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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Государственное образовательное учреждение


высшего профессионального образования
«Омский государственный технический университет»

ENGLISH ON DESIGN
Английский язык для дизайнеров

Практикум

Омск
Издательство ОмГТУ
2011

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Составитель И. А. Гаврилова, канд. филол. наук,
доц. кафедры иностранных языков ОмГТУ

Основная цель практикума – формирование и развитие у обучающихся


навыков профессионально-ориентированного языкового взаимодействия.
Языковой материал данного практикума подобран с учетом
функционально-коммуникативного подхода и рассматривается как средство
реализации речевого общения. Использованные аутентичные тексты из
английских и американских источников отобраны по тематическому принципу,
что позволяет показать хронологию развития дизайна, осветить этапы
формирования основных направлений и отраслей, рассказать о современных
тенденциях в области дизайна.
Предназначен для студентов II курса, обучающихся на факультете
гуманитарного образования по специальности «Дизайн».

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета


Омского государственного технического университета

© ГОУ ВПО «Омский государственный


технический университет», 2011

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CONTENTS

UNIT I
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT..................................................................................4

UNIT II
INTRODUCTION INTO SPECIALITY............................................................11

UNIT III
GRAPHIC DESIGN BASICS.............................................................................26

UNIT IV
ELEMENTS AND TOOLS OF GRAPHIC DESIGN........................................44

BIBLIOGRAPHY...............................................................................................55

APPENDIX.........................................................................................................56

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UNIT I
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Vocabulary
1. approximate – приближенный, приблизительный, примерный;
2. painting – живопись: а) вид изобразительного искусства; б)
(произведение) роспись; изображение, картина; в) занятие живописью;
рисование;
3. construct – строить, сооружать; воздвигать; конструировать;
4. planning – планирование; разработка плана;
5. handicraft – 1) ремесло; ручная работа; 2) искусство ремесленника;
3) вещь ручной работы;
6. production – производство; продукция; изделия;
7. manufacturing – производство; изготовление; обработка;
8. representative – представитель; делегат; уполномоченный;
9. electric staff – зд. электродетали и оборудование;
10. to widespread – широко распространяться;
11. promotion – развитие; продвижение; содействие;
12. ceramics – 1) керамика, гончарное искусство; 2) керамическое
производство, гончарное производство;
13. furniture – 1) мебель, обстановка; 2) принадлежности, аксессуары,
фурнитура;
14. textile – 1) текстильный, ткацкий; 2) текстиль, текстильное изделие;
ткань;
15. Werklehre – (нем.) производственное обучение;
16. Kunstlehre – (нем.) обучение искусству;
17. tool – (рабочий) инструмент; механизм; способ;
18. metal-work technologies and treating – технологии металлообработки;
19. molding – формование изделия;
20. colour mixing perception – цветовосприятие при смешивании красок;
21. trend – общее направление, тенденция;
22. vital – 1) жизненный; 2) (жизненно) важный, насущный, существенный;
необходимый;
23. application – применение, использование, употребление; приложение;
применимость;
24. to brighten up – прояснять(ся);
25. to penetrate – проникать внутрь, проходить сквозь, пронизывать;
26. peculiarity – специфичность; особенность, своеобразие, специфика.
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I. Read the following international words and guess their meanings:
direct aesthetic graphics
translation president information
term ideal commission
industrial period individual
industrialist motor decoration
architect firm (n) engineer
economic center technology

II. Match the verb with its definition:

1. to paint a. to cover a surface with paint


2. to create b. to make something new, especially to invent something
3. to appear c. to become noticeable or to be present
4. to design d. to join together as a group, or to make people join to-
5. to unite gether as a group; to combine
6. to demand e. to ask for something forcefully, in a way that shows that a
7. to study refusal is not expected
8. to manage f. to learn about a subject, especially in an educational
9. to increase course or by reading books
g. to succeed in doing something, especially something dif-
ficult
h. to (make something) to become larger in amount or size

III. Choose the Russian equivalent:

approximate приблизительный подходящий существенный


painting планирование рисование формование
handicraft мастерская рукоделие ремесло
ceramics керамика ремесло фурнитура
furniture рисование фурнитура ремесло
textile текстильное изделие керамическое изделие фурнитура
tool оборудование ремесло керамика

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IV. Read Text I, write down the sentences with Gerund construction and
translate them.
TEXT I
THE HISTORY OF DESIGN DEVELOPMENT
The term “DESIGN” appeared in our country not long ago. The direct transla-
tion of this term from English firstly gave us an approximate meaning of “painting”;
but now we can use it also in the meaning of constructing or planning.
In 1907 there was founded an industrial union in Germany, which united indus-
trialists, architects, artists and merchants. Its creation was demanded by economic
and esthetic causes in order to win the international market. The founder, an architect
German Mutezius, was there as a president of the union “Werkbund” till 1914.
As a goal the union wanted to reorganize the handicraft production into the in-
dustrial one and to create some common or ideal samples for manufacturing; they
“led a struggle” with extra decoration of goods. Their program was devoted to using
and selecting the best ideas and opportunities in art, trade, manufacturing in order to
unite the largest industrial representatives. The most important event of that period
was the invitation of Peter Berence as an art director to a great Electric Company that
produced different electric staff: lamps, motors, tools. As the owner wanted the pro-
duction to widespread all over the world market, so he was interested in creating a
new image of his firm (that was an innovation in promotion of goods of that period).
In 1919 in a little German town Weiniar, there was founded a “Bauhous”– the
first institution to train artists for the work in industry. The head of the establishment
was Germanic architect Walter Gropius, a former Peter Berence's student. During a
very short period “Bauhaus” managed to become a large design-training center.
The first year student had a specialized course to study ceramics, furniture, tex-
tile. The study included technical subjects – Werklehre and artistic course -Kun-
stlehre, also some knowledge in handicraft was necessary for a future designer. The
Bauhaus goods differed in design and graphics. Technical training consisted of study-
ing of tools, metal-work technologies and treating, etc. The students were taught all
the peculiarities of molding and colour mixing perception. It was known as modern
laboratory of industrial goods constructing. Having moved in Dessau the college was
given a building containing study-rooms, workshops and a hostel. During the last
years of studying the theoretical basis was increased in the study program. But after
its Head had left for Russia in 1930 the college was closed.

V. Reread Text I, answer the following questions:


a. How do we understand the meaning of the word “design”?
b. What were the reasons of the industrial union foundation?

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c. What was the goal of the industrial union?
d. When and where was the first institution training artists founded?
e. What did the students study in “Bauhaus”?

VI. Match these words and expressions with their meanings and try to
memorize them:

1) the meaning of constructing or planning a) лучшие идеи и возможности


2) economic and esthetic causes b) особенности отделки
(декорирования)
3) the international market c) смысл построения или
планирования
4) the handicraft production d) восприятие смешения цветов
5) common or ideal samples e) экономические и эстетические
причины
6) extra decoration of goods f) продвижение товаров
7) the best ideas and opportunities g) ремесленное производство
8) electric staff h) зд. электроприборы
9) a new image i) новый облик
10) promotion of goods j) международный рынок
11) the peculiarities of molding k) общие или идеальные образцы
12) colour mixing perception l) дополнительное украшение
товаров

VII. Look at the way the following words are used in Text I and then circle
the relevant part of speech:

meaning (par. 1) participle noun gerund


causes (par. 2) verb noun adjective
ideal (par. 3) verb noun adjective
using (par. 3) participle noun gerund
establishment (par. 4) verb noun adjective
study(par. 5) verb noun adjective
containing (par. 5) participle noun gerund

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VIII. Read Text II to find answers to the given questions?
TEXT II
DESIGN DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA
a. What was the main goal of the special commission?
The first information about design appeared in 1918, when Russian government
put a task of industrial innovation according to new trends in art. So a special com-
mission containing the heads and chief engineers from plants vital for the economy of
the country was organized. The main goal of the commission was working out mod-
ern artistic ideas in building and industry and their immediate application in the pro-
duction process. They wanted any everyday life thing people buy looked pleasant and
attractive by appearance. They tried to brighten up even the rest to make it more com-
fortable and convenient.
b. What was the principle of design development after 1920?
By a special order of Sovnarcom in 25.12.1920 there were founded several
Higher Artistic Technical workshops (VHUTEMAS). Each of them had to be an in-
stitution training arts connected with industry. Many architects believed they should
destroy the previous understanding of culture and only on its ruins they could build a
new culture of society. At the end of the 30s design started penetrating the field of or-
dinary goods: some qualified artists were invited to participate in designing the first
Soviet telephone, a radio-set and furniture; later the spreading of design touched ship-
building and automobile-production.
c. What events play important role in popularization of Russian design?
Now in our multinational country with a great number of religions and traditions
there are lots of masters and schools dealing with design; specialists say that some-
times it is easy to recognize not only the nationality or even a master himself by cer-
tain peculiarities of a master's product. Also important role in popularization of Rus-
sian design play specialized fairs and exhibitions. Design has different aims accord-
ing to the sphere of industry it is applied in (for example, plates, cups, soup-sets are
projected by specialists in ceramics).

IX. Read Text III, be ready with the annotation.


TEXT III
PLANNING
Planning is a systematic, organized method of approaching a problem. In the
context of this text, planning means following the design process.
Design has three major components: creative, technical and aesthetic. The cre-
ative component is the expression of a person’s ideas and is unique to the individual.

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The technical part is the application of technology to the resolution of the design idea.
The aesthetic quality of a design relates to how pleasing it is to look at. Good design
expresses a person’s creativity with a balance of technical quality, as represented by
the functionality of the product, and of aesthetic quality.
Functionality is a measure of how well the product meets the needs as expressed
in the design problem. Aesthetic quality is determined by the mix of form, space,
color, line, texture, and light and shadow.
Aesthetic design follows basic principles: Unity, or a feeling of wholeness; vari-
ety, or contrast in texture, line, shade; emphasis, used to point out particular details;
balance, or the appearance of equal weight for various components; repetition, or the
use of a detail or element throughout; and rhythm, or the repetition of lines and
curves to give a feeling of movement. These are used in various combinations to give
a particular feeling to a design.
Two additional devices used to promote a particular design concept are the ma-
terials used for the product and the type and style of surface decoration.

X. Read Text IV and give a brief summary of it.


TEXT IV
EVOLUTION OF THE DESIGN PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGIES
Among the earliest recorded references to design comes from Egypt. The earli-
est designers were architects from about 3000 BC. They were designers, not builders,
and they mediated between patrons and builders.
They were allied with priests and higher education. Design was bound by prece-
dent, and changed little over time, with knowledge passed down through families for
as much as 25 generations. Design technologies included reed pens, rulers, squares,
and triangles. Materials included leather, wood panels, limestone, and stuccoed
tablets.
In ancient Greek, designers were still architects, but they doubled as builders
and engineers. There was education at private school and apprenticeship. The tech-
nology was not significantly different than Egyptian.
Design (and architects) became increasingly important in Roman times. Educa-
tion was longer in the liberal arts, and then with an established master. Design tech-
nologies included drafting and complex scale model construction.
During the early middle ages, the role of the designer or architect continued to
be important, but the status of the job fell. Drawings were finely detailed using draft-
ing instruments. Buildings and design tended to be elegant.

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The tools and technologies of design remained fairly constant until the last
twenty-five years. They improved in quality and quantity, but remained as mechani-
cal drawing instruments, modelling and prototyping tools.
Illustration technologies such as airbrushing were developed, but the advent of
the computer gave rise to automated design tools. These include mechanical drafting
replacements such as CAD, illustration tools such as 3-D illustration programs with
full color shading complete with shadows and reflections, and computational tools to
generate material lists and cost analysis.
Designers in this century include architects, graphic designers, interior design-
ers, industrial designers, packaging designers, automotive designers.
There have been a number of design movements which had considerable impact
on design in this century. The Bahaus was a design school founded in Germany in the
1930’s. A number of classic furniture designs were created by graduates from the Ba-
haus. The influence of these pieces is evident in much modern or contemporary furni-
ture. American designers like Eames and Frank Lloyd Wright also had a great deal of
influence on modern design.
The most overlooked, and perhaps the most influential, modern designers proba-
bly work in the fashion industry. They design everything from clothes to perfume, to
the latest “look”.
Application of Design Technologies
Design is considered to be a process required for all technological development.
It is, by definition, the process of creating a technological solution to a problem. De-
sign technologies can be, and are, applied to almost everything we do. Most of the
time we do it very informally, such as when we sketch a room plan and draw the fur-
niture on it.
NOTES
_____________________________________________________________
ally – 1. а) соединять, объединять; устанавливать связь с (чем-либо,
кем-либо), б) вступать в союз, объединиться; породниться; 2. а) иметь тесную
связь с (чем-либо), б) иметь общие черты с (чем-либо)
precedent – предшествующий, предыдущий
a reed pen – тростниковая ручка
limestone – известняк
a stuccoed tablet – кусок отделочного, штукатурного гипса
CAD (computer-aided design) – система автоматизированного
проектирования

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XI. Render the following text into English:

Баухауз (Bauhaus) – высшая школа промышленного искусства,


строительства и художественного конструирования. Баухауз был основан в
1919 году архитектором Вальтером Гропиусом. Программа обучения в школе
предполагала соединение искусства со строительной техникой на современной
основе.
Дизайнеры Баухауза считали своей главной задачей проектирование
промышленных изделий и их систем с позиций высокой ответственности перед
человеком и обществом. Баухауз существовал как уникальная высшая
художественная школа до 1932 года. С приходом к власти национал-
социалистов он был закрыт из-за демократических идей, объединявших
мастеров разных национальностей.
Влияние идей Баухауза наиболее заметно в функциональной архитектуре
современных офисов и фабрик.

XII. Look through the studied material again and write your own composi-
tion “The Main Stages of Design Development”, be ready to discuss it.

UNIT II
INTRODUCTION INTO SPECIALITY

Vocabulary
1. trial and error – пробы и ошибки;
2. objective – цель;
3. a cloak of secrecy – завеса секретности;
4. emerge – появляться; показываться; выходить; возникать; появиться;
выходить (откуда-либо);
5. sparkle – искриться, сверкать;
6. blend – сочетание;
7. collaboration – сотрудничество; совместная работа;
8. launch – начинать; пускать в действие;
9. scrutiny – внимательное изучение; рассмотрение;
10. market-beating – покоряющий рынок;
11. scrutiny – внимательное изучение;
12. in-house colleagues – коллеги по цеху/ремеслу;

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13. hands-on – практический, связанный с жизнью;
14. crucial – решающий; ключевой;
15. market share – зд. роль; вес на рынке;
16. implementation – реализация;
17. come to the fore – выдвигаться вперёд;
18. user-friendliness – дружественность по отношению к пользователю;
удобство для пользователя;
19. catch up – догнать; нагнать; догонять; наверстать идти в ногу;
20. overseas counterparts – заграничные партнеры;
21. saturated market – насыщенный рынок;
22. vial – пузырек;
23. would-be – потенциальный; начинающий; желающий стать (кем-то);
24. special – зд. дополнительный;
25. credits – заглавные надписи; заглавные титры;
26. appeal – обращение;
27. layout – план (макет) работы;
28. ease – свобода; лёгкость; удобство;
29. bitmapped graphics – растровая графика;
30. vector graphics – векторная графика;
31. illustration package – пакет иллюстрационных программ;
32. computer-aided design (CAD) – системы автоматизированного
проектирования САПР;
33. rendering – визуализация предметов (в машинной графике); семейство
фильтров программы Adobe Photoshop, использующееся для обработки
картинок путём их расцвечивания и/или затенения; рендеринг;
34. desktop publishing (DTP) – настольные издательские средства;
настольная издательская система; подготовка публикаций с помощью
настольных издательских средств;
35. clip-art – графическая вставка; иллюстративные вставки;
36. wireframe – режим просмотра рисунка, объекты которого
представляются только их контурами;
37. geographic information systems (GIS) – географическая
информационная система (ГИС).

I. Read the following international words and guess their meanings:

project social statistics

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client mathematical career
parameter formulae interior
organisation camera function
economy realism emotional
electronic lecture psychology
practice seminar final

II. Choose the correct translation of the following English words:

successful успешный иметь успех успех


creative творчество создавать творческий
solution решать решение разрешимый
competition конкурировать конкурент конкуренция
consumption потреблять потребление потребляемый
definition определять определение определяющий
efficiency эффективный давать эффект эффективность
implementation применение применять применимый
illustration иллюстрировать иллюстрационный иллюстрация
special дополнение дополнительный дополнять
objective иметь целью цель целевой

III. Look at some basic design terms and try to guess their meanings by
matching them with their definition:

1. layout a) the representation of a digital image as a matrix of


picture elements (pixels)
2. bitmapped graphics b) a perspective drawing showing a designer’s idea
of a finished product
3. illustration package c) the art or process of arranging type, illustrations,
etc. in an advertisement, newspaper, etc.
4. computer-aided design d) set of painting and drawing programs

5. geographic information sys- e) software used in art and architecture and engi-
tems neering and manufacturing to assist in precision
drawing
6. rendering f) computer-based technologies for the storage, ma-
nipulation, and analysis of geographically referenced
information.
7. desktop publishing g) a system or process for designing, editing, and
producing camera-ready documents, as newsletters,
brochures, or magazines, using a microcomputer, spe-

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cial software, and a printer
8. clip-art h) a large collection of simple drawings stored in a
computer from which items can be selected for incor-
poration into documents
9. wireframe i) an image-rendering technique in which only edges
and vertices are shown

IV. Discuss the following question: Which adjectives from the list below can
describe the design process? Give your reasons.

interesting difficult creative unusual


easy various constructive surprising
boring intensive laborious engrossing
trivial hard mysterious common

V. Now read Text I and see how many of your ideas are mentioned.
TEXT I
THE DESIGN PROCESS
Design is not just the object you take off the shelf for checking and discussing –
it is about and error and a series of decisions that starts before you even know your
objective.
The design process is not a mysterious activity designers carry out behind a
cloak of secrecy, magically emerging with a sparkling new market-beating product or
service. It starts when decisions about why, how and even whether to go ahead with a
project are being taken.
Although designers provide a particular blend of skills and creativity, the design
process works best when it is a collaboration between the design team and the people
it works with and for, either in-house colleagues or clients.
Design work begins with a brief setting out the aims and objectives of a project
and outlining certain targets and parameters for its completion. But, ideally, the de-
sign team needs to be involved before the brief is even written for two reasons – first,
its members will understand the brief better if they have had a hand in composing it
and, secondly, the customer-focused, creative skills that designers possess can help
decide the direction the project should take.
An organisation and its designers need to ask certain questions right at the start -
why is design work needed? Is it to respond to changing markets or to customer
trends? Maybe new competition has appeared on the market or the company just
wants to increase its market share. Perhaps the organisation wants to make its service

14
more efficient, or perhaps it faces a decision between improving an existing product
or service or launching something completely new. By understanding both the orga-
nization's strategic objectives and customer needs, designers can define the problem
before working towards a solution. The reason for the design will inform how the de-
signers go about conducting research.
Research needs to be carried out both before and during the design process, es-
pecially if the project will take some years to complete. Market research includes
trends analysis, scrutiny of competitors' products and wider research such as the state
of the economy, upcoming legislation and relevant social changes such as birth rates
and patterns of prosperity.
Design research centres on the user. It makes use of information about cus-
tomers supplied by the organisation but also takes a more hands-on approach in the
form of user testing and prototyping. Observing customer behaviour not only makes
it easier for designers to create something that fulfils a need, it can also provide cre-
ative inspiration. Along with visualization, it also helps to represent the designers'
ideas to the organisation at a large scale.
To plan a project effectively, companies and organizations need to take into ac-
count all the internal resources, people and information the project will require, from
materials to customer-service support. The design team will need to be aware of these
too. There is no point in a design requiring a certain manufacturing techniques or
tooling, for instance, if these are not available.
The relationship between the designer and the organisation or department that
has commissioned the design work is crucial. The best relationships are a two-way
street, where each party is receptive to the concerns of the other. Communication
needs to be maintained throughout the design process. The need for communication
was summed up by designer Wayne Hemingway during the Design Council's Design
in Business Week 2002: “There is no point sitting designers in a room and letting
them design. They have to work with you and be a part of the business”.
The final stage is implementation – by manufacturers, engineers, IT (Informa-
tion Technologies) experts or service providers – but that does not mean the designers
exit the scene. It is important to allow for redesign and the designers also have a vital
role to play in representing their ideas to all those involved in executing them.

NOTES
____________________________________________________________________
_
Brief – the design documents that encapsulate all of the specification and to which the
design team will work.

15
VI. Reread Text I, write down the sentences with Participle construction
and translate them.

VII. Find in Text I words or phrases which mean the same as

to have a number of just at the beginning


definite co-operation take into consideration
to know goal (3 words) it is useless to
well-being for example to leave
to let essential clientage

VIII. Look at the way the following terms are used in Text I and try to ex-
plain them according to the model:

Model
Implementation is a final stage of design process when an idea becomes a
product.
Collaboration is a design work together with in-house colleagues and a client
organisation.
Brief, creative, skills, competition, design, team, customer-focused approach.

IX. Look at the way the following words are used in Text I and then circle
the correct part of speech:

work (par. 4) noun verb adverb


aims (par. 4) noun verb adverb
right (par. 5) adjective verb adverb
faces (par. 5) noun verb adverb
centres (par. 7) noun verb adverb
concerns (par. 9) noun verb adverb
exit (par. 10) noun verb adverb

X. Answer the following questions:


1. When does the design process start?
2. When does the design process work best?
3. What questions must be asked right at the start of the design process?

16
4. What kind of research is it necessary to conduct?
5. What do companies and organizations need to take into account to plan a
project effectively?
6. What is the final stage of the design process?

XI. Fill in the gaps with the words from the box.

strange testing right new


successful impressive innovative prototyping

Creativity
A design doesn't have to be 1…, different or 2… to be 3… in the marketplace, as
long as it's fulfilling a need, but design methods do lead to 4… products and services.
Designers learn that ideas that may seem 5… are worth exploring and that the
“common-sense” solution is not always the 6… one. Designers often hit on (находят
правильный путь с помощью) intuitive concepts through methods such as drawing,
7…, brainstorming and user 8… . Watching users in real-life situations especially
gives insights into their behaviour that leads to ideas that would not have formed if
the designer simply had thought about the situation, or relied on generalized market
research.

XII. Read Text II paying attention to the words and phrases in bold.

TEXT II
GRAPHICS AND DESIGN
Types of graphics software
Computer graphics are pictures created, changed or processed by computers.
There are two categories.
1. Bitmapped graphics represent images as bitmaps; they are stored as pixels
and can become a bit distorted when they are manipulated. The density of dots,
known as the resolution and expressed in dots per inch, determines how sharp the im-
age is.
2. Vector graphics represent images as mathematical formulae, so they can be
changed or scaled without losing quality. They are ideal for high-resolution output.
There are different types of graphics software.

17
■ Image manipulation programs let you edit your favourite images. For
example, you can scan a picture into your PC or transfer a photo from your camera
and then add different effects, or filters.
The original photo
has been processed
with adobe Photoshop
using effects filters

■ Painting and drawing programs, also called illus-


tration packages, offer facilities for freehand drawing, with a
wide choice of pens and brushes, colours and patterns. One ex-
ample is Windows Paint.
■ Business graphics programs, also called presentation
software, let you create pie charts, bar charts and line graphs of
all kinds for slide shows and reports. You can import data from a
database or spreadsheet to generate the graphs.
■ Computer-aided design (CAD) is used by engi-
neers and architects to design everything from cars and planes to
buildings and furniture. First they make a wireframe, a drawing
with edges and contour lines. Then if they want to colour the ob-
jects and add texture, they create a surface for the object; this is called “filling the
surface”. Finally, the design is rendered to make the object look realistic. Rendering
is a process that adds realism to graphics by using shading, light sources and reflec-
tions.
■ Desktop publishing (DTP) is based around a page layout program,
which lets you import text from a word processor, clip-art (ready-made pictures)
from graphics packages, and images from scanners or cameras, and arrange them all
on a page. It is used to design and publish books, newspapers, posters, advertise-
ments, etc.
■ Digital art, or computer art, is done with applets that use mathematical
formulae to create beautiful bright shapes called fractals. A fractal is a geometrical
figure with special properties, e.g. the Koch snowflake or the Mandelbrot set. Fractals
can also be used to model real objects like clouds, coastlines or landscapes.
■ Computer animation uses graphics programs (e.g. digital cartooning
systems) to create or edit moving pictures. Each image in a sequence of images is
called a “frame”.
■ Geographic information systems (GIS) allow cartographers to create
detailed maps.

18
XIII. Reread Text II and decide which type of graphics software is best for
these users.

1) a person who wants to edit photos at home;


2) an economist who wants to present statistics in a form that can be easily un-
derstood;
3) engineers who need to design the interior and exterior of a new aeroplane;
4) a company which needs to design and publish a magazine;
5) an artist who wants to produce illustrations and freehand drawings for a book;
6) an organization that needs to make maps and 3D virtual models of the surface
of the Earth;
7) computer animators who make movies like Toy Story and Shrek;
8) a mathematician who wants to make fractal shapes of natural phenomena.

XIV. Complete the sentences with words from the box.

wireframe rendering bitmap filters fractals clip-art

1. Painting programs work by giving a colour to each pixel in an image, creat-


ing a … Unlike vector graphics, the image is a single layer, so once something is
painted, it becomes part of the whole picture.
2. In painting programs and image editors, … are special effects that can be ap-
plied to a picture, including drop shadows, textures, distortions, etc.
3. The … model is the simplest interpretation of a true three-dimensional ob-
ject. Here the object is represented by its edges and contours and is therefore similar
in form to a normal engineering drawing or sketch.
4. … adds textures to each surface, and generates realistic reflections, shadows
and highlights.
5. Most illustration packages come with a bundle of resources that include
ready-made … images and a selection of fonts.
6. … are geometrical patterns that are repeated at a small scale to generate ir-
regular shapes, some of which are similar to objects in nature.

XV. Look at the Windows Paint toolbox and find the tools that match these
definitions.

1. This is like a magnifying glass which changes your view of a drawing.

19
2. This brush lets you paint in different shapes and patterns.
3. This is used to draw curves in different thicknesses.
4. This rubs out the part of the picture you drag it over.
5. This tool lets you pick a colour from an area of an image, instead of choosing
the colour from the colour palette.
6. This tool is used to fill a shape with a colour of your choice.
7. This makes straight lines.
8. This basic tool is used to draw free-
hand, i.e. to draw free-form shapes.
9. This group of tools is used for drawing
shapes: rectangles, ellipses and polygons.
10. This produces individual pixels of
colour in a spray pattern.
11. These tools let you make rectangular
or freehand selections around the things you
want to select. This is used to type text.

XVI. Writing and Speaking.

1. Write about two possible applications


of using computer graphics in business.
2. You probably have a paint program at home; describe what you do with it.

XVII. How much do you know about training design engineers? Work in
pairs and discuss the following questions. Choose the best answer.

1. What are design engineers in charge of?


a) managing and controlling different kinds of business.
b) designing and styling new products and developing new brands and logos.
c) researching and analyzing new trends in the international market.
2. When did design start developing in Russia?
a) since 1950s.
b) since 1990s.
c) since 1930s.
3. What is the function of design in economics?
a) to increase the profit of the enterprise.

20
b) to distinguish smb’s product from that of smb’s competitors and thus promote
smb’s product.
c) to draw clients to buy different products.
4. What special skills do designers acquire?
a) IT skills, presentation and communication skills.
b) driving skills.
c) teaching skills.
XVIII. Now read Text III and see if you were right.
TEXT III
TRAINING DESIGN ENGINEERS
I. The aims and kinds of Design.
I think that design is one of the most interesting creative careers. Design can be
defined as creative activity that is carried out according to the laws of beauty and
functionality. All modern-day enterprises and businesses need design engineers. De-
sign engineers are in charge of designing and styling new products as well as devel-
oping new brands and logos. Today such properties of merchandise as aesthetics,
convenience and functionality (=user-friendliness) are coming to the fore.
To begin with design is a very broad field, it includes a lot of different kinds of
design, such as graphic design, industrial design, advertising design, packaging de-
sign, textile design, media design, as well as landscape design and architectural de-
sign, interior design and others.
By the way design is a relatively new branch. In Russia design started develop-
ing only since 1930s. In Omsk the designers’ union was formed only in 1990. Fortu-
nately, today the Russian design has caught up with its overseas counterparts.
It is known that design has a lot of important economic aspects, especially in
countries with saturated markets. Here the function of design is to distinguish your
product from that of your competitors and thus promote your product. That is to say,
design enhances the selling properties of consumer goods. For example, design is ex-
tremely important in the car-making industry. In choosing a car buyers naturally pay
great attention to the car's styling. In buying perfumes buyers pay attention to the de-
sign of vials and so on. I think that in future the emotional aspect of design will play
an increasingly important role. Our future work as design engineers will include pro-
ducing innovative interiors, new textile designs, graphic design, design for electronic
media and other kinds of design.
II. Academic activities.

21
Omsk Technical University is one of several higher schools in Omsk that train
design engineers. Future designers must have knowledge and understanding of tech-
nological, manufacturing and creative aspects of the design process. An important
aim of training would-be designers is the development of students’ individual abili-
ties and skills, developing their creativity. Professionalism is encouraged by the
teaching staff who along with academic activity are actively involved in their own
practice. Some lectures and seminars are given by visiting lecturers who are practi-
tioners, people from industry or world of art and design.
Tuition is carried out through lectures, seminars and practices. Students are
given the history and theory of art and design, they learn about the current trends in
design. Students also study the theory and practice of colour. Students are given train-
ing in the methods of computer-aided design (CAD) that play an important part in
supporting design activity. In addition to lectures and seminars students carry out
their semester and course projects.
Students also have studio practice; they acquire knowledge and skills in draw-
ing, painting and printmaking. The department organizes study-visits to exhibitions
and fairs where students study the history, the state-of-the-art in design as well as the
new trends. Business studies are also important for future design engineers. Third-
year students undertake courses in economics, management and advertising. Psychol-
ogy and foreign languages are also among important subjects. In addition, students
undertake work placements through which they gain valuable work experience in de-
sign. At the final year students work out their graduation projects.
In the course of studies students acquire many special skills, such as IT skills,
presentation and communication skills.
III. Career prospects.
Employment prospects for Designing graduates are very good and varied. Grad-
uates from our faculty are well prepared to enter numerous creative industries. The
study develops in students important personal qualities, such as creativity, communi-
cation skills, adaptability, resource fullness. All these qualities are highly valued by
employers. The graduates from the Design department may work as employees of de-
signing consultancies, in publishing, printing, advertising and as freelance designers.
Besides, the skills learnt within the Design course open the door to many other ca-
reers.

XIX. Decide whether these statements are true or false:


1. Design can be defined as creative activity that is carried out according to the
laws of beauty and functionality.

22
2. Today such properties of merchandise as aesthetics, convenience and func-
tionality (=user-friendliness) have been forgotten.
3. Design is an old branch of industry.
4. Design has a lot of important industrial aspects, especially in countries with
saturated markets.
5. Future designers must have knowledge and understanding of technological,
manufacturing and creative aspects of the design process.
6. Students are given the history and theory of the English language, they learn
about the current trends in the language.
7. In the course of studies students acquire many special skills, such as singing,
playing musical instruments, dancing.
8. The graduates from the Design department may work as employees of design-
ing consultancies, in publishing, printing, advertising and as freelance designers.

XX. Reread Text III, be ready with the annotation.

XXI. Read Text IV and give a brief summary of it.


TEXT IV
GRAPHIC DESIGNERS
Among the five design occupations, graphic designers are expected to have the
most new jobs through 2014; however, job seekers are expected to face keen compe-
tition for available positions.
Graphic designers with Web site design and animation experience will have the
best opportunities.
A bachelor's degree is required for most entry-level positions; however, an asso-
ciate degree may be sufficient for technical positions.
About 3 out of 10 designers are self-employed; many do freelance work in addi-
tion to holding a salaried job in design or in another occupation.
Graphic designers – or graphic artists – plan, analyze, and create visual solutions
to communications problems. They decide the most effective way of getting a mes-
sage across in print, electronic, and film media using a variety of methods such as
color, type, illustration, photography, animation, and various print and layout tech-
niques. Graphic designers develop the overall layout and production design of maga-
zines, newspapers, journals, corporate reports, and other publications. They also pro-
duce promotional displays, packaging, and marketing brochures for products and ser-
vices, design distinctive logos for products and businesses, and develop signs and sig-

23
nage systems – called environmental graphics – for business and government. An in-
creasing number of graphic designers also are developing material for Internet Web
pages, interactive media, and multimedia projects. Graphic designers also may pro-
duce the credits that appear before and after television programs and movies.
The first step in developing a new graphic design is to determine the needs of
the client, the message the design should portray, and its appeal to customers or users.
Graphic designers consider cognitive, cultural, physical, and social factors in plan-
ning and executing designs for the target audience. Designers gather relevant infor-
mation by meeting with clients, creative or art directors, and by performing their own
research. Identifying the needs of consumers is becoming increasingly important for
graphic designers as the scope of their work continues to focus on creating corporate
communication strategies in addition to technical design and layout work.
Graphic designers prepare sketches or layouts – by hand or with the aid of a
computer – to illustrate the vision for the design. They select colors, sound, artwork,
photography, animation, style of type, and other visual elements for the design. De-
signers also select the size and arrangement of the different elements on the page or
screen. They also may create graphs and charts from data for use in publications, and
often consult with copywriters on any text that may accompany the visual part of the
design. Designers then present the completed design to their clients or art or creative
director for approval. In printing and publishing firms, graphic designers also may as-
sist the printers by selecting the type of paper and ink for the publication and review-
ing the mock-up design for errors before final publication.
Graphic designers use a variety of graphics and computer software to assist in
their designs. Designers creating Web pages or other interactive media designs also
will use computer animation and programming packages. Computer software pro-
grams allow ease and flexibility in exploring a greater number of design alternatives,
thus reducing design costs and cutting the time it takes to deliver a product to market.
Graphic designers sometimes supervise assistants who carry out their creations.
Designers who run their own businesses also may devote a considerable amount of
time to developing new business contacts, examining equipment and space needs, and
performing administrative tasks, such as reviewing catalogues and ordering samples.
The need for up-to-date computer and communications equipment is an ongoing con-
sideration for graphic designers.
Graphic designers create books, websites, magazines, film titles, catalogs, type-
faces, signage systems, television graphics, posters and postcards. From complex
identity programs to single logos, graphic designers give a face and a “visual voice”

24
to retail and cultural enterprises, to entertainment, manufacturing and service indus-
tries, governmental and political interests.
Simply put, graphic designers give meaningful visual form to content in all me-
dia: from print to screen; business cards to billboards; computer interfaces to movies
screens. But the most critical skill graphic designers offer is their unique ability to
communicate specific messages through the artful manipulation of typography and
images, systems and structures. Their work promotes, educates, directs, informs, ex-
poses, clarifies, beautifies and delights.
Working Conditions
Working conditions and places of employment vary. Graphic designers em-
ployed by large advertising, publishing, or design firms generally work regular hours
in well-lighted and comfortable settings. Designers in smaller design consulting
firms, or those who freelance, generally work on a contract, or job, basis. They fre-
quently adjust their workday to suit their clients' schedules and deadlines. Consultants
and self-employed designers tend to work longer hours and in smaller, more con-
gested, environments.
Designers may transact business in their own offices or studios or in clients' of-
fices. Designers who are paid by the assignment are under pressure to please clients
and to find new ones in order to maintain a steady income. All designers sometimes
face frustration when their designs are rejected or when their work is not as creative
as they wish. Graphic designers may work evenings or weekends to meet production
schedules, especially in the printing and publishing industries where deadlines are
shorter and more frequent.

XXII. Reread Text IV. In pairs, discuss the statements below. Say what
you think about them and ask your partner if he/she agrees or disagrees with
you. (Use the proper phrases given in the Appendix.)

1. Graphic designers with Web site design and animation experience will have
the best opportunities in seeking the job.
2. Graphic designers consider cognitive, cultural, physical, and social factors in
planning and executing designs for the target audience.
3. Computer software programs allow ease and flexibility in exploring a greater
number of design alternatives, thus reducing design costs and cutting the time it takes
to deliver a product to market.

25
4. The most critical skill graphic designers offer is their unique ability to com-
municate specific messages through the artful manipulation of typography and im-
ages, systems and structures.

XXIII. Render the following text into English:

Работа графического дизайнера – это союз творчества и логики.


Графический дизайнер решает одновременно несколько сложных и важных
задач. Продукт, создаваемый им (логотип, шрифт и др.), должен быть ярким,
запоминающимся и неповторимым, а также быть пригодным для печати.
Дизайнер должен учитывать специфику организации, для которой он
разрабатывает логотип. Поэтому для графического дизайнера важно, чтобы его
креативное начало строго подчинялось законам логики.
Один из основных видов деятельности графического дизайнера – создание
фирменного (корпоративного) стиля компании, или, используя современный
термин, айдентика фирмы, то есть разработка логотипа, цветовой гаммы,
шрифта и т. д.
Графический дизайнер может работать в области полиграфии: создавать
макеты рекламной полиграфической продукции (календари, буклеты),
заниматься дизайном упаковки, сувенирной продукции, а также выполнять
макеты книг и журналов.
Основные навыки, которые требуются в работе:
 Знания основ дизайна: основы живописи и рисунка, колористики
(использования цвета) и композиции и др.
 Специальные знания в области графического дизайна: виды и жанры
графики и графических техник, работа со шрифтами, типографика,
использование фотографий и иллюстраций в графическом дизайне.
 Владение программным обеспечением для графического дизайна
(QuarkXPress‚ Photoshop, Illustrator‚ CorelDraw).
Желательные знания:
 Опыт работы в рекламе или полиграфии.
 Умение рисовать от руки.
 Знание программ 3D-моделирования.

XXIV. Look through the studied material again and write your own compo-
sition “My Future Specialty”, be ready to discuss it.

26
UNIT III
GRAPHIC DESIGN BASICS
Vocabulary
1. cover – переплёт; обложка;
2. jacket – обложка; суперобложка;
3. commute – поездка на работу и обратно;
4. billboard – рекламный щит;
5. media – средства массовой информации; средства рекламы;
6. vs. versus – в сравнении с; против;
7. HTML Hyper-Text Markup Language – гипертекстовый язык описания
документов; язык гипертекстовой маркировки;
8. CSS Cascading Style Sheets – каскадные таблицы стилей;
9. banner advertising – баннерная реклама;
10. evolve – развивать; развёртывать; развиваться; эволюционировать;
превращаться; развиться; развёртываться (о теории и т. п.); развернуться;
развернуть; развить; претерпевать изменения;
11. piece – отдельный предмет; образец; пример; сюжет; газетная статья;
12. face – сталкиваться (с необходимостью); столкнуться (to face a task –
стоять перед необходимостью решать задачу (выполнить требование));
13. a marketing message – маркетинговое обращение;
14. dive – углубляться, уходить вглубь чего-либо;
15. texture – текстура; структура;
16. shape – модель; образец; шаблон;
17. tease – дразнить; поддразнивать;
18. snippet – место; фрагмент; отрывок;
19. entice – увлекать; заманивать; переманивать; соблазнить; сманивать;
20. bleed and safety areas – обрезные в край и безопасные зоны;
21. challenge – n. вызов; сложная задача; проблема; сложная проблема;
перспектива; задача, требующая большого напряжения сил;
22. tricky – хитрый; ловкий; искусный; сложный; трудный;
23. RGB “Red, Green, Blue” – («красный, зеленый, синий»). Цветовая
модель, все цвета которой образуются путём смешения трёх базовых.
Применяется как стандарт отображения цветов на цветных мониторах);

27
24. CMYK Cyan Magenta Yellow blacK – субтрактивная цветовая модель
отражённого света, в которой цвета образуются путём комбинирования
бирюзового, пурпурного, жёлтого и черного цветов;
25. HSV Hue-Saturation-Value – цвет – насыщенность – значение (метод
цветопередачи);
26. “process” colors – составной цвет; триадный цвет; триадные краски;
триадная палитра; палитра основных цветов; CMYK-краска;
27. “spot” colors – стандартный простой цвет. (Метод определения цветов,
при котором для документа задаётся отдельный цвет чернил принтера: цвет,
печатаемый отдельной типографской краской. В отличие от составных цветов,
которые образуются путём наложения базовых цветов CMYK.);
28. palette – палитра; цветовая гамма;
29. visual – n. человек с преимущественным развитием зрительной памяти;
рекламный ролик; агитационный ролик (перед выборами); кинофильм;
видеозапись; зрительный ряд (фильма);
30. as-is – как есть;
31. copywriting – написание текста; работа текстовика; составление
текстов; копирайтинг;
32. a household name – широко известная марка; известный бренд;
узнаваемый всеми бренд;
33. letterhead – печатный заголовок (на листе почтовой бумаги);
вытисненное название (на переплётной крышке); шапка (на фирменном
бланке);
34. typeface – гарнитура шрифта; характер начертания шрифта;
35. focus on – уделить большое внимание; сосредоточить внимание на;
36. hand off – передавать;
37. mockup – макет; модель;
38. margin – поле, поля (книжной, газетной страницы и т. п.);
39. feasible – возможный; вероятный; правдоподобный; оправданный;
обоснованный; реалистичный;
40. compelling – неодолимый, непреодолимый;
41. freelancer – нештатный сотрудник;
42. scrap – клочок; обрывок;
43. jot down – сделать краткую, беглую запись; записать;
44. stick in – втыкать; всовывать;
45. convince – убеждать; уверять; убедить;
46. legitimate – законный; правильный; подлинный;

28
47. overwhelm – преодолеть;
48. template – маска; образец; трафарет; эталон (в системах
распознавания); эталонное изображение; шаблон (используется при описании
ресурсов типа «панель диалога»);
49. die-cut – высекатель штампом (заготовки из картона); вырубной
элемент;
50. deadline – предельный конечный срок; срок исполнения; срок сдачи;
51. handle – сделать руками; перебирать; перекладывать; перебрать;
переложить; обращаться с; управлять; регулировать; иметь дело; заниматься
(проблемой);
52. elaborate – adj. детально разработанный; продуманный; подготовленный;
53. scratch – n. эскиз.
I. Read the following international words and guess their meanings:

profession photo computer


visual illustration limit
communication brochure physical
idea product pixel
information technology monitor
audience basic result
element display typography

II. Choose the correct translation of the following English words:

advertisement рекламировать реклама рекламный


differences различать различия различный
experience иметь опыт опыт опытный
interactive взаимодействовать взаимодействие взаимодействующий
effective иметь эффект эффект эффективный
resolution разрешать разрешение разрешимый
consistent настаивать постоянство постоянный
printer печатать принтер печатный
brightness быть ярким яркость яркий
responsibility нести ответственность ответственность ответственный
marketable быть на рынке рынок рыночный
impressive впечатлять впечатление впечатляющий

29
III. Look at some basic design terms and try to guess their meanings by
matching them with their definition:

1. cover a) the heading at the top of a sheet of letter paper, usually


consisting of a name and an address
2. billboard b) a pre-developed page layout in electronic or paper media
used to make new pages with a similar design, pattern, or
style
3. texture c) a set of one or more fonts, in one or more sizes, designed
with stylistic unity
4. palette d) a scale model of a structure or device, usually used for
teaching, demonstration, testing a design
5. copywriting e) the process of writing the words that promote a person,
business, opinion, or idea
6. mockup f) the available range of colours or patterns that can be dis-
played by a computer on a visual display unit
7. typeface g) the general structure and disposition of the constituent
parts of something
8. template h) a panel for the display of advertisements in public
places, such as alongside highways or on the sides of build-
ings
9. letterhead i) a binding or enclosure for a book or magazine

IV. Discuss the following questions:

1. What is Graphic design?


2. Where is Graphic design?

V. Now read Text I and see if you were right.


TEXT I
WHAT IS GRAPHIC DESIGN?
Suppose you want to announce or sell something, amuse or persuade someone,
explain a complicated system or demonstrate a process. In other words, you have a
message you want to communicate. How do you “send” it? You could tell people one

30
by one or broadcast by radio or loudspeaker. That’s verbal communication. But if you
use any visual medium at all — if you make a poster; type a letter; create a business
logo, a magazine ad, or an album cover; even make a computer printout — you are
using a form of visual communication called graphic design.
Graphic designers work with drawn, painted, photographed, or computer-gener-
ated images (pictures), but they also design the letterforms that make up various type-
faces found in movie credits and TV ads; in books, magazines, and menus; and even
on computer screens. Designers create, choose, and organize these elements — ty-
pography, images, and the so-called “white space” around them — to communicate a
message. Graphic design is a part of your daily life. From humble things like gum
wrappers to huge things like billboards to the T-shirt you’re wearing, graphic design
informs, persuades, organizes, stimulates, locates, identifies, attracts attention and
provides pleasure.
Graphic design is a creative process that combines art and technology to com-
municate ideas. The designer works with a variety of communication tools in order to
convey a message from a client to a particular audience. The main tools are image
and typography.
Image-based design
Designers develop images to represent the ideas their clients want to communi-
cate. Images can be incredibly powerful and compelling tools of communication,
conveying not only information but also moods and emotions. People respond to im-
ages instinctively based on their personalities, associations, and previous experience.
For example, you know that a chili pepper is hot, and this knowledge in combination
with the image creates a visual pun.
In the case of image-based design, the images must carry the entire message;
there are few if any words to help. These images may be photographic, painted,
drawn, or graphically rendered in many different ways. Image-based design is em-
ployed when the designer determines that, in a particular case, a picture is indeed
worth a thousand words.
Type-based design

31
In some cases, designers rely on
words to convey a message, but they
use words differently from the ways
writers do. To designers, what the
words look like is as important as
their meaning. The visual forms,
whether typography (communication
designed by means of the printed
word) or handmade lettering, perform
many communication functions.
They can arrest your attention on a poster, identify the product name on a package or
a truck, and present running text as the typography in a book does. Designers are ex-
perts at presenting information in a visual form in print or on film, packaging, or
signs.
When you look at an “ordinary” printed page of running text, what is involved
in designing such a seemingly simple page? Think about what you would do if you
were asked to redesign the page. Would you change the typeface or type size? Would
you divide the text into two narrower columns? What about the margins and the spac-
ing between the paragraphs and lines? Would you indent the paragraphs or begin
them with decorative lettering? What other kinds of treatment might you give the
page number? Would you change the boldface terms, perhaps using italic or underlin-
ing? What other changes might you consider, and how would they affect the way the
reader reacts to the content? Designers evaluate the message and the audience for
type-based design in order to make these kinds of decisions.
Image and type
Designers often combine images and typography to communicate a client’s mes-
sage to an audience. They explore the creative possibilities presented by words (ty-
pography) and images (photography, illustration, and fine art). It is up to the designer
not only to find or create appropriate letterforms and images but also to establish the
best balance between them.
Designers are the link between the client and the audience. On the one hand, a
client is often too close to the message to understand various ways in which it can be
presented. The audience, on the other hand, is often too broad to have any direct im-
pact on how a communication is presented. What’s more, it is usually difficult to
make the audience a part of the creative process. Unlike client and audience, graphic
designers learn how to construct a message and how to present it successfully. They
work with the client to understand the content and the purpose of the message. They

32
often collaborate with market researchers and other specialists to understand the na-
ture of the audience. Once a design concept is chosen, the designers work with illus-
trators and photographers as well as with typesetters and printers or other production
specialists to create the final design product.
Symbols, logos and logotypes
Symbols and logos are special, highly condensed information forms or identi-
fiers. Symbols are abstract representation of a particular idea or identity. The CBS
“eye” and the active “television” are symbolic forms, which we learn to recognize as
representing a particular concept or company. Logotypes are corporate identifications
based on a special typographical word treatment. Some identifiers are hybrid, or com-
binations of symbol and logotype. In order to create these identifiers, the designer
must have a clear vision of the corporation or idea to be represented and of the audi-
ence to which the message is directed.

NOTES
____________________________________________________________________
_
CBS “eye” – «глаз» Си-би-эс (Коламбиа Бродкастинг Систем)

VI. Reread Text I, write down the sentences with Gerund and Participle
constructions and translate them.

VII. Find in Text I words or phrases which mean the same as

• to show to unite to carry out


• placard insuperable to hold up
• to utilize to impart public

VIII. Look at the way the following terms are used in Text I and try to ex-
plain them according to the model:

Model
Сover is a binding or enclosure for a book or magazine.
Template is a pre-developed page layout in electronic or paper media used to
make new pages with a similar design, pattern, or style.
“process” colors, “spot” colors, copywriting, margin, typeface, letterhead.

33
IX. Look at the way the following words are used in Text I and then circle
the correct part of speech:

verbal (par. 1) noun verb adjective


painted (par. 2) noun verb participle
creative (par. 3) noun verb adjective
visual (par. 4) noun verb adjective
images (par. 5) noun verb adjective
meaning (par. 6) noun verb gerund
presenting(par. 6) noun verb gerund
change (par. 7) noun verb participle
balance (par. 8) noun verb adjective
impact (par. 9) noun verb adjective
forms (par. 10) noun verb adjective

X. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions from the box.

to at of from
with to on by of
1. Graphic designers work … drawn, painted, photographed, or computer-gener-
ated images (pictures).
2. Graphic design is a part … your daily life.
3. The designer works with a variety of communication tools in order to convey
a message … a client to a particular audience.
4. People respond … images instinctively based on their personalities, associa-
tions, and previous experience.
5. In some cases, designers rely … words to convey a message, but they use
words differently from the ways writers do.
6. Designers are experts … presenting information in a visual form in print or on
film, packaging, or signs.
7. They explore the creative possibilities presented … words (typography) and
images (photography, illustration, and fine art).
8. On the one hand, a client is often too close … the message to understand vari-
ous ways in which it can be presented.
9. Some identifiers are hybrid, or combinations … symbol and logotype.

XI. Find the English equivalents in the text:

34
сложная система; показать процесс; визуальное средство; коммерческий
логотип; рекламное объявление в журнале; обложка альбома; вывод данных на
печатающее устройство вычислительной машины; передать сообщение;
разнообразие средств коммуникации; сделанная вручную надпись; текстовой
набор в гранках.

XII. Work in pairs. Discuss the difference between Print design and Web
Design mentioning the following points: types of media, audience, layout, color,
technology, careers. (Use the phrases of expressing opinion in the Appendix).

XIII. Now read Text II and see if you were right.


TEXT II
PRINT DESIGN VS. WEB DESIGN
Designing for print media versus designing for the web can be a completely dif-
ferent experience. To understand better these differences, the two can be compared in
major topic areas: types of media, audience, layout, color, technology and careers.
Types of Media: before looking at the actual differences in design, it is impor-
tant to know what type of work you may find yourself doing in each field.
As a print designer, you may work on: As a web designer, you may work on:
 Magazine advertisements.  Standard HTML websites.
 Product design and packaging.  Flash websites*.

 Business cards.  Email newsletters.

 Logos.  Banner advertising.

Of course the list can go on for both, but the basic difference is that when de-
signing for print you will end up with a finished product that someone can hold in
their hand, and when designing for the web you will generally work on an ever-
evolving piece viewed on a computer display.
Audience: when beginning a project, it is important to think about the experi-
ence of your audience, which differs greatly between print and web design. At the
most basic level, the web is interactive and print pieces are usually not.
In print, you are trying to get your audience to stay on a page long enough to
get a marketing message across. You are often faced with a limited area in which to
achieve this, such as a one-page magazine ad. In some cases, you are trying to catch

35
their attention and have them dive deeper into your product, as with a book cover or
the first page of a brochure. One of the benefits of print design is that you are dealing
with a physical product, so physical properties such as texture and shape can help you
achieve your design goals. As an example, paper companies will take out magazine
ads printed on their own paper, allowing the audience to feel the weight and texture
of their product.
On the web, you are generally trying to keep your audience on a specific web-
site for as long as possible. The amount of pages to work with can be unlimited, so
you ‘tease’ the audience with snippets of content to entice them into clicking further
into your site. Clear navigation (buttons that users click to get to the sections of your
site), animation, sound and interactivity all come into play.
Layout: both print and web design require clear and effective layout. In both,
the overall goal is the same - using elements of design (shapes, lines, colors, type,
etc) to present content to your audience.
The differences start in the available space to create your design:

In print: On the web:


 Your space is generally measured in  You are measuring your space in
inches. pixels.
 You can be dealing with anything  You are faced with a challenge - de-

from a business card to a highway bill- signing your sites to look the best on all
board. size monitors and at all monitor resolu-
 You know the space allowed from tions.
the start and that your finished product  A consistent design, with consistent

will look the same to everyone who sees navigation (always in the same place) is
it. a key to keeping people on your site.
 You must have bleed and safety ar-

eas to guarantee print results.

Another major difference is how you actually achieve your layout. As a print
designer, you know the final piece will be delivered as-is to the printer, though you
must make the final print job appears as intended. As a web designer, you must keep
in mind that you will deliver your design to a programmer (if not doing it yourself)
who will prepare it for the web.
Color: dealing with color can be very tricky in both print and web design. It is
important to understand each of the color models and spaces, such as RGB, CMYK

36
and HSV. Below are some of the choices, issues and concerns when dealing with
color in print versus web design.

In Print Design: In Web Design:


 Consider the difference between  Consider the difference in colors
your colors on screen and on paper. from monitor to monitor.
 Again, a “proof” can help ensure you  How color will be affected by bright-
are getting the desired results. ness and contrast changes.
 You often choose “spot” or  Colors are represented by “hexadeci-
“process” colors for your printer to use. mal values” (6 digit numbers). Again,
These are colors you choose from a pal- this responsibility may fall on a pro-
ette and identify with a code that you grammer, but you may be providing
provide to your printer. these values to them.

Technology: keeping up with the latest technology is necessary in both print and
web design. For both, it is important to work in graphic programs such as Adobe Pho-
toshop, Illustrator, and InDesign. For print designers, knowing the latest advances
in the printing process will help you to achieve the best results in your work. For web
designers, knowing what your programmer (if not yourself!) can and cannot do will
help you to provide the most effective designs.
Careers: a career in graphic design can mean many things. Below are just a few
examples of specific jobs in print and web design.
Print: Web:
 Art
Director at a magazine.  Web designer for a social network-
 Ad designer at an ad firm. ing site.
 Package designer for a cosmetics  Flash designer for movie websites.
company.  Banner ad designer for a marketing
 Designer for a t-shirt company. firm.

Which to Choose?
Ideally, deciding which type of design to pursue will be based on experience.
Even if you create your own personal projects, try creating some print pieces (such as
your own business card) and websites (create a mockup of your online portfolio). See
what you enjoy, and learn more about it! Think about the differences in this article
and what you’d like to focus on.
Learning both print and web design will make you even more marketable. In to-
day’s job market, listings often ask for a focus on one, but knowledge of both. As a

37
freelancer, being able to offer a client a full marketing package, with print materials
and a website to match, will only help to grow a business and build an impressive
portfolio.
NOTES:
____________________________________________________________________
_
*Flash websites: flash is a multimedia technology used for creating animations
and interactive websites. Web developers often use Flash to add dynamic content that
is not possible with HTML or other scripting languages. Some examples include
splash screen animations, YouTube videos, and interactive song playlists.

XIV. Choose the correct word or word combination to complete the sen-
tences:

1. As a print designer you may work on…


a) business cards and logos;
b) flash websites;
c) banner advertising.
2. As a web designer you may work on…
a) magazine advertisements;
b) business cards and logos;
c) standard HTML websites and flash websites.
3. In print design physical properties such as … can help you achieve your de-
sign goals.
a) clear navigation;
b) texture and shape;
c) animation and sound.
4. In web design such properties as … can help you achieve your design goals.
a) colors and lines;
b) texture and shape;
c) animation and sound.
5. The differences in layout start in the available … to create your design.
a) material;
b) software;
c) space.
6. Dealing with color it is important to understand each of the color model and
spaces, such as …

38
a) HTML and CSS;
b) RGB, CMYK and HSV;
c) CAD, GIS and DTP.

XV. Read Text III, be ready with the annotation.


TEXT III
LOGO AND WEBSITE DESIGN
Logos: to create a “brand” for a company is to create their image, and to pro-
mote that image with campaigns and visuals. Working in branding allows a graphic
designer or design firm to get involved with many aspects of the industry, from logo
design to advertising to copywriting and slogans. The goal of a brand is to make a
company unique and recognizable, and to project a desired image. Over time, a brand
can make a company a household name, and identifiable by a simple shape or color.
To create a brand for a company, a designer needs to fully understand the goals of the
organization, the industry as a whole, and working with design to create the appropri-
ate materials to represent that company.
When working in branding, a designer can expect to work in:
 Logo design.

 Business card design.

 Letterhead design.
 Packaging.
 Copywriting.
 Writing slogans.
 Advertising design.
 Typeface design.
 Research.
 Marketing.
Examples of branding are all around us. The NBC peacock, the UPS brown
truck and Nike’s “just do it” are some of the most famous examples. They are so rec-
ognizable that we don’t need to hear a company name to know what they are. Online
brands such as MySpace, Facebook and YouTube are more recently developed but
now just as recognizable. Logos on your favorite products, the packaging they come
in, and the slogans that represent them are all examples of branding.
Website design, while a relatively new industry, is now an essential part of a
company’s image, brand, and advertising, marketing and public relations campaigns.
The side of web design that would be considered graphic design is the creation of the

39
actual look and feel of a website. Many web designers are also involved in web de-
velopment, creating the functionality behind a working website. Even if someone
wants to just focus on the design side, an understanding of the technology behind
websites is essential to create designs that are both attractive and functional.
Work for web designers can include:
 Designing websites to hand off to developers.
 Designing web banner ads.
 Creating animated flash websites.
 Creating mockups and site wireframes.
 Understanding web technologies.
 Understanding browser and operating system differences.
 Working closely with web programmers.
For someone working on the design side of website, Photoshop is the most pop-
ular software. Often a designer will create one or several layouts in Photoshop and
hand them off to a developer, who will create a working site based on them. For those
continuing into the development side, products such as Dreamweaver, GoLive, and
countless HTML and CSS editing programs can be used.
There are often differences between web designers and programmers, each with
their own goals in mind. Web designers are looking to create the most beautiful site
possible, while programmers want something fast and functional. Being a great web
designer means understanding both sides, and creating websites that look good and
that are designed with function in mind (therefore avoiding these differences). While
the ability to code by hand may not be necessary, it is important to know what types
of layouts are feasible, how they will appear in different browsers, and what type-
faces and color combinations work well on screen rather than on paper. These types
of questions make web design an interesting and challenging profession.

XVI. Give your opinion about creating logos and websites in our country.
Discuss your ideas with your partners using the active vocabulary and the
phrases of expressing opinion in the Appendix.

XVII. Read Text IV and give a brief summary of it.


TEXT IV
BUSINESS CARDS DESIGN
Whether you are a freelancer or you own your own design firm, it is crucial to
have business cards for your graphic design business. First we are going to look at the

40
advantages of having a card, and then move on to the decisions that have to be made
and the actual design process.
The most obvious reason for having a graphic design business card is to be able
to easily provide your contact information to potential clients and employers. You
don’t want to be left in a situation where you are promoting your business, and then
searching for a scrap of paper to jot down your phone number, email address and
website. Having your card on you at all times will insure that you are providing peo-
ple with clear and accurate information. It is important to look professional and legiti-
mate, and a business card is the first step.
A business card serves as a mini portfolio. It is the first example of your design
work that you are showing potential clients. The design and message of the card itself
can make it stick in people’s minds and convince them to contact you for their next
big project. The card should reflect your own personal style, so people have a tiny
glimpse into your work that makes them want to see more. This is not to say a simple
card cannot do the trick, but even a basic design can have the small touches that im-
press your next client.
Before working on the actual design of the card, decide what you want to in-
clude on it. Most commonly, a graphic design business card will include any of the
following:
 Company Name.
 Logo.
 Slogan.
 Your Name (if different from company name).
 Title or Description of Work Provided (i.e. Web and Print Design).
 Phone Number.
 Fax Number.
 Email Address.
 Website Portfolio Address.
 Mailing Address.
Having all of these content items on your card would most likely be overwhelm-
ing and crowded on the small space of a card. Only include what is essential. Along
with these items, consider including a message that will speak to your target audi-
ence.
You don’t necessarily need to choose a printer before you design the card. How-
ever, it may be helpful in that you can see the size, paper and other printing options
early on in the design process. Which printer you choose may be based on their costs
or options such as papers and sizes. Perhaps one of the easiest options is to go with an
online printer. Online printers often offer low-cost options for business card printing.

41
Most will send free samples at your request, so be sure the quality is what you are
looking for at your budget. Most will also provide templates for popular graphics
software such as Illustrator, making the design process easier.
The standard business card is 2 inches tall by 3.5 inches wide. This is often the
best choice, as it will fit in business card holders and match up with other business
cards, and will often have the lowest printing cost. Perhaps you have a design in mind
that will work best on a square or round card. Most printers do provide a variety of
shapes and sizes, as well as custom die-cuts. Just remember that while you may want
to make a statement with a fancy shape, a card should be convenient, both for you to
carry and for others to take, and hopefully keep. Don’t make the mistake of choosing
form over function. Choosing the standard size but with rounded or angled corners
can be a nice touch and compromise. At this point, you should also decide if the card
will be one or two-sided. With the low costs of online printers, it is possible to get a
full-color, two-sided card at a good rate.
Before completing your business card project, you will also have to choose a pa-
per. This decision will often be limited by what your printer of choice provides. Com-
mon choices are glossy and matte finish at different weights such as 14pt. Again, get-
ting samples from printers can help with this decision.
Treat this design as you would a project for your top client. Now that you’ve
collected your content and determined the document size, move on to some prelimi-
nary sketches. Figure out where each element will appear on the card. Do you want
one side to be just your logo, with contact information on the back? Do you want a
clever marketing message on one side and all company information on the other?
Sketch out your ideas to help make these important decisions.
Once you have a concept or two that you like, it’s time to create the actual de-
sign. Adobe Illustrator is one of the best software tools for business card design, be-
cause of how well it handles type and other design elements. Check with your printer
to see what file formats they accept, and use their templates whenever possible to in-
sure the process goes smoothly. Be sure your document layout is properly prepared
for printing. Once the design is complete, the files must be delivered to your printer.
While there may be an extra cost, it may pay to get a proof of your design, which al-
lows you to see the layout and quality before going ahead with the full print job.

XVIII. Render the following text into English:

Обычно визитная карточка выполняется в виде прямоугольника из


достаточно плотного картона или бумаги стандартным размером 5090 мм, по
этикету женская карточка может быть меньше – 4080 мм.

42
Большая часть правил, однако, относится к размещению текста.
Классическим вариантом считается следующий: по центру наверху – название
компании, в которой работает владелец визитки, ниже и тоже по центру – его
фамилия, имя и отчество, еще ниже – должность, которую он занимает. Здесь
же вполне уместно указывать звание или ученую степень. В левом нижнем углу
печатается адрес компании, в которой работает хозяин карточки. А остальные
сведения (это могут быть номера контактных телефонов, электронная почта,
адрес веб-сайта компании или собственной странички в Интернете) должны
находиться в правом нижнем углу. Такое размещение информации выбрано
исключительно из соображений удобства. Обычно визитку держат левой рукой,
а правой - набирают телефонный номер, указанный в визитке.
При размещении всех указанных элементов требуется соблюдать
горизонтальное равновесие, для этого часть информации можно перемещать,
например, в левый угол.
На визитные карточки государственных служащих обязательно должен
наноситься государственный герб и флаг. По этикету официальный адрес
должен быть на всех визитках, за исключением карточек дипломатов и высших
должностных лиц государства.
Что касается шрифта, то он никакими правилами этикета не
регламентируется. Однако, с учетом предназначения визитной карточки, он
должен легко читаться, то есть быть достаточно крупным и не вычурным. Имя
и фамилию владельца выделяют полужирным шрифтом, чуть большего
размера, чем остальная информация на визитной карточке.
Обычно рекомендуют применять не более двух разных шрифтов и не более
трех цветов для одной визитки.
Деловые визитные карточки должны выглядеть элегантно и сдержанно.
Классический вариант – это темный текст на каком-либо светлом фоне. Дизайн
должен быть строгим, без росчерков и завитушек. Бумага должна быть
качественной, плотной, может быть матовой или глянцевой, белой. Она должна
быть хорошего качества, может быть слегка тонирована (допускаются голубой,
розовый, бежевый фон).
В общем, несмотря на самый широкий спектр предлагаемых цветовых
решений, предпочтительнее остановиться на черно-белом варианте (в крайнем
случае, трехцветном).
При разработке фирменного стиля важно помнить, что визитка будет
выглядеть дорого и солидно за счет эффектной работы дизайнера и
качественной бумаги, а не за счет количества используемых цветов.
Лаконичность и простота – вот основные качества хорошей визитной карточки.

43
Выразительность даже самой простой карточке придадут методы
современной полиграфии – это рельефное тиснение, фольгирование,
термоподъем и прочие технологии.
И последнее: перевод текста визитной карточки на иностранный язык. Этот
вопрос надо тщательно проработать. В соответствии с западными стандартами,
надо писать только имя и фамилию, причем инициалы не допускаются. Отчество
писать не принято (в крайнем случае, его можно обозначить заглавной буквой).
Также неприемлемо переведенный текст печатать с обратной стороны визитки.
В случае работы с зарубежными партнерами, по правилам этикета, необходимо
разработать два комплекта карточек – на родном языке и иностранном.
Визитная карточка дает представление о вас и вашей фирме, работает так
же, как и обычная реклама, а значит и относиться к ее дизайну и содержанию
надо очень ответственно.

XIX. Try to design the business card of your own. Make use if business
card design principles and discuss your card with a partner.

 The business card should look professional.


 The card should reflect your personal style.
 Include only essential information.
 Choose the proper size, shape, paper and color.

XX. Write a short essay about spheres of applying graphic design.

UNIT IV
ELEMENTS AND TOOLS OF GRAPHIC DESIGN

Vocabulary
1. confuse – смешивать; путать;
2. root – источник; корень; первопричина;
3. will – воля; желание;
4. content – содержание; суть; существо; сущность; значение; смысл;
5. imply – предполагать; подразумевать; заключать в себе; значить;
6. apply (to) – применять; использовать; употреблять;
7. dramatically – впечатляюще; поразительно; значительно; сильно;
8. evoke – пробуждать (чувства); вызывать (воспоминание, восхищение);
9. alignment – выверка; выравнивание; регулировка;

44
10. layered – многослойный; многоуровневый;
11. mirror – v. воспроизводить; отображать; отражать;
12. tracking – зд. контроль;
13. inspiration – вдохновение; воодушевление;
14. sketch out – изображать схематически;
15. brainstorm – мозговой штурм;
16. sketchpad – записная книжка, содержащая предварительные наброски;
заметки; мысли;
17. notepad – блокнот;
18. handy – доступный; близкий; (имеющийся) под рукой;
19. rounds of approval – поток одобрений;
20. aside from – помимо; за исключением;
21. collaborate – работать совместно; сотрудничать;
22. dimension – размеры; величина; объем; протяжение;
23. match – v. находить соответствие; приводить в соответствие,
согласовывать (разные вещи);
24. proceed – продолжать;
25. outline – v. обрисовать, наметить в общих чертах; n. набросок; эскиз;
26. harness – использовать (в определенных целях и по возможности
полностью); приспосабливать (под что-либо, для чего-либо);
27. fit in – вмещать; размещать;
28. spark – вдохновлять; воодушевлять; воспламенять; зажигать;
побуждать;
29. doodle – чертить; машинально рисовать;
30. stick – держаться, придерживаться ( to – чего-либо).

I. Read the following international words and guess their meanings:

element pictographs basis


principle basic text
balance zigzag emotion
theory style section
photographs critique museum
selection version original
unique budget phase

II. Choose the correct translation of the following English words:

45
imply предположение предполагать предполагаемый
apply применение применять применяемый
dramatically значение означать значительно
alignment выравнивание выравнивать ровный
layered многослойность слоиться многослойный
inspiration вдохновение вдохновлять вдохновляющий
collaborate сотрудничество сотрудничать совместный
dimension размер измерять соразмерный
harness использование использовать полезный

III. Look at some basic design terms and try to guess their meanings by
matching them with their definition:
1. root a) a drawing or manner of drawing consisting only of exter-
nal lines
2. will b) the edge or contour of a shape, as in sculpture or archi-
tecture, or a mark on a painting, drawing, etc., defining or sug-
gesting this
3. content c) arrangement in a straight line
4. brainstorm d) a measurement of the size of something in a particular
direction, such as the length, width, height, or diameter
5. sketchpad e) a book of plain paper containing sketches or for making
sketches in
6. dimension f) a sudden clever plan or idea
7. outline g) the meaning or significance of a poem, painting, or other
work of art, as distinguished from its style or form
8. alignment h) deliberate intention or wish
9. line i) a primary source; an origin

IV. Discuss the following question: What elements of graphic design do you
know? Give your reasons.

V. Now read Text I and see if you were right.


TEXT I
ELEMENTS OF GRAPHIC DESIGN

46
The elements of graphic design are used, and often combined, to create graphic
works. They should not be confused with principles of design, such as balance and
white space, but rather components such as color, type and images. Presented here is
a list of the most commonly used elements in graphic design.
Shapes: from ancient pictographs to modern logos, shapes are at the root of de-
sign. They are used to establish layouts, create patterns, and build countless elements
on the page. With graphics software such as Illustrator, creating and manipulating
shapes is easier than ever, giving designers the freedom to create them at will.
Lines are used to divide space, direct the eye, and create forms. At the most ba-
sic level, straight lines are found in layouts to separate content, such as in magazine,
newspaper, and website designs. This can of course go much further, with curved,
dotted, and zigzag lines used as the defining elements on a page and as the basis for
illustrations and graphics. Often, lines will be implied, meaning other elements of de-
sign will follow the path of line, such as type on a curve.
Color is an interesting element of graphic design because it can be applied to
any other element, changing it dramatically. It can be used to make an image stand
out, to show linked text on a website, and to evoke emotion. Graphic designers
should combine their experience with color with an understanding of color theory.
Type, of course, is all around us. In graphic design, the goal is not to just place
some text on a page, but rather to understand and use it effectively for communica-
tion. Choice of fonts (typefaces), size, alignment, color, and spacing all come into
play. Type can be taken further by using it to create shapes and images.
Art, Illustration & Photography: a powerful image can make or break a de-
sign. Photographs, illustrations and artwork are used to tell stories, support ideas, and
grab the audience's attention, so the selection is important. Graphic designers can cre-
ate this work on their own, commission an artist or photographer, or purchase it at all
price levels on many websites.
Texture can refer to the actual surface of a design or to the visual appearance of
a design. In the first case, the audience can actually feel the texture, making it unique
from the other elements of design. Selection of paper and materials in package design
can affect actual texture. In the second case, texture is implied through the style of
design. Rich, layered graphics can create visual texture that mirrors actual texture.

VI. Reread Text I, write down the sentences with Infinitive constructions
and translate them.

VII. Find in Text I words or phrases which mean the same as

47
• to set up to show up to buy
• significantly impressive to order
• to modify to catch unequalled

VIII. Look at the way the following terms are used in Text I and try to ex-
plain them according to the model:

Model
Content is the meaning or significance of a poem, painting, or other work of art,
as distinguished from its style or form
Outline is a drawing or manner of drawing consisting only of external lines.
Shape, line, texture, color, type.

IX. Look at the way the following words are used in Text I and then circle
the correct part of speech:

presented (par. 1) noun verb participle


creating (par. 2) noun verb gerund
forms (par. 3) noun verb adjective
used (par. 3) noun verb participle
changing (par. 4) noun verb participle
linked (par. 4) noun verb participle
shapes (par. 5) noun verb gerund
commission (par. 6) noun verb participle
mirrors (par. 7) noun verb adjective
X. Fill in the gaps with the prepositions from the box.

with at at in to
by on at to to
1. The elements of graphic design should not be confused … principles of de-
sign, such as balance and white space, but rather components such as color, type and
images.
2. Shapes are … the root of design.
3. … the most basic level, straight lines are found … layouts to separate content,
such as in magazine, newspaper, and website designs.
4. Color is an interesting element of graphic design because it can be applied …
any other element, changing it dramatically.

48
5. Type can be taken further … using it to create shapes and images.
6. Graphic designers can create this work … their own, commission an artist or
photographer, or purchase it … all price levels on many websites.
7. Texture can refer … the actual surface of a design or … the visual appearance
of a design.

XI. Find the English equivalents in Text I:

Создавать графические работы; пробельный символ; древняя пиктография;


у истоков дизайна; пунктирная линия; создавать образцы; заставить
изображение выделяться; впечатляющее изображение; давать заказ художнику;
дизайн упаковки.

XII. Answer the following questions:

1. What for are the elements of graphic design used?


2. What for are shapes used?
3. What is the function of lines?
4. What role does color play in graphic design?
5. What goal does type have in graphic design?
6. What can affect actual texture in design?

XIII. Read and translate Text II.


TEXT II
ESSENTIAL GRAPHIC DESIGN TOOL

There are several tools that are essential to graphic design. Below is a list of
what is absolutely necessary to work in graphic design, as well as some things that
are recommended.
In today's design world, a computer is essential. It will be both your design tool
and your business tool. Using graphics software, you will create illustrations, work
with type, touch-up photos and complete layouts. The major decision here is what
computer to get, and this generally starts with deciding between a Mac and PC.

49
Graphics and business-related software are also a key to your success. Some
products, such as Photoshop and Illustrator, focus on the creative end of design.
Other packages, such as project management or time tracking software, will help you
stay organized and manage the business end of design.
It's very helpful to build up your own small library of graphic design books.
Some should be for inspiration, some for technical help, and others to assist you on
the business side of design.
While you're most likely to use a computer to complete a design, you don't have
to start with one. Sketching out ideas is a great way to begin a project and brainstorm,
and can be much quicker than mocking something up on a computer. It's also impor-
tant to always keep a small sketchpad or notepad handy, as you can forget a great
idea as fast as you thought of it.
Other Creative Professionals
While you may not think of them as a “tool”, knowing other designers, illustra-
tors, web developers, photographers and other creatives is extremely important for
three reasons:
1. It's not easy to critique yourself. Get opinions on your work and encourage
constructive criticism to push your work to a higher level.
2. Having others around to brainstorm with can bring about the best ideas.
3. As you get projects that are more involved, you will need people to collabo-
rate with. Find a group of people you can trust with different skillsets than your own
so you can work on projects together.
These essential tools will help you get started, and grow, in a career in graphic
design. All you need to do now is to combine them with your creativity!
XIV. Read the English words and word combinations in the left column
and match them with their Russian equivalents in the right:

1. touch-up photo
2. the business side of design a) ретушировать фотографию
3. sketching out ideas b) техническая поддержка
4. to bring about c) коммерческая сторона дизайна
d) программное обеспечение,
5. a skillset контролирующее время
6. project management e) управление проектом
7. time tracking software f) обрисовать идеи в общих чертах
8. technical help g) спровоцировать, вызвать

50
h) набор навыков
XV. Decide whether these statements are true or false:

1. Using graphics software, you will create illustrations, work with type, touch-
up photos and complete layouts.
2. Some products, such as CAD and GIS, focus on the creative end of design.
3. Some of graphic design books should be for inspiration, some for technical
help, and others to assist you on the business side of design.
4. Sketching out ideas is wasting time when you begin a project and brainstorm.
5. It's also important to always keep a small sketchpad or notepad handy, as you
can forget a great idea as fast as you thought of it.
6. It's easy to critique yourself.
7. Having others around to brainstorm with cannot bring about the best ideas.
8. All you need to do is to combine the tools with your creativity

XVI. Read the text below and complete it using the words from the box.

Software countless functions file create


tool Photoshop file a blemish filters

Adobe Photoshop has long been considered essential 1… for graphic design. It
is sold on its own, or as part of Adobe’s Creative Suite, which also includes Illustra-
tor, InDesign, Flash, Dreamweaver, Acrobat Pro and several other tools. Photoshop’s
primary 2… include photo editing, website design, and the creation of elements for
any type of project. It is also commonly used to 3… layouts for design, such as
posters and business cards, although Illustrator or InDesign are often better for those
tasks.
Photoshop is called Photoshop for a reason that it is an excellent 4… for editing
photos. If a designer is preparing a digital or scanned photograph for use in a project,
whether it is a website, brochure, book design or packaging, the first step is often to
bring it into 5…. Using a variety of tools within the software, a designer can:
 Crop photos.
 Resize photos.
 Adjust and correct colors.
 Touch-up photos, such as “erasing” 6… or removing a tear or fold.
 Apply a large selection of 7… such as “watercolor” for special effects and
styles.

51
 Optimize photos for the web by choosing 8… formats and reducing 9… size.
 Save photos in a variety of formats for use in print projects.
 Use their creativity to perform 10… tasks.

XVII. Read Text III, be ready with the annotation.


TEXT III
THE GRAPHIC DESIGN PROCESS
When starting a new design project, there are steps of the graphic design process
to follow that will help you to achieve the best results. Rather than jump right into a
graphics software program to try to create a final version, you can save yourself time
and energy by first researching the topic, finalizing your content, starting with simple
sketches and getting several rounds of approval on designs.
Gather Information
Before you can start a project you of course need to know what your client
needs. Gathering information is the first step of the graphic design process. When ap-
proached for a new job, set up a meeting to discuss the scope of the work. Be sure to
gather as much information as possible:
Aside from the product your client needs (such as a logo or a website), ask ques-
tions such as:
 Who is the audience?
 What is the message?
 How many pages is the piece?
 What are the dimensions?
 Is there a specific budget?
 Is there a deadline for completion?
 Can the client provide examples of design they like?
 Is there an existing corporate brand that needs to be matched?
Take detailed notes, which you can use later for the next step of the design
process.
Create an Outline
Using the information collected in your meeting you'll be able to develop an out-
line of the content and goal of the project, which you can present to your client for
approval before proceeding. For a website, include all of the major sections and the
content for each. Include the dimensions and technical specifications for print or web
work as well. Present this outline to your client, and ask for any changes. Once this is

52
finalized, you know you are in agreement on what the piece will include and can pro-
ceed to the next step of the graphic design process.
NOTE: It is at this time that you would provide a proposal to your client as well,
including the cost and timeframe for the work, but here we are focusing on the design
process.
Harness Your Creativity!
Design should be creative! Before moving on to the design itself (don't worry,
that's next) take some time to think about creative solutions for the project. You can
use the client's examples of favorite work as guidelines for what they like and don't
like, but your goal should be to come up with something new and different that will
separate them from the rest (unless of course they specifically asked to fit in). Ways
to get the creative juices flowing include:
 Brainstorming: Get together with a group and throw out any and all ideas.
 Visit a museum: Get inspired by the originals.
 Read a book: Something as small as a color or shape in a graphic design book
could spark a completely original idea.
 Take a walk: Sometimes its best to get outside and watch the world...you
never know what will spark your imagination.
 Draw: Even if you're not an “artist”, doodle some ideas on a page.
Once you have some ideas for the project it's time to start creating a structured
layout.
Sketches and Wireframes
Before moving into a software program such as Illustrator or InDesign, it is
helpful to create some simple sketches of the layout of a piece. This way, you can
show your client some ideas without spending too much time on design. Find out if
you are headed in the right direction by providing quick sketches of logo concepts,
line drawings of layouts showing where elements will be placed on the page or even a
quick handmade version of a package design. For web design, wireframes are a great
way to start with your page layouts.
Design Multiple Versions
Now that you've done your research, finalized your content and gotten approval
on some sketches you can move on to the actual design phases of the graphic design
process. While you may knock out the final design in one shot, it's usually a good
idea to present your client with at least two versions of a design. You can agree on
how many unique versions are included in a job in your proposal. This gives the
client some options and allows you to combine their favorite elements from each.

53
TIP: Be sure to keep even the versions or ideas that you choose NOT to present
and that you might not even like at the time, as you never know when they'll come in
handy.
Revisions
Be sure to let your client know that you encourage “mixing and matching” the
designs you provide. They may like the background color on one design and the font
choices on another. From their suggestions you can present a second round of design.
Don't be afraid to give your opinion on what looks best after all, you're the designer!
After this second round, it isn't uncommon to have a couple more rounds of changes
before reaching a final design.
Stick to the Steps
When following these steps, be sure to finish each one before moving on to the
next. If you conduct solid research, you know you can create an accurate outline.
With an accurate outline, you have the information necessary to sketch out some
ideas. With the approval of these ideas, you can move on to create the actual design,
which once revised, will be your final piece. That's much better than having a client
say “Where's the Logo?” after the work is already done!

XVIII. Read Text IV and give a brief summary of it.


TEXT IV
ADVERTISEMENT AND BOOK DESIGN
Advertisements: like many graphic design fields, working in advertising takes
you far beyond creating designs and page layouts. While a specific job may be to cre-
ate a print ad for a campaign, this field requires an understanding of marketing, pub-
lic relations and consumers. Along with the business side, a design in the advertising
field will need to know a great deal about print production and preparing works for
print in various publications and formats.
When working in advertising one can expect to:
 Design magazine advertisements.
 Design newspaper advertisements.
 Perform market research.
 Perform consumer research.
 Need a thorough understanding of the brand.
 Handle projects from design to production.
 Work directly or for an ad agency.
 Understand both print and online advertising.

54
 Work directly with illustrators, photographers and other team members.
Working in book design can mean several things. For some, it may be creating
elaborate book covers and jacket designs from scratch. For others, it may mean hours
of detailed-oriented layout work. Designing a book cover means first understanding
the nature of the book, and then the audience, and in today’s market, creating some-
thing that sells. This work may be done as a freelancer or in-house for a book pub-
lisher.
When working in book design one can expect to:
 Design covers.
 Design book jackets.
 Work in page layout.
 Learn the rules of typography.
 Work with deadlines.
Depending on the project, book design and layout can call for all types of
graphic design software. Covers that incorporate photography will most likely be
brought into Photoshop at some point. Others that need original artwork and clever
typography will likely be done in a program like Illustrator. For layout of full books,
InDesign and Quark are used throughout the industry.
Book designers must pay close attention to the legal issues to protect their work.
A fair contract will enable the designer to make additional money for a second print-
ing or paperback printing that goes beyond the original run of a book. This allows the
designer to share in the success of the product and not give unlimited use of the de-
sign. Designers should also look to get their credit on books they design, which will
help to promote their business.

XIX. Discuss with your classmates the opportunities of modern graphic de-
sign using the active vocabulary.

XX. Write a short essay about the graphic design process.

55
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Английский язык: учеб. пособие для студентов, обучающихся по


специальности «Дизайн» / Г.В. Шевцова [и др.]. – М.: Высшая школа, 2007. –
343 с.: ил.
2. Практический курс английского языка: 3 курс: учеб. для педвузов по
спец. «Иностр. язык» / Под ред. В.Д. Аракина. – 4-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М.:
Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 2002. – 432 с.: ил.
3. Практический курс английского языка: 4 курс: учеб. для студ. вузов /
В.Д. Аракин [и др.]; под ред. В.Д. Аракина. – 5-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М.:
Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 2006. – 351 с.: ил.
4. http://graphicdesign.about.com

56
APPENDIX

How to Write an Annotation


An annotation is a brief description of a work such as an article, chapter of a
book, book, Web site, or movie. An annotation attempts to give enough information to
make a decision as to whether or not to read the complete work. Annotations may be
descriptive or critical.
An annotation should include
 Complete bibliographic information.
 Some or all of the following:
 Information to explain the authority and/or qualifications of the author. For ex-
ample: Dr. William Smith, a history professor at XYZ University, based his book
on twenty years of research.
 Scope and main purpose of the work.
 Any biases that you detect.
 Intended audience and level of reading difficulty.
 The relationship, if any, to other works in the area of study.
 A summary comment, e.g., “A popular account directed at educated adults” .
The annotation should be about 100 to 200 words.
Sample Annotation
(1) Trevor, C.O., Lansford, B. and Black, J.W. (2004). Key
Employee turnover and job performance: monitoring the in- (1) Citation
fluences of salary growth and promotion. Journal of Arm- (2) Introduction
chair Psychology. Vol 113, no.1, pp. 56-64. (2) In this article (3) Aims & Research
Trevor et al. review the influences of pay and job opportuni- (4) Scope
ties in respect to job performance, turnover rates and em- (5) Usefulness (to your
ployee motivation. (3) The authors use data gained through research/ to a particular
organisational surveys of blue-chip companies in Vancouver, topic)
Canada to try to identify the main causes of employee (6) Limitations
turnover and whether it is linked to salary growth. (4) Their (7) Conclusions
research focuses on assessing a range of pay structures such (8) Reflection (explain
as pay for performance and organisational reward schemes. how this work illuminates
(5) The article is useful to my research topic, as Trevor et al. your topic or how it will
suggest that there are numerous reasons for employee fit in with your research)
turnover and variances in employee motivation and perfor-
mance. (6) The main limitation of the article is that the sur-
vey sample was restricted to mid-level management, (7) thus
the authors indicate that further, more extensive, research

57
needs to be undertaken to develop a more in-depth under-
standing of employee turnover and job performance. (8) This
article will not form the basis of my research; however it will
be useful supplementary information for my research on pay
structures.

Краткий план аннотации


1. Общая характеристика статьи: The paper (article) under discussion (considera-
tion) is intended (aims) to describe (explain, examine, survey) …
2. Задачи, поставленные автором: The author outlines (points out, reviews, analy-
ses)…
3. Оценка полученных результатов исследования: The results obtained confirm
(lead to, show)…
4. Подведение итогов, выводов по работе: The paper summarizes, in summing up to
author, at the end of the article the author sums up...

Образцы клишированных аннотаций на английском языке


The article deals with …
As the title implies the article describes ...
The paper is concerned with …
It is known that …
It should be noted about …
The fact that … is stressed.
A mention should be made about …
It is spoken in detail about …
It is reported that …
The text gives valuable information on …
Much attention is given to …
It is shown that …
The following conclusions are drawn …
The paper looks at recent research dealing with …
The main idea of the article is …
It gives a detailed analysis of …
It draws our attention to …
It is stressed that …
The article is of great help to …
The article is of interest to …

… is/are noted, examined, discussed in detail, stressed, reported, considered.

58
Rendering
***The aim of this article/text/report is to …
It is based on …
This article/text/report is intended to …
It draws to …
This article/text/report looks at/describes …
According to …
In the words of …
In general/ On the whole/ In he main …
Interestingly/ Curiously/ Oddly/ Strangely/ Surprisingly/ Predictably/ It is interesting
that …
To sum up/ To summarize/ On balance/ In short/…

***The title of the text is …


The text tells about …
The main/ central idea is …/in brief …/ to put it in a few words …
The aim of the article/text is to tell the reader about …
According to the text …
To all appearances (по всей видимости) …
Needless to say (само собой разумеется) …
Inasmuch as (ввиду того, что) …
Then I’m going to add …
I want to point out the following facts that were new for me …
In conclusion I’d like to say …
I like … because …/ I dislike … because …

Expressing Opinion
I think I’d much prefer to …
Nothing like as good (bad) as …
That’s what I thought …
And that’s another thing …
There’s much variety in …
To be similar in …
There’s a tremendous number of differences in …
To have much (little) in common …
I (don’t) think we should …
It would be better to …
I (don’t) agree …

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Agreement and Disagreement
Agreeing:
neutral – Yes, I agree … True enough. That’s right. I can’t help thinking the same.
How true. I couldn’t agree more. How right that is. Oh, definitely.
informal – Well, that’s the thing. Well, this is it (isn’t it)? Yes, right. Dead right. Too
true. I’d go along with you there. I’m with you there.
formal – Oh, I agree entirely. I agree absolutely with … My own view/ opinion ex-
actly. I’m of exactly the same opinion. I don’t think anyone could/ would disagree with …

Disagreeing:
neutral – Oh, I don’t agree … I’m not at all sure, actually/ in fact. Not really. Oh, I
don’t Know. No, I don’t think … I disagree (I’m afraid). That’s not right, surely. I can’t
help thinking ….
informal – Oh, surely not I don’t see why. I can’t go along with .. Oh, come off it.
Nonsense! Rubbish! No way! You must be joking. You can’t mean that!
formal – I really must take issue with you there. I’m afraid I can’t accept … I can’t
say that I share that/ your view. I’m not at all convinced … I see things rather differently
myself.

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Редактор К.В. Муковоз
Компьютерная верстка – О.Г. Белименко
ИД № 06039 от 12.10.2001
Сводный темплан 2011 г.
Подписано в печать 19.04.11. Формат 60х84 1/16. Отпечатано на дупликаторе.
Бумага офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 3,75. Уч.-изд. л. 3,75.
Тираж 100 экз. Заказ 305.

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