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(NASA-TM-X-68709) APOLLO 16:


INVESTIGATION OF THE MOON (NASA) ^1972 N72-74525

Unclas
00/99 38600

SCIENTIFIC
INVESTIGATION
OF THE MOON...
opollo 16 creuu
JOHN W. YOUNG CHARLES M. DUKE, JR. THOMAS K. MATTINGLY
Commander Lunar Module Pilot Command Module Pilot

A veteran astronaut. Young was pilot of Astronaut Duke like his fellow crew Astronaut Mattingly is making his first
the Gemini 3 with Astronaut Gus member Mattingly is making his first trip venture into space. He served as a
Grissom which orbited Earth on March into space. He was a member of the member of the support crews on the
23, 1965. He was also back-up pilot for astronaut support crew for the Apollo 10 Apollo 8 and Apollo 11 missions.
the Gemini 6 mission and was command mission in 1969, and he was the backup Designated command module pilot for
pilot on the Gemini 10 mission in 1966. lunar module pilot for the Apollo 13 the Apollo 13 mission in 1970, his
Young also served as back-up command mission 1970. assignment was cancelled just 72 hours
module pilot on Apollo 11 in 1969, and before liftoff when it was discovered-that
he was the command module pilot on the Duke was born in Charlotte, North he had been exposed to measles and was
Apollo 10 in 1969 that circled the Moon Carolina, on October 3, 1935; and he not immune to the disease.
and returned to Earth in a test of the attended Lancaster High School in
lunar module. Following that mission he Lancaster, South Carolina. He graduated Born in Chicago, Illinois, on March 17,
became the back-up commander for the from the Admiral Farragut Academy in 1936, Mattingly graduated from Edison
Apollo 13 mission in 1970. St. Petersburg, Florida. He holds a BS High School, in Miami, Florida, and
degree in naval science from the U. S. attended Auburn University, where he
Now a captain in the U. S. Navy, Young Naval Academy and a MS degree in received a BS degree in aeronautical
became a NASA astronaut in 1962. Since aeronautics and astronautics from the engineering in 1958.
then he has logged almost 268 -hours in Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
space; and he has more than 5,400 hours A lieutenant commander in the U. S.
in aircraft, including more than 4,400 A lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Air Navy, he is also a graduate of the U. S.
hours in jets. Force, Duke graduated from the U. S. Air Air Force Aerospace Research Pilot
Force Aerospace Research Pilot School in School. Mattingly has logged more than
He was born in San Francisco, California, 1965 and also served as an instructor 4,000 hours in the air, with more than
on September 24, 1930. After graduating there. Duke has logged over 2,900 hours 2,200 hours in jet aircraft. He became an
from Orlando High School, in Orlando, of aircraft time, including more than astronaut in 1966.
Florida, Young received a BS degree in 2,500 hours of jet time. He was selected
aeronautical engineering from the Georgia as an astronaut in 1966. He and his wife Elizabeth live in Houston,
Institute of Technology in 1952. He also Texas.
holds an honorary Doctor of Laws degree He and his wife Dorothy are the parents
from the Western State University College of two boys Charles, 7, and Thomas, 5.
of Law. They live in Houston, Texas.

Young holds the NASA Distinguished


Service Medal, two NASA Exceptional
Service Medals, the U. S. Navy
Distinguished Service Medal, and three U.
S. Navy Distinguished Flying Crosses.

He and his wife Barbara are the parents of


a son, John, 13, and a daughter Sandy,
15. They live in Houston, Texas.

SUCCESSFUL MISSIONS RESULT FROM QUALITY PERFORMANCE


DATE TIME/EST EVENT AND BRIEF DESCRIPTION

Sun 12:54 p.m. LAUNCH


Apr. 16 Lift-off from Launch Complex 39A at Kennedy Space Center.
1972 Insertion into orbit about Earth occurs 12 minutes later.

3:27 p.m. TRANSLUNAR INSERTION (TLI)


Apollo leaves Earth orbit for Moon

Wed 3:28 p.m. LUNAR ORBIT INSERTION (LOI)


Apr 19 Apollo enters an orbit around the Moon. Orbit is 69.5 miles by
1972 204 miles (92.6 kilometers by 272 kilometers).

4:24 p.m. THIRD STAGE IMPACT


The spent S-IVB stage of the Saturn 5 crashes into the Moon
about 150 miles (240 kilometers) west of Apollo 12 landing
site.

/chedule 7:30 p.m. DESCENT ORBIT INSERTION (DOI)


Apollo spacecraft with lunar module still attached changes

of orbit to 13 miles by 69.6 miles (17.3 kilometers by 92.8


kilometers).

event/ Thur
Apr. 20
1972
2:36 p.m. CIRCULAR ORBIT
The spacecraft orbit is circularized at 72 miles (96 kilometers)
above the Moon.

3:41 p.m. LUNAR MODULE LANDING


The lunar module lands on the Moon.

7:34 p.m. FIRST EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA 1)


Lunar rover checked out and loaded with equipment. Apollo
Lunar Surface Experiments Package set up near lunar module.
Astronauts drive west to Flag Crater and return by way of
Spook Crater.

Fri. 5:34 p.m. SECOND EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA 2)


Apr. 21
1972 Astronauts drive south from lunar module to Stone Mountain
for collection of samples from its lower slope. On the return to
the lunar module they collect samples of material thrown out
of South Ray Crater.

Sat. 5:34 p.m. THIRD EXTRAVEHICULAR ACTIVITY (EVA 3)


Apr. 22 Astronauts drive norih to North Ray Crater and Smokey
1972 Mountain to take photographs and collect geological samples.
They return to lunar module, stopping at Palmetto Crater for
additional samples of rocks and soil.

Sun. 4:39 p.m. LUNAR MODULE LIFT-OFF


Apr. 23 Lunar module lifts off the Moon for rendezvous with the
1972 Apollo spacecraft.

Tues. 4:08 p.m. SUBSATELLITE LAUNCH


Apr. 25 Apollo 16's scientific subsatellite released from the service
1972 module to orbit the Moon at 67.2 miles by 90.5 miles (87.2
kilometers by 120.6 kilometers).

7:15 p.m. TRANS-EARTH INJECTION (TEI)


Apollo 16 leaves lunar orbit for Earth.

Weds. 2:51 p.m. Extravehicular Activity (EVA 4)


Apr. 26 Astronaut Mattingly leaves the command module to retrieve
1972 films from mapping cameras in the scientific instrument
module of the service module.

Fri. 3:30 p.m. SPLASH-DOWN


Apr. 28 Apollo 16 lands in Pacific Ocean 1,182 miles (1,872
1972 kilometers) south of Hawaii after a journey taking 290 hours
and 36 minutes.

PRIDE IN PERFORMANCE MEANS SUCCESS IN SPACE


older than the Sea of Tranquility or the spacecraft and lunar module, still
Sea of Storms sampled on Apollo 11 and attached to the S-IVB stage, will make
12 (about three and one-half billion years between 1.8 and 2.8 revolutions of the
old) but younger than the Imbrium basin Earth during the checkout.
material sampled by Apollo 14. When
combined with the very old rocks from The S-IVB stage will start and burn for
Apollo 15 at the Hadley- Apennine site, six minutes to place the spacecraft on the
the samples from Apollo 16 should help proper path for its 71-hour and
scientist develop the story of lunar 23-minute trip to the Moon. The S-IVB
evolution. Near the landing site are North will follow it on a different trajectory so
Ray and South Ray, two young, large, that the spent stage will crash into the
craters, which have thrown out huge Moon about 150 miles (240 kilometers)
blocks of the basin fill where the west of the Apollo 12 landing site. It will
astronauts plan to obtain fresh samples. impact on April 19 with the energy of
approximately 10 tons (11 tons metric)
In addition, knowledge of the of TNT exploding. The impact at 5,400
composition and age of the highland miles per hour (2,414 meters per second)

mi//ion
plains material will add greatly to will be sensed and measured by
understanding of the processes which seismographs left on the Moon during
modify large areas of the Moon. p r e v i o u s Apollo missions. T h e
information telemetered to Earth by

objective/
Plans call for Commander John Young
them will help geologists to learn more
and Lunar Module Pilot Charles Duke to about the internal structure of the Moon.
remain on the lunar surface for an
estimated 72 hours and 58 minutes and On the way to the Moon, Astronaut
make three trips in their lunar roving Mattingly will perform a demonstration
Apollo 16 continues the program of vehicle. The three trips will cover that may have great potential in future
manned lunar exploration begun in 1969 approximately 16 miles (25.6 kilometers) pharmaceutical, medical, and biological
with the landing of Astronauts Neil and require about 21 hours. research and technology. He will
Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin in the Mare photograph the results of a small, fluid,
Tranquilatis (Sea of Tranquility). It is the Objectives of the Apollo 16 mission are electrophoresis unit. In the weightlessness
fifth in a planned series of six such to: of space, the movement of charged
missions. particles through a solution under the
Perform inspection, survey, and
influence of an electrical field
The landing site for the 12-day mission is sampling of materials and surface features (electrophoresis) should be much more
some 45 miles (75 kilometers) north of in the Descartes area.
efficient than on Earth, where gravity
the ancient Crater Descartes on the hilly, impedes the process. The unit weighs
grooved, and furrowed western edge of Emplace and activate scientific
only 5 pounds (2.3 kilograms). If the
the Kant Plateau in the central lunar instruments of the Apollo Lunar Surface
demonstration lives up to expectations, it
highlands among some of the loftiest Experiments Package (ALSEP).
could produce knowledge useful in the
parts of the Moon that face Earth. The design of machines for space stations of
crater was named for the famous 16th Make in-flight experiments and
the future that produce extremely pure
Century French mathematician and take photographs of Moon and space
virus vaccines, finer blood and other
philospher Rene Descartes. The from the command module while in lunar
bodily fluid fractionations, and very pure
coordinates of the landing site are 9° 00' orbit.
enzymes.
01 "South and 15° 30' 59" East.
The mission will begin, as did the For the first time in the Apollo program
The area is in the Caley Formation or preceding ones, from Kennedy Space the astronauts on the Moon will set up a
Plain of the Descartes highlands and is Center with lift-off from Launch special camera during the first excursion
believed to be relatively smooth or gently Complex 39A on April 16, 1972 at 12:54 from the lunar module that wilt
rolling and covered with rocks from p.m. EST. The first or S-IC stage of the photograph the Earth, the Andromeda
ancient volcanic flows. Saturn 5 launch vehicle will burn for Galaxy, the Coma cluster of galaxies, and
about 2.7 minutes and boost itself and the Magellanic Clouds. The pictures will
Bounding the landing site a few miles to the spacecraft to approximately 43 miles help scientists to learn more about the
the north and south are hills that rise (68.8 kilometers) and then drop off into distribution of interplanetary and
some 1,300 to 1,600 feet (400 to 500 the Atlantic Ocean. The second or S-ll intergalactic hydrogen. The Far
meters) above the place where the lunar stage will burn for 6.5 minutes lifting Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph will be
module rests. A number of craters of itself, the third stage, and spacecraft to an placed in the shadow of the lunar module
recent origin abound in the area, some altitude of about 114 miles (182.4 and will automatically take pictures of
measuring as much as 3,300 feet (1 kilometers) where it, too, will burn out these a s t r o n o m i c a l objects while
kilometer) in diameter. and drop off into the Atlantic Ocean. The Astronauts Young and Irwin go about
third or S-IVB stage will ignite and burn their duties. When they leave, they will
This area of the Moon is important to for 2.4 minutes to place itself and the unload the camera and take the film with
geologists s i n c e facts about the spacecraft into an orbit around the Earth them. From examining the pictures made
composition, age, and types of surface at a height of some 115 miles (184 with the camera, scientists also may learn
material in the lunar highland volcanic kilometers). Once in Earth orbit. more about the Moon's atmosphere and
area will greatly increase their knowledge Astronauts Young, Mattingly, and Duke the possibility that volcanic gases come
of volcanic activity on the Moon and the will checkout their spacecraft to make from the interior of the Moon. The
role it played in lunar evolution. Geologic sure that everything is in order for the pictures will also provide further
evidence indicates that this material is journey to the Moon. The Apollo information on the solar wind.

THERE'S NO SUBSTITUTE FOR CRAFTSMANSHIP AND SKILL


Among the scientific instruments in the seven hours. The first stop will be Flag EST. Astronauts Young and Duke will
Apollo Lunar Experiments Package, Crater, which is about 990 feet (300 head the lunar rover toward North Ray
(ALSEP) powered by a SNAP-27 atomic meters) in diameter and about 1 mile (1.6 Crater and Smoky Mountain about 3
battery, are a passive seismometer, a kilometers) from the lunar module. There miles (5 kilometers) to the north. Once
magnetometer, a heat-flow detector, and the astronauts will collect rock samples on the rim of North Crater, They will
an active seismometer. The passive which may include material thrown out take photographs of the area, make
seismometer will permit scientists to of the crater from a depth of 200 feet (60 measurements with the portable
determine if the moonquakes beneath the meters). Then they will turn back toward magnetometer, and collect geological
highlands are as numerous and strong as the lunar module, stopping at Spook specimens. After some two hours, they
those beneath the maria or seas, where Crater. There they will take photographs, will board the rover and start for Smoky
similar instruments left on other Apollo collect rock and soil samples, and take a Mountain. There they will take double
missions are still transmitting data to reading of the local magnetic field using a cores, make photographs, and collect
Earth. This instrument will also permit portable magnetometer. rock and soil samples. These tasks
the calculation of the density of the completed, they will head south, halting
highlands crust by measuring the time it The last stop on the first trip will be in at Dog Leg and Dot Craters to collect
takes waves from moonquakes to travel the area in which they set up the ALSEP. rock and soil samples and to take local
through it. The magnetometer will collect For about eight minutes the astronauts magnetic field measurements. The last
information on the electrical conductivity will engage in the first lunar "Grand stop before returning to the lunar module
of the interior of the Moon, from which Prix." While Astronaut Young puts the will be at Palmetto Crater. Astronauts
can be determined its temperature. lunar rover through its paces, starting, Young and Duke will take more
speeding up, and stopping, Astronaut photographs, make measurements of the
The heat-flow detector will measure the Duke will photograph the activity. The local magnetic field, and collect
flow of heat through the highlands soil. purpose of the test is to record and additional rock and soil specimens.
When compared with rates measured by evaluate the performance of the rover.
similar instruments left on previous After the "Grand Prix," the astronauts While Astronauts Young and Duke are
Apollo missions in the maria or seas, will arm the mortar of the active exploring the Caley Plain and Descartes
these data will give geologists a better seismograph and take additional core uplands, their fellow crewman orbiting 60
picture of the origin of the two major samples of the soil. The mortar charges miles (96 kilometers) above them will be
areas of the Moon. The active will be fired after the astronauts leave the equally busy. Astronaut Mattingly will
seismometer will be used to help Moon. spend 147 hours and 40 minutes circling
determine the thickness of the lunar soil the Moon. During the time he will be
layer formed by the impact of meteoroids A second and 4-hour trip for Astronauts operating a variety of scientific
and the depth of fill material in old Young and Duke will begin on April 21 at instruments and taking photographs.
craters of the upland area. 5:34 p.m. EST. They will again board the
lunar rover and head south for the side of As did Apollo 15, Apollo 16 carries a
A special cosmic ray detector will also be Stone Mountain, some 2.5 miles (4.2 special group of instruments in the
used on the Apollo 16 mission. It will be kilometers) away. At the first stop, they scientific instrument module bay of the
operated on the flight to the Moon as will drill a double core, perform service module. Included among these is a
well as on its surface. It is an instrument penetrometer measurements of the soil, gamma-ray spectrometer, which gives an
that records the energy, flux, and collect rocks and soil samples, and take indication of the chemical composition of
elemental distribution of primary cosmic photographs. Then they will head the the lunar soil as the spacecraft passes over
ray nuclei well outside the disturbing rover back down Stone Mountain, it. There are also x-ray and alpha-particle
effects of the Earth's atmosphere and stopping along the side and at the base to spectrometers that do the same thing by
magnetic field. It is mounted on the side take photographs and collect additional different means. In addition, a mass
of the lunar module, and the astronauts soil and rock samples in order to correlate spectrometer analyzes the lunar
will bring back exposed panels from it the Descartes geology with that of the atmosphere to determine what it is made
when they return to Earth. The familiar Cay ley Plain. After about two hours, they of and if volcanic gases can be detected in
"window shade" solar wind experiment will turn west with stops at Stubby and it.
that was used on previous Apollo South Ray Craters. There they will take
missions will also be used on Apollo 16. photographs, collect soil and rock Two special cameras map the lunar
An aluminum- platinum foil collector of samples, take double cores in an area that surface as the spacecraft orbits over it.
solar wind particles, it is unrolled and left appears to have ejecta or material thrown One is a panoramic camera with a 24-inch
exposed to the solar wind while the out of South Ray Crater. (61-centimeter) lens that can resolve
astronauts are on the Moon. At the end objects as small as 3.3 feet (1 meter). This
of their exploration, it is rolled up and They will make another stop on the Caley camera also makes stereo-pairs so that
returned to Earth for study. Plain. There they will take core samples geologists can study the Moon's surface
that will be stored in a special vacuum features in three dimensions. Each picture
Some four hours after landing on April container to prevent contamination, and takes in an area of the Moon's surface 18
20, at 2:36 p.m. EST, Astronauts Young they will also pick up surface samples of miles by 216 miles (22 kilometers by 339
and Duke will release the folded-up lu- rocks and soil. After about 25 minutes of kilometers). The other is a mapping
nar rover from its stowage compartment this activity, the two astronauts will camera with a 3-inch (7.6-centimeter)
in the lunar module and check it out. return to the ALSEP and lunar module lens which can resolve objects only 66
After setting up the ALSEP about 100 area where they will take double cores, feet (20 meters) or larger. At the
yards (90 meters) to the west of the lunar dig a trench in the soil and take samples spacecraft altitude of 72 miles (115
module and drilling a core sample of the from it, and also take soil measurements kilometers), each picture from this
soil to a depth of 8.6 feet (2.6 meters), with the penetrometer. camera includes an area of 110 miles by
the astronauts will take their first trip in 110 miles (167 kilometers by I67
the lunar rover, covering about 2 miles The third excursion from the lunar kilometers). At the same time as it is
(3.2 kilometers). The trip will take about module will be on April 22 at 5:34 p.m. photographing the lunar surface, it is also

RELIABILITY IS BUILT IN BY DEDICATED CRAFTSMEN


taking pictures of the star field. A special mounted on the outside of the satellite.
laser is also used with this camera to
measure the height, within 6.6 feet (2 The S-band transponder provides data on
meters), between the spacecraft and the the Moon's gravitational field and perhaps
Moon. The laser fires pulses of light at a will help explain the mascons that have
rate of 3.75 per minute. These two been previously noted during the Apollo
cameras and the laser will provide explorations of the Moon. A Particle
information for a highly accurate map of Shadows/Boundary Layer instrument
about 8% of the Moon's surface or about provides data that help clarify the
1,160,000 square miles (300,440,000 formation and movements of the Earth's
hectares). magnetic field and also provides data on
the interaction of the Moon with floating
clouds of charged particles. In addition, a
magnetometer provides information on
the physical and electrical properties of
the Moon and its interaction with charged Mattingly's photographic tasks will not be
particle clouds. The subsatellite will be completed, however, until the Apollo
launched on April 25 at 4:08 p.m. into an spacecraft is headed back to Earth. On
orbit of 67.2 miles by 90.5 miles (87.2 April 26 at 2:51 p.m. EST, he will leave
kilometers by 120.6 kilometers). the command module and walk through
space back to the scientific instrument
Within the command module. Astronaut bay of the service module. There, he will
Mattingly will also take a variety of remove the film packs from the
pictures using a 70-mm and a 35-mm panoramic and mapping cameras and
camera. Photographs made with them will return them to the command module.
study the Earth and lunar atmospheres in
the ultraviolet region. While the After a flight of 69 hours and 54 minutes,
spacecraft is in the shadow of the Moon the Apollo 16 is scheduled to splash
Apollo 16 also will carry a scientific and out of sight of Earth, Astronaut down in the Pacific Ocean at a point
subsatellite as did Apollo 15. It is a six- Mattingly will take pictures of the 1,182 miles (1,872 kilometers) south of
sided box only 31 inches (77.5 still-unexplained gegenshein or faint light Hawaii on April 28 at 3:30 p.m. EST. At
centimeters) long and weighs 78.5 pounds glow on either side of the Earth-Sun line that time some 290 hours and 36 minutes
(I72.7 kilograms). It contains three on the opposite side of the Earth from will have gone by since it lifted off from
instruments powered by solar cells the Sun. Cape Kennedy 12 days earlier.

lunar roving vehicle


It is limited to a maximum of 8 miles per LRV is steered by a control stick, similar
hour (3.5 meters per second) for safety to the lunar module, rather than a
reasons. Higher speed could present a steering wheel. It is mounted in the
danger to the crew due to the rough lunar center of the vehicle, between the two
surface. But it has power to climb a 25 astronaut passengers; and it can be
degree slope. operated by either of them, although the
LRV is slightly over 10 feet (3 meters) astronaut on the left -is the designated
long, 6 feet (1.8 meters) wide, and has a driver. To start, the driver flips on the
wheelbase of 7.5 feet (2.3 meters). It has power switch and tilts the stick forward.
Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) is a small a ground clearance of 13 inches (33 The LRV then moves in that direction. If
dune-buggy-like car that permits two centimeters) on level soil. Since both the he wants to turn left or right, he merely
Apollo astronauts to drive away from the front and rear wheels steer, the LRV has tilts the stick in the appropriate direction.
immediate vicinity of their landing site on a very tight turning radius-no more than To back up, he tilts the stick backward. If
the Moon, make geological and its own length. It is powered by electric he wants to apply the four-wheel brakes,
astronomical observations, collect rock he pufls straight back on the stick. It also
batteries that furnish energy to an electric
and soil samples, deploy scientific has a parking brake which will hold the
motor in each of four 32-inch (8I.3
instruments, and return to their lunar centimeter) wheels. loaded LRV on a 30-degree slope. The
module base. On Earth the LRV weighs LRV can cross crevasses 28 inches (45.7
some 480 pounds (216 kilograms); The drive and steering mechanism has centimeters) wide and go over bumps a
however, on the Moon it weighs about 80 several built-in safety devices. If either foot high and still remain stable.
pounds (36 kilograms). As light as it is, it the rear or front steering mechanism fails,
can carry the two astronauts, their the other will provide full service. Since the Moon is much smaller in
portable life support systems, scientific Similarly, if a motor on a wheel should go diameter than the Earth, the LRV will
instruments, and their collection of lunar out, it can be decoupled; and the move over the horizon more quickly on
material samples. In all, the LRV can remaining motors can drive the LRV. In the Moon than it would on Earth.
carry about twice its own weight. addition, there are two separate battery Inasmuch as a compass is of no use on the
systems to provide power for the wheels- Moon, which has no north or south
While it may look like a dune-buggy, it is each one with sufficient power to drive magnetic poles, a special navigation
designed for low speed and high torque. the vehicle through its full mission. system has been devised to continuously

RELIABILITY IS BUILT IN BY DEDICATED CRAFTSMEN


CODES GENERAL AREA DESCRIPTIONS

A Vehicle Areas Aft of Seats


B • Areas Under Left Seat /
C Areas Under Right Seat £==—.r—] MAGAZINE,
| l»fl 16MM OAC
0 Console Area Right Side
E
F
Console Area Left Side
Forward Vehicle Areas Q [ii]

MAGAZINE,
70MM L.S.
HASSELBLAO
LRV/PAYLOAD
COMPOSITE VIEW

A variety of scientific instruments and other equipment is carried on the lunar rover by the astronauts of
Apollo 16.

compute where the LRV is and what For the trip to the Moon, the LRV is For safety's sake, the astronauts will
direction and distance it is back to the literally folded up and stowed inside the drive within a radius of the lunar module
lunar module base. The system uses the lunar module. The chassis is hinged in from which they can walk back should
angle of the Sun and the declination of three places and the four wheels are the LRV break down. But the area
the lunar module from it to set a pivoted nearly flat against the folded covered the LRV on the Moon includes
gyroscope before the astronauts leave in chassis, occupying only 30 cubic feet (.84 some 50 square miles-plenty of room for
the LRV. An instrument mounted on the cubic meters) of space. Thus trebled up, exploration.
"dashboard" continuously displays the the LRV is stowed in the descent stage of
heading of the vehicle in terms of an the lunar module in quadrant No. 1 to The LRV is designed to have a life-time
assumed lunar north, the bearing in the right of the ladder down which the of 78 hours during the harsh lunar day
degrees back to the lunar module, the astronauts descend to the Moon's surface. where the temperature in the Sun is
distance (in kilometers) back to it, and 243 ° F and the shadows plunge to
the total number of kilometers travelled To remove the LRV from the lunar -279 °F.
by the LRV. Another instrument shows module, the first astronaut descends the
the speed of the LRV in kilometers per ladder and removes a contingency cable
hour. from quadrant No. 1. The second
astronaut then pulls a D-ring mounted on
Also carried on board the LRV is a color the side of the lunar module. By pulling
TV camera and communication system the ring, the LRV is released at the top.
that permit the astronauts to transmit The first astronaut then pulls a series of
pictures and voice communications cables which lowers the LRV from the
directly from the vehicle to Earth. In lunar module and unfolds it as it moves
addition, a still-picture camera is to the surface. Once on the surface with
mounted on the chest of each astronaut. the four wheels deployed, the astronauts
The TV camera can be remotely then mount the camera, load equipment,
controlled from Mission Control Center and scientific instruments and prepare for
in Houston. the lunar trip.

MISSION SUCCESS AND SAFETY ARE APOLLO PREREQUISITES


general the mountains rising as high as 29,000 Distance from Earth - 238,857 miles
feet (7,700 meters) and the craters (382,171 kilometers) mean.
ranging from inches to 180 miles (288
kilometers) in diameter. The surface is Surface Temperature - +243° F (Sun at

lunar data covered with a layer of fine grained zenith) -279° F (night)
material resembling silt or sand, as well as
small rocks and boulders. There is no air, Surface Gravity -1/6 that of Earth
wind, or moisture.
There are 32 known satellites in the Solar Mass -1/100 that of Earth
System with our Moon ranking fifth in Among scientists there are three theories
size among them. However, with a on the origin of the Moon: (1) it was Volume -1/50 that of Earth
diameter about a fourth that of Earth, once part of the Earth and split off into
the Moon is much larger in relation to its its own orbit, (2) it evolved as a separate Lunar Day and Night - 14 Earth days
parent planet than any of the other body at the same time as Earth, and (3) it each
satellites. formed elswhere in space and wandered
until it was captured by Earth's Mean velocity in Orbit - 2,287 miles
Most conspicuous of the visible features gravitational field. per-hour (3,659 kilometers per hour)
of the Moon are the maria, or-seas, which
are the dark, level plains. Early Physical Characteristics Month (Period of rotation around Earth)
astronomers thought the maria to be - 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes
water-filled areas. For the most part, the Diameter - 2,160 miles (3,456 kilometers)
Moon is mountainous and crater pitted. (about I/4 that of Earth)
lunar landing /ite
opollo 16 vehicle characteri/tic/
VEHICLE DATA
WEIGHT
DIMENSIONS
STAGE/ AT LAUNCH
MODULE LENGTH DIAMETER POUNDS LAUNCH ESCAPE
FEET (Meters) FEET (Meters) (Kilograms) I- SYSTEM (LES)
IL

DC
Complete 365 33.0 6,408,040 o APOLLO COMMAND
Vehicle (109.5) (9.9) (2,883,618) MODULE (CM)
S-IC 138 33.0 4,930,000
(41.4) (95) (2,218,500) APOLLO SERVICE
S-ll 81.5 33.0 1,101,000 MODULE (SM)
(24.5) (9.9) (495,450) Space Div
S-IVB 59.3 21.7 260,000 North American Rockwell Corp.
(17B) (6.5) (117,000)
IU 3.0
(.09)
21.7
(6.5)
4,500
(2,025)
* SPACECRAFT LUNAR MODULE
ADAPTER (SLA)
SLA 28.0 21 .7 base 4,200
(8.4) (6.5) (1390) LUNAR MODULE (LM)
12.8 top "Caiman Aerospace
(3.8) Engineering Corp.
LM 23 31 41,700
(6.9) (9.3) (18,765) "LUNAR ROVING VEHICLE (LRV)
SM 245 12.8 55,400 Boeing Co.
(7.4) (3.8) (24,930)
CM 10.5 12.8 13,090 INSTRUMENT UNIT (iu)
(3.2) (3.8) (5,891) International Business Machines, Inc.
LES 33.4 2.2 9,200
(10) (0.6) (4,130) •S-IVB STAGE
McDonnell-Douglas
Astronautics Co.

ENGINE DATA

NOMINAL THRUST
BURNING -J-2 ENGINE
STAGE/ Rocketdyne Div
MODEL QTY Each Pounds Total Pounds TIME
MODULE North American Rockwell Corp.
(Newtons) (Newtons) (Minutes)

1,522,000 7,787,495 2.7


S-IC F-1 5
(6,849,000) -S-ll STAGE
(35,043,728)
232340 1,164,210 Space Div
S-ll J-2 5 6.5 North American Rockwell Corp.
(1,047,780) (5,238545)
J-2 1 200,130 200,130 2.4 (1st)
S-IVB (900,585) o
(900,585) 6.0 (2nd)
LM 1 10,000 * 10,000 15.0 (total) UJ ,5 J-2 ENGINES
MIRA-10 K (45,000) (45,000) Rocketdyne Div
DsscGnt I
Assent 1 3,500 3,500 7.6 (total) North American Rockwell Corp.
8258 (15,750) (15,750)
20,500 D
SM AJ10-137 1 20,500 12.5 (total)
(922,500) (922,500)
1 150,000 150,000 3.2 (sec)
LES LPC-A2 (675,000) (675,000) DC

'S-IC STAGE
"Can be throttled over the range 1,280 -9,870 pounds (5,760 -44,415 Newtons). Boeing Co.

FLIGHT DATA

VELOCITY
CW [TM1-
STAGE/
EVENT MODULE Kilometers /
Miles / Hour Hour

Engine Cut-off S-IC 6,100 9,760


Engine Cut-off S-ll 15,600 24,960
Earth Orbital Insertion S-IVB 17,170 28,470
Translunar Injection S-IVB 23300 38,080
Lunar Orbital Insertion CSM/LM 3,585 5,736
Lunar Touchdown LM descent 0-2 0-3.2
Lunar Lift-off LM ascent 4,418 6,601
Lunar Impact LM ascent 3,756 6,010 •5F-1 ENGINES
Trans-Earth Insertion SM 5,640 9,024 Rocketdyne Div
Earth Insertion CM 24,640 39,424 North American Rockwell Corp.

QUALITY AND RELIABILITY INSURE PROGRESS IN SPACE


opollo 16 bocH-up creuu
FRED W. HAISE, JR. EDGAR D. MITCHELL STUART A. ROOSA
Commander Lunar Module Pilot Command Module Pilot

Astronaut Haise was the lunar module Astronaut Mitchell, U. S. Navy, was the Astronaut Roosa, U.S. Air Force,was the
pilot on the Apollo 13 mission in 1970, lunar module pilot on the Apollo 14 command module pilot for the Apollo 14
and previously served as back-up lunar mission in 1971. Previously he served as a mission in 1971. He was also a member of
module pflot on the Apollo 8 and 9 member of the astronaut support crew the astronaut support crew for the Apollo
missions in 1968 and 1969. A former U. for the Apollo 9 mission in 1969 and as 9 mission in 1969. After serving as a test
S. Naval and U. S. Air Force pilot, he was back-up lunar module pilot on the Apollo pilot in the U. S. Air Force, he was
also a research pilot with NASA before 10"mission in the same year. He was selected as an astronaut by NASA in
being selected as an astronaut in 1966. selected as an astronaut by NASA in 1966. His total number of flight hours is
1966. more than 4,300, including more than
Haise was born in Biloxi, Mississippi, on 3,900 hours in jet planes.
November 14, 1933, and graduated from Mitchell was born in Hereford/Texas, on
Biloxi High School. After attending September 17, 1930. He graduated from Roosa was born in Durango, Colorado, on
Perkinson Junior College, he received his Artesia High School, in Artesia, New August 16, 1933. He graduated from
BS degree in aeronautical engineering Mexico, and received a BS degree in Claremore High School, in Claremore,
from the University of Oklahoma in industrial management from the Carnegie Oklahoma. After studying at both the
1959. Institute of Technology. He also holds a University of Arizona and Oklahoma
BS degree in aeronautical engineering State University, he graduated from the
Haise and his wife Mary are the parents of from the U. S. Naval Postgraduate School University of Oklahoma with a BS degree
a daughter, Mary, 16, and three sons, and a Doctor of Science degree from in aeronautical engineering.
Frederick, 14, Stephen, 11, and Thomas, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in
2. They live in Houston, Texas. aeronautics and astronautics. Roosa and his wife Joan are the parents
of three sons, Christopher, 13, John 11,
He and his wife Louise are the parents of Stuart, Jr., 10, and a daughter, Rosemary,
two daughters, Karlyn, 19, and Elizabeth, 9. The family lives in Houston, Texas.
13. They live in Houston, Texas.

opollo mi//ion/
APOLLO 4/NOVEMBER 9, 1967 APOLLO 8/DECEMBER 21-27, 1968 APOLLO 12/NOVEMBER 14-24, 1969
First unmanned flight of Saturn V; First manned flight of Saturn V Second lunar landing and
reentry test of command module that orbited the Moon exploration of Moon's surface
(Borman, Lovell, Anders) (Conrad, Gordon, Bean)
APOLLO 5/JANUARY 22, 1968
Saturn 1B, vehicle 204, puts first APOLLO 9/MARCH 3-13, 1969 APOLLO 13/APRIL 11-17,1970
unmanned lunar module in Earth First manned flight of the lunar Circled the Moon and returned to
orbit module in Earth orbit Earth without landing after trouble
(McDivitt, Scott, Schweickart) in the service module
APOLLO 6/APRIL 4, 1968 (Lovell, Haise, Swigert)
Second unmanned Earth orbital APOLLO 10/MAY 18-26, 1969
flight of Saturn V tests Apollo Dress rehearsal for lunar landing; APOLLO 14/JAN. 31-FEB. 9, 1971
spacecraft flying complete spacecraft to lunar Third lunar landing and exploration
orbit of Moon's surface
APOLLO 7/OCTOBER 11-22, 1968 (Stafford, Young, Cernan) (Shepard, Mitchell, Roosa)
First manned Apollo flight aboard
Saturn 1B, 205, tests spacecraft APOLLO 11/JULY 16-24,1969 APOLLO 157 JUL. 26 AUG. 7, 1971
command and service modules in First lunar landing and exploration Fourth lunar landing and
Earth orbit of Moon's surface exploration of Moon's surface
(Schirra, Eisele, Cunningham) (Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins) (Scott, Worden, Irwin)

INSURE ASTRONAUT SAFETY THROUGH QUALITY PERFORMANCE


UfBB

MANNED FLIGHT AWARENESS


Marshall Space Flight Center, PM-SS / Huntsville, Alabama 35812