally, he is also obligated to additional testing by the operator prior to com-
subject each piece of explosion-protected appa- missioning is no longer necessary.
ratus manufactured to a routine verification
and test and, after successful completion of
this test, to mark the apparatus accordingly. If
”special conditions” apply to the use of the
apparatus, the manufacturer must provide the
installer or the operator with this information in a
suitable form together with the apparatus.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 42

Obligations of the operator
According to §§ 14 and 15 of the BetrSichV, the
operator is obligated to have the electrical instal-
lations in the hazardous areas of his plant
checked by a qualified electrical engineer with
regard to their proper condition, namely

• prior to commissioning (§14)

(can be omitted if an installation certificate is
available) and
• at regular intervals (§15).

Here, with regard to the operational require-

ments, the operator shall calculate the intervals
in such a way that any faults occurring are
ascertained in time. The tests shall, however, be
carried out at least every three years. Records
shall be kept on the execution and results of the
prescribed or ordered tests. These records shall
be stored at the operating site of the installation
requiring supervision and shall be presented to
the responsible authorities on request.

According to §12 (3) of the BetrSichV it is the

duty of the operator to keep an electrical instal-
lation in a potentially explosive atmosphere in a
proper state, to operate it accordingly, to moni-
tor it constantly and to carry out any necessary
repair or maintenance measures immediately.

Finally, it is also the duty of the operator to

ensure that the electrical installation is operated
correctly. According to § 18 of the BetrSichV the
operator shall report the following to the respon-
sible authorities immediately:

1. Any accident involving the death or injury

of a person.
2. Any damages involving the failure of or
damage to components or safety installations.

The responsible authorities can demand that the

operator has an occurrence that is subject to
notification assessed by an approved control
authority, if possible one agreed on by both par-
ties, with regard to safety aspects and that he
presents them with a written assessment report.
This safety assessment report shall, in particular,
be based on the determination of
1. what the occurrence is attributed to,
2. whether the installation that was subject to
supervision was in correct order and whether,
once the fault has been eliminated, there is no
longer any hazard
3. whether, based on new findings, other or
additional protective measures are necessary.

Ignitions that take place inside flameproof appa-

ratus and that are not propagated to the surro-
undings need not be reported.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 43

Selection of Selection of apparatus according to
electrical apparatus the temperature classes
As already described in the previous section,
Now, after completion of the zone classification based on the ignition temperature (Ti = 270° C),
and the determination of the most critical tem- a temperature class (T3) is allocated to a
perature class and the explosion group, the flammable substance (e.g. hydrogen sulphide).
electrical apparatus can be selected. For this example only apparatus with the tempe-
rature class T3 to T6 may be used. Thus, the
Here the ruling principle is that only the electrical maximum surface temperature of the apparatus
apparatus that is absolutely essential should be cannot ignite the surrounding explosive atmos-
installed in the potentially explosive atmosphere. phere. When determining the temperature class
of apparatus, one generally works on the
On principle, the apparatus must be selected assumption that the ambient temperature ran-
and installed in such a way that it is sufficiently ges from –20° C to +40° C. If the apparatus is
protected against external influences that can to be used in another (usually higher) ambient
affect the explosion protection, e.g. chemical temperature, this apparatus must be designed
influences (solvents), moisture (spray water, con- for this temperature, certified and marked accor-
densation), or vibration. dingly. In the case of certain apparatus, a tem-
perature class range (e.g. T3-T4) is given. Here,
Apparatus according to the ATEX directive, it for example, it is necessary to consider the influ-
must also be marked with the symbol . In ence of the medium (measurement medium) on
addition to this, the mark shall also be affixed the maximum surface temperature and, there-
to the apparatus. Here it should be noted that fore, on the temperature class. The connection
apparatus exists according to the old law with of the measurement medium with the tempera-
the CE marking, namely if it was already subject ture class is stated in the type examination certi-
to another legal area that has already been har- ficate or in the operating instructions. The instal-
monized (e.g. EMC, machine directive). Marking ler and, later, the operator are responsible for
apparatus with the apparatus category is also the correct selection and maintaining of the tem-
required. In the case of apparatus group II perature class.
(apparatus group I = mines subject to firedamp
and any surface installations thereof; apparatus
group II = other areas) this marking is carried out
in conjunction with the category number and the
letter G (GAS) for gases or D (DUST) for dusts:

1G for Zones 0, 1, 2 1D for Zones 20, 21, 22

2G for Zones 1, 2 2D for Zones 21, 22
3G for Zone 2 3D for Zone 22

The manufacturer or the person authorized by

him has to provide a Declaration of confor-
mity in which he declares the conformity of the
apparatus with the valid regulations. In addition
to this, the manufacturer must draw up opera-
ting instructions in a community language
and, if required, in the language of the country of
One aspect of the operating instructions is the
description of the intended use. Another new
aspect is the description of all the necessary
safety information (e.g. from the type examina-
tion certificate) and of all details relating to the
safe use of the apparatus. The operator of the
apparatus must observe these operating
instructions in full, otherwise the apparatus loses
its approval. The Type Examination Certificate is
no longer a compulsory part of the documenta-

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 44

Fundamental installation Lightning protection installations
requirements In VDE 0165 reference is made to the need for a
functioning lightning protection installation (see
On principle, the VDE regulations DIN VDE also EX-RL). The individual requirements can be
0100, 0101, ….etc. and, in additon, EN 60 7914 found in VDE 0185, Part 2. The protective aim
VDE 0165, Part 1, ”Electrical apparatus for use formulated in EN 60 079-14 says that the effects
in potentially explosive gas atmospheres, Part of lightning striking shall be reduced to a non-
14: Electrical installations in potentially explosive hazardous degree. An overvoltage protection
atmospheres (with the exception of mines)” and device is only required for intrinsically safe cir-
EN 50281-1-2, VDE 0165, Parts 1-2 ”Electrical cuits that lead into Zone 0.
apparatus with protection by enclosure – selec-
tion, installation and maintenance”. Electrostatic charges
The installation standards only formulate the fol-
Protection against contact lowing protective aims against static charges:
Protective measures against direct contact are Electrical installations shall be installed in such a
already required in VDE 0100. With explosion way that ignition hazards as a result of elec-
protection, the protective aim is to prevent, as trostatic charges are not to be expected.
far as possible, any formation of sparks as a
result of contact with bare active parts (with the Electrostatic charges are the result of separating
exception of intrinsically safe parts). Measures processes involving at least one chargeable
relating to protection against indirect contact are substance. The discharging of charged particles
listed in EN 60 079-14 for the individual network of non-conductive materials (e.g. plastics) is
forms. usually the result of bunch discharges that can
be ignitable. In the case of fast separating pro-
Potential equalization cesses (e.g. pulling-off of foils from rolls, drive
According to VDE 0165/EN 60 079-14, potential belts) sliding bunch discharges are possible.
equalization is required for the avoidance of igni- These are bursting with energy and, as a result,
table sparks within the potentially explosive they are capable of ignition.
atmosphere. Thus, any conductive parts that are
associated with the construction or installation In Zone 0 discharges capable of ignition must
and with which a potential shift is to be expec- be excluded, also taking rare operational faults
ted must be incorporated in the potential equa- into consideration
lization. In Zone 1 discharges capable of ignition must
not be expected in plants that operate properly
Examples of potential equalization: or in the event of operational faults that are to be
• via compensators (non-conductive) insula- reckoned with. Measures against discharges are
ted pipelines necessary in Zone 2 if they occur frequently. A
• insulated seals discharge resistance of 106 Ω is considered to
be sufficient electrostatically.
The following need not be incorporated:
• conductive window frames
• conductive door frames.

It is not necessary to additionally connect enclo-

sures to the potential equalization, provided that,
by means of the fixing facilities, they have relia-
ble contact to parts of the installation that, in
turn, are incorporated in the potential equaliza-

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 45

Electrical protection and Additional requirements
monitoring devices In addition to the basic requirements described
above, there are further requirements according
Overcurrent trips, safety thermal cut-outs, pres-
to the type of protection or apparatus.
sure switches and many more besides, that,
after tripping, disconnect the part of the installa-
tion in all external conductors, are considered to Installations with intrinsically safe
be electrical protection and monitoring devices. circuits
The devices must not be able to automatically The protection principle of the type of protection
switch the installation part back on again. When Intrinsic Safety assumes that the energy in an
switching on again or releasing them, it is neces- installed circuit is always less than the ignition
sary to ensure that the protection device is in energy of an explosive atmosphere that might
working order. If, as a result of the disconnec- surround it. In this way, the ignition of the explo-
tion, an expansion of the hazard is to be expec- sive atmosphere cannot occur.
ted, instead of disconnecting, it is sufficient to
give a warning signal. In addition, EN 60 079-14 An intrinsically safe circuit consists of the intrinsi-
requires the specification of measures that cally safe apparatus located in the potentially
afford immediate relief in this case. explosive atmosphere and the associated appa-
ratus for the isolation of the intrinsically safe from
Emergency shut-down the non-intrinsically safe circuit. The associated
According to EN 60 079-14, it must be possible apparatus is installed in the non-hazardous area.
to disconnect the ”supply of the potentially Both types of apparatus are connected to each
explosive atmosphere” from a safe location, It other by cable
shall be possible to continue to operate electri-
cal apparatus for the avoidance of additional Selection of intrinsically safe
hazards. These are supplied from seperate apparatus
cicuits. When installing the intrinsically safe circuit (with
just one piece of associated apparatus), it is
Isolation necessary to ensure that, together with the
In addition to this, to ensure safe operation, cables, the maximum permissible values for the
a disconnection device to is required for each circuit (e.g. inductance, capacitance) are not
circuit (or each group). This shall be marked to exceeded.
identify the circuit.
The temperature class and the explosion group
of the explosive atmosphere are further selection
Cables criteria that have to be taken into account.
On principle, cables must be selected in such a
way that they withstand any mechanical, electri-
cal, chemical and thermal stress to be expected.
After clarifying the type of stress and the loca-
tion, the type of cable can be selected accor-
ding to the marginal conditions of
EN 60 079-14/VDE 0165, Section 9.

Cables that are not laid in the earth or in sand-

filled ducts shall be protected to prevent fire
from spreading. Bushings for cables leading into
non-hazardous areas shall be sealed in an ade-
quately tight way (e.g. sand cups, mortar seal).
Unused openings in electrical apparatus for
cable entries must be sealed in accordance with
EN 50 014.

Parts of cables that are subjected to special

stress must be specially protected (e.g. conduit).
However, closed conduit systems must not be
laid, unless they are suited for potentially explo-
sive atmospheres due to their special design
(e.g. US standard).

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 46

Special conditions in intrinsically safe If the overload protection of an Ex-e machine is
circuits provided exclusively by temperature monitoring
Before installing intrinsically safe circuits, it is devices, the design of the machine must be
absolutely essential to take the special conditi- specially tested and certified for this. In general,
ons of the type examination certificate (X-certifi- current-monitored motors may only be used for
cate) and the operating instructions into continuous operation with easy and infrequent
account. Additional requirements relating to the starts. Variable speed Electric motors for varia-
installation and earthing are often listed here. ble voltages and frequencies (frequency conver-
ter) shall:
Cables for intrinsically safe circuits a) if designed in the type of protection Increa-
The following requirements apply, on principle,
sed Safety ”e”, be certified as a unit
for cables in intrinsically safe circuits:
together with the converter
• Insulated cables only
b) if designed in the type of protection Flame-
• Test voltage: conductor-earth-screen min.
proof Enclosure ”d”, be approved for con-
500V AC
verter operation in the type examination cer-
• Fine-wire conductor ends – multicore cable
• Conductor diameter > 0.1 mm (also for fine-
wire conductors) Luminaires
• Protection against electro-magnetic input Only those lamps specified by the manufacturer
couplings in the documentation (type label) may be used
• Wires of intrinsically safe and non-intrinsi- for luminaires.
cally safe circuits must not be routed
together Commissioning
• Mechanical protection In accordance with BetrSichV §14, after an
installation has been set up and before it is put
Cables of intrinsically safe circuits must be mar- into operation for the first time, the operator must
ked. If the sheathing or sleeves are to be mar- have the correct state of the installation inspec-
ked by colour-coding, they must be light blue. ted by a specialist. Until now in Germany an
This means that light blue cables must not be electrician is considered to be such a specialist,
used for non-intrinsically safe circuits in such an who, of course, must also have a good know-
installation. ledge of explosion protection. The latest techno-
logical developments must be considered as the
basis for testing. The tests may also be carried
Interconnection of intrinsically safe out by a specialist from an outside company,
circuits provided that he has been trained accordingly.
When interconnecting intrinsically safe circuits The results of the tests shall be recorded (§ 19
with more than one piece of associated appara- BetrSichV). If the planner and the installer come
tus, the intrinsic safety must be guaranteed in from different companies, they must reach an
the event of a fault and must be verified by cal- exact agreement regarding their respective
culation. areas of responsibility. In the case of intrinsically
safe circuits, the planning documents that act as
Electrical machinery the basis for the proof of the intrinsic safety
Most explosion-protected motors are designed must be coordinated with the installation, since
in the type of protection Increased Safety. any changes during installation can influence the
Electrical machinery must be protected against basis for the intrinsic safety.
inadmissible heating-up due to overload. The
following protective devices are possible:

• Overcurrent protection devices with current-

dependent delayed release
• Temperature monitoring by means of ther-
mometer probes
• Other devices that provide equivalent pro-
tection as required.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 47

Maintenance and repair
of explosion-protected

When work is carried out in potentially explosive Maintenance

atmospheres, the safety of people and installati-
ons depends, to a high degree, on the strict Maintenance includes all measures (inspection,
adherence to all safety regulations. The com- servicing and repairs) for maintaining and resto-
pany management, the operators and the main- ring the nominal state, as well as for the determi-
tenance personnel must work together in the nation and evaluation of the actual state. Inspec-
best possible way to guarantee a high degree of tions and supervision help prepare servicing
safety. Thus, the maintenance personnel wor- work and outline trends indicating possible
king in such plants has a special responsibility. damages. The inspection in the form of a visual
check shows the experienced specialist, e.g. by
Rules, regulations and decrees drips at the switch box, whether more intensive
checks are necessary.
The following shall be observed when setting-up
electrical installations in potentially explosive Special safety measures
• Decree on health and safety protection for the For all work carried out in potentially explosive
provision of work equipment and the use the- atmospheres it is necessary to ensure that nei-
reof during operation, on safety during the ther sparks capable of causing an ignition nor
operation of installations requiring supervision surfaces that are too hot occur, that, in conjunc-
and on the organisation of operational safety tion with the explosive atmosphere, could lead
provisions (Operational Safety Decree – to an explosion. On principle, work on live elec-
BetrSichV) trical installations and apparatus in hazardous
• Decree concerning the putting into circulation areas is forbidden.
of apparatus and protective systems for use in Exceptions are work on intrinsically safe circuits
potentially explosive atmospheres – explosion and, in special cases, on other electrical installa-
protection decree (ExVO) tions. In this case the works management must
• Harmonization of the laws of the member sta- issue a hot work permit as written confirmation
tes relating to apparatus and protective that no explosion hazard exists at the workplace
systems intended for use in potentially explo- for the duration of the work in hand. The
sive atmospheres (94/9/EC) absence of voltage may only be measured with
• Minimum regulations for the improvement of explosion-protected measuring instruments. The
the health protection and safety of employees special cases named above are the only excep-
that can be endangered by explosive atmos- tions. Earthing or short-circuiting in hazardous
pheres (1999/92/EC) areas is only permitted if there is no explosion
• Explosion protection rules (EX-RL) with collec- hazard.
tion of examples issued by the Employers Lia-
bility Insurance Association of the chemical
Prevention of sparking
The types of protection of the electrical appara-
• Directives for the prevention of ignition
tus being used ensure that sparks capable of
hazards as a result of electrostatic charges
causing an ignition or hot surfaces do not come
laid down by the central union of the employ-
into contact with the explosive atmosphere. If no
ers” liability insurance association
other organisational measures are taken, only
• Accident prevention regulations issued by the
explosion-protected measuring instruments may
employers” Insurance Liability Association
be used for the measurement of electric values.
BGV A2 ”Electrical installations and appara-
Sparks capable of causing an ignition can also
result when connecting or disconnecting cables
although no voltage is connected. The reasons
On principle, the following VDE specifications
for this can be possible energy stores of electri-
apply to the setting-up of electrical installations:
cal installations, as well as induction or electro-
• VDE 0100, 0101, 0107, 0113, 0141, 0185,
magnetic fields. The electrician must, at all
0190, 0800 Part 1 - 4
times, be aware of whether or not sparks capa-
ble of causing an ignition are to be expected.
In addition, the following VDE specifications
Another hazard area, where sparks capable of
must be observed for potentially explosive
causing an ignition can occur, is the discharging
of static charges.
• VDE 0165 (2/91), VDE 0165-1, VDE 0165-2
The possible formation of sparks must also be
and VDE 0170/0171 (all parts).
taken into consideration when using hand tools.
Here distinction is made between two types of
The following applies to the operation and main-
tools. Tools where a single spark is given off
tenance of existing installations:
during use, e.g. screwdrivers or spanners, and
• VDE 0105 Operation of power plants
tools that give off a shower of sparks during use,
– Part 1 General specifications
e.g. cutting or grinding tools. In general, the use
of tools that can give off sparks is not permitted
in Zones 0 and 20. According to EN 1127 only
steel tools that can only give off a single spark
may be used in Zones 1 and 2, provided that no
substances of the explosion group II C are pre-
sent in this area. The use of steel tools that can
give off a single spark is permitted in Zones 21

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 48

and 22. Tools that give off a shower of sparks Operation
may, on principle, only be used in conjunction
with a so-called ”hot work permit” if it has been Once an installation has been installed correctly,
ascertained that no explosive atmosphere is it is then necessary that it is operated in keeping
present for the duration of the work. The appro- with the latest technological developments and
priate safety measures must be specified in the standards. In accordance with §12 BetrSichV,
permit. the responsible operator must observe the follo-
wing important principles:
Hot work permit for work involving • Maintaining the electrical installation in due
ignition hazards in potentially explo- order
sive atmospheres • Monitoring of the electrical installation
(See Annex 2 for sample) • Immediate execution of necessary repair
Many tasks, such as the use of tools that give measures
off showers of sparks, torch cutting and wel- • Stopping operation in the event of faults that
ding, the use of non-explosion-protected mea- cannot be repaired and can endanger the
suring devices or repair work with different types personnel
of protection may only be carried out in the
hazardous area if, at the same time, no explo- Maintaining in due working order
sive atmosphere exists. After measures (primary After commissioning an installation, it is also
explosion protection) have been taken to ensure necessary to ensure that it remains in due order.
that no explosive atmosphere is present in the This requires the testing of installations accor-
work area, the works manager or his represen- ding to §15 BetrSichV at given intervals, whe-
tative tests the effectiveness of the measures reby installations shall be tested at least every
that have been taken. If required, before work is three years. EN 60079-17/VDE 0165, Part 10
commenced the atmosphere is tested using a ”Testing and maintenance of electrical installati-
gas warning device that is calibrated, explosion- ons in potentially explosive atmospheres” can be
protected and suitable for the type of gas to be applied here. In Section 4.5 of this standard
detected. constant supervision is described as one
The person responsible now issues a written method for maintaining the correct state of
release note (hot work permit) for the necessary installations.
maintenance measures that involve the possible
formation of sparks capable of causing an igni-
tion. The place, the time for the beginning of
work, the duration and the types of protective
measures required are laid down in this docu-
ment. Additional protective measures are always
necessary if a renewed formation of an explosive
atmosphere cannot be excluded. Approaching
clouds of explosive atmosphere can be detec-
ted using gas warning devices, provided that the
correct types are used for the respective type of
gas (heavier or lighter than air) and ambient con-
ditions (see Gas warning devices for explosion
protection – use and operation 1/2003 – T 023).
The gas warning devices must, however, be
used in such a way that, after an optical or
acoustic alarm warning has been given, suffi-
cient time remains to make possible ignition
sources ineffective.
After the work has been completed and this has
been reported, the effectiveness of the neces-
sary explosion protection measures must now
be re-established.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 49

Constant supervision Servicing
”Constant supervision” is defined as being the Based on these findings, maintenance work
continuous supervision of electrical installations shall be carried out according to the type of pro-
by specialized personnel that is familiar with the tection used. In the case of apparatus that is
locality, the aim of which is the permanent main- manufactured and approved according to the
taining of the installation in due working order, ATEX directive 94/9/EC, the necessary mainten-
the fast recognition and immediate elimination of ance measures can be found in the operating
any faults that may occur, and the early detec- instructions. Some possible maintenance tasks
tion of changes with the implementation of suita- are listed below.
ble countermeasures. Since, due to the joint specified in VDE 0171 for
In order to put this continuous supervision into flameproof enclosures, the protection against
practice, the responsible operator of the installa- water of flameproof enclosures and of EEx-e
tion must employ specialized personnel on a enclosures is only limited (IP 44 and IP 54), spe-
permanent basis and must allow them sufficient cial attention must be paid to any accumulation
freedom for the supervision of the installations. of water in the enclosure.
Special knowledge of the installation and the Slightly rusty joints shall not be cleaned with an
particular stresses are necessary to be able abrasive or wire brushes, but with chemical
identify possible weak points at an early stage. agents such as non-resinous and non-acid
In the course of his supervisory tasks, such as, reducing oils. Afterwards the joint surfaces must
for example, check patrols, inspections, servi- be carefully preserved.
cing, cleaning, trouble-shooting, switching Particular attention must be paid to ensure that
actions, connection and disconnection of any covers that were removed are put back
cables, setting and adjustment work, modificati- onto the associated enclosure base and scr-
ons and installation work, the electrician detects ewed down well. Covers of the same type must
any faults or changes at a very early stage, thus not be interchanged. The gasket on EEx-e
making it possible to take the necessary repair enclosures must be checked for damages and,
measures in good time. Constant supervision if necessary, replaced.Terminals, in particular in
shall be carried out at the responsibility of a spe- an EEx-e enclosure, are to be tightened. Any
cialist in a key position (responsible engineer). discoloration indicates a rise in temperature.
For the qualification of the responsible engineer, Cable glands, blanking plugs and flanges are to
priority is given to the function description and be checked for tightness and close fit. When
not the course of his training. The position requi- replacing incandescent lamps, it is necessary to
res a responsible person in a leading function ensure that only lamps have been certified for
and the position can, for example, be filled by a the luminaire may be used. Overcurrent protec-
trained technician with the appropriate speciali- tion devices and the suitability of fuses, motor
zed knowledge. On the basis of this knowledge, operating currents and tE times must be
he controls the qualification of specialized staff checked. Windings and bearings of motors must
and the execution of the constant supervision by – as far as possible – be checked for damages
specifying appropriate operation sequences and (running noises) and changes (rise in tempera-
by analyzing changes in the ambient conditions, ture).
the feedback relating to repair work and random Sand fillings in cable ducts and wall bushings
individual tests, in order to use the information shall be checked. Cable trenches and ducts
gained to undertake the necessary measures for shall be checked for water. Cable sheaths must
adapting the electrical installations. at an early be checked for perfect condition and cable trays
stage. If the constant supervision is documented for mechanical and chemical damage. This
in an appropriate manner, under certain circum- requires a good knowledge of the valid regulati-
stances a large part of the recurrent tests accor- ons and requirements.
ding to § 15 BetrSichV can be covered.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 50

Repairs Repair of apparatus
After apparatus parts upon which the explosion
Repair measures should be planned and, as a protection depends have been repaired, this
rule, be carried out during a scheduled shut- apparatus shall be inspected by a recognized
down. expert (§ (6) BetrSichV). If the result of the
appraisal is positive, he will issue an expert”s
Replacement of apparatus certificate or affix a test mark. Only then may the
Work on electrical apparatus and installations in apparatus be put back into operation. Inspec-
explosive atmospheres may only be carried out tion by an expert is not required if the repair of
if a work permit stating the necessary safety pre- the apparatus was carried out by the manufac-
cautions has been issued by the works manager turer and the apparatus was submitted to a
and if these measures have already been carried renewed routine test.
When replacing electrical apparatus, attention
must be paid to the intended application , i.e. to
the temperature class, explosion class and (Ex)
zone or apparatus category. Moreover, the certi-
ficate of conformity, PTB test certificates and
design approvals must be available. The manu-
facturer”s declaration of conformity and the
associated operating instructions must be avai-
lable for apparatus according to the ATEX direc-
tive 94/9/EC
In the case of EEx-e motors, the time tE must be
Lamps in stationary light fittings may only be
replaced if
• in Zone 0 the external and neutral conductor
are switched off,
• in Zone 1 at least the external conductor(s)
is/are switched off.

Lamps in portable lights may only be replaced

outside of hazardous areas.
Lamps may only be replaced by lamps whose
rating and type correspond to the data on the
In the case of luminaires in the type of protection
”Increased Safety” only general-purpose lamps
according to DIN EN 60 064 may be used. In
the case of special lamps only lamps whose
identification number is given on the rating plate
of the luminaire may be used.
In areas containing substances in the explosion
group IIC, an ignition hazard in the event of a
broken lamp already exists when no voltage is
applied. For this reason, fluorescent lamps may
only be replaced if it is ensured that no explo-
sion hazard exists during the relamping of the
light fitting or transport of the lamps.

After completion of the work,

• cable ducts must be refilled with sand or
well ventilated and drained,
• bushing openings of cables to non-hazar-
dous areas shall be sealed tightly,
• unused cable entries in electrical apparatus
must be sealed reliably and safeguarded
against self-loosening,
• cable glands must be tight.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 51

Definition of potentially
explosive atmospheres and
requirements for explosion-
protected apparatus on the
world market

Summary of the explosion protection measures, Division of explosive mixtures into

standards, categories and classifications that explosion groups:
are applicable worldwide.
Group A Acetylene
On the world market potentially explosive
atmospheres are divided into areas with various Group B Hydrogen
degrees of hazard according to the IEC publica-
tion IEC 60079-10 (EN 60079-10 in Europe) or Group C Ethylene
the NEC (National Electrical Code).
Group D Propane
The following is a brief overview of the NEC
requirements and a comparison of the require- Group E Metal dust
ments/specifications to IEC (EN) and NEC.
More detailed information can be found in the Group F Coal dust
Crouse-Hinds Code Digest. This publication can
be ordered on the Crouse-Hinds web site Group G Flour dust
”www.crouse-hinds.com” or downloaded as a
PDF file. Division into temperature classes:

NEC: T1 max. 450°C

T2 300°C
T2A 280°C
Classification according to the T2B 260°C
explosive medium T2C 230°C
T2D 215°C
Class I Mixtures of gas or vapour with air T3 200°C
Class II Mixture of dust with air T3A 180°C
Class III Mixture of fibres with air T3B 165°C
T3C 160°C
Subdivision of potentially explosive T4 135°C
atmospheres: T4A 120°C
T5 100°C
Division 1 Areas in which flammable gases T6 085°C
or vapours can be present:
– under normal operating
conditions Table of comparison
– frequently in the case of repair
and maintenance work NEC IEC/EN
– in the event of breakdowns or
faulty functioning of apparatus or Hazard categories/gas groups
in the process flow if, at the
same time, faults to electrical Examples NEC 500-503 NEC 505

apparatus can be caused IEC 60079-0

EN 50014

In class III areas in which fibres or Class I Gases and vapours

floating substances can be pre- Acetylene Group A Group IIC
sent in such quantities that, if they Hydrogen Group B Group IIC
are whirled-up, they can form an Ethylene Group C Group IIB
ignitable mixture with air belong to Propane Group D Group A
Division 1.
Class II Dusts
Division 2 Areas in which flammable gases, Metal dust Group E
vapours or easily vaporized liquids Coal dust Group F
in closed systems or suitable con- Grain dust Group G
tainers are to be found; areas in
which, under normal operating Class III Fibres
conditions, the formation of ignita- Wood, paper No subdivision
ble mixtures is prevented by a for- for material processing
ced ventilation; areas that border
onto Division 1, so that clouds of
the explosive atmosphere can
occasionally enter it.

In Class III areas in which easily

flammable fibres are stored or
processes belong to Division 2.

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 52

Classification of potentially explosive atmospheres
Long-term or Occasional hazard Hazard only in event of
frequent hazard fault and short-term

North America NEC 500-503 Division 1 Division 1 Division 2

North America NEC 505 Zone 0 (gas) Zone 1 (gas) Zone 2 (gas)
IEC / EN Zone 20 (dust) Zone 21 (dust) Zone 22 (dust)

Apparatus categories to G1 (gas) G2 (gas) G3 (gas)

directive 94/9/EN D1 (dust) D2 (dust) D3 (dust)

Division into temperature classes

Maximum permissible surface temperature NEC IEC 60079-0

Table 500-3(d) EN 50014

450°C T1 T1
300°C T2 T2
280°C T2A
260°C T2B
230°C T2C
215°C T2D
200°C T3 T3
180°C T3A
165°C T3B
160°C T3C
135°C T4 T4
120°C T4A
100°C T5 T5
85°C T6 T6

Overview of the types of protection and their permissible use in potentially

explosive atmospheres

Type of protection Symbol IEC EN For use in For use in

standard standard division zone
General IEC 60079-0 EN 50014
Oil immersion o IEC 60079-6 EN 50015 1 and 2 1 and 2
Pressurization p IEC 60079-2 EN 50016 1 and 2 1 and 2
Sand filling q IEC 60079-5 EN 50017 2 1 and 2
Flameproof enclosure d IEC 60079-1 EN 50018 1 and 2
Increased safety e IEC 60079-7 EN 50019 2 1 and 2
Intrinsic safety i IEC 60079-11 EN 50020 1 and 2 0*,1 and 2
Electrical apparatus n IEC 60079-15 EN 50021 2 2
in type of protection
Encapsulation m IEC 60079-18 EN 50028 1 and 2

Table of comparison NEMA classification and IP degree of protection


3 IP 54
3R IP 54
3S IP 54
4 and 4X IP 56
5 IP 52
6 and 6P IP 67
12 and 12 K IP 52

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 53

IP degrees of protection
The IP degrees of protection have
been defined in accordance with EN
60529 (protection against accidental
contact, foreign matter and water):

Degrees of protection against foreign matter designated by the first code No.
Degree of protection
No. Brief description Definition
0 No special protection –
1 Protected against solid The object probe, a ball of 50 mm dia.
foreign bodies 50 mm dia. must not fully penetrate *)
and bigger
2 Protected against solid The object probe, a ball of 12.5 mm dia.
foreign bodies 12.5 mm dia. must not fully penetrate *)
and bigger
3 Protected against solid The object probe of 2.5 mm dia.
foreign bodies 2.5 mm dia. must not penetrate at all *)
and bigger
4 Protected against solid The object probe of 1 mm dia.
foreign bodies 1 mm dia. must not penetrate at all*)
and bigger
5 Dust protected Ingress of dust is not totally prevented, but
the dust must not enter in such an amount
as to interfere with satisfactory operation or
with the safety of the apparatus.
6 Dusttight No ingress of dust
*) Note: The full diameter of the object probe must not pass through any opening of the enclosure.

Degrees of protection against water designated by the second code No.

Degree of protection
No. Brief description Definition
0 No special protection –
1 Protected against Vertically falling drops must not have a harmful effect.
dripping water
2 Protected against Drops falling vertically must not have a harmful effect
dripping water when the enclosure is inclined at an angle up to 15°
when the enclosure on either side of the vertical.
is inclined up to 15°
3 Protected against Water being sprayed at an angle of up to 60° on
spray water either side of the vertical must not have a harmful effect.
4 Protected against Water being splashed against the enclosure from any
splash-water direction must have no harmful effect.
5 Protected against Jet water from a nozzle turned on the enclosure from
jet water any direction must have no harmful effect.
6 Protected against There must be no harmful effect from powerful water
powerful water jets jets being turned on the enclosure from any direction.
7 Protected against Water must not enter in harmful quantities when the
water when the enclosure is immersed in water at specified conditions
enclosure is of pressure and time.
immersed in water
for a specified time
8 Protected against Water must no enter in such a quantity as might have a
water when the harmful effect when the enclosure is continuously sub-
enclosure is conti- merged in water at conditions which are to be agreed
nuously submerged upon between the manufacturer and the user. Conditions
must, however, be more stringent than those for code No. 7

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 54

Table 1 – Procedure for the
assessment of the zone
classification according to
ElexV, directives on explosion
protection (EX-RL) and VDE 0165
1. Are there explosive
substances being used?
Yes / No

2. If yes:
Do electrical
have to be taken into
operation in
a hazardous area?
If yes, then:

3. Determination of the 3.1 3.2 3.3

zone acc. to ElexV, EX-RL
Clarify: Apply data Where appro-
and VDE 0165, Which acc. to 3.1 priate, refer
whether substances of EX-RL to other
will be used? Check standards for
1. Flash point whether the zone classifi-
Zone 0
2. Volume practical case cation e. g.
Zone 1 percent or is in confor- VbF/TRbF or
Zone 2 weight per- mity with the others.
Zone 20 cent example in
3. Density the EX-RL;
Zone 21 4. Glow adopt the
Zone 22 temperature zone and
5. Ignition extent of zone.
6. Explosion

4. Decision
based on TABLE 2

4.1 Is a type sample

test certificate required?

4.2 Type of
installation according
to zone

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 55

Table 2
Explosion protection at a

Electrical installations in potentially gas atmospheres in the Federal Republic of Germany:

Overview in accordance with 94/9/EC, 199/92/EC, ExVO, BetrSichV; EX-RL; VDE 0165
Zone Explosive Flammable Apparatus Electrical installation
atmosphere media/substances category

0 Constantly, Gases, vapours, mists 1G to VDE 0165 Part 1

1 Occasionally Gases, vapours, mists 2G to VDE 0165 Part 1

2 Not to be expected, Gases, vapours, mists 3G to VDE 0165 Part 1

for short periods

20 Constantly, Dusts 1D to VDE 0165 Part 2

for long periods

21 Occasionally Dusts 2D to VDE 0165 Part 2

22 Not to be expected, Dusts 3D* to VDE 0165 Part 2

for short periods

* For conductive dusts IP 66 required

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 56

Appendix 3 –
Sample of an installation

Installationcertificate 1)

‰ Complies with the rule of prevention of accidents

”Electrical installations and apparatures (BGV A2)“

‰ Complies to German regulation for safety provisions

(BetrSichV. § 14 (1) – (3))

The installation set up by us

electrical installation up to 1000 V

Date: Order-No.:

Building: Plant:

Is set up in accordance to the engineering documents in

attention to the rules of technique.

The tests required in the order are accomplished.

The accordiner inspection sheets are listed.

________________ _________________
Place, Date Signature

) Up to final regulation

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 57

Annex 2 –
Sample of a hot work

Hot work permit for hazardous areas

Tick off where applicable. Delete what is not applicable in lines ticked off.

Permit for welding, burning and other hot work, for drilling, grinding, impact and calking work, for the use of non-explosion
protected apparatus.
A 1. Contractor: Building: Tel.: Foreman:
2. Place and kind of work

3. Hot work permit from o’clock to o’clock, for the time

4. For workshop/Messrs Building Foreman:

B Dangerous places in the environment

of the workplace, buildings, equipment etc. Person responsible Building Tel.

C Security precautions To be executed by: Settled

□ 1. Checking the tightness of pipes, equipment in the environment of the workplace □
□ 2. Fire fighting and other security precautions
□ a. Placing in readiness at the workplace of water for fire fighting and fire extinguishers □
□ b. Connecting the fire hose □
□ c. Placing look-out man
□ craftsman □ staff member □ supervisor □ fireman □
□ d. Removal of inflammable substances, vapours, gases or dust deposits □
□ e. □
□ f. □
3. Signposting of the workplace (road, railroad tracks etc.)
□ a. By means of red flags (20 m on either side of the workplace) □
□ b. By means of signs (e.g. hot work on pipe bridge) □
□ c. Blockage, diversion for tank lorries, blockage for rail cars □
4. Protection of the environment from welding sparks
□ a. Covering of the adjacent conduits □
□ b. Setting up of a protective wall, protection of the roof surface, possibly keeping wet □
□ c. Stopping of hot work with running of trains □
□ d. Keeping a min.distance of m from tank wagons, tank farms etc. with fire hazard □
□ e. Covering and sealing of pipe openings, gratings, light wells and gully holes □
□ f. □
5. In case of hot work in and on containers, apparatus, pits, pipework, dismantled parts of installations,
in confined rooms etc. Additional measures such as:
□ a. Travelling permit No. dated □
□ b. Work permit No. dated □
□ c. Test certificate for electrical apparatus No. dated □
□ d. □
□ a. Before starting to work, daily report to B 1, 2, 3, 4. □
□ b. Report end of the work daily to B 1, 2, 3, 4. □
□ a. Check of the security precautions ticked off by (name) □
□ b. Check of the workplace after ending the work by (name) □

C Consent of responsibilities Starting time reported

for the dangerous places on: to:
For B 1 measures C figure
For B 2 measures C figure
For B 3 measures C figure
For B 4 measures C figure
Date Signatures

Hot work permit issued

Date Signature of the works supervisor or his mandatary

Look-out man (name)

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 58

Annex 3

Title Author Obtainable from

”Explosion protection: Commentary on Fähnrich Ralph/Mattes, Hatto. Erich Schmidt Verlag GmbH, Berlin
ExVO and BetrSichV”
ISBN 3-503-01881-6

”ZH 1/10 Rules on health and safety protection at work; Employers´ Liability Insurance Jedermann-Verlag, Heidelberg;
Explosion protection rules” Company of the Chemical Industry Werbe Druck Winter, Sandhausen

Electrical explosion protection to Linienklaus, Erich/ VDE Verlag, Berlin

DIN VDE 0165 (VDE Publication, Volume 65) Wettingfeld, Klaus ISBN 3-8007-2410-3

Esplosion protection by intrinsic safety Dose, Wolf-Dieter VDE Verlag, Berlin

ISBN 3-8007-1950-9

”VDE regulations: Selection for explosion protection;2004-03” VDE VDE Verlag Berlin

Explosion protection manual Steen, Hennikus Wiley-VCH Verlag

ISBN 3-5272-9848-7

Electrical installations and equipment in Olenik, Heinz/Dose, Wolf-Dieter/ Hüthig & Pflaum Verlag, Heidelberg
potentially explosive atmospheres Rading, Herbert F. ISBN 3-8101-0130-3

Explosion-protected electrical installations Pester, Johannes Verlag Technik

ISBN 3-3410-1174-9

Mining decree on the general certification Gazette No. 54, Part 1 Bundesanzeiger Verlags mbH
of firedamp-protected electrical apparatus (1983)
(mining decree on the approval of electrical apparatus
– ElZulBergV)

The new equipment safety law (1980) Jeiter, W. Verlag C. H. Beck, Munich
ISBN 3-4063-7260-0

Safety coefficients of flammable gases and vapours; Narbert, K./Schön, G. Deutscher Eichverlag GmbH

Directives for the prevention of ignition hazards Central union of the Employers Carl Heymanns Verlag KG,
as a result of electrostatic charges – Liability Insurance Association, Cologne
Directives ”Static electricity” BER 132 Central Office for
Industrial Medicine,

New procedure for the testing and certification Dreier H./Hofer D. PTB Info No. 4 (1980)
of explosion-protected electrical apparatus

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 59

Annex 4
Harmonized standards to
Directive 94/9/EC

Title Author Obtainable from

EN 1127: 1997 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Explosive atmospheres – Explosion prevention and protection – 10625 Berlin
Part 1: Basic concepts and methodology
EN 1127-2: 2002 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Explosive atmospheres – Explosion prevention and protection – 10625 Berlin
Part 2: Basic concepts and methodology for mining
EN 1755: 2000 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Safety of industrial trucks – Operation in potentially 10625 Berlin
explosive atmospheres – Use in flammable gas, vapour
mist and dust
EN 1834-1: 2000 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Reciprocating internal combustion engines – Safety requirements 10625 Berlin
for design and construction of engines for use in
potentially explosive atmospheres – Part 1: Group II
engines for use in flammable gas and vapour atmospheres
EN 1834-2: 2000 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Reciprocating internal combustion engines – Safety requirements 10625 Berlin
for design and construction of engines for use in
potentially explosive atmospheres – Part 2: Group I
engines for use in underground workings susceptible to
firedamp and/or combustible dust
EN 1834-3: 2000 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Reciprocating internal combustion engines – Safety requirements 10625 Berlin
for design and construction of engines for use in
potentially explosive atmospheres – Part 3: Group II
engines for use in flammable dust atmospheres
EN 12847: 2001 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Flame arresters – Performance requirements, test methods 10625 Berlin
and limits for use
EN 13012: 2001 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Petrol filling stations – Construction and performance of 10625 Berlin
automatic nozzles for use on fuel dispensers
EN 13160-1 : 2001 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Leak detection systems – Part 1: General Principles 10625 Berlin
EN 13237 : 2003 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Potentially explosive atmospheres – Terms and definitions 10625 Berlin
for equipment and protective systems intended for use in
potentially explosive atmospheres
EN 13463-1 : 2001 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Non-electrical equipment for potentially explosive atmospheres – 10625 Berlin
Part 1: Basic methodology and requirements
EN 13673-1 : 2003 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Determination of the maximum explosion pressure and the 10625 Berlin
maximum rate of pressure rise of gases and vapours –
Part 1: Determination of the maximum explosion pressure
EN 13760: 2003 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Automotive LPG filling system for light and heavy duty 10625 Berlin
vehicles – Nozzle, test requirements and dimensions
EN 13821: 2002 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Potentially explosive atmospheres – Explosion prevention 10625 Berlin
and protection – Determination of minimum ignition energy
of dust/air mixtures
EN 13980: 2002 CEN VDE-Verlag GmbH
Potentially explosive atmospheres – 10625 Berlin
Application of quality systems

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 60

Annex 4
Harmonized standards to
Directive 94/9/EC

Title Author Obtainable from

EN 50014: 1997 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres – 0625 Berlin
General requirements
Amendment A1:1999 to EN 50014:1997 Note 3 –
Amendment A2:1999 to EN 50014:1997 Note 3 –
EN 50015: 1998 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres – 10625 Berlin
Oil immersion ”o”
EN 50017: 1998 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Elektrische Betriebsmittel für explosionsgefährdete Bereiche – 10625 Berlin
Powder filling ”q”
EN 50018: 2000 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres – 10625 Berlin
Flameproof enclosure ”d”
Amendment A1:2002 to EN 50018:2000
EN 50019 / EN 60079-7 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres – 10625 Berlin
Increased safety ”e”
+ Corrigendum 4.2003
EN 50020 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres – 10625 Berlin
Intrinsic safety ”i”
EN 50021 / EN 60079-15 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres – 10625 Berlin
Type of protection ”n”
EN 50054 / EN 61779-1 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
combustible gases – General requirements and test methods
EN 50055 / EN 61779-2 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
combustible gases – Performance requirements for Group I
apparatus indicating up to 5 % (v/v) methane in air
EN 50056: 1998 CENELEC VDE- Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
combustible gases – Performance requirements for Group I
apparatus indicating up to 100 % (v/v) methane in air
EN 50057: 1998 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
combustible gases – Performance requirements for Group
II apparatus indicating up to 100 % lower explosive limit
EN 50058: 1998 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
combustible gases – Performance requirements for Group
II apparatus indicating up to 100 % (v/v) gas
EN 50104: 1998 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
oxygen – Performance requirements and test methods
EN 50104: 2002 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
oxygen – Performance requirements and test methods
Amendment A1:2004 to EN 50104: 2002
EN 50241-1: 1999 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Specification for open path apparatus for the detection of 10625 Berlin
combustible or toxic gases and vapours – Part 1: General
requirements and test methods

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 61

Annex 4
Harmonized standards to
Directive 94/9/EC

Title Author Obtainable from

EN 50241-2: 1999 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Specification for open path apparatus for the detection of 10625 Berlin
combustible or toxic gases and vapours – Part 2:
Performance requirements for apparatus for the detection of
combustible gases
EN 50281-1-1: 1998 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible 10625 Berlin
dust – Part 1-1: Electrical apparatus protected by enclosures –
Construction and testing
+ Corrigendum 8.1999
Amendment A1:2002 to EN 50281-1-1:1998
EN 50281-1-2: 1998 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible 10625 Berlin
dust – Part 1-2: Electrical apparatus protected by enclosures
Selection, installation and maintenance –
+ Corrigendum 12.1999
Amendment A1:2002 to EN 50281-1-2:1998
EN 50281-2-1: 1998 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for use in the presence of combustible 10625 Berlin
dust – Part 2-1: Test methods – Methods for determining
the minimum ignition temperatures of dust
EN 50284: 1999 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Special requirements for construction, test and marking of 10625 Berlin
electrical apparatus of equipment group II, Category 1 G
EN 50303: 2000 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Group I, Category M1 equipment intended to remain functional 10625 Berlin
in atmospheres endangered by firedamp and/or coal dust
EN 60079-7: 2003 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres – Part 7: 10625 Berlin
Increased safety ”e”
(IEC 60079-7:2001, EN 50019:2000)
EN 60079-15:2003 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres – Part 15: 10625 Berlin
Type of protection ”n”
(IEC 60079-15:2001, EN 50021:1999)
EN 61779-1:2000 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement 10625 Berlin
of flammable gases – Part 1: General requirements and
test methods
(IEC 61779-1:1998 EN 50054:1998)
Amendment A11:2004 to EN 61779-1:2000
EN 61779-2:2000 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
flammable gases – Part 2: Performance requirements for group I
apparatus indicating a volume fraction up to 5 % methane in air
(IEC 61779-2:1998, EN 50055:1998)
EN 61779-3:2000 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
flammable gases – Part 3: Performance requirements for
group I apparatus indicating a volume fraction up to 100 %
methane in air
(IEC 61779-3:1998, EN 50056:1998)

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 62

Annex 4
Harmonized standards to
Directive 94/9/EC

Title Author Obtainable from

EN 61779-4:2000 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
flammable gases – Part 4: Performance requirements for 10625 Berlin
group II apparatus indicating a volume fraction up to
100 % lower explosive limit
(IEC 61779-4:1998, EN 50057:1998)
EN 61779-5:2000 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Electrical apparatus for the detection and measurement of 10625 Berlin
flammable gases – Part 5: Performance requirements for
group II apparatus indicating a volume fraction up to
100 % gas
(IEC 61779-5:1998, EN 50058:1998)
EN 62013-1:2002 CENELEC VDE-Verlag GmbH
Caplights for use in mines susceptible to firedamp – 10625 Berlin
Part 1: General requirements - Construction and testing
in relation to the risk of explosion
(IEC 62013-1:1999)

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 63

All rights reserved, in particular the right to reproduce and circulate,
as well as the right to translate.

The data was compiled and verified with due care in keeping with the latest standards
and regulations. The prevailing technological and statutory rules are binding.

© 2004 Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH

Senator-Schwartz-Ring 26
D-59494 Soest/Germany

No liability will be assumed for any damages that may arise from the use of this

Setting: Scholz-Druck, Dortmund

Printing: Scholz-Druck, Dortmund

Publication No. 1258/8/07.04/SD

Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany

Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH 64

All you need for explosion protection
from one source

Technical details subject to alteration



● Fluorescent light fittings

● Floodlights

● Portable lamps

● Plugs and sockets

● Switchgear

● Terminal boxes
Cooper Crouse-Hinds GmbH
● Intrinsically safe signal conditioning Neuer Weg-Nord 49, D-69412 Eberbach
Phone +49 (0) 62 71/8 06-5 00,
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