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Recommendations for

UMTS macro network deployment


Hans Jörg Hamers, Rolf Fischer, Christoph Kenkel
VTN-Access-Design
Content

1. Basic Considerations

2. Don'ts in CDMA (e.g. UMTS R99, HSDPA)

3. Co-location

4. Remote Radio Head

5. Antennas

6. RET – Remote Electrical Tilt

Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Network Grid (1)
“Network grid” for rollout (footprint) is defined by:
• Link Budget
• Indoor losses minimum required Signal Level
• Noise
• etc. +
• Marketing Strategie Rollout Area

Site distance:

• high dense urban ~400 m


• dense urban ~600 m
• suburban ~1000 m
• residential ~2000 m
• rural >2000 m

Site distance in a “Macro-Layer” network should be ~400m !


Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Network rollout (1)
Assumption: shortest required (possible) site distance is ~600m

Starting Grid by FY xx/yy (Phase 1)


d = x * ~600m; x=1,2,3,…

Grid by FY xx /yy (Phase 2/3)

~600m ~1200m ~400m ~400m Huge overlapping / interference!


~1800m ~800m Micro Cell
Inbuilding Solution (Hot Spot Solution)

final Grid by FY xx+n/yy+n


~600m ~600m ~600m

Network design should be based on homogenous network!


(e.g. acquisition problems / construction limitations will lead to variations)

Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Network rollout (2) Phase 1
Phase 2

UMTS Phase 1 UMTS Phase 2 UMTS Phase 1 UMTS


UMTS UMTS

GSM
GSM

high signalling load


because of “Island-Sites”

UMTS
UMTS Phase 1 UMTS Phase 2

GSM
GSM

reduced signalling load


due to “Cluster”

Cluster based rollout reduces signalling between 2G/3G!

Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Network rollout (3)
UMTS Phase 1 UMTS Phase 2

neighbour sites requiring optimisation!

less neighbour sites requiring optimisation!

Cluster based rollout requires less optimisation effort!

Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Site / Transmitter Configuration (1)
GSM UMTS

“Hard Handover” “Soft Handover”


Mobile connected to only one BTS Mobile connected to several Node Bs

Avoid transmitter directed to each other !

Overlapping area has impact on network quality and capacity!

Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Site / Transmitter Configuration (2)

120° 120° > 120° < 120°

< 120°
120°

minimum Interference / Overlapping area increased Interference / Overlapping area


3 Sectors / Site Æ 65° Antennas
>4 Sectors / Site Æ 35° Antennas
use single band antennas

“Standard configuration” ensures minimum Interference and


overlapping area!
Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Site / Transmitter Configuration (3)

Antenna: XPol F-Panel


5° 1720-2170 MHz
10° 65°
15,5 dBi
0° - 10° T

required: 10° Downtilt



10°
5° 7° 8°

implement: 5° mech. Downtilt


+
Optimisation for both Optimisation only for 5 ° electr. Downtilt
sites possible new site possible
5° optional Downtilt

Implement sites with “Optimisation-Space” within further rollout!

Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Optimisation (1)

area requiring optimisation,


analysis is optimised within analysis area,
area
considering sites within computation
computation zone
area requiring zone
optimisation

covered area covered area

ÆOptimisation in practice should consider wider area!


ÆOptimisation should be done in steps / iterations!

1. Downtilt 2. Azimuth 3. add new Site

Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Optimisation (2)

optimise whole
area in steps by
moving areas

covered area covered area

analysis area

computation zone

optimised area

Optimise huge areas in steps based on analysis areas


and computation zones!

Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Vector data based Prediction (1)

Height (total) 57m


=
Height (ASL) 35m
+
Height (AGL) 22m

Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Vector data based Prediction (2)

Single pole

Antennas placed on rooftop / wall mounted Antennas placed on rooftop / wall mounte

Use DX(m) / DY(m) to place distributed antennas / transmitters!

13 Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Vector data based Prediction (3)

change azimuth

DX (m)
move position
DY (m)

update DX / DY in the transmitter properties

move / place transmitter on the map

update DX / DY in the transmitter table

Use DX(m) / DY(m) to place distributed antennas / transmitters!

14 Company Confidential / C2
Basic Considerations
Vector data
based Prediction (4)

Transmitter:
K 742264, 65°
350°TN,
0° eDT
height 12m

buildings > 20m


Æ “Micro Cell” Prediction based on Raster data Prediction based on Vector data

Microcell or “Wall mounted antenna” prediction


should be based on a propagation model using Vector data!

15 Company Confidential / C2
Don’ts of UMTS

1. NO boomer sites for UMTS (sites with height far


above average antenna heights)

In GSM network boomer sites or umbrella sites can be use if these get a
special frequency

In UMTS every cell is transmitting on the same frequency


=> Boomer sites will cause a lot of interference
=> Performance of the neighboured cells is reduced
=> Total capacity of affected cluster is reduced

2. Avoidance of antennas of neighbour cells “looking”


each directly to the other

3. Avoidance of sectors with separation < 2x beamwidth

Company Confidential / C2
Co-location of UMTS on existing GSM sites

Benefits of Co-location

• Less civil works => reduced CAPEX


• Less rental costs => reduced OPEX
• Faster rollout possible

The aim should be 100 % co-location of UMTS on GSM sites


Realistic value for co-location rate: 90%

Challenge
Decision needed if shared or separate antennas should be
used because optimal antenna directions may differ in UMTS and
GSM

Company Confidential / C2
Upgrade of Hybrid BTS to Remote Radio Head
solution
Use Remote Radio Head to
- avoid the feeder cable loss => increase of DL coverage
- reduce civil works costs (small fibre cable instead of thick feeder)

Example:

Company Confidential / C2
Antennas for UMTS

65° beam width for UMTS antennas in a 3 sector configuration

For UMTS on 2100 MHz antennas of the same size have around 3 dB
more gain than antennas for 900 MHz

Horizontal pattern Vertical pattern

65o

Company Confidential / C2
Antenna solution with separated antennas
for UMTS and GSM

Company Confidential / C2
Antenna solution with shared antennas
for UMTS and GSM

Company Confidential / C2
Motivation and purpose for RET feature

Control Control
Antenna tilting tilting
with in several in several
steps
Antenna
remote- steps with
controlled remote
electrical controlled
Downtilt electrical
Downtilt

Node B
Node B

Purpose: adjusting coverage areas including soft handover areas


decreasing of inter-cell interference-improving capacity
Company Confidential / C2
Implementation example

Antenna
X prepared for RET

RET
NodeB Feeder

OMC Standardized Interface


(RS485, HDLC Protocol)
O&M
Feeder
+ DC power + Data
Control on site with (modulated signal)
Local Maintenance Terminal
(LMT)

Company Confidential / C2
RET System from Ericsson as example

RET Unit
Double
Dual
Duplex
Antenna
System
Controller

Company Confidential / C2
Vision: Post processing and periodical change

¾ Full control of antennas from network management system


¾ Evolution for automated tilt control based on traffic measures
Company Confidential / C2
GSM site preparation for 3G
New GSM sites should be prepared for 3G in areas, where 3G deployment is
planned for the future

- Site contracts should have options for 3G deployment


- Equipment room should have enough floorspace for 3G
- Air conditioning and power supply should be dimensioned for 3G
- Space for 3G antennas should be available or dual/triple band antennas
should be installed
- TMA or Remote Radio Head for 3G should be considered
- Micro wave equipment should be dimensioned for 3G

Company Confidential / C2
Deployment of 3G In-fill solutions

Company Confidential / C2
In-Fill Solutions
overview of technical options that have been considered

New Macro Sites


• Macro 2.1 GHz with 3 Sectors (Reference)
• Macro 2.1 GHz with 1 or 2 Sectors
• Macro 2.1 GHz with 4-Way Receive Diversity and 40W PA
• Macro 2.1 GHz with 6 Sectors and 20W PA
• Macro 900 MHz with 3 Sectors

Upgrades and expansions of existing UMTS sites


• 4-Way Receive Diversity (modification)
• 6 Sectorisation (modification)
• UMTS 900 MHz (additional carrier and HW)

Other new site solutions


• Micro Node B site
• Dedicated Indoor Coverage System using small DAS (2 floor office building)
• Outdoor Repeater

Company Confidential / C2
Recommended Solution

Only recommended for special cases

high Wide Area DAS

Solution
Node B

Micro
Indoor Node B
Traffic Solution Macro
density Macro 6 Sectors
2 Sectors Macro
Repeater

Node B 3 Sectors
upgrade Outdoor Macro Macro 3 Sectors
to Repeater 1 Sector
low & 4 WRXD
4 WRXD

0,01 0,05 0,25 0,5 1 5 10


Gap Size [km²]

Company Confidential / C2
Coverage Gain of 4 Way RXD or UMTS900
Example 1 Example 2

Example 3

Standard Macro Node B


Macro Node B with 4 Way RXD
UMTS900 Macro Node B

Company Confidential / C2
Comparison of 4 Way RXD and 6 Sector Site

6 Sector Node B
Macro Node B with 4 Way RXD

The size of additional coverage is approximately the same for 4Way RXD and 6 sector site,
but the shape of the additional coverage area is different

Company Confidential / C2
Micro Cell Solutions

Company Confidential / C2
Indoor Coverage of Micro cell layer
Micro Sites at street corners Micro Sites in streets

• Covered area of both solutions is nearly equal


• 8 micro sites at street corners or 9 micro sites in streets for this example

⇒ The coverage area per site is for micro sites at street corners slightly better than
for micro sites in streets

Company Confidential / C2
Overlapping / Interference of Micro cell layer
Micro Sites at street corners Micro Sites in streets

2 servers in 5 dB window
3 servers in 5 dB window
>=4 servers in 5 dB window

• The street corner deployment has the • The In-street deployment has the
advantage that a dominant server advantage that the total interference
situation results for these likely decreases.
important areas.

Company Confidential / C2
Coverage comparison of
Micro cell layer and Macro sites
1 Macro Site 2 Macro Sites

Coverage of micro cell layer (for the comparison)


Coverage of macro sites

• Coverage of 1 macro sites is less than coverage of 8 micro cells


• Coverage of 2 macro sites is more than coverage of 8 micro cells
⇒ As a role of thumb it could be assumed that 1 macro sites will cover the same area
as 6 micro cells
Company Confidential / C2
Example of micro cell deployment

existing coverage new coverage of a micro cell

The deployment of single micro cells is recommended for:


• Small /medium coverage gaps
• Coverage gaps in a street
• High traffic demand assumed in the area of the coverage gap
• If coverage of the backside of the buildings is of less importance

Company Confidential / C2
Dedicated Indoor Solutions

Company Confidential / C2
Dedicated Indoor Solution
In case the coverage hole is limited to one building.

Dedicated indoor coverage solutions should be deployed if:


• Coverage hole is small, but high/medium traffic demand is assumed for this area
• The coverage hole as such is completely made up of a building or building complex.
• Buildings should be public (e.g. Train station, shopping mall, etc.) or
business/ industrial area (e.g. office, factories, etc.)

Company Confidential / C2
Outdoor Repeater Deployment

Company Confidential / C2
Outdoor Repeater Deployment
In case a coverage hole is an area with lower traffic expectation

Outdoor Repeater

existing coverage New coverage of repeater and donor


Node B
Repeaters can be used for
• Coverage extension (indoor and outdoor)
• Improve network quality (improve throughput of HSDPA)
• Shape of handover area
• Reduce pilot pollution areas
• Improve DL power management
• Temporary solutions
Company Confidential / C2
Filling coverage holes without
new sites

Company Confidential / C2
4 Way Receive Diversity
Existing Coverage Upgrade of 3 Node Bs to 4 Way RXD

The coverage holes are usually in the border areas between the cells,
therefore 3 or more cells have to be upgraded to close the hole

Company Confidential / C2
UMTS 900 Layer

• Coverage holes with less than 0,3 km² can be closed.

Company Confidential / C2