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ORAL AND WRITTEN PRACTICE IN MODERN ENGLISH

PART 1

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ПРИДНЕСТРОВСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
им. Т. Г. ШЕВЧЕНКО
Рыбницкий филиал
Кафедра иностранных языков

ORAL AND WRITTEN PRACTIC IN MODERN ENGLISH


PART 1

Учебное пособие

Рыбница, 2012

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УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ.
О68

Составитель:
Н. Л. Мартынюк, преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков
филиала ПГУ им. Т. Г. Шевченко в г. Рыбница

Рецензенты:
Г. А. Батыр, преподаватель английского языка высшей
квалификационной категории гимназии № 1 г. Рыбница
Ю. Ю. Волкова, ст. преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков
филиала ПГУ им. Т. Г. Шевченко в г. Рыбница

O68 Оral and written practice in modern English:


Учебное пособие для студентов 1 курса / сост. Н. Л. Мартынюк –
Рыбница, 2012. – 63 с.

Данное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса


специальности «Иностранный язык» с дополнительной специальностью
«Иностранный язык» (050303.65).
Пособие построено на принципах современной коммуникативной
концепции обучения иностранному языку и ставит целью выработку
практических навыков во всех видах речевой деятельности, обучение
устной речи на основе автоматизированных речевых навыков и
обогащение словарного запаса студентов 1 курса.
Пособие состоит из двух тематических разделов (English in the
World and Appearance) с системой упражнений на развитие навыков
чтения, аудирования, письма, говорения, а также грамматических
навыков.
Каждый раздел пособия включает тематический словарь и
тематические тексты.
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2 Англ.

Рекомендовано Научно-методическим советом ПГУ им. Т. Г. Шевченко

© Составление:
Мартынюк Н. Л., 2012

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Contents
Предисловие………………………………………………………………………………………..5
English in the World ……………………………………………………………………………….6
I. Topical vocabulary…………………………………………………………………….....6
II. Text I “The Language of Shakespeare”………………………………………………....10
III. Text II “English has no Equals”………………………………………………………...12
Text III “English in the World” ………………………………………………………...14
IV. Text IV “Basic Characteristics of the English language”………………………………18
V. Text V “Are you happy with the Way you are Taught English?”………………………19
VI. Vocabulary and Speech Exercises………………………………………………………26
VII. Discussion Points………………………………………………………………………..27
Appearance…………………………………………………………………………………….......29
I. Topical vocabulary…………………………………………………………………….29
II. Vocabulary and Pre-reading Work…………………………………………………….35
III. Vocabulary and Speech Exercises……………………………………………………..43
IV. Text I “A Visit to the Country”………………………………………………………..49
V. Text II “Mr. Rochester’sVisitors”……………………………………………………..52
VI. Text III “Mona Lisa”…………………………………………………………………..55
VII. Text IV “Why do People Decorate their Bodies?”…………………………………….58
VIII. Text V “What do Men really Think of Cosmetic surgery?”…………………………..60
Список использованной литературы………………………………………………………….65

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Предисловие
Данное учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 курса университета,
факультетов иностранных языков, изучающих английский язык как специальность, а также
может быть полезно для всех лиц, желающих приобрести навыки вербальной коммуникации
в рамках, представленных в пособии тем: “English in the world” и “Appearance”. Пособие
является 1-й частью серии учебных пособий, обеспечивающих практический курс
английского языка для студентов 1-го курса университета специальности «Иностранный
язык» с дополнительной специальностью «Иностранный язык».
Основная цель пособия – обучение устной речи в рамках тем: “English in the world” и
“Appearance”, на основе развития необходимых автоматизированных речевых навыков,
развитие техники чтения и умения понимать английский текст, содержащий усвоенную
ранее лексику и грамматику, а также развитие навыков письменной речи и аудирования.
Пособие состоит из двух разделов: 1) “English in the World”; 2) “Appearance”.
Единицей организации и планирования материала служит тематический комплекс. В начале
каждого раздела дается тематический словарь (Topical Vocabulary) для использования в
упражнениях по теме раздела. Система упражнений (Vocabulary and Speech Exercises) носит
уровневый характер, предусматривает повторяемость лексических единиц и их
использование в различных коммуникативных ситуациях (Discussion Points), что доводит их
употребление в свободной речи до уровня приобретенного навыка.
Каждый раздел пособия содержит тематический текстовый материал, насыщенный
необходимой лексикой и разговорными конструкциями. Перед текстами помещены
фонетические упражнения (Pre-reading exercises) способствующие развитию навыков чтения
и упражнения на отработку лексических единиц (Vocabulary and Pre-reading Work). С целью
отработки навыка ознакомительного чтения в пособие включены подразделы: Skim Reading
Task, Believe it or not, Info Box; изучающего чтения – Reading for Detail.
После текстов представлены грамматические упражнения (Grammar), построенные на
лексическом материале раздела и имеющие целью закрепление грамматических явлений,
встречающихся в тексте, а также предлагаются задания на закрепление правописания
лексических единиц и отработку навыков письменной речи (Writing, Dictation, Spelling and
punctuation).
В подразделе Word Guide вводятся и отрабатываются в системе упражнений новые
идиоматические выражения. Для овладения навыками понимания звучащей речи в пособии
представлен подраздел Listening. Контроль понимания речевого сообщения осуществляется
после каждого прослушивания.
В пособии представлен достаточный материал для работы по совершенствованию
произносительных навыков и овладению навыками говорения: пословицы и поговорки,
афоризмы, стихотворения, загадки, схемы и картинки.
Материал, представленный в пособии, обеспечивает следующий уровень речевых
навыков и умений:
- в области говорения: умение свободного монологического высказывания и
диалогического общения в рамках, включенных в пособие тем;
- в области чтения: умение практического владения ознакомительным и изучающим
чтением;
- в области аудирования: умение осмысления и понимания звукового сообщения,
осмысления общей идеи сообщения;
- в области письменной речи: умение правильной графической фиксации речи в
пределах пройденной тематики и умение выражения мыслей в письменной форме.

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ENGLISH IN THE WORLD
“He who doesn’t know a foreign language knows nothing about his own.”
Goethe
“Language is the Treasure of a Nation.”
“Men govern nothing with more difficulty than their tongues, and can
moderate their desires more than their words.”
Spinoza
Section I
Topical Vocabulary
1) Angles and Saxons Англы и Саксы
to influence влиять
influence влияние
throughout на протяжении
to belong принадлежать
epoch эпоха
to replace заменять
tribe племя
to invade вторгаться, захватывать
dialect диалект
to be related относиться
to survive сохраниться, продолжить существовать
to go back to происходить от
to impose навязывать
to suffer испытывать, претерпевать
2) equal быть равным
to be interested in smth интересоваться чем-то
origin of words происхождение слов
mail переписка
outlook мировоззрение
cables телеграмма
truly несомненно, в самом деле
periodicals периодические издания
native speaker носитель языка
condition состояние
medium передающая среда
to borrow заимствовать
to store сохранять, накоплять
business deal деловое соглашение, сделка
directly непосредственно
to conduct проводить
remarkable замечательный
glamour шарм, обаяние, привлекательность
to land высаживаться на берег
Christianity Христианство
to exist существовать
broadcasting company радиотрансляционная компания
at least по меньшей мере
to transmit передавать
barely почти
audience публика, зрители, аудитория

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former бывший, давний
to exceed превышать, выходить за пределы
3) to require требовать
effort усилие
recent недавний
establishment создание, учреждение
mother tongue родной язык
settlement поселение
to assist помогать
native language родной язык
bilingual society двуязычное общество
to be forced to do smth быть вынужденным сделать что-либо
entire целый, весь
survey опрос, анкетирование
range of use область употребления
reinforce укреплять, усиливать
prominent заметный, выдающийся
estimate оценка
retrieval system поисковая система
4) simplicity упрощенность, простота
inflection окончание
singular единственное число
plural множественное число
tense время глагола
person лицо
to simplify упрощать
verb глагол
adjective прилагательное
according to согласно чему-либо
noun существительное
flexibility гибкость
loss утрата
preposition предлог
to involve касаться, затрагивать
admission допущение, принятие
creation формирование
compound сложное слово
derivative производное слово
to contribute способствовать
to reverse изменять на противоположное
purist сторонник очищения литературного языка
to resist противостоять
arrival принятие
doubt сомнение
proposition утверждение, высказывание
to die out вымирать, отмирать
5) interpreter переводчик
to feel about smth иметь желание сделать что-то
drill упражнение
in isolation изолированно
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to practice практиковать
vocabulary словарный запас
at a time за раз
by heart наизусть
to memorize запоминать
to be related to smth относиться к чему-либо
to be connected with быть связанным с
phrasal verb фразовый глагол
to cope with smth справиться с чем-либо
to keep oneself up-to-date with smth быть в курсе событий
idiom идиоматическое выражение
to laugh at смеяться над
old-fashioned устаревший
average средний, обычный
expression выражение
to make sure убедиться
pronunciation произношение
to find hard считать трудным
intonation интонация
to get smth wrong неправильно что-то понять
rude грубый
formal (informal) language язык официального (неофициального) общения
to ask for smth просить (спрашивать) о чем-то
to be polite быть вежливым
context контекст
to look words up in the dictionary смотреть слова в словаре
to make a note of smth записать что-то
to be disappointed быть разочарованным
to be proud of smth гордиться чем-либо
to get an idea of smth получить представление о чем-то
feature черта
ways of behaviour манеры поведения
linguistic studies лингвистические исследования
6) an acquired language приобретенный язык
to master a foreign language овладеть иностранным языком
to develop language skills развивать языковые навыки
dialect диалект
accent акцент
slang сленг
jargon жаргон
fluency беглость
accuracy of speech правильность речь
to have a good command of the
хорошо владеть языком
language
to practice the language практиковать язык
be good at languages хорошо владеет иностранными языками
to be quite at home with the language хорошо владеет языком
to speak a language well (fluently, говорить на языке хорошо (бегло, довольно
fairly well, abominably) хорошо, отвратительно)
to speak poor English плохо говорить на английском
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to speak broken English говорить на ломаном английском
to speak with a strong accent говорить с сильным акцентом
to be bilingual быть «билингвом» (владеть двумя языками как
«родным»)
gift for languages склонность к языкам
Section II
Ex.1. Analyze the Indo-European language family tree scheme and answer the following
questions.
1) What group of languages does the Russian (English) language belong to?
2) What group of languages does your native language belong to?
THE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE FAMILY TREE SCHEME
INDO-EUROPEAN
1) HELLENIC – ATTIC GREEK – KOINE – MODERN GREEK
2) ITALIC – LATIN: Spanish, Moldavian, Romanian, Italian, Portuguese, French
1. GERMANIC: Old English – English, Scandinavian, Dutch, Flemish, German
3) CELTIC – IRISH GAELIC: Erse, Irish, Welsh
4) Albanian
5) Armenian
6) BALTO-SLAVIC: Lithuanian, Serbo-Groatian, Czecho-Slovak, Russian, Polish, Bulgarian, Slovak, Ukrainian,
Byelorussian
7) INDO-IRANIAN: SANSCRIT: Hindi
Bengali
OLD PERSIAN – MODERN PERSIAN – Persian
Skim Reading Task
Ex.2. Read the following text and tell about the stages of the development of the English
language.
From the History of the English Language
Long ago, only few languages were spoken. One of them was Indo-European. Experts
believe that the people in Central and Northern Europe spoke Indo-European around 5000 B.C.
Later, as some of the people moved to other parts of Europe and to India, new languages developed.
All these languages are now part of the Indo-European family.
One language in the Indo-European family is English. English is hundreds of years old.
However, the English we speak today is not the same as the English of long ago. The language has
changed and developed over the years.
Around 500 B.C. people called Celts moved to Britain. They came from Central and
Western Europe. Their language, Celtic, became the language of Britain.
In 43 A.D. Romans arrived in Britain. They spoke a different language, Latin. However
Latin did not affect Celtic much. Only a few Latin words entered the Celtic language. Some
examples are candle, master, port.
The Romans left Britain in the 400s. Soon after, in 449, Britain was invaded by three
Germanic tribes called the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes. Because they came from different
places, they all spoke different versions of the same language. After they arrived in Britain, they
started to speak the same language, Old English, which replaced Celtic. Even the name Britain was
changed to Angle land. Old English lasted past the year 1000.
In 1006, French people called Normans conquered England. By 1400, thousands of French
words had entered the English language. Examples are colour, dinner, government. The new
language, called Middle English lasted from about 1100 to 1500.
No one knows exactly why, but around 1500 English vowel sounds began to change. For
example, the sound of sweet changed from swete to sweet. Word spelling, however, stopped
changing. With the invention of the printing press, around 1450, people started to use standard
spellings for the words. The language spoken after 1500 became known as Modern English.
Modern English is the English that we use today. The language continues to grow and to
incorporate new words constantly, especially words related to science and technology.
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Pre-reading Work
Ex.3. Transcribe and learn to read the following words and word combinations:
Indo-European, Shakespeare, throughout, epoch, Germanic origin, the Celtic language, Celts, the
Central and Western Europe, Irish and Welsh, the Roman period, Latin, the Angles, the Saxons, the
Jutes, Dutch, German, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror,
science.
Ex.4. Read and translate the following text:
Text I
The Language of Shakespeare
The English language belongs to the Indo-European family and it is very old. It has changed
very much throughout the centuries. If you had an opportunity to read Shakespeare, you could
obviously notice the difference the English language spoken today and the one of his epoch.
Throughout history, other languages have influenced English. Though initially of Germanic
origin, it has been in fact replaced around 500 B.C. by the Celtic language. Celts moved to Britain
from the Central and Western Europe. The Celtic language evolved into the Irish and Welsh
languages that are spoken today in some parts of the United Kingdom.
During the Roman period, A.D. – 43-400, Latin influenced the Celtic language, and some
Latin words entered the Celtic language.
In 449 the Germanic tribes – the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, invaded Britain. All
spoke dialects of a language that scholars call West Germanic. Other current West Germanic
languages, along with English are Dutch and German. West Germanic was closely related to North
Germanic, which survived today in the Scandinavian languages such as Norwegian, Swedish, and
Danish. Originally, both West Germanic and North Germanic were the same language, called
Germanic. They all spoke Old English, which replaced Celtic. Old English was spoken until the
year 1000.The name term English goes back to the name of one of the Germanic tribes – the
Angles.
During the Norman Conquest of 1066, William the Conqueror imposed a new government,
and tried to impose on Britain the conquerors’ French. From then until about 1475, the language is
called Middle English. During that time English was very much under the influence of French and
thousands of French words entered the language.
Around the 1475 the English language began to change. A lot of sounds changed their
pronunciation and spelling changed as well. Thus, the Modern English appeared. It suffered many
changes since 1500 and it continues to develop. Development of science, technology and society in
general brings new valuable additions to the language nowadays.
Ex.5. Pick out from the text the names of languages. Are all of them spoken nowadays?
Ex.6. What periods in the development of the English language do these dates refer to?
1475, 449, 500, 1500, 43-400, 1000
Ex.7. Match each group of word combinations with the period of the English language
development:
1) Of Germanic origin, replaced, evolved into a) Later changes in the English language
Irish and Welsh
2) To impose French, Middle English, to be under b) The Norman Conquest
the influence of French, numerous borrowings
from French
3) To change pronunciation and spelling, the c) The Roman period
Modern English, to suffer changes, to bring new
additions
4) The influence of Latin on the Celtic language, d) The influence of the West Germanic
many Latin words languages
5) The Germanic tribes, to invade Britain, to e) The influence of the Celtic language
speak dialects, to be closely related to, the
Scandinavian languages, the same language, to
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replace Celtic
Ex.8. Translate the following sentences into English making use of the topical vocabulary:
1) На протяжении своего развития английский язык претерпевал множество изменений, как в
фонетике, так и в орфографии. 2) Многие европейские языки оказали влияние на английский
язык. 3) В средние века на территории Великобритании проживало много племен, и
существовало множество диалектов. 4) Английский язык относится к германской группе
языков. 5) В течение долгого времени английский язык находился под влиянием
французского языка. 6) Примерно в 500 г до н.э. язык, существовавший на территории
Великобритании, был заменен Кельтским языком. 7) Период Нормандского завоевания
можно назвать эпохой влияния французского языка на английский. 8) Многие французские
слова сохранились в английском языке до сих пор. 9) Многие новые слова относятся к сфере
науки и технологии. 10) В 449 г. германские племена захватили Британию. 11) Название
английского языка восходит к названию одного из германских племен – Англов. 12)
Племена, которые завоевывали территорию Великобритании, навязывали местному
населению свой язык.
Ex.9. Answer the questions on the text:
1) What are the periods of evolution of the English language called?
2) What languages influenced English during each of the periods?
3) What are the languages spoken on the territory of the United Kingdom today?
4) Why is English called the language of Shakespeare?
5) Why are languages in continuous change?
Ex.10. Retell the text using the following plan:
1) General characteristics of the English language.
2) The influence of the Celtic language on English.
3) The influence of the Latin language on English.
4) The influence of the West Germanic languages on English.
5) Changes in the English language during the Norman Conquest.
6) Later changes in the English language.
Ex.11. Read the Info Box. Try to recognize Old English and Middle English words in the
passages given as examples, and provide their Modern English equivalents. How much can you
understand out of these passages?
Info Box
Old English Period
The earliest Old English records date back from about the year 650. most surviving Old
English manuscripts , however, are from the tenth and eleven centuries, including the single
surviving manuscript of the epic poem Beowulf.
The English of these times is much different from that of today. The extract below is taken
from records of English written documents of old times. The first lines of the Lord’s Prayer as
written in the southwest of England about the year 1000 says: Faeder ure, thu the eart on heofenum,
si thin nama gehalgod…
Middle English Period
Chaucer wrote during the Middle English period and died in the year 1400, the English is
much more easily recognizable as the language we speak today. See below the famous opening
couplet of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales:
What that Aprille with his shoures sote,
The droghte of Marche hath perced to the rote.
Shakespeare, like Chaucer, wrote in the London dialect of English, so did other writers of
his time. It is important to realize that more current editions of Shakespeare do not keep the original
spellings. Here is a famous line from Hamlet as found in an edition printed in 1604 (the second
Quarto edition: O that this too too sallied flesh would melt…)
Ex.12. Express your point of view on the following statement. Give reasons for your answer.

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“Language is the road map of a culture. It tells you where its people come from and where they
are going.” (Rita Mae Brown)
Section III
Pre-reading exercises:
Ex.1. Translate and transcribe the following words:
Equal, foreign, success, tongue, technical, scientific, glamour, audience
Ex.2. Practice the pronunciation of the following words.
[o] [o:] [ʌ] [ә:] [i:] [iә]
belong abroad nothing word people appear
almost author touched world speaker hear
origin talking other learn deal nearly
borrow brought some third least
colony store among first sea
‘broadcasting mother church tea
‘audience tongue ex’ceed
become between
company medium
us
studying
con’duct
country
Ex.3. Read the following word combinations. Mind linking “r” at the juncture.
The answer is, there is, we are all interested, appear and die, are in English, the air and sea
Ex.4. Read and translate the text.
Text II
English Has no Equals!
Language belongs to each of us. Everyone uses words. What is it about the language that
makes people so curious? The answer is that there is almost nothing in our lives that is not touched
by language. We live in and by language. We all speak and we all listen: so we are all interested in
the origin of words, in how they appear and die.
Nowadays it’s especially important to know foreign languages. Some people learn
languages because they need them for their work, others travel abroad, for the third studying foreign
languages is a hobby. Everyone, who knows foreign languages can speak to people from other
countries, read foreign authors in the original, which makes your outlook wider. Knowledge of
foreign languages helps us to develop friendship and understanding among people.
“Do you speak English?” – With this phrase begins the conversation between two people,
who speak different languages and want to find a common language. It’s very good when you hear:
“Yes, I do”, and start talking. English today is more widely spoken and written, than any other
language has ever been. It has become the language of the planet, the first truly global language.
England’s history helps to understand the present condition of English. Many English words
were borrowed from the language of Angles and Saxons. Hundreds of French words came into
English. Many new words were brought by traders and travelers. These words came from all parts
of the world: “umbrella” – from Italian, “skates” – from Dutch, “tea” – from Chinese, “cigar” –
from Spanish. Some words came into English directly from Latin, which was the language of the
church and the universities in the Middle Ages.
The rise of English is a remarkable success story. When Julius Caesar landed in Britain
nearly two thousand years ago, English did not exist. Today English is used by at least 750 million
people, and barely half of those speak it as a mother tongue. The native speakers of English live in
Great Britain, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. A lot of people
speak English in China, Japan, India, Africa and other countries. As a second language it is used in

12
the former British and US colonies. It is one of six official languages of the United Nations
Organization.
Three-quarters of the world’s mail, and its telexes and cables, are in English. So are more
than half the world’s technical and scientific periodicals. English is the medium for 80 per cent of
the information stored in the world’s computers. Nearly half of all business deals in Europe are
conducted in English. It is the language of sports and glamour: the official language of the
Olympics and the Miss Universe Competition. English is the official voice of the air and sea, and of
Christianity. The largest broadcasting companies in the world (CBS, NBS, ABC, BBC) transmit in
English to audiences that regularly exceed one hundred million.
English has no equals! Dispute it if you can!
Vocabulary and Speech Exercises:
Ex.1. Pick out from the text all the proper names, transcribe and learn them.
Ex.2. Translate the following words and word combinations and reproduce the sentences in
which they were used in the text:
Иностранные языки, Организация Объединенных Наций, путешествовать за границу,
трансляционные компании, читать иностранных авторов в оригинале, замечательная история
успеха, язык церкви и университетов, заимствовать слова, особенно важно, Юлий Цезарь, по
меньшей мере, три четвертых мировой корреспонденции, начать разговор, научные
периодические издания, язык моды, конкурс «Мисс Вселенная», язык Англов и Саксов,
торговцы и путешественники, Средние Века, деловое соглашение, расширять кругозор,
развивать дружбу и понимание, общий язык, почти половина из них, родной язык, язык
Христианства, интересоваться происхождением слов, принадлежать каждому из нас, найти
общий язык, всемирный язык, современное состояние, все части света, бывшие британские
колонии, телексы и телеграммы, превышать сто миллионов.
Ex.3. Find in the text the synonyms for the following words:
Fashion, composer, newspapers and magazines, luck, public (n), point of view, identical,
instrumentality, to conserve, previous, to argue, to surpass
Ex.4. Translate the following sentences into English making use of the vocabulary:
1) На каких языках говорят в бывших колониях США и Британии? 2) Английский язык –
язык моды и Христианства. 3) Общение помогает развивать дружбу и понимание среди
наций. 4) Современное состояние языка не такое, как в средние века. 5) Многие
радиотрансляционные компании вещают на английском языке. 6) В нашей республике три
официальных языка: молдавский, русский и украинский. 7) В библиотеке нашего
университета можно почитать технические и научные периодические издания. 8) Аудитория
этого канала превышает 50 тысяч человек. Почти половина из них – дети. 9) На каком языке
говорят представители стран, входящих в ООН? 10) Чтение периодических изданий
расширяет кругозор. 11) Мне интересно происхождение слов разных языков. 12) Многие
деловые сделки в современном мире проводятся на английском языке. 13) Все люди имеют
равные права. 14) Много слов было заимствовано из французского языка. 15) Вы читаете
зарубежных авторов в оригинале? – Да, я трачу на чтение 2 часа в день. 16) Эта
замечательная книга принадлежит мне.
Ex.5. Spell and transcribe the four forms of the following verbs:
Belong, use, make, touch, live, speak, listen, appear, die, learn, travel, know, read, help, begin, start,
become, borrow, come, be, bring, land, exist, transmit, conduct, exceed, have.
Ex.6. Compose sentences of the following words making use of the Passive Voice:
e. g. English is spoken by many people nowadays – Present Simple Passive Voice. В настоящее
время на английском говорят много людей.
1) language touch
is
2) new poems use
3) discovery channel bring
are
4) this author listen
5) business deals was learn
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6) unknown words know
7) the matter make
were
8) new periodicals start
9) business talks transmit
will be
10) this dialect conduct
11) this magazine speak
must be
12) the question read
13) this noise can be borrow
Ex.7. Answer the questions on the text:
1) Why do people learn foreign languages?
2) What makes your outlook wider?
3) In what way does knowledge of foreign languages help people?
4) Does knowledge of foreign languages or common traditions help people to develop
friendship and understanding among people?
5) What language is considered to be common nowadays?
6) Is English or Mandarin Chinese the language of the planet?
7) What language can you start speaking when you come to a foreign country? What will be
the first phrase?
8) What helps to understand the present condition of English?
9) Did English borrow words from the language of Angles and Saxons or Normans?
10) People of what professions brought new words to the vocabulary of the English language?
11) What was the language of the church and the universities in the Middle Ages?
12) Is the rise of English a remarkable success story?
13) When Julius Caesar landed in Britain the population there spoke English, didn’t it?
14) When did Julius Caesar land in Britain?
15) What is the number of people that use English as a mother tongue?
16) Where do the native speakers of English live?
17) Where is the English language used as a second language?
18) How many official languages are there in the United Nations Organization?
19) What language is mostly used for the half of the world’s technical and scientific periodicals?
20) In what way is English helpful for you to look for information in the Internet?
21) Are half of all business deals in Europe conducted in English or in Japanese?
22) What is the language of sports, glamour, Olympics and the Miss Universe Competition?
23) What language is used to send a signal of distress on board a plane or ship?
24) What is the number of audience to which broadcasting is transmitted in English?
25) What are the largest broadcasting companies?
Ex.8. Prepare the retelling of the text.
Text III
Pre-reading exercises:
Ex.1. Transcribe the following words and practice to read them:
To require, effort, to realize, recent, for example, nation, tongue, above, growth, century, society,
bilingual, forced, purpose, entire, incredibly, enough, survey, to reinforce, either, further, scientist,
retrieval, to surround, plant, potato, tobacco, tomato, musician, among, opera, operetta, piano.
English in the World
Today, when English is one of the main languages in the world, it requires an effort of the
imagination to realize that this is a relatively recent thing – that in Shakespeare’s time, for example
only a few million people spoke English, and the language was thought to be not very important by
the other nations of Europe, and was unknown to the rest of the world.
English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue
outside England, in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the
seventeenth century, with the first settlements in the North America. Above all, it is the great

14
growth of population in the United States, assisted by massive immigration in the nineteenth and
twentieth centuries, that has given the English language its present standing in the world.
People who speak English fall into one of three groups: those who have learned it as their
native language; those who have learned it as a second language in a society that is mainly
bilingual; and those who are forced to use it for a practical purpose – administrative, professional or
educational. One person in seven in the world’s entire population belongs to one of these three
groups. Incredibly enough, 75% of the world’s mail and 60% of the world’s telephone calls are in
English.
Surveys of range of use of English carried out by UNESCO and other world organizations
reinforce the general statistic impression. English is used as official or semi-official language in
over 60 countries, and has a prominent place in a further 20. It is either dominant or well established
in all 6 continents. According to conservative estimates, mother-tongue speakers have now reached
300 million, a further 300 million use it as a second language; and a further 100 million use it as a
foreign language. Over two thirds of the world’s scientists write in English. Of all the information
in the world’s electronic retrieval systems, 80% is stored in English. Over 50 million children study
English as an additional language at primary level; over 80 million study it at secondary level (these
figures exclude China). English radio programmes are received by over 50 million in 120 countries.
The English language surrounds us like a sea, and like the waters of a deep sea it is full of
mysteries. English is and has always been constantly changing. Some words die, some change their
meaning and all the time new words appear in the language.
There are several ways to add new words to the language. One of them is by borrowing
words from other languages. In English there are many words that are borrowed from Latin, French,
Spanish, Italian, Dutch and other languages. When Columbus came back from the South America
he brought home to Spain new plants – potatoes, tomatoes and tobacco. With the plants he brought
their names. This is how these words appeared in Spanish and later were borrowed from it by the
English language.
The words that are borrowed tell us about the countries they have come from. For example,
many Italian words, that are now a part of English (opera, operetta, piano), have to do with music.
This is natural as Italian musicians have always been among the most famous in the world. Many of
the words that people borrow from other languages are names of food.
Vocabulary and Speech Exercises:
Ex.2. Pick out from the text all proper names, transcribe and learn them.
Ex.3. Translate the following word combinations and reproduce sentences in which they were
used in the text:
Главный язык, мировые организации, мировой язык, родной язык, первые поселения, все
время, требовать усилий, относительно недавняя вещь, использовать для практической цели,
Северная Америка, исследования области использования, второй язык, двуязычное
общество, окружать как море, изменять значение, заимствовать слова, относиться к чему-то,
названия продуктов питания, во времена Шекспира, из-за, вне пределов Англии, относиться
к одной из трех групп, профессиональный или образовательный, проведенные ЮНЕСКО,
полуофициальный язык, согласно чему-либо, носители языка, более чем две трети, радио
программы, несколько путей. Южная Америка, самые знаменитые в мире, напряжение
воображения, другие народы Европы, быть вынужденным, быть известным, один человек из
семи, остальные страны мира, все население мира, принадлежать к группе, говорить по-
английски, в девятнадцатом веке, на всех континентах земного шара, распространение
английского языка, в двадцатом веке, большой прирост населения, сопровождаемый чем-
либо, Соединенные Штаты, репутация в настоящее время, массовая миграция, достаточно
невероятно, мировая переписка, телефонные звонки в мире, общие статистические данные,
усиливать впечатление, занимать важное место, предварительные подсчеты, электронные
системы поиска информации, на начальном уровне, говорить как на иностранном языке,
мировые ученые, на среднем уровне, быть полным тайн, быть постоянно меняющимся,

15
появляться в языке, привезти новые растения, картофель, помидор и табак, это естественно,
многие из этих слов.
Ex.4. Pick out from the text all word combinations with the word language.
Ex.5. What do these numbers refer to?
16th century; 75%; 17th century; 6; 80%; 300 million; 20; 80 million; 19 th-20th centuries; 60%; 50
million; over 2/3; 100 million; 120; 60;1 in 7; 3.
Ex.6. Say if the statements are true or false. Correct the false statement and expand the true one.
Use the following phrases:
- Yes, I agree entirely here.
- I couldn’t agree more.
- It goes without saying that …
- Not in the least! I see your point but …
- I’ve got some reasons to disagree.
- Just the other way round!
1) English is now one of the main languages in the world.
2) Very many people spoke English in Shakespeare’s time.
3) English was considered to be very important in Europe in the 17th century.
4) English has become a world language because the Queen of Great Britain spoke it.
5) Owing to the first settlements in the North America English began its spread in the world.
6) The growth of population in the United States assisted the development of English.
7) There was massive immigration of people in the USA in the 19-20th centuries.
8) People who speak English can be divided into one of three groups.
9) One person in five in the world’s entire population belongs to one of these three groups.
10) Surveys of range of use of English carried out by UNESCO didn’t confirm the general statistic
data.
11) The English language is compared in the text with the waters of a deep sea.
12) In the course of time English isn’t changing very much.
13) The words that are borrowed tell us about the countries they come from.
14) Many borrowed words are names of clothes.
Ex.7. Answer the questions on the text:
1) What is one of the main languages in the world?
2) Was it the same in Shakespeare’s time?
3) How many people spoke English in the 16th century?
4) Why has English become a world language?
5) When did the expansion of English begin?
6) What factors has given the English language its present standing in the world?
7) The text says that it is because of the United States that English is a world language. Why?
8) When was there the great growth of population in the United States?
9) What are three groups of English speakers?
10) What figures prove that English is the most widespread language in the world?
11) What are the basic characteristics that contribute to English being a world language?
12) What historic factors promoted English into the world-spread language?
13) What is the English language compared with in the text? Why?
14) What happens to the vocabulary of the English language in the course of time?
15) What are the ways to add new words to the language?
16) What languages have English words been borrowed from?
17) What did Columbus bring home except new plants?
18) How did the words potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco appear in English?
19) What information can we perceive with a word? Give examples.
20) Which of the three groups of English speakers do you belong to? What is your reason for
learning English?
Ex.8. Translate the following sentences into English:
16
1) Много слов было заимствовано из других языков: картофель, чай, табак, помидор, опера.
2) Язык, как живое существо, постоянно меняется. 3) Эта земля полна тайн, и люди,
населяющие ее, говорят на незнакомом языке. 4) Какой ваш родной язык? – Я родился в
России и мой родной язык русский. 5) Общество, в котором люди говорят на двух языках,
называется двуязычным. 6) Потребуется немало усилий, чтобы перевести текст с японского
на английский. 7) Во время деловой поездки глава делегации вынужден был воспользоваться
услугами переводчика. 8) По данным опроса, большинство людей пользуются электронными
системами поиска информации. 9) Область применения компьютерных технологий
значительно увеличилась за последнее время. 10) Все население этого поселка говорит на
незнакомом диалекте. 11) Выдающийся писатель помог установить дипломатические
отношения между двумя странами. 12) Необходимо укреплять дружеские отношения между
странами. 13) Можно только приблизительно подсчитать количество существующих в мире
языков.
Ex.9. Write the plan of the text. Give a summary of it.
Ex.10. Retell the text.
Ex.11. Comment on the following statement:
“To have another language is to possess a second soul”.
Ex.12. Read the Info Box. Tell the main idea of it.
Info Box
How many new words enter the English language every year?
Unfortunately no list is kept. In France there is the Académie Française which approves new
words but in England there are only dictionaries. The most authoritative of these is the Oxford
English Dictionary (OED) which has 20 volumes, but this does not make rules about the language.
It simply records the development of English worldwide as best it can. It accepts about 4000 new
words (or new meanings) every year. The OED has readers in all English-speaking parts of the
world, who record repeated uses of new words, including numerous technical terms. Some words
take a surprisingly long time to enter the OED. For example ‘acid rain’ was first used in 1859, but
its usage was rare for over 100 years and it didn’t appear in the dictionary until the 1980s.
Section IV
Pre-reading Work
Ex.1. Read and translate the poem.
The English Language

On every hand, in every land, I’ve one around my waist!


it’s thoroughly agreed, You spin a top, go for a spin,
the English language to explain or spin a yarn may be —
is very hard indeed. yet every spin’s a different spin,
Some people say that you’re a dear, as you can plainly see.
yet dear is far from cheap. Now here’s a most peculiar thing —
A jumper is a thing you wear, ’twas told me as a joke —
yet a jumper has to leap. a dumb man wouldn’t speak a word,
It’s very clear, it’s very queer, yet seized a wheel and spoke.
and pray who is to blame A door may often be ajar,
for different meanings to some words, but give the door a slam,
pronounced and spelt, the same? and then your nerves receive a jar —
A little journey is a trip, and then there’s jars of jam.
a trip is when you fall. You’ve heard, of course, of traffic jams,
It doesn’t mean you have to dance and jams you give your thumbs.
whene’er you hold a ball. And adders, too, one is a snake,
Now here’s a thing that puzzles me: the other adds up sums.
musicians of good taste A policeman is a copper,
will very often form a band — it’s a nickname (impolite!)
17
yet a copper in the kitchen it’s thoroughly agreed —
is an article you light. the English language to explain
On every hand, in every land, is very hard indeed!
(Written by Harry Hemsley)
Ex.2. Give the pairs of words compared in the poem. In what are they similar / different?
Ex.3. Explain in your own words why the English language is considered to be so hard.
Ex.4. Transcribe and learn to read the following words:
Century, singular, the Earth, technology, although, German, to contribute, purist, widespread,
aviation.
Ex.5. Read and translate the text:
Text IV
Basic Characteristics of the English language
Simplicity of Form. Old English like modern German, French, Russian and Greek, had
many inflections to show singular and plural, tense, person, etc., but over the centuries words have
been simplified. Verbs now have very few inflections. And adjectives do not change according to
the noun.
Flexibility. As the result of the loss of inflections, English has become, over the past five
centuries a very flexible language. Without inflections, the same word can operate as many different
parts of speech. Many nouns and verbs have the same form, for example, swim, drink, kiss, look,
and smile. We can talk about water to drink and to water the flowers; time to go and to time a race;
a paper to read and to paper a bedroom. Adjectives can be used as verbs. We warm our hands in
front of a fire; if clothes are dirtied they need to be cleaned and dried. Prepositions too are flexible.
A sixty-year old man is nearing retirement; we can talk about a round of golf, cards or drinks.
Openness of Vocabulary. This involves the free admission of words from other languages
and the easy creation of compounds and derivatives. Most world languages have contributed some
words to English at some time, and the process is now being reversed. Purists of the French,
Russian and Japanese languages are resisting the arrival of English in their vocabulary.
The Future of English. Geographically, English is the most widespread language on the
Earth, second only to Mandarin Chinese in the number of people who speak it. It is the language of
business, technology, aviation and sport. This will no doubt continue, although the proposition that
all other languages will die out is absurd.
(Headway Upper-Intermediate, 1998; Cambridge Advanced English, 1992)
Vocabulary and Speech Exercises:
Ex.1. Enumerate the words denoting grammatical categories you have picked out from the text.
e. g. существительное, число, падеж, глагол и т. д.
Ex.2. Find in the text derivatives of the following: e.g. to differ – different
Simple, to flex, to admit, to arrive, to inflect, to propose, to retire, to admit, to create.
Ex.3. Translate the following word combinations and reproduce sentences in which they were
used in the text:
Согласно чему-либо, количество людей, без сомнения, в результате, единственное и
множественное число, распространенный язык, утрата окончаний, за последние столетия,
функционировать в качестве, соответственно существительному, за последние пять
столетий, упрощать слова, язык делового общения, авиация и спорт, разные части речи,
много окончаний, легко поддающийся влиянию, одинаковая форма, создание сложных и
производных слов.
Ex.4. Answer the questions on the text:
1) Why does the English language have the simplicity of form? In what way can it be seen?
2) Owing to what fact has English become very flexible? Give examples of this fact. What
parts of speech can be flexible?
3) What are the facts to show the openness of the English vocabulary? What process in the
English language is now being reversed? Who are purists of a language?

18
4) What is the future of English according to the contents of the text? Do you agree with this
statement?
5) What are the main characteristics of the English language?
Ex.5. It is said in the poem, that the English language is hard. Why has English acquired such
popularity in the world then? Compare English and your native language. In what way are they
similar / different?
Ex.6. Comment on the following statement: “Language is a part of our organism and no less
complicated than it”.
British English and American English
Ex.7. Compare the opinions of different people about the two variants of the English language.
Are they contradictory or alike? What is the main idea of each quotation?
Each intelligent person should be aware of the differences in the British and American
English in order to make correct use of those. Which dialect to choose is the matter that can be
decided by each individual depending on whom he is speaking to – an American or Englishman?
1) “Most of Oxford English Dictionary’s words are just as much my vocabulary as they are Queen
Elizabeth’s; we speak them a bit differently, but … these differences are more amusing than
troubling, more interesting than inconvenient.”
Kenneth G. Wilson, 1986
2) “The two varieties of English have never been so different as people have imagined, and the
dominant tendency, for several decades now, has clearly been that of convergence and even greater
similarity.”
Albert H. Marckwardt and Sir Randolf Quirk, 1964
3) “The English used in the United States and that used in England are so overwhelmingly alike that
such differences as do exist hardly justify anyone in advancing a claim of superior excellence for
either the so-called American language or the English language. The really surprising thing about
the English of England and that of the United States is not that they differ slightly, but that their
difference is as slight as it is.”
Milford M. Mathews, 1931
4) There is not the faintest chance of there ever being an American language as apart from English.”
Stephen Leacock, 1943
Ex.8. Explain why it is important to know the differences between British and American English.
Ex.9. Comment on the quotation of George Bernard Shaw:
“England and America are two countries separated by the same language.”
Section V
Text V
Pre-reading exercises:
Ex.1. Transcribe and practice reading the following words:
Interviewer, year, interpreter, learn, can’t, without, foundations, half, together, wildlife, isolation,
rather, by heart, to memorize, idiom, enough, to laugh, average, awful, rude, both, polite, example,
afterwards, to guess, though, feature, behavior, phrasal verb, old-fashioned, expression,
pronunciation.
Ex.2. Read the following word combinations. Mind linking “r” at the juncture.
For almost, after all, better if, grammar and, grammar is, for example, to ask for information,
feature of a language, formal or informal.
Ex.3. Read and translate the dialogue
Are You Happy with the Way, You are Taught English?
Interviewer: Anna, I know you have been learning English for almost five years and you are
planning to become an interpreter. What do you feel about learning grammar? Do you think your
teacher spends too much or too little time on it?
Anna: Of course, you must learn grammar in any language. After all you can’t build a house
without foundations. But that’s all we do at school – grammar, grammar and more grammar, for
half an hour four times a week! We have too many drills.
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Int: So, grammar is important, but too much of it. But should it be taught in isolation?
Anna: No, you need to practice grammar together with vocabulary. It’s not good when you
learn new words but don’t have much practice using them with the grammar you’ve learnt.
Int: With vocabulary – is it better to learn a few words at a time and practice them, rather
than a lot of words by heart?
Anna: Practice helps you to memorize the words. Also I remember words better if they are
related to my interests. I have no problem learning words connected with my hobby which is
animals and wildlife.
Int: One of the problems for learners of English is phrasal verbs – to get on, to get along
with and so on, and, of course, idioms. Is it a problem for you? Have you learnt enough idioms to
cope with?
Anna: They are very difficult. And you have to keep yourself up-to-date with them too. For
example, when I first came to England, I used the idiom “It’s raining cats and dogs” very proudly,
and everyone laughed at me because it’s so old-fashioned and the average English person doesn’t
use that expression.
Int: So, make sure the idioms you learnt are up-to-date. Now how about pronunciation? A
lot of students find that hard.
Anna: English intonation is awful! I mean, it’s the most difficult part of pronunciation,
because if you get it wrong, people think you’re rude. Intonation is far more difficult than learning
to pronounce words correctly. It’s important to learn both formal and informal English – how to ask
for information, how to be polite. Let me give you an example. My English teacher phoned me
yesterday asking about something he wanted to know and I just said “no”. Then, when I thought
about it afterwards, I realized that I had sounded rude. I should have said “I’m afraid I don’t know”
– or something like that. Learning social English is very useful, take writing letters in English for
example.
Int: What advice would you give to people who are just beginning to learn English?
Anna: I find reading very helpful – I read books, newspapers, magazines and other
periodicals. I try to guess the meaning of words I don’t know from their context. This helps me to
read more quickly. But I also look words up in the dictionary and make a note of the most useful
ones.
Int: How about listening to pop music?
Anna: Yes – that can be useful. I was a bit disappointed actually, because some things have
such silly words, though the music is lovely. Listening to the radio and watching videos and
educational TV programmes in English help me, too, especially listening to the news. I was very
proud when I realized that I could easily get the idea of what I was listening to.
Int: As I can see, learning a language isn’t as simple as all that. You can learn rules for
grammar and pronunciation and also for vocabulary, but the most difficult feature of any language
is perhaps learning the elements for which there are no written rules for example “social English”.
This means learning about expected ways of behaviour, knowing what sort of English to use in
different situations, formal or informal and how to understand what is said, all that is so easy and
natural in your mother tongue.

Vocabulary and Speech Exercises:


Ex.1. Match the phrases in English and Russian, find and read out the sentences with them in the
dialogue.
1. what do you feel about…?
2. to get (have) an/the idea of smth (how to do smth)
3. to find smth hard
4. I’m afraid, I don’t know
5. far more difficult
6. I have no problem (learning words)
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7. to make a note (notes) of smth
8. to do/to get smth wrong
9. to keep yourself up-to-date with idioms
10. to ask for information
11. a few words at a time
12. to make sure
13. to cope with
a) допустить ошибку
б) выяснить что-то, получить сведения
в) несколько слов за один раз
г) боюсь, что я не знаю
д) испытывать трудности в чем-либо
е) гораздо труднее
з) я без труда заучиваю слова
и) понять что-либо
к)стараться не использовать устаревшие выражения
л) что ты думаешь по поводу … ?
м) записывать что-то
н) справиться с чем-то
о) удостовериться, убедиться
Ex.2. Express the same idea using the phrases above.
1) What does Anna think about learning grammar? 2) Anna thinks that learning idioms is not easy.
3) Anna finds learning idioms much more difficult than learning words. 4) Anna knows the way how
to learn grammar. 5) Anna finds it easy to learn words connected with her interests. 6) It is important
not to use old-fashioned idioms. 7) If you make a mistake in intonation, people may think you’re
rude. 8) It’s important to know how to find things out. 9) It’s much more polite to say, “I’m sorry, I
don’t know” than just “I don’t know”. 10) Some people find it useful to write down words
memorize them. 11) It’s good to know that you can easily understand what you are listening to. 12)
Be sure to do your homework before five o’clock. 13) I am sure he can do the job well.
Ex.3. Translate the following word combinations and reproduce sentences in which they were
used in the text:
Изучаться изолированно, дать совет, гордиться чем-либо, получить представление о чем-
либо, быть разочарованным, быть в курсе событий, относится к чему-либо, смеяться над
чем-либо, смотреть слова в словаре, понять что-либо неправильно, быть вежливым, манеры
поведения, догадаться о значении слова, считать что-то трудным, фразовый глагол, трудная
черта, записать что-либо, выучить много слов за раз, тратить время на что-то, быть
связанным с чем-то, справиться с чем-то, убедиться, язык официального общения, иметь
желание сделать что-то, практиковать упражнения, запомнить наизусть, устаревшее
произношение, средний Англичанин, грубая интонация, слушать правила, грамматические
правила.
Ex.4. Imagine that you’re Anna and answer these questions:
1) Is it necessary to learn grammar? 2) Should one practice grammar and vocabulary together or in
isolation? 3) Which is better: to practice using new words or learn them by heart? 4) Are idioms
easy to learn? 5) Why is it important to keep yourself up-to-date with idioms? 6) Why is it important
to use the right intonation when you talk to people? 7) Why is it useful to try to guess the meaning
of words from the context? 8) What can one do to learn to understand spoken English? 9) What is
the most difficult feature of learning a language? 10) What does “social English” mean?
Ex.5. Look through the dialogue again and say what Anna thinks about:
1) learning grammar 2) learning vocabulary (words and idioms) 3) learning pronunciation 4)
reading 5) learning social English 6) listening to pop music, the radio, watching videos and
educational TV programmes.

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Ex.6. Translate the sentences from Russian into English using the vocabulary of the lesson for
the underlined words:
1) Если я не могу догадаться о значении слова из контекста, я смотрю его в словаре. 2) Я
нахожу трудным заучивание фразовых глаголов и идиом. 3) Невозможно выучить сто слов
наизусть за раз. 4) Я всегда стараюсь быть в курсе новых лингвистических исследований. 5)
Вы уверены, что правильно поняли их произношение? 6) Любой язык делится на
разговорный и литературный. 7) Все смеялись над его старомодной шляпой. 8) Студенты
должны записывать лекции. Если им что-то непонятно, они могут спросить. 9) Я хорошо
запоминаю слова, которые связаны с моими интересами. 10) Многие слова в этой статье
относятся к сфере компьютерных технологий. 11) Слова не должны заучиваться отдельно
(изолированно), а вместе с грамматическими правилами. 12) Если вы хотите узнать
информацию, будьте вежливы. 13) Я разочарован манерами его поведения. 14) Как насчет
того, чтобы выполнить эти упражнения в письменной форме? 15) Переводчик должен иметь
хороший словарный запас.16) Простота грамматических форм и гибкость – основные черты
английского языка. 17) В нашей республике три официальных языка, и мы гордимся этим.
18) Вам следует избегать такой интонации. Это звучит грубо. 19) Нам было нелегко
справиться с задачей, но все получилось. 20) На каждом уроке студент должен запоминать, в
среднем, пять новых выражений.
Ex.7. Answer the following questions:
1) What does an interpreter deal with?
2) Should people live in isolation?
3) What do you call a dress which is no longer in fashion?
4) What is your reaction to a very funny joke?
5) What do you do if you don’t know a word?
6) What should students usually do at lectures?
7) What polite expressions can be used while asking for something?
8) What is the difference between formal and informal language?
9) Are you disappointed with your English vocabulary?
10) Would you like to become an interpreter? Why / why not?
Ex.8. Act out the dialogue with your partner.
Discussion Points
Ex.1. One of the reasons why a lot of people all over the world learn English is that English has
taken the position of the world language. Prove this point of view using the following:
a) 750 million people all over the world use it
b) it has become the language of the planet
c) it’s the first truly global language
d) it’s the main language of business, sports, science
e) it’s one of the richest languages
f) there are many borrowings from English in other languages
g) three quarters of the world’s mail are in English
h) English is the world’s computer language
Ex.2. Choose the reasons why you learn English. Think of more reasons to give if asked why he
or she wants to know English.
a) It’s fun
b) My parents want me to do it
c) I like reading English
d) I like speaking English
e) I want to use English in my future job
f) I want to use computer programmes
g) I like English songs
h) My friends learn English
i) I want to go to Britain or the USA or Australia some day
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j) I want to travel and meet a lot of people, then I’ll talk to them in English
k) I would like to read books by English and American authors in the original
l) I don’t know
m) ……..
Ex.3. Discuss what people usually do to master any foreign language. Add any other ways you know.
a) have grammar and vocabulary drills
b) read texts, poems etc.
c) write tests, dictations etc.
d) sing songs and play games in English
e) speak about different things
f) make up and act out dialogues
g) watch videos and educational programmes
h) translate texts and poems into Russian
i) learn things by heart
j) learn words in isolation/in context
k) learn … words at a time
Ex.4. Discuss the ways people learn foreign languages outside school or after classes.
a) borrow English books from the library and read them
b) watch English films, cartoons and educational programmes at home
c) put on/stage plays in English
d) have a student exchange with a foreign school and receive guests from abroad
e) have a pen friend (pen pal) and write letters to him/her
f) take an English course outside school
g) have private lessons at home
h) go to international summer camps
i) use educational computer programmes
j) go to an English-speaking country
k) make wall newspapers in English
l) have concerts and parties in English

WHAT MAKES A GOOD LANGUAGE LEARNER?


TEST YOUR APTITUDE FOR LEARNING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Test your aptitude for language learning by doing this quiz, adapted from The Sunday Times
Magazine. Write your answers on a piece of paper, then add up your scores to find out how
good a language learner you are.
1. Learn the following Samoan words (Samoa is in the South Pacific):
Toalua – husband, Tamaloa – man, Tamaitiiti – child, Taulealea – youth, Loomatua – old
woman.
Did you find this task
a) easy and fascinating? b) Very difficult? c) Not easy; the words look the same? d) So
boring you didn’t even try?
2. Exhausted after swimming the river, Fred decided to get some sleep, but the boolles
made it impossible, and even the smoke from his camp fire didn’t keep them away.
What is a boolle?
a) a wild animal? b) A giant mosquito? c) A kind of noise? d) Don’t know
3. Someone asks you the way in very bad English. When he/she doesn’t understand
your reply, do you
a) say it again but louder? b) get irritated and give up? c) draw him/her a map? d) find out if
he/she speaks another language you know?
4. Here is a new language:
Ek kum chuchu – the train is coming
Ek namas chuchu – the train is very big
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Nek kum niva chuchu – the train isn’t coming
Ek chuchu – it’s a train
How would you say it’s not a train?
a) nek chuchu niva b) ek niva chuchu c) nek niva chuchu d) don’t know
5. How many foreign languages can you greet someone in?
6. Your boss tells you that you have been chosen to go on a six-month course to learn a
completely new language. Do you
a) look for another job? b) say they’ve chosen the wrong person? c) worry a bit but reckon
you’ll cope? d) long to get started?
7. You go to an evening class to learn a language. The class lasts two hours a week.
List the sorts of practice you might do on your own at home.
8. How good are you at expressing yourself in your own language, both in speaking
and in writing?
a) I can always put into words exactly what I want to say. b) I don’t know. c) It depends on
the situation. d) People sometimes say I am not clear.
9. When did you last read a book for pleasure (in any language)?
a) yesterday b) I can’t remember c) last week d) last month
10. Have you got
a) a bilingual dictionary (English into your language)?
b) a monolingual dictionary English-English)?
c) both a bilingual and a monolingual dictionary?
d) no dictionary at all?
11. Read through this list of words, then write down as many of them as you can
without looking.
Pin, church, identity, luxury, accelerate, carefully, miscalculate, occasional, anxious, knot,
daffodil, impertinent
12. In one minute write a list of things you could do with a cabbage (apart from
cooking or eating it).
13. In one minute write as many reasons as you can why it might be useful to learn
Eskimo.
14. Fill in the blank with one of the words below.
Shakucomespiteare isos wonone ovofef tehe wororolid’s grematerest’s wririterners. Hehe
wasis … onin Staratarafoorrd-inon-Aravont.
a) borotone b) born c) shororit d) don’t know
15. What is your attitude to learning about British culture (arts, institutions, way of
life)?
a) I’m not interested in the slightest, I just need to learn the language.
b) I’m interested I little bit, but only out of curiosity.
c) I’m very interested to find out about the people behind the language.
16. What do the following words in Samoan mean?
Loomatua, tamaitiiti, tamaloa, taulealea, toalua
17. Are you male or female?
ANSWERS
1. a) 10; b) 4; c) 8; d) 0 Good language learners find words fairly easy, and aren’t put
off by the way they look.
2. a) 5; b) 10; c) 0; d) 0 Good language learners are able to make imaginative guesses
about the meaning of words.
3. a) 0; b) 0; c) 10; d) 8 Good language learners make the most of their skills, and
manage to communicate in all sorts of unlikely situations.
4. a) 2; b) 2; c) 10; d) 0 Good language learners are quick at seeing patterns in a foreign
language. (Negative sentences in this language begin with

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‘nek’. The last word is always ‘chuchu’.)
5. Two points for each This question shows how interested you are in languages and
language (maximum 10 communication.
points).
6. a) 0; b) 3; c) 7; d) 10 Being scared stiff is obviously a bad sign.
7. Good language learners practice a lot on their own. Give yourself 2 points for each different
activity you listed (e.g. listening to cassettes while driving, watching foreign language films
on TV). Maximum 10 points.
8. a) 4; b) 0; c) 10; d) 7 Good language learners think a lot about how they use
language.
9. a) 10; b) 0; c) 5; d) 2 Good language learners seem to read a lot. (It’s a good way of
increasing your vocabulary.)
10. a) 5; b) 8; c) 10; d) 0 Good language learners have reference books and consult them
regularly.
11. Less than 5, score 0. 6-8, score 5. More than 8, score 10. This test measures your short-term
memory. Most people can remember 5 or 6 words out of the list.
12. A point for each idea (maximum 10). People who are very rigid in the way they see things
tend not to be very good at learning languages. This is probably because they don’t like
being in situations they can’t control.
13. Two points for each idea (maximum 10). An important factor in learning a language is
motivation.
14. a) 10; b) 2; c) 7; d) 0 This question assesses how willing you are to take risks in a
language you don’t know well.
15. a) 0; b) 5; c) 10 It is impossible to separate a language from its culture. Good
language learners are open to other cultures and individuals,
and this creates more opportunities for progress.
16. Two points for each word you got right. This question tests your memory again.
17. Females score ten. On the whole, women are better at languages.
INTERPRET YOUR SCORE
0-30 You think you are useless at languages, and can’t see the point in trying. Don’t give up!
Keep at it!
30-70 Learning a language is hard work for you, but you get there in the end. You probably had
a bad experience at school. Just remember that most people in the world speak at least two
languages, and lots speak four or five, so it can’t be all that difficult, can it?
70-100 You’re an average sort of learner, not brilliant, but you manage. You’re always willing
to have a go. Surprisingly, it usually works, too! Add some systematic study to this, and a bit of
practice, and you’ll be able to cope in most situations.
100-140 You can probably get by in one or two languages already, and learning a new language
hold no terror for you. Don’t give up when you feel you’re not making progress. A bit more
confidence, and some concentrated practice, and you could easily start feeling really at home in
your foreign language.
140-170 You are an outstanding language learner. You enjoy using words, and language is a
constant source of delight for you. You don’t learn a language to go on holiday – you enjoy
going abroad because it gives you an excuse to learn another language!
Adapted from a quiz by Dr Paul Meara of Birkbeck College, London
Discussion
1) Do you agree with the interpretation? Is it a good description of you as a language learner?
2) The tone of the quiz is quite light-hearted, but the content is serious. Read through the Answers
section of the quiz again. Do you agree that the things it suggests are what ‘a good learner’ does?
For example, is it important to be able to guess the meaning of words? Why / why not? Is it
important to be able to see patterns in a language? Is it important to have a good memory?

25
3) The answer to question 3 says that good language learners make the most of their skills, and
manage to communicate in all sorts of unlikely situations. Think of ways in which communication
can take place other than with words.
4) The quiz contains some surprising ideas. For example, the answer to question 12 suggests that
good language learners don’t mind being in situations that they can’t control, and the answer to
question 14 that they are prepared to take risks. To what extent is this true in your own experience?
5) Research does suggest that women are generally better language learners than men. Can you
think of reasons why this might be so?
6) Researchers also feel that the personality of the learner must affect the way he or she learns, but
no-one quite knows how! Can you think of any qualities that might help or hinder language
learning? The following adjectives might help you: confident, shy, outgoing, extrovert, sociable,
tolerant, patient, inquisitive.
Section VI
Vocabulary and Speech Exercises:
Ex.1. Match the words below with their definitions.
1) jargon a) A type of language that consists of words and phrases that are regarded as very
informal and are more common in speech than writing, and are typically restricted to
a particular context or group of people
2) fluency b) A distinctive mode of pronunciation of a language of a particular nation, locality
or social class
3) accent c) A person speaking two languages fluently
4) skill d) special words and expressions that are used by a particular profession and are
difficult for others to understand
5) slang e) A particular ability to do something well
6) bilingual f) A particular form of a language that is peculiar to a specific region or social group
7) dialect g) The ability to speak or write a foreign language easily and accurately

Ex.2. Explain the following notions: mother tongue, first language, state language, linguistic
studies, native speaker.
Ex.3. Give the antonyms to the words. Use them in sentences of your own.
Old-fashioned, rude, an acquired language, in isolation, to be good at languages, to speak a language
well, to memorize, formal language, native language,
Ex.4. Insert prepositions where necessary.
1) The English language belongs … the Indo-European family. 2) Latin influenced … the Celtic
language. 3) According … conservative estimates, mother-tongue speakers have now reached 300
million. 4) The words that are borrowed tell us … the countries they have come … . 5) West
Germanic was closely related … North Germanic. 6) The name term English goes … … the name
of one … the Germanic tribes – the Angles. 7) We are all interested … the origin … words, … how
they appear and die. 8) Though initially … Germanic origin, English has been … fact replaced
around 500 B.C. … the Celtic language. 9) Everyone, who knows foreign languages, can read
foreign authors … the original. 10) The Celtic language evolved … the Irish and Welsh languages
that are spoken today … some parts … the United Kingdom. 11) In English adjectives do not
change according … the noun. 12) Many English words were borrowed … the language … Angles
and Saxons. 13) Some words came … English directly … Latin. 14) During the Norman Conquest
English was very much … the influence of French and thousands … French words entered … the
language. 15) … the result of the loss … inflections English has become, over the past five
centuries a very flexible language. 16) Surveys … range … use of English carried … … UNESCO
and other world organizations reinforce the general statistic impression. 17) When Julius Caesar
landed … Britain nearly two thousand years ago, English did not exist. 18) Language belongs …
each of us. 19) Nearly half … all business deals … Europe are conducted … English. 20) Many
Italian words, that are now a part … English, have to do … music. 21) The largest broadcasting
companies in the world transmit … English. 22) Hundreds of French words came … English. 23)
26
Many new words were brought … traders and travelers. 24) People who speak English fall … one
of three groups. One person … seven in the world’s entire population belongs … one of these three
groups. 25) Words potatoes, tomatoes and tobacco appeared … Spanish and later were borrowed …
it … the English language. 26) The proposition that all other languages except English will die … is
absurd.
Writing
Ex.5. Copy out the following words filling the missing letters:
Thr_ _ g_o_t, d_al_ct, s_f_er, _v_r_ge, old-f_s_i_n_d, be_av_o_r, ac_ _i_ed, j_r_on, l_ng_ _ge,
Fl_ _n_y, a_ c_r_cy, e_ _al, b_s_ne_s, a_di_n_e, t_n_ue, b_l_n_ual so_i_ _y, by h_a_t, s_r_ey, to
r_ _nf_r_e, id_ _m, r_tr_ _v_l s_st_m, to l_ _g_, s_i_nt_f_c p_r_od_c_ls, gl_m_ _r, a_ _e_t.
Ex.6. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary
for this Section:
1) Эта книга для тех, кто изучает английский язык, а не для носителей языка. 2) В некоторых
северных диалектах английского языка люди говорят «nowt» вместо «nothing». 3) Он с
легкостью выучит любой язык. У него очевидная склонность к языкам. 4) Книгу тяжело
читать из-за обилия тюремного сленга. 5) Вы должны практиковать язык постоянно, чтобы
овладеть им. 6) Ее родной язык – испанский, но она уже много лет говорит по-английски,
поэтому акцент почти незаметен. 7) Мы должны развивать языковые навыки – беглость и
правильность речи. 8) Существует много диалектов английского языка на территории
Великобритании. 9) Избегайте жаргонов в речи! 10) Он вырос в двуязычном обществе,
поэтому одинаково хорошо владеет и английским и французским. 11) Чтобы овладеть
языком, полезно смотреть телевизионные передачи и читать зарубежных авторов в
оригинале. 12) У него не было достаточно языковой практики, поэтому он говорит на
ломаном английском. 13) Почему вы так отвратительно говорите по-испански? – Это мой не
родной язык, а приобретенный. 14) Майк прожил в Германии много лет, но все равно говорит
по-немецки с сильным акцентом. 15) Я хочу владеть иностранным языком, как родным,
поэтому говорю на нем каждый день и стараюсь быть в курсе новых лингвистических
исследований. 16) Каков ваш уровень владения английским? – Я бегло говорю на языке.
Ex.8. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English making use of the vocabulary
for all sections.
1) Родной язык для меня – это язык, на котором я думаю. Можно выучить десяток
иностранных языков, но, ни один из них не позволит выразить свои мысли так точно, как
язык, на котором он учился говорить. 2) Иногда мы используем в разговоре английские
фразы просто, чтобы произвести впечатление. Я думаю, что это «no problem». 3) Я хочу
знать, что происходит в мире, поэтому английский язык мне необходим. 4) Мир
стремительно меняется. Я не хочу отставать от жизни. Изучая английский язык, можно
получить ответы на многие интересные вопросы. 5) Официальный язык в стране – это язык
административного общения. Согласно декларации о правах человека в современных
развитых странах функционируют несколько официальных языков, если в стране проживает
большое количество людей, говорящих на них. 6) Несмотря на то, что в мире существует
около 3000 различных языков, английский язык наиболее универсальный. Это язык
международного бизнеса, науки и медицины. 7) Многие полагают, что если бы люди
говорили на одном языке, в мире было бы гораздо меньше проблем. 8) Изучение
иностранного языка требует хорошей памяти, музыкального слуха. Приходится много учить
наизусть, уметь различать и воспроизводить звуки и интонацию.

Section VII
Discussion Points
Ex.1. Comment on the quotations of the lesson.
What message does each of them convey to the reader?
Why did Goethe consider it important to know foreign languages?
Why is language considered to be the treasure of the nation?
27
Ex.2. Comment on the following statements.
1) Language is the weapon of a writer as a soldier rifle – the better the weapon, the stronger the
warrior.
2) Language and gold – this is our dagger and poison.
3) Language in the right hands and experienced mouths is beautiful, melodious, expressive, flexible,
obedient, agile and capacious.
4) Though speaking hundred languages, don’t forget your native language.
5) “If we spoke a different language, we would perceive a somewhat different world” (Ludvig
Wittgenstein)
6) “A different language is a different vision of life” (Federico Fellini)
7) “Man invented language to satisfy his deep need to complain” (Lily Tomlin)
8) “Language exerts hidden power, like the moon on the tides” (Rita Mae Brown)
Ex.3. Comment on the following proverbs:
1) The tongue of idle persons is never idle.
2) A fool’s tongue runs before his wit.
3) The tongue is not steel, yet it cuts.
4) My tongue is my enemy.
5) A clever tongue will get you anywhere.
Ex.4. Agree or disagree with the following. Give your arguments.
1) You’ll forget a language if you don’t use it.
2) You can learn a language outside the classroom.
3) The best way to learn a language is to go to the country where it is spoken.
4) You should always use the dictionary if you don’t understand a word.
5) Don’t worry about making mistakes; it’s more important to make yourself understood.
6) Learning grammar is very useful.
7) Listening, especially to native speakers, is the most difficult skill to develop.
8) Children find it easier to learn a foreign language.
Ex.5. Answer the following questions:
1) Do you think a person must have a gift for languages to acquire any new language?
2) What should be essential elements of foreign language learning for it to be of great effect?
3) What do you like most and least about learning English? Give your own arguments in favour of
foreign language learning.
4) How much has English influenced your thinking and your culture?
5) Do you think English will oust other languages in future? What factors would enable this to
happen, and what factors might prevent it?
6) Should foreign languages be taught in schools in America, Australia and Britain?
7) When you learn a foreign language, apart from the language what else do you learn about?
8) What languages are spoken in your country? What languages have the state status? Are you
happy with the present language situation in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic?
Listening
Ex.6. Listen to the recording (Timesaver Elementary listening Edited by Judith Greet № 25 (track
2/6) page 48 “A typical English person”)
Answer the following questions:
What is your image of a typical English person (his preferences in food, tea drinking, favourite
sport, animals, opinion of the weather in Great Britain)?

28
APPEARANCE
“Appearances often are deceiving”
Aesop
“A fair exterior is a silent recommendation”
Publiluis Syrus

Section I
Topical Vocabulary
1) appearance (looks) внешний вид, Moustache, beard, усы, борода,
внешность whiskers бакенбарды
to look выглядеть side-whiskers (sideboards, височки
sideburns)
to look like (resemble быть похожим на кого- clean shaven (smooth чисто выбритое
smb) либо (внешне) cheeks) лицо
to take after smb быть похожим на кого- stubby (unshaven face) небритое лицо
либо (характер,
привычки)
family likeness семейное сходство stubble beard (stubble, щетина (давно
short beard bristles) небритая борода)
(not) to look oneself (не) быть похожим на full beard круглая борода
себя (сильно
измениться)
to look wretched иметь несчастный вид moustache усы
to look one’s best прекрасно выглядеть military moustache усы щеточкой
(English-style moustache)
to look one’s age выглядеть не старше shadow юношеские усы
своих лет
The human body 13) Face (shape) Форма лица
attractive привлекательный angular угловатое
unattractive непривлекательный oval овальное
impressive выразительный square квадратное
unimpressive невыразительный round круглое
good-looking интересный wrinkled морщинистое
ill favoured уродливый freckled веснушчатое
pleasant-looking приятный with a beauty spot or a с мушкой или
mole родинкой
unpleasant looking неприятный with a pointed beard and с отрой бородкой
moustache и усами
pretty хорошенькая Face (complexion) Цвет лица
repulsive отвратительный florid свежий, румяный
charming очаровательный olive оливковый
ugly уродливый pasty болезненный
lovely восхитительный sallow желтовато-
бледный
common заурядный pale бледный
beautiful красивый sunburnt (tanned) загорелый
plain заурядный swarthy смуглый
nice миловидный 14) Features (in general) Черты лица
(общие)
usual обычный clear-cut (clean-cut) четкие
handsome красивый delicate тонкие, нежные
29
unsightly некрасивый fine тонкие
eyesore отвратительный prominent выступающие
2) build (frame) телосложение striking поразительные
powerful мощный indistinct нечеткие
slight, delicate хрупкий vague неопределенные
heavy тяжелый coarse грубые
slim стройный ugly некрасивые,
уродливые
solid плотный plain заурядные,
некрасивые
sturdy крепкий ordinary заурядные
stocky коренастый soft мягкие
spare сухощавый regular правильные
neat, graceful изящный (грациозный) sharp острые
3) bearing манера держать себя irregular неправильные
posture осанка full face анфас
to bear oneself well хорошо держаться profile профиль
to hold one’s body прямая осанка mole родинка
upright
stooping сутулый scar шрам
4) constitution конституция wart бородавка
strong сильный 15) Face Features Черты лица
(particular) (конкретные)
feeble слабый forehead лоб
vigorous энергичный domed выпуклый
delicate, frail хрупкий retreating покатый
rugged крепкий nose нос
iron твердый nostrils ноздри
weak (poor) слабый bridge of the nose переносица
5) figure фигура tip of the nose кончик носа
well-made хорошо-сложенный aquiline орлиный
shapeless бесформенный flat приплюснутый
ill-made плохо сложенный hooked крючковатый
lithe гибкий snub курносый
clumsy неуклюжий straight прямой
superb превосходный pointed заостренный
ordinary заурядный fleshy мясистый
perfect совершенный turned up (upturned) вздернутый
flawed с дефектом mouth рот
lean худощавый firm твердый
fat тучный stern суровый
slight хрупкий strong-willed энергичный
stout плотный (тучный) weak-willed слабый
neat изящный lips губы
well-fed упитанный full полные
bony костлявый parted полуоткрытые
paunchy с брюшком well-cut хорошо
очерченные
slim тонкий painted накрашенные
plump пухленький compressed сжатые
30
slender стройный twisted искривленные
6) stature рост, стан, фигура teeth зубы
height, shape рост, форма (тела) close-set частые
imposing представительный sparse редкие
diminutive миниатюрный even (uneven) ровные
(неровные)
middle-sized среднего роста perfect (imperfect) великолепные
(некрасивые)
to be 6 feet high (in 6 футов ростом artificial (false) искусственные
height)
to be of medium быть среднего роста jaw челюсть
(average) height
7) gait (walk) походка square квадратная
steady твердая strong сильная
unsteady неустойчивая cheekbones скулы
heavy тяжелая high (prominent) высокие
light легкая wide широкие
swaggering щегольская cheeks щеки
shuffling шаркающая chubby (plump) пухлые
to walk with a stoop идти сутулясь hollow (sunken) впалые
a limp хромота with dimples с ямочками
halting прихрамывающая with creases со складками
to walk with a halt ходить прихрамывая ruddy румяные
(with a limp)
awkward неуклюжая pale бледные
swaying раскачивающаяся rouged нарумяненные
8) step шаг rosy (pink) розовые
firm твердый stubby (unshaven) небритые
heavy / light тяжелый / легкий clean-shaven чисто выбритые
rapid / slow быстрый / медленный chin подбородок
measured footstep размеренные шаги double двойной
to stride with a firm идти крупным, protruding выдающийся
step твердым шагом
9) Body, limbs upper, Тело, конечности massive массивные
lower) (верхние, нижние)
shoulders плечи pointed острый
sloping покатые round круглый
hollow chest впалая грудь decided решительный
to throw one’s chest выпятить грудь от firm твердый
with pride гордости
waist талия eye глаз
to be slim at the waist иметь тонкую талию hazel карие
leg нога dark темные
crooked, bow-shaped кривая pale светлые
shapely (fine) красивой формы hazel-eyed кареглазый
lank тонкая cross-eyed косоглазый
arm рука bulging выпуклый
rounded округлая wide-set широко
расставленные
well-shaped красивой формы close-set близки

31
поставленные
plump (fat, thick) пухлая (толстая) deep-set глубоко
посаженные
finger палец (на руке) full and blood shot слезящиеся и
воспаленные
thumb большой палец sunken запавшие
forefinger (index указательный палец eyebrows брови
finger)
middle finger средний палец straight прямые
ring finger безымянный bushy густые
little finger мизинец shaggy косматые
finger nail ноготь arched тонкие,
полукругом
10) Head, neck голова, шея penciled тонко
очерченные
to hold one’s head high держать голову высоко well-marked четко
очерченные
slender neck стройная шея raise (knit) one’s brows поднимать
(хмурить) брови
11) Hair волосы eye-lashes ресницы
flaxen льняные straight прямые
auburn рыжевато-каштановые curving изогнутые
(загнутые)
golden золотистые ear ухо
red рыжие earlobe мочка уха
reddish рыжеватые lop-eared лопоухий
blond (-e) блондин, (-ка) eyelids веки
ash-blond пепельные heavy тяжелые
chestnut каштановые drooping опущенные
silvery серебристые swollen with tears опухшие от слез
grey (-ing) седые, седеющие Vocabulary for the texts
jet-black черные, как смоль to be well-preserved хорошо
выглядеть для
своих лет
brown шатен, (-ка) naive наивный
brunette брюнетка childlike по детски
простой,
наивный
mop of hair шапка, копна волос elegant элегантный
abundant густые haughty-looking надменный
thin тонкие, жидкие showy эффектный,
производящий
впечатление
luxuriant пышные gentle кроткий,
благородный
bald-headed лысый to swallow глотать
wavy волнистые intolerable невыносимый,
несносный
disheveled растрепанные 3. to decorate украшать
crisp вьющиеся to stretch растягивать
rumpled взъерошенные to fix teeth вставлять зубы
32
curly кудрявые to pull out растягивать,
удлинять
tangled спутанные to stick out торчать
silky шелковистые to file teeth шлифовать зубы
12) Hairdo прическа tattoo татуировка
hair-cut стрижка 5. to be loath to do smth не хотеть сделать
что-либо
hairdo, hairstyle прическа surgery хирургическое
вмешательство
hairset укладка волос to be put at risk подвергаться
риску
hairwaving завивка rigid непреклонный,
суровый
hair-dressing парикмахерское дело facelift подтяжка лица
to grow, wash, brush, отращивать, мыть, bump опухоль, шишка
comb one’s hair причесывать,
расчесывать волосы
to wear one’s hair носить короткие to remove удалять
short, shoulder long волосы, по плечи
braided заплетенные в косу pectoral implant грудной имплант
to wear one’s hair носить волосы с in vain напрасно
parted in the middle, on пробором посередине,
one side сбоку
to wear one’s hair in a носить волосы узлом drastic решительный,
knot радикальный
fringe, bang челка to tease дразнить
knot of hair узел волос to go under the knife лечь под нож
strand (wisp) of hair прядь волос to have psychological оказывать
effect on smb психологический
эффект на кого-
либо
tuff of hair клок волос ridiculous смехотворный
lock локон, завиток to aspire стремиться к
чему-либо
hair care уход за волосами clone клон, точная
копия
trimmed (shortened легкая стрижка individuality индивидуальност
slightly by cutting) ь
bow (ribbon) бант (лента) imperfection несовершенство,
дефектность
afro look прическа в стиле афро to pin back одержать
(мелкие завитые полную победу
волосы)
centre parting прямой пробор procedure процедура
side parting косой пробор to iron out lines разгладить
морщины
(hand) hair drier фен to be convinced быть
убежденным
cap (gown) накидка на плечи (при to be bruised иметь
стрижке волос) кровоподтеки
Ladies’ (women’s and Женские (дамские, to have cosmetic dentistry пользоваться
33
girls’) hairstyles для девочек) услугами
(coiffures) прически косметической
стоматологии
ponytail лошадиный хвост to realign teeth выравнивать
зубы
swept-back hair гладкая прическа to have excess fat removed подвергнуться
операции по
удалению
излишков жира
swept-up hair, pinned- с узлом, заколкой 6. according to survey согласно
up hair сзади исследованию
bun (chignon) узел волос to be dissatisfied быть
недовольным
plaits (bunches) косы to be linked to быть связанным
с
chaplet hairstyle прическа с венком из distorted body image искаженное
(gretchen style) кос представление о
внешности
chaplet (coiled plaits) венок (переплетенные to reveal открывать,
косы) обнаруживать
curled hair завитые волосы disagreement несогласие
(завивка)
falling downwards ниспадающие локоны to be influenced by подвергаться
curls влиянию
shingle (shingled hair, короткая дамская petite frame миниатюрная
bobbed hair) стрижка фигура
pageboy style дамская стрижка с self-improvement самосовершенств
загнутыми внутрь ование
концами волос
earphones прическа с баранками thigh бедро
earphone (coiled plait) «баранка», скрученная armpit подмышка
коса
hair rollers бигуди elbow локоть
hair pin шпилька для волос wrist запястье
hair spray (fixing фиксатор прически palm ладонь
spray)
Men’s hairstyles мужские прически knuckle сустав
(haircuts) (стрижки)
closely-cropped head of коротко стриженная to bend гнуть(ся)
hair (crew cut) голова, «ежик»
head of curly hair курчавая голова to push толкать
partly bald head полысевшая голова to embrace обнимать
bald patch плешь to pull тянуть
bald head совершенно лысая to mould формовать,
голова лепить

34
Section II
Vocabulary and Pre-reading Work
Ex.1. Give your own definition of the word “appearance”. Compare the definitions given by different
students and find a more complete and precise one.
Ex.2. Search the dictionary for the definition of the word “appearance” and compare it with the definition
given by you. How are they similar? How are they different?
Ex.3. Read this humorous poem and learn it by heart:
Teddy’s Question

35
Tom was tall and slim, “Mother,” he said at length,
Willie was chubby and short – “Which would you like the best, -
Teddy sat looking at them one night, For me to grow north and south, like Tom,
Apparently lost in thought. Or like Willie, from east to west?”
Ex.4. Learn part 1 of the Topical Vocabulary and translate the following sentences into English:
1) Внешность – это первое, на что люди обращают внимание при встрече. 2) Древние люди
выглядели не так, как современные. 3) Моя сестра сильно похожа на меня, голубые глаза и
темные волосы – наше семейное сходство. 4) У мальчика был несчастный вид, так как он
сломал игрушку. 5) В длинном, вечернем платье девушка выглядела прекрасно. 6) Сын
внешне очень похож на отца, но черты характера у него как у матери. 7) Этой пожилой
женщине 62 и она выглядит не старше своих лет. 8) Не судите о человеке по его внешности –
гласит древняя мудрость. 9) «Ты сегодня на себя не похож! Что случилось?» - «Моя бабушка
заболела». 10) Орлиный нос указывал на их семейное сходство. 11) Дочь внешне очень
похожа на папу.
Ex.5. Answer the following questions:
1) Who do you look like in your family?
2) Who do you take after in your family?
3) In what case can you look wretched?
4) When do you look your best? What do you do for it?
5) Does your grandmother look her age?
6) Who does your friend resemble?
7) Do you judge people by their appearance? Why / why not?
8) What is your family likeness?
9) How will you describe a son if he has the same traits of character as his father?
10) Would you like your child take after you?
11) How will you describe a woman when she looks her best?
12) What should a person do to look his age?
Ex.6. Study the Topical Vocabulary describing the human body and divide the words in two groups:
positive / negative characteristics.
Ex.7. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English:
1) Какой очаровательный у вас малыш! 2) У этой девушки выразительное лицо. 3) У грабителя было
неприятное лицо и отвратительный шрам на левой щеке. 4) У вас такие красивые волосы! – Я похожа
на маму, это наше семейное сходство. 5) Каждая девушка мечтает иметь доброго, умного и красивого
мужа. 6) Это предложение очень привлекательно для нашей компании. 7) Портрет ребенка очень
интересный, только глаза – невыразительны. 8) У девушки заурядная внешность, но лицо довольно
миловидное. 9) Люди с приятной внешностью обычно имеют больше шансов при приеме на работу.
10) У тебя прелестная шляпка! Ты похожа в ней на знаменитую актрису. 11) Лицо старухи было
непривлекательным, даже уродливым, а беззубым ртом она издавала отвратительный смех. 12) Как
выглядел человек, напавший на вас? – У него было заурядное, обычное лицо, но шрам на лбу делал
его некрасивым.
Ex.8. Write as many synonyms to the following adjectives as you can.
Lovely, ill-favoured, plain
Ex.9. Write antonyms to the following words:
Attractive, impressive, pretty, beautiful, pleasant-looking
Ex.10. Answer the following questions:
1) Who do you think is the most handsome man in the world? Why?
2) Who do you think is the most beautiful woman in the world? Why?
3) What will your attitude be to a person with an ugly face?
4) What is a repulsive face for you? Is it better to have a repulsive face or soul?
5) Can a person having a big aquiline nose be attractive?
Ex.11. Study the following vocabulary. Make sure you know all of these words.
Form or shape (build/frame) of a person’s body can be: large, small, powerful, slight, heavy,
slim, solid, delicate, strong, spare, stocky, neat, sturdy, graceful.
Constitution – condition of a person’s body, can be: strong, feeble, vigorous, frail, rugged,
delicate, iron, weak (poor).
Figure (shape, size, form of the human body) can be: well-made, shapeless, graceful, ill-made,
lithe, stocky, clumsy, superb, stout, neat, lean, fat, well-fed, ordinary, perfect, slender, bony, plump,
flawed, slight, paunchy, slim.
Stature: imposing, diminutive, short, middle-sized, be 6 feet high (in height), be of medium
(average) height, tall.
Ex.12. Translate the following sentences into English using the words above:
1) Мой отец – крупный, коренастый, энергичный мужчина пятидесяти лет. 2) Кто по
профессии эта грациозная, изящная и стройная девушка? – Она – балерина. 3) Этот пожилой,
слабый человек низкого роста – очень сутулый. 4) Мэриам обладала совершенной фигурой:
высокий рост, прямая осанка, гибкая и грациозная как лебедь. 5) Бил хорошо-сложенный
парень примерно 19-ти лет, а его двоюродный брат – тучный и неуклюжий. 6) Ее дальний
родственник – заурядный, плохо-сложенный, бесформенный человек среднего роста. 7) У
этого костлявого мальчика хорошо-сложенная фигура и прямая осанка. 8) Сухощавый,
сутулый старичок сидел у входа и разглядывал всех, кто входил в зал. 9) Дедушка моего
друга, 60-летний мужчина с брюшком, коренастый и плохо-сложенный поражал всех своим
чувством юмора. 10) У нее превосходная фигура, наверное, она занимается спортом. 11) За
прилавком сидел плотный, тучный мужчина, крепкого телосложения. Выглядел он довольно
неуклюжим, когда редкий покупатель просил его достать что-то с полки. 12) Петр 1 обладал
незаурядной внешностью: представительный рост, крепкое, плотное телосложение, прямая
осанка и высоко поднятая голова. 13) Какой рост у вашего дедушки? – Он среднего роста.
14) Эта миниатюрная девочка очень изящная и грациозная.
Ex.13. Give Russian equivalents to the following:
1) superb figure 5) weak constitution
2) plump, rosy cheeks 6) powerful, solid chest
3) ordinary build 7) delicate fingers
4) slim lady 8) well-fed cat
Ex.14. Answer the following questions:
1) What should you do not to have a stooping posture?
2) People of what profession should have powerful and sturdy build? Why?
3) What is your stature? Would you like to be taller / shorter? Why/why not?
Ex.15. Tell about the build, bearing, constitution, figure and stature of your mother (father,
sister, brother, your friend, your neighbour, favourite singer / actress, a famous sportsman /
figure skater).
Ex.16. Study the following vocabulary. Make sure you know all of these words.
Hair can be: flaxen, auburn, golden, red, dark, brunette, reddish, fair, blond, ash-blond, brown, jet-
black, black, grey(-ing), silvery, chestnut.
General appraisal: abundant, silky, thin, luxuriant, short, straight, thick, curly, tangled, rumpled,
disheveled, wavy, long, crisp.
Hairdo (hairstyle), hair-cut, hair-set, hair-waving, hair-dressing, to grow (wash, brush, comb) one’s
hair, to wear one’s hair short (shoulder-long, braided, parted in the middle (on one side), in a knot),
fringe (bang), knot of hair, strand (wisp) of hair, tuff of hair, lock, hair care, bow (ribbon), hand
(hair) drier, hair rollers, hair pin, hair spray (fixing spray), cap (gown), centre (side) parting.
Ladies’ (women’s and girls’) hairstyles (coiffures): pageboy style, ponytail, swept-back hair,
swept-up hair, pinned-up hair, bun (chignon), plaits (bunches), trimmed (shortened slightly by
cutting), chaplet hairstyle (Gretchen style), chaplet (coiled plaits), curled hair, falling downwards
curls, shingle (shingled hair, bobbed hair), afro look, pageboy style, earphones.
Men’s hairstyles (haircuts): closely-cropped head of hair (crew-cut), head of curly hair, partly
bald head, bald patch, bald head;
Moustache, beard and whiskers: side-whiskers (sideboards, sideburns), clean-shaven (smooth
cheeks), stubby (unshaven) face, stubble beard (stubble, short beard bristles), full beard, moustache:
military, English-style, shadow.
Ex.17. Translate the following sentences into English using the words above:
1) У этой девушки очень красивая стрижка. 2) У вас замечательная прическа! 3) Сейчас
длинные волосы в моде. 4) У твоей дочери есть челка? – Нет. 5) У этого парня прическа в
стиле «афро». 6) Какой пробор вы предпочитаете? Прямой или косой? – Прямой. 7) Эта
молодая девушка всегда заплетает волосы в косу. 8) Мне очень нравятся завитые волосы, а
еще дамская стрижка с загнутыми внутрь концами волос. 9) Маленькой девочке сделали
прическу в стиле «Гретхен». 10) Переплетенные косы – ежедневная прическа моей
очаровательной племянницы. 11) Для укладки волос моя тетя использует шпильки. 12)
Гладкая прическа в основном подходит женщинам с овальным лицом. 13) Моей старшей
дочери сделали прическу из ниспадающих локонов. 14) Для того, чтобы закрепить локоны
парикмахеры используют фиксатор прически. 15) Моя соседка носит волосы узлом. 16) Для
того, чтобы завить волосы нужны бигуди. 17) К празднику девочкам в детском саду сделали
прическу с венком из кос и завязали ленты. 18) Прическа с баранками – типичная для
девочек младшего возраста. 19) Эта миниатюрная девушка с гладкой прической твоя
подруга? 20) У меня длинные прямые волосы и я часто пользуюсь заколкой. 21) У пожилого
мужчины плешь. 22) На вечеринку она пришла с дамской стрижкой с загнутыми внутрь
концами волос. 23) Эта женщина с короткой дамской стрижкой – моя тетя, а девушка с
переплетенными косами – моя кузина. 24) Я бы хотела купить новый фен. 25)
Воспользуйтесь бигуди для завивки волос. 26) Парикмахер, для того, чтобы сделать невесте
такую потрясающую прическу, использовал шпильки для волос и фиксатор прически. 27)
Этот лысый мужчина на фотографии – мой дедушка. А когда-то у него были вьющиеся,
густые, черные, как смоль волосы. 28) Прядь волос свисала на ее лицо. 29) В детстве у нее
были русые волосы, но со временем они поменяли цвет и стали каштановыми. 30) Я не
помню ее натуральный цвет волос: она была и блондинка, и рыжая и шатенка. 31) Его
взъерошенные волосы были похожи на стог сена. 32) Мария хрупкая, изящная девушка
двадцати лет с голубыми глазами и длинными, прямыми, пепельными волосами. 33) Ее
седые волосы очень короткие и тонкие. 34) Мне очень нравятся твои шелковистые, пышные
волосы. 35) Эта актриса брюнетка и у нее шелковистые, кудрявые, густые, длинные волосы.
Ex.18. Answer the questions:
1) What colour is your hair?
2) Have you ever dyed your hair? Why?
3) Is your hair straight or crisp?
4) What do women usually do to have crisp hair? What do they use for this?
5) What can women use to have abundant and thick hair?
6) Do you like bald-headed men?
7) What is your hair-cut?
8) How often do you have your hair cut at the hairdresser’s?
9) What do people use to dry hair?
10) What to call a piece of fabric which is put on your shoulders at the hairdresser’s?
11) What is used by women to fix a hairdo?
12) What should a man do not to have a stubby face?
Ex.19. Read The Info Box. Tell the main idea of it.
Info Box
Why hair turns grey when people are old
Some of the cells of hair contain a pigment. As human bodies grow old, most of them lose
the power to make a new pigment, so that the hair is colourless or white. Some people lose the
power to make the pigment when they are quite young; others do not grow grey until they are quite
old.
The condition of the nervous system has an effect upon the hair. We hear stories of people
whose hair turns grey in a single night because of fright or fear.
Some scientists think that if the body lacks certain vitamins of the B family, the hair may
grow grey.
Many animals also grow grey with the years. You have noticed this, of course, among cats
and dogs. To these animals you may add mice and rats which are often chosen by scientists for
experiments.

Ex.20. Study the following vocabulary. Make sure you know all of these words.
Gait (walk) of a person can be: steady, unsteady, heavy, light, swaggering, shuffling, halting,
awkward, swaying. Step: measured footstep, firm, heavy, light, slow, rapid; to stride with a firm
step.
Body, limbs (upper, lower).
Shoulders: broad, round, sloping, high, narrow.
Leg: narrow, large, small, long, short, slender, stout, lank, bow-shaped, shapely (fine), crooked.
Arm: well-shaped, rounded, bony, lank, short, long. Hand: plump (fat, thick), short. Finger:
thumb, forefinger, (index finger), middle finger, ring finger, little finger, finger nail.
Head: big, small, round, square, to hold one’s head high; neck: slender, thin, thick.
Ex.21. Translate the following sentences into English using the words above:
1) Прямая осанка твердая походка очень часто являются показателем хорошего самочувствия
и настроения. 2) После операции у моего дяди прихрамывающая походка. 3) У многих
пожилых людей неустойчивая, шаркающая походка. 4) У девушки такая легкая походка. 5)
Мужчина развернулся и твердой походкой направился прямо к выходу. 6) Чьи-то тяжелые
шаги послышались на первом этаже. 7) Было такое ощущение, что ее легкие шаги едва
задевали зеленую траву. 8) Медленно перебирая ногами старичок пересек дворик и сел на
скамейку. 9) Его шаги становились все быстрее и быстрее, и в конце концов он побежал за
уходящим поездом. 10) Из-за угла послышались размеренные шаги и перед нами предстал
капитан Стивенсон. 11) По плацу (drill-ground) шагали солдаты, и, казалось земля тряслась
под их тяжелыми шагами. 12) У малыша такая неуклюжая походка! 13) У парня важный вид
и щегольская походка. Он шел уверенно и грациозно, явно зная чего он хочет. 14) У
мужчины был настолько тяжелый шаг, что его было слышно из окон второго этажа. 15)
Пожилая женщина медленным, легким шагом гуляла по парку с пухлым, розовощеким
малышом. 16) У спортсменов обычно широкие плечи. 17) Светлана всегда мечтала иметь
тонкую талию, поэтому занималась аэробикой. 18) У малыша пухлые ручки и ножки,
неуклюжая походка и розовые щечки. 19) На безымянном пальце правой руки носят
обручальное кольцо. 20) У пианистов обычно длинные пальцы.
Ex.22. Answer the questions:
1) What gait can elderly people (soldiers, dancers) have?
2) What step do you have when you are in a hurry?
3) What is the gait of your friend?
4) What waist do ladies want to have?
5) What do women do to have a thin waist?
6) Enumerate fingers of a hand. Which is the longest / shortest?
7) With what finger do you point to any object?
8) On what finger does a bride-groom put on a wedding ring?
9) What jewelry do people put on fingers?
10) In what situation can you throw your chest with pride?
11) Would you hold your head high if you didn’t pass your exam?
12) What jewelry can people put on a neck?
Ex.23. Study the following vocabulary. Make sure you know all of these words.
Form (shape) of a face can be: angular, oval, square, long, round, thin, wrinkled, freckled, with a
beauty spot or a mole, with a pointed beard and moustache);
Complexion: dark, fair, florid, olive, pasty, sallow, pale, sunburnt, swarthy.
Face features. A face can be: clear-cut (clean-cut), delicate, fine, prominent, striking, indistinct,
vague, coarse, ugly, plain, ordinary, soft, small, regular, sharp, large, irregular, full; profile of a
face, a face with a scar, wart.
Ex.24. Translate the following sentences into English using the words above:
1) У него было овальное лицо с родинкой на щеке. 2) У парня смуглое, немного квадратное
лицо. 3) У нее такой болезненный цвет лица! 4) У блондинок всегда светлая кожа. 5) У
Джона грубые черты лица. 6) Вам очень идет загорелый цвет лица. 7) У старушки было
длинное, худое, морщинистое лицо. 8) У Эллис тонкие, правильные черты лица. 9) У
мальчика бледное, веснушчатое лицо. 10) Нельзя не запомнить лицо с мушкой или большой
родинкой. 11) Как выглядит ваш дядя? – У него угловатое лицо с острой бородкой и усами.
12) У нее был несчастный вид. Ее худое, угловатое лицо имело болезненный вид. 13) На его
бледном лице виднелся шрам. 14) Все были удивлены поразительными чертами лица
молодой незнакомки. 15) У ее супруга была внушительная фигура, смуглый цвет кожи и
крупные черты лица. 16) Та румяная девушка с нежными чертами лица, которую мы
встретили на улице – моя племянница. 17) Его черты лица были заурядными, профиль
заостренным, а голова коротко-стриженной. 18) На загорелом лице парня сияла улыбка,
обнажая ряд белых, великолепных зубов. 19) Девочка была некрасивой. На ее угловатом
лице было много веснушек. 20) Правильные и мягкие черты лица характерны для всех
женщин ее поколения. 21) Хотя лицо пожилой женщины было морщинистым, глаза были
добрыми и проницательными. 22) У этого парня 18-ти лет угловатое, желтовато-бледное,
болезненное, худое лицо. 23) Они сестры, но у старшей некрасивые, заурядные черты лица, а
у младшей – четкие и нежные. 24) Злую колдунью обычно изображают с худым,
морщинистым, уродливым лицом, со шрамом и бородавками. 25) Лицо Мастера Брауна
стало бледным, когда он узнал о болезни его отца. 26) Ты знаешь эту женщину с овальным
лицом, смуглого цвета? 27) Тот мужчина с острой бородкой и усами на загорелом лице – мой
сосед. 28) У вора были крупные, неправильные, грубые черты лица. 29) В 17 веке было очень
модным носить мушку на щеке. 30) Шрам на лбу только портил его красивое, смуглое лицо.
31) У тебя такой красивый, оливковый цвет лица! 32) У Ани пепельный цвет волос, смуглый
цвет лица и голубые глаза. 33) У девушки было угловатое, худое, веснушчатое лицо
бледного цвета. 34) Лицо круглой формы кажется полнее. 35) У моей бабушки овальное,
длинное, морщинистое лицо желтовато-бледного цвета. 36) На квадратном лице мужчины
40-ка лет была большая родинка. 37) На суровом лице пожилого человека был шрам. 38) У
этой милой девушки тонкие, нежные, четкие черты лица. 39) Говорят, что шрамы украшают
мужчин. 40) Это была вполне обычная девушка с заурядными чертами лица и родинкой над
верхней губой. 41) Это был портрет в анфас. 42) Портреты Наполеона часто рисовали в
профиль. 43) У злых людей часто выступающие, грубые, острые черты лица. 44) Я никогда
не видел такие поразительные черты лица, как у этого молодого человека. И зовут его
Дориан Грей.
Ex.25. Answer the questions:
1) After what can a person have a sunburnt complexion?
2) Who can have a wrinkled face?
3) What do women usually do not to have wrinkles?
4) Why can a person’s face be pastry and pale?
5) Do you have a florid complexion? What do you do for this?
Ex.26. Describe the people in the pictures.
1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Ex.27. Study the following vocabulary. Make sure you know all of these words.
Face features (particular): forehead, nose, mouth, lips, teeth, jaw, cheekbones, chin, eye,
eyebrows, eye-lashes, ear, eyelids.
Eyes can be: blue, brown, hazel, dark, pale, grey, hazel-eyed, cross-eyed, deep-set, full and blood
shot, sunken.
Cheeks: chubby (plump), hollow (sunken), with dimples, with creases, ruddy, pale, rouged, rosy
(pink), stubby (unshaven), clean-shaven.
Teeth: close-set, sparse, even, uneven, large, small, perfect, imperfect, artificial (false).
Lips: full, thick, parted, well-cut, thin, painted, compressed, twisted.
Mouth: firm, stern, large, small, strong-willed, weak-willed.
Nose: nostrils, bridge of the nose, tip of the nose, aquiline, flat, hooked, snub, thin, straight, pointed,
fleshy, long, turned up (upturned).
Eyebrows: straight, bushy, shaggy, arched, thin, penciled, well-marked, to raise (knit) one’s
eyebrows.
Forehead: broad, narrow, domed, retreating, high, low, large, small.
Ex.28. Translate the following sentences into English using the words above:
1) У тебя такие воспаленные глаза, ты плакала? – Нет, я сегодня много читала. 2) У
грабителя были глубоко-посаженные, косые глаза. 3) У вашего сына темно-карие или светло-
карие глаза? 4) Вы знаете эту женщину с рыжевато-каштановыми, густыми волосами и
серыми глазами. 5) У Стива один глаз зеленый, другой голубой. 6) Какие глаза у твоего
брата? – У него запавшие, широко-расставленные, темные глаза. 7) У людей со светлым,
бледным цветом кожи чаще всего светлые глаза. 8) Какой милый ребенок с пухлыми
щечками! 9) Когда она улыбается, у нее появляются ямочки на щеках. 10) У моего дяди
небритые щеки. 11) Ее розовые, нарумяненные щеки придают ей очаровательный вид. 12)
После болезни у ребенка бледные впалые щеки. 13) У парня были ровные, белые зубы и
когда он улыбается на него приятно смотреть. 14) У чудовища на картинке были неровные,
мелкие и некрасивые зубы. 15) У деда были крупные зубы, но ровные. 16) Пожилые люди
часто имеют искусственные зубы. 17) Какие же у тебя редкие зубы! 18) Если вы будете
посещать стоматолога, ваши зубы будут великолепны. 19) Эта девушка изящна. А какие
ровные, великолепные зубы у нее! 20) Хорошо-очерченные губы – редкость в наше время.
21) Он был мертв – бледное лицо, закрытые глаза и полуоткрытые губы. 22) Когда я вошел в
комнату, она все еще красила губы. 23) Он не сказал ни слова, стоял и смотрел вдаль плотно
сжав губы. 24) Тонкие губы свойственны сдержанным людям. 25) Многие девушки мечтают
иметь полные губы. 26) Первое, что бросилось в глаза – его толстые губы. 27) У того
веселого, загорелого парня с темными волосами энергичный рот. 28) Лицо женщины было
бледным, маленький рот – полуоткрыт. 29) Первое, что бросалось в глаза (was evident) – это
его большой рот и орлиный нос. 30) Суровый рот полицейского был искривлен, впалые щеки
– чисто выбриты. 31) У молодой женщины на картине рот был полуоткрыт, изогнутые
ресницы были накрашены. 32) Его твердый рот был сжатым, запавшие глаза были
слезящимися и воспаленными. 33) Лицо пассажира было небритым, темные, немного
поседевшие на висках волосы – коротко-стриженными, рот – суровым. 34) Черты его лица
были неправильные: энергичные губы – искривленными, а мясистый нос – приплюснутым.
35) Этот курносый парень очень хорошо играет на гитаре. 36) Его нос кажется слегка
искривленным из-за сломанной переносицы. 37) Удивительно! Бабочка села мальчику на
кончик носа. 38) У людей с орлиным носом кончик носа опущен вниз, а ноздри достаточно
широкие. 39) Он выглядел непривлекательно из-за его приплюснутого носа. 40) Ее
крючковатый нос и маленькие глаза на сморщенном лице привлекли мое внимание. 41) Джек
и Марсель – братья. У одного нос тонкий и прямой, а у другого – вздернутый. 42) Орлиный
нос указывал на их семейное сходство. 43) Дотронься указательным пальцем до кончика
носа. 44) Ее мясистый нос был большим и портил ее лицо. 45) Мужчина имел привычку
поднимать одну бровь, когда говорил. 46) Человек, имеющий косматые брови, вызывает
смех у людей. 47) У женщины были настолько тонкие и светлые брови, что их почти не было
видно. 48) Все девушки хотят иметь красивые, прямые, четко-очерченные брови. 49) Когда
Том сделал Мэри предложение, она, не веря его чувствам, только нахмурила брови. 50)
Клоун умел смешно поднимать брови. 51) Когда хозяин постоялого двора (country inn) был
доволен, он поднимал брови и загадочно (enigmatically) улыбался. 52) У нее от природы
были красивые, четко-очерченные брови, но она изменила их форму. 53) У моего мужа
красивые, густые брови. 54) Джейн подняла свои тонко очерченные брови и мило
улыбнулась. 55) Меня поразил ее взгляд (look): большие карие глаза под густыми,
изогнутыми ресницами и брови полукругом идеальной формы. 56) Говорят, у умных людей
большой и широкий лоб. 57) У моего отца высокий, покатый лоб. 58) Если у вас узкий лоб,
вам не нужно иметь челку. 59) У древних людей лоб, как правило, был выпуклый. 60)
Малыш такой очаровательный! Веснушки на щеках, вздернутый нос и розовые щечки.
Ex.29. Answer the questions:
1) Do you usually paint your lips?
2) What should a person do to have perfect teeth?
3) What traits of character does a person with a firm chin have?
4) What do women use to have thick and curving eyelashes?
5) To what part of a ear do people attach earrings?
Ex.30. Look at the picture and write adjectives we can use for hair and parts of a face.

Ex.31. Fill in the missing letters in the words:


Wret(9)hed, ill favou(6)ed, d(15)licate, (3)osture, rugge(20), li(14)he, (13)lawed, swa(28)gering,
sw(5)rthy, s(7)llow, (22)hestnut, luxur(24)ant, w(1)rt, coar(11)e, stra(26)ght, vagu(19), arch(4)d,
pr(21)tty, ha(16)dsome, ear(2)hone, b(10)ard, a(18)tificial, earl(12)be, ta(27)ned, cre(17)ses,
for(23)finger, (25)igorous, aquili(8)e.
If you put these letters in order according to their numbers you will have a quotation.
Listening
Ex.32. You are going to listen to the information about a lost child (Speaking Extra 8.1 “Lost!”
page 52, CD 1 track 16). Find the child on the photocopy given to you.
Section III
Vocabulary and Speech Exercises
Writing
Ex.1. Fill in the missing word in the rhyme. Compose your own rhymes with the words parts of
body.
When little Ann
Goes out for tea,
She washes her…,
As you can see.
Ex.2. A part of the body is hidden in each of the following sentences. The first sentence contains
"head." Can you find the rest?

1. The ad is for Monday's sale. 4. Sarah and Tony are getting married.
2. The tour group can go to either 5. That casino seems shady.
country. 6. Can't you see that Hank needs help?
3. My car makes funny noises sometimes. 7. The sea is so calm out here.
8. Would you like to go surfing, Erin?
Ex.3. Guess the riddle. Compose other riddles with the words of body parts or their
characteristics in the answers.
I am in every person.
I am large in the dark.
I am black but surrounded by color.
If you put shampoo to my surface it'll hurt.
What am I?
Ex.4. Divide the following 24 words into three equal groups under the headings:
a) head b) arm and hand c) leg and foot.
Jaw, shin, wrist, gums, lid, lash, temple, toes, biceps, palm, pupil, knuckles, thigh, instep, sole, lobe,
calf, thumb, fist, nostril, elbow, forearm, heel, ankle
Discussion Points
Ex.5. Discuss the following:
1) What do you think is the most important part of your body? Choose one and try to prove
your idea saying why a person can’t live without it.
2) Is there anything you would like to improve about the human body? Draw a picture of the
improved version of human body and discuss with other students why you think these
changes are necessary.
Ex.6. Give the description of people in the pictures.
Becky Nicola Suzie James Rob Mike

Ex.7. Translate the following sentences into Russian:


1) What does he look like? – He is a handsome man. 2) She is lovely-looking. 3) The guest was decidedly
pretty. I had never seen a face half so beautiful. 4) Mary is a fetching, nice-looking girl. 5) Nearly all girls
are good-looking, some are pretty, a very few – are beautiful. 6) The lady had a fascinating smile. 7) He was
all smiles. 8) She was of fair complexion. 9) He had that order of nose which people call “snub”. 10) Is that a
beauty-spot or a mole that you have on your cheek? 11) You bear your age well. 12) Time stands still with
you. Yes, he can carry his years and he is as young as he looks. 13) What’s the matter with you? You don’t
look yourself. What makes you look so wretched? 14) There’s no family likeness at all between you and her.
15) The child took after his mother in appearance and character. 16) Her mouth was strong and vivid. 17) He
was not fat, but he was exceedingly well-fed. 18) She had a queenly carriage. 19) I have never met a fellow
so strangely constituted. 20) He is six feet five inches tall.
Ex.8. Describe appearance of any 4-year old child, an elderly woman / man, a young lady.
Skim Reading Exercises
Ex.9. Read and translate the text.
My Aunt Emily
Of all my relatives I like my aunt Emily the best. She’s my mother’s youngest sister. She has
never married, and she lives alone in a small village near Bath. She’s in her late fifties, but she is
still quite young in spirit. She has a fair complexion, thick brown hair which she wears in a bun, and
dark brown eyes. She has a kind face, and you meet her, the first thing you notice is her lovely,
warm smile. Her face is a little wrinkled now, but I think she is still rather attractive. She is the sort
of person you can always go to if you have a problem.
She likes reading and gardening, and she goes for long walks over the hills with her dog,
Buster. She’s a very active person. Either she is making something, or mending something, or doing
something to help others. She does the shopping for some of the old people in the village. She’s
extremely generous, but not very tolerant with people who don’t agree with her. I hope that I am as
happy and contented as she is when I’m her age.
Ex.10. Using the text as a plan, describe your mother’s, father’s, sister’s and friend’s
appearance.
Ex.11. Read and translate the passages.
1) And there he (Mervyn Philips) was, getting up to his knees with his hand holding his jaw
and blood shining wet on his face, and there I (Huw Morgan) was, on my feet again and waiting,
and Mr. Jonas (teacher) came round the corner.
“The bell has gone,” he said to the crowd. “Are you deaf?”
2) Ceinwen Phillips sat near her brother. Both of them were the same height and the same
shape of face, but Ceinwen was shorter and finer in the nose, with a mouth always a little open to
show good teeth and fat and square in the bottom (lower) lip. A good big eye she had with her, blue
like her brother’s, but with plenty of woman in it, and long curling hair to her waist the same colour
as new hay.
3) Shani had hair the colour of September leaves that shone, and a red ribbon coming up
behind her ears with a bow on top. She was small, and gentle in her voice and movements, dark in
the eye, and with a little line of the mouth … In her eyes I found pity and dark sadness.
(After Richard Llewellyn)
Ex.12. Say which passage is about: a sister and a brother; a small and gentle girl; a fight between
two girls.
Ex.13. Choose from passages the words that refer to the topic Parts of Body.
Ex.14. Say in which passage you can find information about: the shape of face; the colour of
eyes; the blood shining on one’s face; the curly hair; a gentle voice; the sadness in one’s eyes; good
teeth; somebody who came round the corner.
Ex.15. Find the information about:
- the resemblance between Ceinwen and her brother;
- someone whose eyes were dark;
- the results of the fight between two boys.
Ex.16. Give short answers to the questions below and say where you found each answer.
1) Whose hair was the colour of September leaves?
2) Who came round the corner?
3) In whose eyes dark sadness could be found?
4) Who was of the same height and with the same shape of face?
5) What did Mr. Jones tell the crowd?
6) Who was small and gentle in her voice and movements?
Writing
Ex.17. Give Russian equivalents to the following:
Graceful figure, bony fingers, well-cut lips, turned-up nose, perfect teeth, straight eyelashes, broad
shoulders, rough skin, a man with long moustache, slender figure, expressive eyes, grey hair, rough
hands, bushy eyebrows, pointed chin, charming smile, plump hands, smooth skin, rough features,
curly hair, rosy cheeks, sweet smile, fair complexion, deep-set eyes, sunburnt complexion,
remarkable appearance, massive chin, harsh voice, plain face, scarred forehead.
Ex.18. Give English equivalents to the following:
Тонкие, четко очерченные брови; хорошо сложенный, широкоплечий парень; острый
подбородок; пухлые щечки с ямочками; светлые редкие волосы; костлявые пальцы; грубые,
неправильные черты лица; крепкая мозолистая рука; прямые каштановые волосы;
отвратительное мясистое лицо; смуглый, несколько болезненный цвет лица; густые мягкие
волнистые волосы; глубоко посаженные хитрые глаза; полный мужчина среднего роста;
заплетать волосы в косы; неестественная улыбка; выглядеть молодо для своих лет; пойти в
отца внешностью и характером; хмурить брови; курносая веснушчатая девочка;
крючковатый нос; усталое морщинистое лицо; подведенные глаза; нарумяненные щеки;
небритые скулы; гладко выбритое лицо; нежная, слегка загорелая кожа.
Ex.19. Give a word for the following definition.
1) The upper part of a man’s body.
2) The part of the face above the eyebrows.
3) The part of the face between the nose and the ears.
4) The part of the body from hand to the shoulder.
5) The part of the body that connects the head and the shoulders.
6) The end of the human arm.
7) The front of the head.
8) The joint between the two parts of the arm.
9) The eyes cover when the eyes are shut.
10) The hair that grows on the edge of the eyelids.
11) The thin line of hair above the eyes.
12) The part of the face above the eyes.
13) The face and its expression.
14) A small, light brown spot on the skin produced by sunburn.
15) The natural colour and appearance of the skin.
16) The hair on a man’s upper lip.
17) The joint between the arm and the hand.
18) The hair on a man’s face below the mouth.
19) The middle joint of the leg where the leg bends.
Ex.20. Write your own definitions to the words: thigh, toe, finger, neck, ear, elbow, chest, ankle,
nail, head.
Ex.21. Translate the phrases, paying special attention to the verbs of gestures.
1) Shrug your shoulders and turn your head to the left.
2) Shade your eyes with your left hand.
3) Press your right hand to your forehead.
4) Scratch your chin.
5) Fold your arms on your breast.
6) Knit your eyebrows.
7) Nod your head.
8) Touch the tip of your nose with your thumb.
9) Brush your hair upward.
10) Point to the door with your forefinger.
11) Go to the door on tiptoe.
12) Touch your open palm.
13) Shake your forefinger in warning.
14) Lean your forehead against the back of your left hand.
15) Put your thumbs to your temples.
Ex.22. Fill in the articles:
1) … master was … man about sixty years old with colourless eyes and white hair. 2) Ella, … only
daughter in … family, was … very good-looking girl, gay and clever. 3) In … street Johnny saw …
man. It was … old Jew with .. black beard, … pair of deep black eyes stared out from his thin pale
face. His long black hair hung down across his forehead. 4) we sat talking in … sitting-room when
somebody knocked at … door and … well-dressed gentleman with … pleasant face entered …
room. “Here is … picture of my wife,” he said. And … man showed us … face of … very beautiful
woman with … black hair and large dark eyes. 5) One sunny day in June two men were making
their way towards … large lake. … first one was … tall and strong man. Indeed, he looked … real
giant. His manner was … little rude, but his face was very handsome. His companion was …
shorter man. His face was not handsome but there was something in it that won … sympathies of …
people at once.
Ex.23. Fill in prepositions:
1) When I entered I heard somebody speak … a ringing voice. Such a voice is typical … young age.
2) Your aunt looks young … her age. 3) When she smiled, two pretty dimples appeared … her
cheeks. 4) The newcomer was a short stout man, carefully dressed, … a round good-natured face. 5)
His thin face was dark and ended … a short beard that looked Spanish. 6) Why are you shouting …
the top … your voice? Can’t you talk … a whisper? 7) Jane was eleven years old, tall … her age,
and very lean. 8) The girl has a pretty face … brave brown eyes. She is … medium height and has a
slender figure. Her elder sister Pauline is quite different … her. 9) Do you take … you mother or
father? 10) What is your height? – I am … medium height. 11) Why are you walking … a stoop?
12) The soldiers were striding … a firm step. 13) He was so pleased that threw his chest … pride.
14) If you want to be slim … the waist, go in for sport. 15) Do you wear your hair parted … the
middle or … one side? 16) She is a business lady and often wears her hair … a knot. 17) Why are
your eyes swollen … tears? Don’t despond! If it were not for hope, the heart would break!
Ex.24. Choose the right word.
a) Face, countenance, complexion
1) She was a tall lady with dark hair, dark eyes, and a pale and a large forehead; her … was grave.
2) The girl was thin and had a sharp, bird-like … . 3) His … expressed astonishment. 4) The lady
praised the old gentleman’s bronzed … . 5) He looked so funny, that I found it difficult to keep my
… . 6) He must have had bad news, flashed through Arthur’s mind, as he looked anxiously at
Montanelli’s haggard … . 7) A fair … is typical of all the women of this clan.
b) Thin, lean, slender
1) Arthur was a … little creature more like an Italian that an English lad. 2) She is rather … in the
face. 3) His domed forehead, great moustache, … cheeks, and long jaw were shaded from the
sunshine by an old brown Panama hat. 4) The girl was not beautiful, her figure was too small and
… . 5) The fellow was as … as a rail. 6) I saw a small … man with sunken cheeks weathered to a
tan. 7) She looks … after her illness. 8) She was a … blue-eyed girl with thick golden plaits.
Ex.25. Supply the missing words:
1) A little frown appeared on the boy’s … . 2) Arthur spoke in a strange indistinct … . 3) He raised
his … suddenly from the ground, and she saw how strange their expression was. 4) The dreamy
eyes deep blue under black … were an inheritance from his mother. 5) The colonel’s … was cleanly
shaven showing a bronzed … . 6) When I was nineteen … old, I was a … young man. I was not
very tall and had a well-made … and a … chest. My … was thick and coal-black and … large and
dark. 7) He was a tall elderly man, … after his summer on the Black Sea with a thin … . 8) The
woman’s dress was white and she wore a golden belt round her … . 9) The man’s grey … was cut
very short, but was still … . 10) Katrine was more … than the rest. She was tall and … and had a
sweet … and fine … . Her figure was … .
Ex.26. Fill in the blanks with the words given in brackets.
(white, turned-up, rosy, soft, fair, age, grey, small, tall)
1) Alice is thirteen years old. She is … for her … . Her hair is … and … . Her eyes are … and her
cheeks are … . She has a … mouth and pretty … teeth. But she has a … nose and she does not like
it.
(freckled, yellow, long, eyes, thin, turned-up)
2) The girl was between nine and ten years old. She had … legs and … arms, two … pig-tails, a … nose that
…, and … that were almost green and almost brown.
(wavy, dark, beard, tall, long, thin, large, shining, smile, neck, forehead, eyes)
3) Near the park I saw a man on horseback. I saw at once that he was a stranger. He was very …, dressed in
rich clothes, with a gold chain hanging about his … and seemed to be about forty years old. His face was …
and …, the … were … and black, the mouth was small with a cruel … on it, the … high and marked with a
scar. The man’s complexion was … , his hair like my own was … . He had a … and moustache.
Ex.27. Read and translate the passages.
1) The colonel is a fine-looking man. His hair is white. So is his moustache. His face is cleanly
shaven showing a bronzed complexion. The expression of his face is kind though firm.
The colonel has three sons. Basil, the eldest of the boys, is seventeen years of age. He is a fine-
looking lad though not handsome. He looks very brave and strong. His hair is straight and black. He is, in
fact, the son of his father.
How very unlike him is Lucien, the second of age. Lucien is delicate, with a light complexion and
very fair hair. he is more like what his mother was, for she was a blonde. The colonel’s youngest son is
quick-witted, curly-haired boy – cheerful at all times.
2) Among the passengers there were two who interested me very much. One, a man of about thirty,
was one of the tallest men I ever saw. He had yellow hair, a thick yellow beard, a handsome face and large
eyes. His face made me think of someone I had seen before but at the time I could not remember who it was.
The big man’s name was Sir Henry Curtis.
The other man was short, stout and dark. He was always very neat and clear-shaven; he always wore
an eye-glass in his right eye, and he never took it out. At first I thought he even slept in it, but afterwards
found that this was not so. He put it in his trousers pocket when he went to bed, together with his false teeth,
of which he had two beautiful sets.
3) Cedric was not tall but broad-shouldered, long-armed and powerfully-made. His face was broad
with large blue eyes, open and frank features, fine teeth and well-formed head. He was frank but of a nasty
temper. There was pride and jealousy in his eyes, for his life had been spent in maintaining his rights. His
long yellow hair was not very grey, although he was almost sixty.
(W. Scott)
Ex.28. Give the description of the people in the pictures using the following scheme:
General look
Build, bearing, constitution, figure, stature.
Body limbs (shoulders, legs, arm, hands, fingers).
Head, neck.
Hair (general appraisal, colour), hairdo.
Face (form, complexion).
Face features in general
Face features (particular): forehead, nose, mouth, lips, teeth, jaw, cheekbones, cheeks, chin, eyes, eyebrows,
eye-lashes, eyelids, ears.
Profession or occupation this person can have
Your attitude to him/her
Ex.29. Render in English close to the text.
1) У деда моего были огненно-рыжие волосы и обычная для рыжих людей красноватая в
веснушках кожа. Когда я впервые увидела его, это был пятидесятилетний мужчина худощавый, с
грустным выражением лица. Говорил он всегда негромко и спокойно.
Жена его была маленькой женщиной с черными глазами навыкате. Ее гладкие тусклые (dull)
волосы были тщательно затянуты в тугой узел. Лицо у нее было вытянутое, как у овцы, но она не
производила впечатления глупой. Быстрые птичьи движения. Самым примечательным в ней был
голос – высокий, металлический, лишенный интонаций. Выглядела она старше своих лет.
Дед мой был очень общительным человеком (a good mixer). В его доме бывали разные люди.
Я запомнила особенно хорошо одного. Это был его друг. Человек добрейшей души. Внешность его
была своеобразной (singular). Он был высок и тощ, с длинными, словно развинченными (loosely
jointed) руками и ногами, впалыми щеками и торчащими скулами. Лицо его было таким бледным, что
его полные чувственные (sensual) губы казались особенно удивительными. Он носил длинные
волосы. Его темные, глубоко посаженные глаза были большими и печальными, а руки с большими
длинными пальцами были красивой формы и придавали ему вид человека, обладающего большой
физической силой.
2) Ее глаза под густыми ресницами кались совсем темными. Цвет ее глаз поражал еще и
потому, что был совершенно необычен для блондинки. Веки были полуопущены, что было
характерным для нее, когда она была поглощена своими мыслями. У нее были четко очерченные,
довольно густые брови.
С первого взгляда ее лицо с чуть выступающими скулами и мягкими линиями казалось
классически правильным. Но стоило присмотреться и оказывалось, что нос у нее несколько
неправильной формы, рот большой, а губы полные и крепкие. Лицо ее было удивительно женственно
и вместе с тем энергично. Волосы она гладко зачесывала назад и повязывала вокруг головы черную
ленточку.
Discussion and Speech Exercises
Ex.30. Answer the following questions:
1) What colour of eyes do you like most?
2) What is the difference between a near-sighted person and a far-sighted one?
3) How do you wear your hair?
4) What can happen to a person’s voice if he shouts too loudly or too long?
5) What complexion do blond people usually have?
6) With which fingers do we hold a pen or a pencil?
7) What happens to a child’s milk teeth?
8) How does hard manual work affect people’s hands?
9) What do we call people who lost their hair?
10) To what part of the ear are earrings attached?
11) What does a person deserving to be called well-preserved look like?
12) When do men’s cheeks become stubby?
13) What is the difference between a sunburnt and swarthy face?
14) What kind of gate do old people often have?
Ex.31. There was a bank robbery in Western London. Suppose you are a witness to this crime and help
the Police to identify the robber. Use the following key words and phrases to describe him.
1) Age: elderly, middle-aged, young, under 30, past 40 … .
2) Height: tall, short, over 5 feet 6 inches, of middle height … .
3) Build: slim, stout, thick neck, broad-shouldered … .
4) Face: long, round, thin, wrinkled, oval … .
5) Hair: long, straight, curly, blond, bald-headed, bobbed … .
6) Eyes: close-set, dark-eyed, bulging, small … .
7) Nose: straight, hooked, blunt … .
8) Ears: stick out ... .
9) Distinctive marks: freckles, hunchback, a mole on his right check, beard, moustache … .
Ex.32. Act out a dialogue between a policeman, who will investigate the crime and a man, who saw the
criminal. The policeman asks the man about the criminal’s appearance.
Section IV
Vocabulary and Pre-reading Work
Ex.1. Read and translate the following words:
Figure: fat, slim, graceful, lovely, pretty, clumsy, ugly, thin, slender, graceless
Eye: eyelid, iris, pupil, deep, eyebrow, white, oriental, clear, wide, to wink, to blink, eyelash
Nose: straight, aquiline, snub, flat, to breathe, to smell, to sneeze, to blow one’s nose
Hair: wavy, straight, curly, bald, to plait, to dye, to cut, to have a hair-do, to style the hair
Ex.2. Fill in the blanks using the vocabulary above:
1) The little girl’s hair was … .
2) The witch had an … face.
3) Her sister has a … figure.
4) Your uncle doesn’t have any hair, he is … .
5) The child is … and … .
6) An eye consists of …, …, and … .
7) Her hair is not wavy, it is … .
8) She … her hair in chestnut colour.
9) This … girl with … hair has oriental … under thick long eyelashes.
10) The child was ill and often … his nose.
Ex.3. Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1) He caught a cold and was badly sneezing. 2) She used to style her hair at the hairdresser’s. 3) She was as
clumsy as can be. 4) Her nose was snub and very funny. 5) Babies are usually fat. 6) A wink is as good as a
nod to a blind horse. 7) He winked towards Nicholas with a degree of familiarity. 8) Without even batting an
eyelid a rich gentleman lost all his property playing cards. 9) Steve had such a high opinion of his own
abilities that he hardly blinked at winning the first prize. 10) Soon you'll leave school and go out into the big
wide world. 11) A dog just takes a smell at a missing thing and can easily find it. 12) They don't want
inexperienced young things for the job. They want people who have had a smell of powder. 13) In the
morning I open the window wide and breathe in deeply. 14) A sense of calm breathed from the landscape.
15) A better fellow does not breathe. 16) Don't worry; I wouldn't breathe a word of your secret. 16) This
offer may not be what you desire, but it's not to be sneezed at.
Ex.4. Say what can be: straight, ugly, clear, wavy, curly, bald, fat, stout, snub, aquiline.
Text I
Ex.5. Read and translate the text:
A Visit to the Country
Last summer Nick decided to spend his vacation at his cousin’s who lives in the South of
Pridnestrovie. It was at the beginning of July when he left for the village of Sofia. The weather was fantastic
and the surroundings were full of greenery. The beauty of the countryside impressed him very much. When
meeting his cousin Kate at the railway station he got surprised at her change. It was two years ago when he
saw her last. This time he found her rather attractive. Instead of a short and clumsy child, now there was
quite a different person in front of him: a tall, slim and graceful young girl. He couldn’t but notice her big
blue eyes with long and thick eyelashes and dark eyebrows. Most of all he liked her long, curly and fair hair
that shone in the sun. She was the sort of person, who seemed to attract everybody, especially when she
smiled.
The aunt’s house wasn’t far from the station, so it didn’t take them long to get there. When they
approached the house his aunt greeted him. Nick was happy to see her. He stayed at his aunt Maria’s for two
weeks. He had a good opportunity to learn a lot of things about the life on the farm and make new friends.
Vocabulary and Speech Exercises
Ex.6. Find in the text synonyms for the following words:
Holiday, start, wonderful, village, before, high, to observe, fortnight, glad, to come to, blond, kind,
amazed, to find out, to enjoy, chance
Ex.7. Find in the text antonyms for the following words:
Winter, to die, end, dull, empty, first, ugly, behind, short, straight, cry, near, sad, little, parting, thin,
light, a few, death, bad, small
Ex.8. Answer the questions on the text:
1) Where did Nick decide to spend his holiday?
2) Where does Nick’s cousin live?
3) What was the weather like?
4) What impressed Nick very much?
5) Why was he surprised when meeting his cousin?
6) When did Nick see his cousin last?
7) Who was he met at the station by?
8) How much time did it take him to get to his aunt’s house? Why?
9) What did his aunt do when he approached the house?
10) How long did he stay there?
11) What did Nick learn about?
Ex.9. Ask questions referring Kate’s appearance.
Ex.10. Describe Kate’s appearance.
Word Guide
Ex.11. Say what it means:
1. I couldn’t face it; 2. My ears are burning; 3. He was up to his ears in love with her. 4. He had no
reason to lose face.
Ex.12. Translate the following sentences into Russian.
1. “It was way too short for me, the couch, but I really could've slept standing up without batting an
eyelash.” (J. Salinger, ‘The Catcher in the Rye’) 2. “Look here, my dear, I'm up to the eyebrows this
morning. Come back on Monday week...” (K. Mansfield, ‘Bliss’, ‘Pictures’) 3. “By George, what
presence of mind you showed. I went hot and cold all over, and you never batted an eyelash.” (W.
S. Maugham, ‘The Constant Wife’)
Ex.13. Explain the proverbs and sayings:
1) Mother’s eye sees more than ten of the servants. 2) To cry with one eye and laugh with the other.
3) Face is the index of the heart (mind). 4) Face to face, the truth comes out. 5) He who has no head
needs no hat. 6) Heart thinks, what the tongue speaks. 7) Hearts may agree, though heads differ.
Ex.14. Guess what it is:
- What has a neck but no throat?
- It lives alone between two bright stars.
Grammar
Ex.15. Find in the text sentences with the Possessive case.
Ex.16. Compose your own examples using the Possessive Case.
Grammar: THE POSSESSIVE CASE
ANALYTICAL POSSESSIVE CASE SYHTHETICAL POSSESSIVE CASE
of ‘s;’
1. The face of my granny is wrinkled. My granny’s face is wrinkled
2. The forehead of my dad is high. My dad’s forehead is high.
3. The eyes of the girl dance and twinkle. The girl’s eyes dance and twinkle.
Ex.17. Change the SPC into APC:
1) How do you like my mother’s appearance?
2) His cousin’s eyes are of a deeper blue.
3) Princess’s face was of a rare beauty.
4) Everybody likes Moldova’s nature.
5) My sister’s fair hair shone in the sun.
6) The girl’s figure was slim and graceful.
7) Tom and Mary’s twins are clumsy and pretty.
Ex.18. Compose a dialogue on the topic Appearance using the Possessive Case.
Ex.19. Describe any of your group mates using the Possessive case and let others guess who the
person is.
Ex.20. Write the missing letters:
. gl ., a . . . l . . e, w . . k, . n . . . e, s . . . . g . t, s . . . , с . . . . y, g . . с . . . l, b. . a . . у
Ex.21. Choose and write the rhyming twin to each of the words:
Breathe, nose, keep, fat, blink, I, flat, sneeze, cut, wink, eye, deep, but, close.
Ex.22. Describe in writing the appearance of a famous singer you like best.
Believe it or not
- The Paraya Indians of the Amazon Valley can speak without moving their lips. Sounds are
formed with the help of the tongue and go through the nose instead of the mouth.
- The men and women of this tribe speak two different dialects and understand each other
with a great difficulty.
Section V
Vocabulary and Pre-reading Work
Ex.1. Read, guess the meaning and learn the following words:
Nouns: arm, forearm, armpit, elbow, wrist, palm, thumb, index/fore-finger, middle-finger, ring-finger, little
finger, nail, knuckles, fist
Verbs: to wave, to bend (bent – bent) , to push, to pull, to touch, to pile, to pat, to pet, to mould, to embrace,
to caress, to hit (hit – hit); to strike (struck – struck).
Adjectives: rough, showy, handsome, haughty, previous, joyous, slight
Ex.2. Read and transcribe the words:
Preserved, naïve, haughty, fierce, quite, mild, guest, joyous, noise, afterwards, rather, personage,
shone, straight, equal, intolerable, stature.
Ex.3. Guess the meanings of the following words. Consult the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary.
Naïve, to conduct, arrogant, evidently, delicate, to arrange, figure, gentle, to complete
Ex.4. Match the words with their definitions:
1) to pile a) to put one’s arms around somebody
2) haughty b) to touch somebody gently or lovingly
3) to mould c) to touch somebody lightly with a hand held flat, not smooth
4) to pat/pet/stroke d) to make something into a particular shape
5) rough e) to put together books
6) to caress f) arrogant
7) to embrace g) not smooth; absence of good manners or arrogant
Ex.5. Translate the sentences paying attention to the underlined words:
1) She touched the keyboard with her long delicate fingers.
2) He had a back-ache and it was difficult for him to bend.
3) Angelina Jolie has got a slight figure.
4) The joyous crowd waved good-bye to us.
5) When fighting, boys usually hit/strike each other.
6) A handsome person can be either a man or a woman.
7) He said the guests had arrived the previous night.
8) When entering the room we pull the door, and we push it when getting out.
Ex.6. Enumerate the parts of an arm and hand.
Word Guide
Ex.7. Find equivalents to the following idioms in Russian:
- to walk arm in arm with someone;
- to elbow one’s way;
- to look through the fingers;
- to fight tooth and nail;
- not to lift (stir/raise) a finger;
- one hand washes another;
- to have butter fingers;
- one shoulder of mutton draws down another;
Ex.8. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) All of them, at some point in their careers, had walked arm in arm with the harsh political
realities of their time, and so each respected the other's islands of reticence and responsibility. (M.
Wilson, ‘Meeting at a Far Meridian’)
2) All business is you do something for me, I'll do something for you. One hand washes the other.
(J. O'Hara, ‘A Rage to Live’)
3) She elbows her way into the best social circles.
4) It's her mania – getting stout; she fights it tooth and nail. (J. Galsworthy, ‘Maid in Waiting’)
5) "Now tell me, all of you, which of you will lift a finger to save Joan once the English have got
her?"
(B. Shaw, ‘Saint Joan’)
6) They redoubled their attentions towards Louise. They would not let her stir a finger... (W. S.
Maugham, ‘Complete Short Stories’, ‘The Vessel of Wrath’)
7) (Norah drops a cup and breaks it, and as this happens Gertie comes in.) Gertie: "Butter fingers."
Norah: "I'm so sorry." (W. S. Maugham, ‘The Land of Promise’)
8) I am sure if you were to go there, you would cut and come again – one shoulder of mutton drives
down another. (E. Bulwer-Lytton, ‘Pelham’)
Ex.9. Read the following text. Find as many idioms in it as you can.
Our head, Mr Body, is six feet tall, he's always on his toes and has a heart of gold. He has a
finger in every pie, and a chip on his shoulder. He doesn't stand for any cheek, so we don't give him
any lip and we don't talk back.
Mr Body knows when we are pulling his leg and he says “Hold your tongue, just knuckle
under and toe the line. I want no underhand tricks here.” He says our new school cost him an arm
and a leg to build he had to fight for it tooth and nail. Mr Body says he shoulders the burden of
responsibility. He ends up doing the work of our people that must make him a forehead.
Ex.10. Compose your own sentences with the idioms given above.
Text II
Ex.11. Read and translate the text.
Mr. Rochester’s Visitors
It was a mild, quiet spring day – one of those at the end of March and beginning of April.
The guests were expected to arrive on Thursday afternoon. All work had been completed the
pervious evening; carpets were laid down, toilet tables arranged, furniture dusted, flowers piled in
vases: both sitting-rooms and halls looked as fresh and bright as hands could make them.
Thursday afternoon arrived; Mrs. Fairfax put on her best black satin dress, her gloves, and
her gold watch for it was her duty to receive the company, to conduct the ladies to their rooms and
halls.
A joyous noise was now heard in the hall. There were but eight people; yet somehow, as
they entered, they gave the impression of a much larger number. Some of them were very tall; many
were dressed in white. I knew their names afterwards, and may as well mention them now.
First there was Mrs. Eshton and two of her daughters. She had evidently been a handsome
woman, and still was well preserved. Of her daughters, the eldest, Amy, was rather little, naïve, and
childlike in face and manner, wearing her white thin cotton dress. The second, Louisa, was taller
and more elegant in figure, with a very pretty face. Both sisters were fair as lilies.
Lady Lynn was a large and stout personage of about 40, very straight, very haughty-looking,
richly dressed in a satin dress; her dark hair shone brightly.
Mrs. Colonel Dent was less showy; but I thought, more lady-like. She had a slight figure, a
pale, gentle face, and fair hair.
But the three most distinguished – partly, perhaps, because the tallest figures of the company
– were the Dowger Lady Ingram and her daughters Blanche and Mary. Lady Ingram could be
between 40 and 50: her figure was still fine; her hair (by candle light at least) was still black; her
teeth, too, were still evidently perfect. Most people would have called her a splendid woman of her
age and so she was. She had Roman features and a double chin. She had also a fierce and a hard
eye; she swallowed her words in speaking; her voice was deep, very intolerable, in short.
Blanche and Mary were of equal stature, straight and tall as poplars. Mary was too slim for
her height, but Blanche was moulded like a Diana.
(From Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte (1816-1855))
Ex.12. Find in the text synonyms for the following words:
Silent, finish, before, living-room, light, come, clock, woman, lady, people, pretty, slender,
beautiful, fat, obviously, blond(e), excellent
Ex.13. Find in the text antonyms for the following words:
Noisy, severe, depart, dark, sad, little, few, beforehand, to take off, thin, crooked, modest, worst,
poorly, last
Ex.14. Put the following sentences from the text in the proper order:
a) Blanche and Mary were of equal stature.
b) Mrs. Colonel Dent was less showy.
c) I knew their names afterwards.
d) Lady Ingram could be between 40 and 50.
e) There were but eight people.
f) It was a mild, quiet spring day.
g) Thursday afternoon arrived.
Ex.15. Answer the questions on the text:
1) Where and when did the events in the text take place?
2) When were the guests expected to arrive?
3) What work was completed before the arrival of guests?
4) What were Mrs. Fairfax’s duties?
5) How did she look like on that day?
6) How many people were there in the hall?
7) What are Amy and Louisa compared with?
8) Who was less showy but more lady-like?
9) What personage was large, stout, very straight and very haughty-looking?
10) Whose figures of the company were the tallest?
11) Who had Roman features?
12) Who was straight and tall as a poplar?
Ex.16. Make up short dialogues on women’s appearances using the text vocabulary.
Ex.17. Give the description of each person in the text: Mrs. Fairfax, Mrs. Eshton, Amy, Louisa,
Lady Lynn, Blanche, Mary, Dowger Lady Ingram, Mrs. Colonel Dent.
Ex.18. Write a brief summary of the text.
Grammar
Ex.19. Find in the text “Mr. Rochester’s Visitors” all the sentences in the Passive Voice and read
them.
Ex.20. Determine the Degrees of comparison of the adjectives from the text:
pretty, more elegant, the tallest, larger, showy, taller.
Ex.21. Find in the text more adjectives and give their degrees of comparison.
Ex.22. Fill in prepositions: in, on, of, with, for, at. Some prepositions can be used more than
once.
Mr. Eshton, the magistrate … the district, is gentleman-like: his hair is quite white, his
eyebrows and whiskers still dark. I wish to think only … the work I have … my hands. And he,
holding my hand and looking down … my face, admired me … eyes that revealed a heart full …
eager to overflow. I had no sympathy … for their appearance. … a moment they stood grouped
together … the other extremity … the gallery.
Ex.23. Ask all types of questions to the sentence:
Mr.Motshill opened doors first by kicking with the toe and then pushing with the shoulder.
Ex.24. Use the Passive Voice in the sentences below:
1) Last Friday Tom the cat scratched Nick’s hands very badly. 2) Mother usually embraces and
kisses Nelly when she gets excellent marks at school. 3) We shall need more helping hands to
complete the job on time. 4) The doctor can treat Peter’s broken hand. 5) Children must wash their
hands before each of the meals.
Ex.25. Write the missing letters in the words.
Sh..l ..r, w…t, f..e..m, .r.p.t, th…, e…w, ..d.x, n..l.
Ex.26. Simplify the sentences below preserving the original meaning:
1) It was a mild, quiet spring day – one of those at the end of March and beginning of April.
2) But the three most distinguished – partly, perhaps, because the tallest figures of the company
– were the Dowger Lady Ingram and her daughters Blanche and Mary.
Ex.27. Retell the text “Mr. Rochester’s Visitors”.
Ex.28. Say what it means:
- to turn somebody round one’s finger;
- to carry fire in one hand and water in the other.
Ex.29. Guess:
- What kind of teeth cannot bite?
- Without it you couldn’t say a word.
Ex.30. Explain the proverbs:
1) A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
2) Clothes do not make the man.
Believe it or not
- Of course, there never lived a more unhappy young woman than the woman from Frankfurt
in Germany who had two tongues but could not speak a word.
- Joseph de Mai was born with two hearts. He lived in the nineteenth century in Naples.
Section VI
Word Guide
Ex.1. Read and the word combinations and set expressions with the names of body parts:
To be in two minds – колебаться, находиться в нерешительности
To take the words out of somebody’s mouth – предвосхитить чьи-либо слова
Old hand – опытный человек
To go in one ear and out the other – в одно ухо вошло, в другое вышло
Something slipped my mind – забыть
Two heads are better than one – две головы лучше чем одна
To catch the eye – попасться на глаза
My heart isn’t in it – сердце не лежит к чему-либо
To have a leg to stand on – иметь основание, почву
To put your feet up – расслабиться
To do something with your eyes shut – легко с чем-либо справиться
To rack one’s brain – ломать голову
Within a hair’s breadth – на волосок от чего-либо
Something is written all over one’s face – у него на лице все написано
To keep up appearances – делать вид, что ничего не случилось
To keep one’s chin up – не падать духом
Ex.2. The idioms given in the exercise are all connected with parts of body. Fill the gaps in the
sentences with words denoting parts of body. Translate the idioms into Russian. Compose your
situations to justify their use.
E.x. The driver that overtook us needs his head examined.
1) They were in two … whether to get married.
2) I was just going to say that – you took the words out of my … .
3) Ask someone who’s been working here for years – one of the old … .
4) Anything you say to them goes in one … and out the other.
5) I’m sorry I haven’t made that phone call, it slipped my … .
6) If there’s a problem to solve, two … are better than one.
7) I tried to catch the waiter’s … but he didn’t look my way.
8) I used to enjoy keeping fit but no my … isn’t in it.
9) What he did was quite unjustified – he hasn’t got a … to stand on.
10) When you’ve finished this work you’ll be able to put your … up.
11) Windsurfing looks so easy – I could do it with my … shut.
12) I’ve racked my … but I can’t remember his name.
13) She was within a …’s breadth of winning.
14) You could see he was guilty. It was written all over his …. .
Discussion Points
Ex.3. Read these interesting facts and express your opinion about them:
1) University professors often give good-looking girls better marks in exams; male students
tend to overestimate the intellectual qualities of pretty female students.
2) Attractive people are seen by others as having a better personality, higher status, more
likelihood of getting married, and being happier.
3) Beautiful girls rarely become scientists; they tend to choose subjects such as languages, law
and medicine.
4) Women who have beautiful bodies often have less self-confidence – they worry too much
about keeping their body perfect.
5) Short men are less likely to get jobs than tall men and they receive lower starting salaries. In
US presidential elections, the taller candidate nearly always wins. There may even be a
connection between height and intelligence, as it seems that the same genes are involved in
both aspects.
Ex.4. Guess the following riddles:
1) What, by losing an eye, has nothing left but a nose?
2) Why can’t your nose be 12 inches long?
3) What contains more feet in winter than in summer?
4) What has a hand, but can’t scratch itself?
5) Why does a man’s hair usually turn grey sooner than his moustache?
6) What is it which never uses its teeth for eating?
Skim Reading Work
Ex.5. Read the text which describes Mona Lisa’s personality on the basis of her facial features.
Text III
There is an endless speculation as to who Mona Lisa was and what her character might have
been. It has even been suggested that the lady with the enigmatic smile could be a self-portrait of
the artist Leonardo Da Vinci dressed as a woman. Her smile is the most famous in the world. it is a
slightly crooked smile because it is stronger on her left (on the right of the painting). The smile
suggest that she told lies and traded insults whenever it best suited her or when she lost her temper,
which probably occurred frequently.
The hint of a smile playing around those much-admired lips and the distinct glint in her eyes
attest to her fun-loving ways and a bawdy sense of humour. But the fact that these lips are
“bloodless” warns the face watcher of her callousness.
If you examine her lips in the portrait, which hangs in the Louvre in Paris, you will notice a
small mole on her top lip. A mole anywhere on the lips or immediately above the corners of the
mouth signals indigestion and flatulence. Whatever embarrassment this might have caused it does
not detract from the appeal of her pretty, elongated rosebud mouth, a shape which normally testifies
to a romantic, dreamy lover.
Mona Lisa holds her head and face straight and as erect as a pillar, her steady and
unflinching gaze affirming her dominant personality and worldly ways. She was probably a woman
of high status, a gifted abstract thinker, and would therefore in modern times be considered
eminently employable.
It would appear from the angle of her jaw that it “dropped” straight and below the ears.
Mona Lisa’s jaw suggests that she would have been very successful in a sales career, or in publicity,
public relations or in the hotel or travel industry. Moreover, a deep, smoothly rounded jaw such as
hers exhibits firmness and optimism, but the beginnings of flab developing below the chin together
with those plump cheeks, disclose her fondness for pasta, rich Italian food, and the local, full-
bodied Italian wines. Yes, she was definitely greedy.
No face reading can be complete without a thorough study of ears, which in her case are
hidden.
That she was spendthrift is evident from her nostrils, for nostrils which are visible when the
face is viewed full-on, indicate their owner has a scant understanding of money, and so she should
not have been given the control of the family (or company’s) budget. The nostrils, moreover, are
narrow and the sides of her nose are flat, both features pointing to a rather untidy woman, who
probably dropped her clothes, shoes, hairnets (in the portrait she wears one that flattens the top of
her head) all over the parquet floor in the bedroom of a townhouse or palace near to Leonardo’s
hometown of Vinci, between Pisa and Florence, in Tuscany.
Because the hairnet sweeps the hair off her forehead, we can see how smoothly rounded and
curved her hairline grows. This type of perfectly rounded hairline spells out a clear message: Mona
Lisa was fickle, an “unreliable” friend. Her forehead is longer and wider than the part of the face
known as the low zone, which consists of the area between the nose tip and the jaw-line. This facial
trait tells us that she had an IQ above average, that she was a fast learner, but being impractical and
not wanting to spoil her elegant hands, she would not have been able to mend a broken vase or set a
mousetrap.
A nose that is straight, long, thin and with a high bridge in addition to Mona Lisa’s peculiar
type of nostrils generally belongs to a witty and engaging conversationalist, but one who is
impatient with those unable to keep up with the wide range of topics discussed.
A final word about her eyes: very few of us have identically-shaped eyes, but she is an
exception. The eyes are narrow and elliptical, signaling jealousy, and if she suspected that another
woman was after her lover (or husband), she would punish the enemy by any means, foul or fair.
Mona Lisa was most definitely a sneak, but one who needed at least nine hours’ sleep every night,
judging by the puffy eyelids which are clearly shown in the Leonardo portrait.
Ex.6. Write out from the text words of parts of body.
Ex.7. Provide definitions for the following words and phrases from the text. Use them in
sentences of your own.
Callousness, mole, unflinching gaze, flab, dominant personality, spendthrift, enigmatic, greedy,
engaging conversationalist, bawdy.
Ex.8. Fill in this chart according to the text. Summarize the text with the help of this chart.
Facial feature Its meaning
1) Slightly crooked smile Ability to tell lies
Ex.9. Look at the meanings of facial features above. Divide them into positive and negative
qualities. Note down those character traits that attract you and those that put you off. Do you
agree with this analyses of Mona Lisa’s personality?
Writing
Ex.10. Give the description of Mona Lisa’s appearance.
Ex.11. Choose one of the writing tasks below.
1) Choose a photo or a picture of a person and use it to write a description of about 200 words
of the person in the same way as in the passage on Mona Lisa.
2) Write a letter of approximately 200 words to the author of the passage on Mona Lisa saying
what you think of this interpretation of Mona Lisa’s character and why.
Discussion points:
1) Do you find Mona Lisa’s face attractive?
2) Do you think the idea of an attractive face has changed through the centuries?
3) How do you make your initial judgments of people? What things do you listen or look for?
4) Do you agree that people form 90% of their opinion of someone in the first 90 seconds?
5) Try to remember the moment when you first met your fellow students. What were your first
impressions? Has your opinion changed?
6) What would your first impressions be if you met these people:
- A man who wears an earring in one ear.
- A woman with an earring in her nose.
- A man with a beard or moustache.
- A woman who wears heavy makeup.
- A 60-year old man with long hair.
- Someone who wears lots of jewelry.
- Someone who’s always laughing.
- Someone who bites their nails.
- Someone with red hair.
- Someone who has tattoos.
- A young lady with piercing in her nose, lips and ears.
Ex.12. Read and translate the poem. Express the main ideas of it.
Appearance

We place much on appearance.


Less on what it conceals.
Does a beautiful face
In equal measure a heart reveal?
And those with beautiful hearts,
Encased within life’s
Less than idyllic form.
A no lesser gift indeed!
By appearance and a shallow wanting
We so easily can be deceived!
Willis Martyn
Ex.13. Read and retell the following joke.
A Joke
A young man walking in the street saw a girl in front of him whose figure seemed very
beautiful to him. He ran forward to look at her face, and it was beautiful too.
“I have fallen in love with you,” the young man cried. “Let me kiss your hand. I want to hold
your hand forever. I want to marry you.”
“Wait!” the young woman answered. “Go and look at my sister. She is walking there in front
of us, and she is more beautiful than I am.”
The young man immediately ran to look at the other woman. But finding her old and not
beautiful at all, he ran back to the girl. “You didn’t tell me the truth!” he said. “Aren’t you ashamed
to tell lies?”
“And aren’t you ashamed to use the word ‘truth’?” the girl answered. “You said you loved
me, but you were quite ready to run to any woman you thought was more beautiful. You don’t
know what love is. I’ll never marry such a man!” And she turned and walked away from him.
Ex.14. Read and translate the quotation. Do you agree with it? Why / why not?
“It is only shallow people who do not judge by appearances.
The true mystery of the world is the visible, not the invisible.”
Ex.15. Comment on the quotations of the lesson. What message does each of them convey to the
reader?
Section VII
Text IV
Reading for Detail
Ex.1. Since ancient time people liked decorating their bodies. Read the text about the reasons of this.
Why Do People Decorate Their Bodies?
1. People decorate their bodies for many reasons. They also decorate in different ways.
Some groups of people have decorated their bodies for thousands of years. Other people want to
look attractive. Other people want to belong to a group.
2. Some people decorate their lips, ears, and neck to be beautiful. For example, in Africa,
the Surmese women wear a plate in their bottom lip. How do they do this? First, a mother makes a
hole in her daughters bottom lip. Then she stretches the lip. Then she puts a small plate in it. As the
daughter gets older, she puts in bigger and bigger plates. Other people in Africa put plates in their
ears. They want the bottom of their ears to hang to their shoulders.
3. The Pa Daung women in Myanmar are called "giraffe women." They have very long
necks, like giraffes. The women wear metal rings to stretch their necks. They wear more rings as
they get older. Their necks become longer. Their necks are sometimes two or three times the normal
size. Some women die if they take off the rings.
4. People also decorate their teeth to be beautiful. Many Americans and Europeans like
white, straight teeth. They spend a lot of money to fix and clean their teeth. This is not true in other
parts of the world. In east Africa, some people pull out their bottom teeth. They want their top teeth
to stick out. In some parts of Asia, women used to paint their teeth black to look beautiful. Today,
young people do not do this. In Indonesia, boys and girls file their teeth. A person with filed teeth
will have a good and healthy life.
5. People around the world always liked tattoos. Europeans learned about tattoos around
1770. A famous English explorer named Captain Cook went to Tahiti. He saw people there with
tattoos. The Tahitians called the decoration tattoos. From this, we get the word tattoo. The Tahitians
taught Cook and his sailors how to make tattoos. The sailors returned to England, and other people
liked their tattoos. Soon tattoos spread to the rest of Europe. Many sailors still have tattoos.
5. Today, many different types of people have tattoos. For some people, body decorations
are attractive. For other people, they are strange.
Vocabulary and Speech Exercise
Ex.2. Write the correct words in the blanks
Attractive, normal, returned, straight, lips, stretches, spread
1) The women's necks are longer than the usual size. They are longer than the … size.
2) In Africa, a group of women like plates in their … . The plate is on the outside edge of the
mouth.
3) Some women decorate their bodies to be beautiful. They want to be … .
4) The sailors went back to their home. They … home.
5) Her teeth are … . They do not bend or curve. They are like a line.
6) The mother pulls her daughter’s lip. She wants the lip to be bigger and longer. She … it.
7) People all over Europe learned about tattoos. Tattoos … from England to Europe.
Ex.3. Words that go together. Write the correct words in the blanks:
Pull out, belong to, puts in, stick out, take off
1) Many people want to … a group. They want to be together with other people.
2) Their teeth come out far from their face. The teeth … .
3) Why do some people remove their teeth? Why do they … their teeth?
4) The woman adds a small plate to her lip. She … a plate.
5) The woman is wearing neck rings. She wants to remove them. She will … the rings.
Ex.4. Work with a partner to answer the questions. Use complete sentences:
1) What do many women put on their lips?
2) What part of your body do you stretch?
3) What time do you return home after university?
4) What kind of food is in a normal breakfast for you?
5) What group do you belong to?
6) What body decoration looks attractive on many people?
Ex.5. Circle the letter of the correct answer.
1) In Africa, they decorate their lips and ears to show they are … . (a. old; b. beautiful; c. rich)
2) Sailors learned about tattoos in … . (a. England; b. Europe; c. Tahiti)
3) Today, many different people … . (a. want black teeth; b. have tattoos; c. go to Tahiti)
Ex.6. Reread the passage and answer the questions:
1) What do some women in Africa put in their earlobes?
2) Why are the Pa Daung women called "giraffe women"?
3) Where do some people pull out their bottom teeth?
4) What color did some women paint their teeth in Asia?
5) Who was Captain Cook?
6) Where did Captain Cook see tattoos?
Ex.7. Match the words in Column A and Column B to make sentences:
A B
1) Many Americans and Europeans like a) their teeth black
2) Some women in Myanmar stretch b) their bodies for many reasons
3) Some women in Asia painted c) belong to a group
4) People decorate d) white teeth
5) Some young people have tattoos to e) the rest of Europe
6) Tattoos spread to f) their necks
Dictation
Ex.8. Work with a partner. Read three sentences from the exercise above. Your partner listens
and writes the sentences. Then your partner reads three sentences and you write them.
Discussion
Ex.9. Discuss the answers to these questions with your group-mates:
1) What body decoration is popular in your country?
2) What body decoration do you want to have?
3) What are other ways to decorate the body?
Writing
Ex.10. Complete the sentences about body decoration:
Example: People decorate their bodies to be attractive.
1.___________________________________________________________In Africa, some
women … .
2.___________________________________________________________In Myanmar,
some women … .
3. In Asia, some women … .
4.___________________________________________________________In east Africa,
some people … .
5.___________________________________________________________Some people get
tattoos … .
Spelling and punctuation
Ex.11. Plurals: Nouns ending in –o
Some singular nouns end in -o. Look at the letter before the -o.
If the letter is a vowel, add -s : tattoo – tattoos, radio – radios. If the letter is a consonant, add -es:
echo – echoes. Some words have special rules: piano – pianos, solo – solos, kilo – kilos, halo –
halos.
Ex.12. Find the correctly spelled word in each group. You may use a dictionary.
1) potatoes - potatos 3) patios - patioes
2) radioes - radios 4) rodeos - rodeoes
Ex.13. Find the misspelled words. Write the correct words:
1) His hair is very red. It looks like tomatos. 2) He probably uses special shampooes. 3) The lead
singer of the group has tattooes. 4) He likes to sing soloes. 5) The group has many videoes. 6) The
group goes to different studioes to record. 7) They put on kiloes of makeup. 8) They bring their own
pianoes with them. 9) I love their songs. The songs have echos. 10) They have crazy hair, but they
are my heros.
Listening
Ex.14. Do the following tasks.
1) What are your favourite musicians / bands?
2) Describe their style and appearance. Why do you like them?
3) Listen to the recording and answer the questions (Speaking Extra 8.3 “Star quality” page 56,
track 17)
a) What are Pete and Marty’s jobs?
b) What is Marty’s problem?
c) How many people does Pete recommend?
d) Why are they not suitable?
Section VIII
Text V
Reading for Detail
Ex.1. Some people are dissatisfied with their body image and have cosmetic surgery. Read what
men think of it.
What do Men really Think of Cosmetic surgery?
1) Darren Appleby, a 31-year-old art director, is married to Nicola, 30. They live in
Cheshire.
Nicola loathes her nose and would love surgery to make it smaller, but even if I was the
richest man in Britain I wouldn't pay for her to have it done. Aside from the fact that I love her
exactly the way she is, why go under the knife needlessly? It seems so vain. Any operation is
worrying, so I wouldn't want her to be put at risk unnecessarily. Nicola knows how I feel, so I'd be
really upset if she had surgery behind my back – she'd no longer look like the woman I fell in love
with.
2) Steve King, 28, lives in London and works in the media. He's single.
I don't have a problem with anyone having surgery to pin back their ears, but having a
tummy tuck is lazy and could be sorted out with healthy eating and exercise. I also question the
reasons some people have surgery. For example, if a woman is unhappy with her appearance and
it's having a psychological effect on her, then there's nothing wrong with doing something about it.
But surgery just to please a boyfriend is simply ridiculous.
3) Richard Shorney, 40, a business adviser, lives in Cambridgeshire with his wife
Sarah, 32.
Women always aspire to look like celebrities, but I bet most stars have spent a fortune
making themselves that way. I hate the 'Hollywood' look – women with rigid faces from too many
facelifts. They look like clones of each other. I actually think it's individuality and the imperfections
that make women beautiful. I wouldn't want Sarah to have plastic surgery, even though there are
bits of her she doesn't like. I think she's great the way she is.
4) Andy Barden, 35, lives in Kent with his wife Sandra, 46.
Sandra's going to have a facelift later this year and nothing I say will change her mind. I
don't think she needs it and I really can't understand why she wants to put herself at risk. There's
also the fact it's so expensive and there are far better things to spend the money on. We've had a few
arguments about it, but I'm resigned to the fact that she'll go ahead. I just don't think looks are that
important – it's what a person is like on the inside that counts – people should grow old gracefully.
Cosmetic surgery seems such a vain thing to do.
5) James Palmer, 32, is a farmer from Cambridge. He's married to Alison, 27.
There's no need to be unhappy with your appearance these days. I'd have surgery if I had the
money. I'd have the bump on my nose removed, although I'd never have pectoral implants to make
my chest bigger. You'd have to be really vain to do something that drastic. Alison says if bits start
to droop or sag as she gets older she'll have them seen to. I wouldn't want her to change her
appearance dramatically, but if she'd be happier after surgery, then why not?
6) Joel Orme is a 24-year-oid television researcher. He lives in Manchester with his
girlfriend Lyndsey Evans, 24.
Nine times out often, you can tell if a woman's had cosmetic surgery, particularly a facelift,
because it looks so unnatural. But nose jobs are the worst – they usually look like they've been stuck
on. As a child, I used to get teased because my ears stick out a bit. I asked my dad if I could have
them pinned back and he always said no. I'm glad he did now, because I realize they're part of what
makes me who I am.
7) Simon Wells, 44, and Rebecca Owen, 59, both teachers, live in London.
I hadn't really noticed Rebecca's wrinkles – it was the lines on my forehead that people
usually commented on. But after she read about procedures to iron out lines, she suggested we both
tried it. I was more impressed with the results than she was, but I won't have any more. I don't mind
if Rebecca wants to, but only if she does it for herself. I'm convinced I wouldn't notice a new
haircut, never mind a smoother face.
8) Michael Briggs, 56, is married to Linda, 48. They run a website business together
and live in Norfolk.
Linda had cosmetic surgery three years ago. I was dead against it and worried about the
health aspect more than anything. She had a lower face and neck lift, an upper and lower eye lift,
laser treatment to remove fine lines and excess fat removed from around her eyes. She was battered
and bruised afterwards, but once everything settled down she looked amazing. Since then I've had
cosmetic dentistry to realign my teeth and I'm about to have excess fat and skin removed from my
upper eyelids. I'm a cosmetic surgery convert.
Ex.2. Answer the questions:
1) On which parts of the body do people usually have cosmetic surgery?
2) What do you think of cosmetic surgery?
3) Do you know anyone who has had it?

Ex.3. Using the information from the text fill in the chart below.
What’s What’s Has she Does On Has he had Is he in His opinion
his his had she which surgery? favour? about cosmetic
name? partner’s surgery? want to? part of surgery:
name? the
body?
Darren
Joel
Steve
Andy
Richard
Michael
Simon
James
Ex.4. Summarize the opinions of the men and retell the text. You can use the following
beginnings:
Some men are for cosmetic surgery. They think that … . Some of them are against it, because … .
Discussion points:
Ex.5. Which points do you agree with?
1) True beauty comes from being intelligent and interesting, not from being physically perfect.
2) Cosmetic surgery can give people more confidence.
3) There’s nothing wrong with trying to improve on what nature has given us.
4) People should be grateful for what God has given us.
5) It is selfish and indulgent to spend money on superficial improvements when there is so
much poverty and sickness in the world.
6) Cosmetic surgery can be more beneficial than a holiday, because the effects last longer.
7) We should accept ourselves as we are.
8) Having cosmetic surgery is similar to having your hair dyed or your teeth straightened.
9) It is good to see life experience showing on people’s faces.
10) People who feel good about the way they look are more likely to do well in their career.
Ex.6. Read and translate the poem. Render the context of it. What problems are raised in it?
The Key thing is the Heart
When people look at me, what do they Because looks aren't always what they seem
see? They can be tricky, well you know what I mean
Someone tall, someone skinny, or right We shouldn't go for them because they look good,
through me? We should go for the thing that we should.
Do they see me as a normal boy? Not for them because they're rich, poor, lean or
Or do they see me as someone's toy? tall,
Do they see me as poor or rich? But the Heart, which is most important of all.
Or do they see me as a snitch? The Heart will tell you what you need to know,
Why do they judge me for the way I Whether you should stay with them, or whether
look? you should go.
My heart is the thing that should get them
hooked.
Tarelle Robinson
Word Guide
Ex.7. Read the words and guess their meaning.
Survey – an investigations of opinions;
Focus (on smth) – to direct attention, efforts; to concentrate on smth.;
Credit – praise, approval, respect;
Thigh – part of the human leg between the knee and the hip;
Self-confidence – a state of having confidence in oneself, one’s abilities;
Sensible – reasonable;
Improve – to make, become better;
Pirouetting – rapid turn or spin made esp. by a dancer;
Strive (for smth) – to struggle hard, make a great effort to gain something;
Hurl – to throw with force.
Skim Reading Task:
Ex.8. Read the text and give your arguments on the problem of body image.
Almost everyone has something about their body they don’t like. According to a survey 56%
of women and 43% of men are dissatisfied with their appearance, and two-thirds of the women and
over half of the men are dissatisfied with their weight. In fact, weight is so linked to personal
happiness that 24% of women and 17 percent of men said they would give up more that three years
of their lives to be thinner.
Why do so many people have a negative or distorted body image?
Studies reveal one of several factors that lead to self-disagreement; media’s message of
beauty and happiness come from being thin, and a teenager’s body image is greatly influenced by
what they see on television and in movies and magazines.
Much of your appearance is genetic. Many top athletes have genetics to thank for their
success. They were born to be what they are. A swimmer’s large, flexible shoulders pull him
through the water; a gymnast’s lean, petite frame and long arms hurl her across the mat; a runner or
a skater’s powerful thighs for speed; a ballerina’s swan-like neck and flexible hips for graceful
pirouetting. Still, it’s important to strive for self-improvement. But it’s also important to be realistic
about what you can change about yourself and being content with what you can’t. You should
exercise, eat a sensible diet and practice other good health habits to change a negative body image
into a positive one.
Here are some tips to improve your body image:
1) Talk to a therapist, find books, videos and Cds that may lead you to self-acceptance.
2) Seek support, associate with people who have accepted their own bodies. Your self-worth must
come from you not from what other think of you.
3) Recognize that your body is only part of what you are. Focus on the positive aspects of your
personality.
4) Turn negative thoughts into negative ones. Each time you think “my thighs are fat” replace it
with “these are important muscles that get me where I am going”.
5) Give yourself credit and develop your inner-self.
6) Treat your body with the respect it deserves. Your body does an amazing number of things for
you every day.
7) Give yourself time. With age you’ll begin to think that bodies aren’t the most important part of
being human. 8) And remember, self-confidence looks good on any body.
Ex.9. Answer the questions about your body shape.
1) When you look in the mirror, do you like what you see?
2) Do you find the reflected image of a person too thin, too heavy, or just right?
3) Do you like your body?
4) What body would you like to have?
5) What do you expect to gain if you make the change?
6) What should you do to change your body image?
Ex.10. In groups of 3-4 students guess what these words mean. Tell your group-mates what
qualities you possess and which you would like to gain.
Self-acceptance, self-confidence, self-control, self-discipline, self-esteem, self-possession
Ex.11. Mind your pronunciation: pirouetting, thigh, petite, hurl
Ex.12. Tick the things that you think are important components of physical fitness. Discuss them
in pairs.
Walking, weight, stress, cosmetic surgery, sleep, jogging, exercise, diet, self-esteem, swimming,
fun, breathing, work, water, friends, time.
Writing
Ex.13. Write a short ending to the story
Jean was a very beautiful young girl, so she was quite used to some men showing their
admiration for her, and to others being confused and shy when they saw her.
One summer, when Jean was travelling abroad, she went into a café in a small town, sat
down and waited to be served.
The young man was talking to someone at the bar when she came in, and at first he did not
pay any attention to her, because he had not looked at her properly. Then he turned round and saw
how beautiful she was. His face was bright and he hurried over to take her order.
Listening
Ex.1. Study the following vocabulary:
Concept, fashion, hair transplant, masculine, pec implant, perception, perfection, routine, series,
tummy tuck
Ex.2. Answer the questions.
1) What ideas associate with the concept of “beauty”?
2) What makes a person beautiful?
3) What do people do to make themselves look beautiful?
4) Think about the typical image of a beautiful woman / handsome man and write three
adjectives.
Ex.3. Listen to the lecture on the concept of beauty and compare the ideas given in it with your
ideas. (Listening Extra 8.3 “The changing face of beauty” page 56, CD 1 track 29)
Список использованной литературы
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Учебное издание

Мартынюк Н. Л.
ORAL AND WRITTEN PRACTIC IN MODERN ENGLISH
PART 1

Учебное пособие

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