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Geotechnical Engineering


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Shallow Soil Mixing, Deep Soil
There are various Mixing, Cement Deep Mixing
methods and devices to stabilize System, Vacuum Grouting Injection,
land and one method that is Dry Jet Mixing System, Jumbo Eco
commonly used worldwide is Pile System are discussed.
grouting or injecting a liquid Purpose of grouting
(cement and additives) into voids can be either to strengthen or reduce
within a structure, or displacing the water flow through a formation. It is
gases and liquids from within these. also used to correct faults
Some examples of grouting method in concrete and masonry structures.
are hydro fracture grouting, Since first usage in the 19th century,
compaction grouting, jet grouting, grouting has been performed on the
etc. Selecting the right method for foundation of virtually every one of
soil stabilizing however, depends on the world¶s large dams, in order to
several conditions like the type and reduce the amount of leakage
alternative layers of soil, load size, through the rock, and sometimes to
the situation and type of project, strengthen the foundation to support
among others. the weight of the overlying structure,
In this paper, be it of concrete, earth, or rock fill.
different kinds of commonly used Grouting is an essential construction
grouting and injection method procedure
specially, Deep Mixing Method -

Grouting is the injection of pumpable

materials into a soil or rock formation to
change the physical characteristics of the
formation. with the aim to increase
resistance against deformation, to supply
cohesion, shear-strength and uniaxial
compressive strength or finally to reduce
conductivity and interconnected porosity
in an aquifer. Grouting for ground
engineering can be subdivided into:
permeation grouting, compaction grouting,
hydro fracture grouting, jet grouting, rock
grouting and compensation grouting and
deep mixing method.

V 2.2. Compaction grouting

ÿc Identify underground construction In this method, grout mix is specifically
problem. designed so as not to permeate the soil
ÿc Establish objectives of grouting voids or mix with the soil. Instead, it
program. displaces the soil into which it is injected.
ÿc Perform special geotechnical study. In granular deposits not at their maximum
ÿc Develop initial grouting program. density, the volumes of voids are reduced
ÿc Develop performance prediction. and the deposit is locally densified. In
ÿc Compare with other solutions. Compaction grouting a very stiff (say 25-
mm slump) mortar is injected into loose
ÿc Refine design and prepare
specifications. soils, forming grout bulbs which displace
and densify the surrounding ground,
without penetrating the soil pores .
Injection and Grouting Methods
Permeation grouting
This method describes the process of
filling joints or fractures in rock or pore
spaces in soil with a grout without
disturbing the formation. More
specifically, permeation grouting refers to
the replacement of water in voids between
soil particles with a grout fluid at low
injection pressure so as to prevent
fracturing .It is a technique that is
generally used to reduce ground
permeability and control ground water
flow, but it also can be used to strengthen
and stiffen the ground

Hydro fracture grouting

Hydro fracture grouting is the deliberate Rock grouting is the filling or partly filling
fracturing of the ground (soil or rock) by grout injection of fissures, fractures or
using grout under pressure. Typically it is joints in a rock mass with grouts without
used to compact and stiffen the ground or creating new or opening existing fractures,
to access otherwise inaccessible voids, in order to reduce the permeability and
thus reducing the mass permeability of the increase the stiffness of the grouted mass
ground and produced the controlled uplift
of structures. If the grouting pressure is Compensation Grouting
increased sufficiently, a soil mass may Compensation grouting is the responsive
split and artificial grout-filled fissures are use of compaction, permeation or hydro
formed; in rock, existing fissures may fracture grouting as an intervention
enlarge and new breaks may occur. This between an existing structure and an
also referred to as Ú  by French engineering operation (particularly tunnel
engineers. Excavations). The aim is minimize
movement of the ground that would affect
üet grouting the existing structure
The high-pressure water or grout is used to
physically disrupt the ground, in the Deep Mixing Methods (DMM)
process modifying it and thereby The Deep Mixing Method (DMM) is
improving it. In normal operation the drill performed to improve the strength,
string is advanced to the required depth deformation properties and permeability of
and then the high-pressure water or grout the soil. It is based on mixing binders,
is introduced while withdrawing the rods such as cement, lime, fly ash and other
Jet grouting systems will discussed further additives, with the soil by the use of
in this paper. rotating mixing tools in order to form
columns of a hardening material In
Sweden and Finland, deep stabilization
techniques are quite popularly used for
stabilization of soft soil (Ahenberg et al,
These methods have been
suggested and applied for soil and rock
stabilizing, slope stability, liquefaction
mitigation, vibration reduction(along the
railway), road and railroad and bridge
foundations and embankments,
construction of excavation support systems
or protection of structure close to
excavation sites, solidification and
stabilization of contaminated soils etc.
The main advantage of these
methods is long term increasing in strength
especially for some of the binders used.
Pozzolanic reaction can continue for
months or even years after mixing,
resulting in the increase in strength of
cement stabilized clay with the increase in
curing time

Rock grouting
The Federal Highway
administration has suggested that these
techniques can be classified based on II) Dual phase (grout + air injection).
1.c Method of additive injection (i.e.,
wet or dry injection).
2.c Method by which additive is mixed
(i.e. rotary/ mechanical energy or
by high pressure jet).
3.c The location of the mixing tool (i.e.
near the end of the drilling rods or
along a portion of the drilling
According to most researches,
there are four basic jet grouting systems
which are widely used nowadays and they
I) Single phase (grout injection only).

III) Triple phase (water + air injection and

followed by grout injection).
IV) Super Jet Grouting (air injection + DSM (Deep Soil Mixing) and JGS (Jet
drilling fluid by grout injection). Grouting Systems)
The Methods which are utilized in
DMM Parts

Shallow Soil Mixing (SSM): Ras-


Deep Soil Mixing (DSM): Cement Deep

Mixing System (CDM)

üet Grouting Systems

Single Phase Dual Triple Super

Phase Phase üet
Vacuum Grouting Dry jet Jumbo Ras ± Jet
Injection mixing Eco System
System Pile
(DJM) System

Ras-Columns are one of the most common
soils mixing in DMM methods which are
based on mechanical soil mixing
technology. This method has been used for
Based on conditions such as the types of improving shallow soils and seldom in
soil and rock layers, time table of project, deep mixing. Columns of stabilized
location and importance of project, and the material are formed by mixing the soil in
economic situation, the use of multiple- place with a µbinder¶ and the interaction of
auger or single auger deep mixing the binder with the soft soil leads to a
methods, jet grouting methods or a material which has better engineering
combination of several methods may be properties than the original soil.
required The mixing head is combined with blades
The following are the which can rotate inversely. In other words,
characteristics of the improved soils and in bottom auger the mixing blades rotate
rocks when these methods are employed clockwise and in the upper auger, the
I. Reduction of settlements. mixing blades rotate anti clockwise.
II. Increase of stability.
III. Increase of bearing capacity. Cement Deep Mixing System (CDM)
IV. Prevention of sliding failure. The second method which is related to
V. Reduction of vibration. Deep Soil Mixing and is one of the DMM
VI. Liquefaction mitigation. methods is Cement Deep Mixing System
VII. Remediation of contaminated ground (CDM).CDM is normally utilized in soft
It is important to note that Deep soil that contains mineral soils such as clay
Mixing Methods are divided into three or sand. In some conditions where mineral
parts namely, SSM (Shallow Soil Mixing), soils are absent (in the soft soil), sand
should be added before mixing in cement
slurry. Because of a series of overlapping the structure through cracks, fissures and
augers the main geotechnical purpose will porous areas
be obtained.
Dry üet Mixing System (DüM)
üet Grouting Systems
The second part of Jet Grouting Systems is
Jet Grouting Systems, which is the third Dual Phase System. One of the most
part of DMM method, have some commonly utilized methods in Dual Phase
similarities with the previous methods. System is Dry Jet Mixing System (DJM).
Apart from having the same mixing tools, Dry Jet Mixing System (DJM) is a
this method also applies the same process Highly effective ground treatment system
whereby the in-situ soil will be cut and used to improve the load performance
broken by high pressure jet of slurry and characteristics of soft clays, peats and
produce homogenously improved zone other weak soils. The concept of using dry
around the mechanically mixed core. In binder for deep soil mixing was first
addition, for underwater applications, it is presented in Scandinavia in 1967 by Mr.
desirable to have highly flowable grout Kjeld Paus from Sweden. 30 years has
that can resist water dilution and passed since then but the technique has
segregation, and spread readily into place. been evolved considerably. The method is
The slump of concrete or grout is a good based on injecting dry binder carried by
measure of the consistency and flow compressed air into soil [21]. Dry Jet
characteristics of a concrete or grout Mixing System uses mixing blades to mix
mixture. This equates (to) a mid range dry reagents, such as cement or lime, with
slump. A very high slump grout gives in-situ soils for remediation. In this
maximum water dilution. A very low method, the process employs the effects of
slump grout results in little or no flow both hydration and the bonding of soil
characteristics. For underwater grout, the particles to increase the shear strength and
slump flow is influenced (in order of reduce the compressibility of the soil mass
influence) by the anti-washout admixture üumbo Eco Pile System (üEP)
concentration and the binder content, the The next part of Jet Grouting System is
watercementitious material ratio, and the Triple Phase System. It can be said that the
water reducer concentration Jumbo Eco Pile System (JEP) is the most
popular method in this system Most
Vacuum Grouting Injection frequently, the applications of JEP, which
is also named Soilcrete-Jet Grouting, are:
The third part of single phase of jet underpinning, tunnel protection,
grouting is Vacuum Grouting Injection. In foundation restoration and modification,
this technique a partial vacuum is first shaft supports, deep foundation, earth
established in a portion of the structure (or pressure relief, panel walls, vault slabs,
the whole of the structure if it is small column walls, sealing cover, dam sealing,
enough), drawing off gases and liquids joint sealing, sealing slabs, groundwater
from the voids and interstices. This exits, etc
vacuum holds the structure together, rather Ras- üet System
than exerting any potentially disruptive Ras-Jet System is used in super jet
forces in pressure injection. After grouting method. This method is the same
achieving a stable vacuum, the injection as the Ras-Columns which have been
liquid is introduced either through elaborated in the first part of this paper.
injection pipes set at appropriate intervals However, in Ras-Jet System, while the
and depths or, over the surfaces and into mixing blades are rotating; the same slurry
is jetted simultaneously. With this system,
the homogenous soil-cement column mass mentioned in this paper are taken into
of a large diameter will be installed consideration
Grout slurry, air and drilling fluid are
pumped through separate chambers in the
drill string. "pon reaching the designed
drill depth, jet grouting is initiated with
high velocity, coaxial air and grout slurry
to erode and mix with the soil, while the
pumping of drilling fluid is ceased. This
system uses opposing nozzles and highly
sophisticated jetting monitor specifically
designed for focus of injection
media shows the soil cement columns
which are produced by Ras-Jet System

1. The Deep Mixing Methods (DMM)
which are applied to stabilize and improve
soils are increasingly spreading and have
been accepted world-wide as a soil
improvement method.
2. It is based on mixing binders (such as
cement, lime and other additives) with the
soil, using rotating mixing tools or jetting
simultaneously in order to form columns
of a hardening material since pozzolanic
reactions between the binder and the soil
grains are developed.
3. These methods have been suggested and
applied for soil and rock stabilizing, slope
stability, liquefaction mitigation, vibration
reduction (along the railway), road and
railroad and bridge foundations and
embankments, construction of excavation
support systems or protection of structure
close to excavation sites, solidification and
stabilization of contaminated soils,
remedial grout injection of building, etc.
4. The choice of which Deep Soil Mixing
Methods is the best to use depends on
various factors like: the soil type, project
conditions and its place or location,
importance of project, economical and
time issues, environmental conditions, etc.
Designers are expected to solve problems
more easily should the advantages and the
main points of each DMM method

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