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Institute for Competitive Exams

Contents

Data Interpretation: How To? ................................................................................................................ 2

DI: Tabular Data ..................................................................................................................................... 6

DI: Bar Chart .......................................................................................................................................... 11

DI: Line Chart......................................................................................................................................... 17

DI: Pie Chart .......................................................................................................................................... 23

DI: Miscellaneous .................................................................................................................................. 30

DI: Compound ....................................................................................................................................... 39

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 1
Institute for Competitive Exams

Data Interpretation: How To?


Data interpretation is an ability to decipher the information/data, usually provided in a graphical
form. These problems have become a necessary component of all competitive exams, since this type
of questioning makes it is easier to evaluate the candidate’s perceptiveness with numbers.
Understand the following distil on how to hone data interpretation prowess to pe
perfection.
Let us first familiarise with the various forms of data presentation:
presentation

1. Tabular Form:
This is the most conventional form of representation of data. Data is represented in a tabular form as
represented below.
Comparative Sales Figures of Various Tooth Pastes For First Five months of ‘98
(All Figures in Rs. ‘000 (fictional))
BRAND January February March April May
Close-Up 342 360 360 410 415
Colgate 1580 1600 1640 1660 1780
Pepsodent 37 51 42 47 44

2. Line Chart:
Data is represented on lines. Only a cursory glance can give you a lot of information. Especially used
by stock brokers to study movement of share prices.
Share price movement of Two Blue Chips – X & Y – on BSE.
360
350
340
Share Price

330
320
310
300
290
24/08 25/08 26/08 27/08 28/08
X Y A particular week in August

3. Bar Charts:
This is an improvisation over the line graph where in it
it is easy to see the actual difference very easily.
Refer to the following graph which depicts the percentage of boys and girls, in various age groups,
studying at a particular level.
75 70
80 60 65
60
Percentage

40 35
40 25 30
20
0
3-8 9-15 16-20 21-24
BOYS GIRLS Age Groups

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Institute for Competitive Exams
4. Pie Charts:
As the name suggests Pie Charts depict information in the form of a Pie, i.e. as per area of the circle.
The differences are very clearly highlighted when we have more than two or three items to compare.
The following two pie charts compare the receipt and expenditure of each rupee by the Government
of India.
INCOME EXPENDITURE

10% Excise 8% 13%


Oth 30% Sub Def Def.
Excise
Custom 28% Int.
Plans Dev.
40% 20%
Tax Tax 33%
Custom Plans
Int
18% Subsidy
Others Dev

5. Compound Charts:
Here in two or more different types of graphs may be given and one would have to co
co-relate the data
from these.

Tips To Improve Score in Data Interpretation

1. Computational Speed:
Increase your mental calculation
alculation speed. It is essential that you develop an ability to calculate 10%,
1%, 2%, 5% of random numbers. You should be able to calculate average of six three-digit numbers
in less than thirty seconds.
e.g. to find the average of 514, 368, 975, 140, 674,
67 and 807.

2. Be Meticulous:
Look for
a. Units:
you must pay attention to the fact that the figures may be given in thousands of rupees (example the
figures for sales mentioned in Tabular Graph, as elsewhere in this assignment, are in thousand of
rupees).

b. Respect Footnotes:
certain graphs, especially financial graphs, may carry some footnotes. Typical footnotes may
mention that a balance sheet pertains to only nine months or fifteen months instead of normal
twelve months. Sometimes some data may be projected
projected data only. Keep an open eye for such
qualifying information, generally occurring at the bottom of the graph.

c. Understand Percentage:
It is essential to understand the basic concept of percentage because you may be required to
compute percentage in about fifty percent of the questions. Please note the following nuances in
percentage.
Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 3
Institute for Competitive Exams
Profit of a Vapourware Pvt. Ltd in the last two years were (in Rs. Crore)

Year 1996 1997


Profit 120 150

A: Profit increased from 1996 to 1997 by Rs. 30 crores (150 – 120)


B: Profit in 1997 was how many times the profit in 1996 = 1.25 times (150 / 120)
C: Profit in 1996 was how many times the profit in 1997 = 0.8 times (120 / 150)
D: Profit earned in 1997 was what percent more than the profit earned in 1996
 150 − 120 
25 % =  × 100  . We can also say that the profit earned in 1997 was 125% of the profit earned
 120 
in 1996.
E: Profit earned in 1996 was what percent less than the profit earned in 1997
 120 − 150 
20% =  × 100  . The –ve sign signifies that profit was lower in 1996 than in 1997. We can
 150 
also say that the profit earned in 1996 was 80% of the profit earned in 1997.

d. Rapid Eye Movement:


Data Interpretation requires that you have a roving eye – always on the lookout for data.

3. Develop a Sense of Approximation:


You should develop a knack (believe us this can be developed through a lot of practice only) for
approximation. Keep in mind that one can use approximation only when the answer choices are
distant/ far removed.

Grasp the following illustration:


No. of Patients listed by the type of ailment
RVG Hospital PKR Clinic JP Hospital
Tuberculosis 123 201 68
AIDS 41 61 34
Leukaemia 23 79 47
Laryngitis 18 8 12
Neurosis 16 6 74

A. The average number of tuberculosis patients in the three institutions is nearly


a) 147
b) 169
c) 131
d) 119
(Now the untrained candidate would add 123, 201 and 68 and divide by 3 to get the answer. What
the smart candidate does is to add 120, 200 and 70, gets a total of 390 and divides by 3 to get 130
and so marks the choice (c))
B. The RVG Hospital has what per cent less patients in AIDS than those in PKR Clinic?
a) 34.45
b) 32.78
c) 35.68

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 4
Institute for Competitive Exams
d) 30.78
(Again the smart candidate finds 20 is what per cent of 60, it being 33.33%, understands the actual
answer should be slightly less and thus marks choice (b), whereas the dumb candidate actually does
20
the operation × 100 , wasting valuable time.)
61

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 5
Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Tabular Data


Directions (Q 1-5): Study the following questions and choose the correct answer for each from the
alternatives provided there under.

State wise production of different crops for the year 1993-94 (in million tonnes)
State Rice Wheat Pulses

U.P. 7.18 15.97 2.76


W.B. 8.09 0.81 0.35
M.P. 3.67 3.72 2.32
Maharashtra 1.94 0.86 1.11
Haryana 1.36 4.42 0.36
All India 58.64 44.23 12.20

1. W.B. produces approximately what percent of the total rice produced in India?
1. 12.2 %
2. 13.5 %
3. 18%
4. 15%

2. The amount of wheat produced by U.P. is more than the amount of wheat produced by the other
four states listed in the table, by
1. 6.97 m tonnes
2. 6.16 m tonnes
3. 5.52 m tonnes
4. 5.89 m tonnes

3. What per cent approximately of the total wheat production was produced by states other than
those given in the table?
1. 38%
2. 42%
3. 48%
4. 58%

4. U.P. produced approximately what per cent of the all India production of all the three crops taken
together?
1. 27.75%
2. 26.2%
3. 24.18%
4. 22.52%

5. Which of the following statements is true?


1. U.P. was the top producer of all the three crops.
2. M.P. ranked third in the production of all the three crops.
3. Three different states ranked second in the production of different crops.
4. Haryana was the lowest producer of wheat.

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 6
Institute for Competitive Exams
Directions (Q 6-10): Study the following table and answer the questions that follow.

India’s foreign trade for the year 1980-81 to 1986-87 (All figures in Rs. Crores)

Year Exports Imports Trade Deficit


1980-81 6711 12549 5838
1981-82 7806 13608 5802
1982-83 8803 14293 5490
1983-84 9771 15831 6060
1984-85 11855 17173 5318
1985-86 10420 18371 7951
1986-87 12550 20063 7513

6. Which of the following showed an increase every year?


1. Exports
2. Imports
3. Trade deficit
4. All of these

7. The ratio of imports to exports was maximum in the year


1. 1980-81
2. 1986-87
3. 1985-86
4. 1983-84

8. The percentage increase in exports was maximum in the year


1. 1981-82
2. 1986-87
3. 1984-85
4. 1983-84

9. The total trade deficit (in Rs. crores) for the last five years is
1. 28508
2. 32332
3. 44322
4. 33232

10. The difference between imports and exports was maximum in the year:
1. 1985-86
2. 1986-87
3. 1984-85
4. 1983-84

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Institute for Competitive Exams
Directions (Q 11-15): Study the following table and answer the questions given below.

World Almond Crop Produced during the years 1983-87


Origin 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987
U.S.A. 110000 266000 211000 111000 272000
Spain 35000 43000 65000 52000 70000
Italy 30000 12000 12000 14000 12000
Greece 15000 15000 16000 15000 9000
Others 18000 22000 21000 22000 22000
Total in tonnes 208000 358000 325000 214000 385000

11. Which of the following statements is not true?


1. U.S.A. produced more than 50% of the crop in all these years
2. Italy produced the minimum amount except in 1983
3. Greece’s total production in all these years is less than Italy’s total production.
4. The production of ‘other’ countries changed lest in 1987 as compare a to 1983, in comparison to
the other named countries.

12. Spain’s production was more than the total production of all other countries except U.S.A.,
except in the year/s
1. 1983
2. 1983 and 1984
3. 1983, 1984 & 1986
4. 1983, 1985, 1986 and 1987

13. The percentage production by U.S.A. was maximum in the year


1. 1983
2. 1984
3. 1985
4. 1987

14. Which country had the maximum percent change in the production of almonds during 1983-87?
1. U.S.A.
2. Italy
3. Spain
4. None of these

15. The total world production had a maximum difference with the previous year’s production in the
year.
1. 1984
2. 1986
3. 1987
4. None of these

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Institute for Competitive Exams
Directions (Q16-20): Study the following table and answer the questions given below.

Progress of Shatabadi Express from City A to City H via other Cities

City Arrival Time Departure Cumulative Distance (in km.)


Time
A -- 9:00 0
B 9:15 9:20 20
C 10: 40 10:55 165
D 11:25 11:30 224
E 12:15 12:25 296
F 12:40 12:45 304
G 13:45 14:00 400
H 14:30 -- 440

16. What per cent of time for the entire trip has been actually spent travelling between the cities?
1. 84.28
2. 83.3%
3. 75.6%
4. 70.2%

17. The maximum waiting time is at


1. G
2. C
3. D
4. both C and G

18. The least distance is between station


1. G and H
2. D and E
3. E and F
4. B and C

19. The average speed for the entire trip excluding halting time is
1. 80 km/hr
2. 90 km/30 mts
3. 96 kms/hr
4. 86 km/hr

20. The number of pairs of consecutive stations between which the speed is 96 kms/ hour is
1. two
2. three
3. one
4. None of these

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Institute for Competitive Exams
21. It the rail fare is 25 paise per km, the fare between C and F is
1. Rs. 34.75
2. Rs. 36.75
3. Rs. 39.5
4. Rs. 35

22. The number of pairs of consecutive station between which the speed exceeds 96 kms/hours is
1. four
2. two
3. five
4. None of these

23. The number of pairs of stations between which the average speed resembles the overall average
speed is
1. three
2. two
3. four
4. None of these

24. Stations B, D and F are alike in the sense


1. The average speed upto those stations is the same
2. The distances between each of these stations and their succeeding stations is the same
3. The halting time at these station is the same
4. None of these

25. If the halting time is also taken into account, the overall average speed would decline from the
result in problem no. 19 by
1. 16 kms/hr
2. nothing
3. 20 kms/hr
4. None of these

Answer Key: DI - TABULAR


1: 12243 6: 21321 11: 22213 16: 24331 21: 12231

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Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Bar Chart


Directions (Q 1- 5): Study the following graph carefully and answer the questions that follow. This
is your assignment covering Tabular form of data representation
representation. !!

Passengers Travelling By Various Modes from 1987 to 1992(In Millions)


450
400 400
400 375 375 375 375
350
300 300 300
300 275 265
260
250 Buses
200
200 175 175 175 Rail Roads
150 160
150 Air Lines
100
50
0
1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

1. In 1989, bus passengers represented approximately what percentage of all passengers by buses,
railroads, and airlines in the year?
1. 35%
2. 45%
3. 55%
4. None

92 inclusive, how may millions of passengers approximately travelled by railroad?


2. From 1987 to 1992
1. 1000
2. 1300
3. 1500
4. 1700

3. If in 1992 the average bus fare per passenger was $ 0.50 and if the average airline fare per
total fares of airline passengers
passenger was $ 50. Then was approximately
total fares for bus passengers
6
1.
5
30
2.
1
60
3.
1
4. None

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Institute for Competitive Exams
4. In 1991 airlines in the United states flew 135, 900 million passenger miles. What was the average
number of miles, most nearly flown by each airline passenger in that year?
1. 335
2. 445
3. 555
4. 775

5. The number of railroad passengers in 1992 when compared to the number of railroad passengers
in 1987 were less by
1. 35
2. 40
3. 70
4. None

Directions (Q 6-10): Study the following graph carefully and answer the questions that follow.

External Public Debt in from 1980 to 1986 (in Rs. crore)


40000
28200 30500
30000 25530 26880
20825 21570 23380
20000
10000
0
1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
Axis Title

6. During the years 1980-82, public deal rose by approximately


1. 6 %
2. 8 %
3. 12 %
4. 15 %

7. Public debt rose by ________(in crores) from 1983 to 1984.


1. 1000
2. 1200
3. 1250
4. 1350

8. Public debt rose by about 5.3 % during the period


1. 1980-81
2. 1982-83
3. 1983-84
4. 1984-86

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9. Increase in public debt was minimum during the period
1. 1980-81
2. 1981-83
3. 1980-84
4. 1984-86

10. Increase in public debt was maximum during the period


1. 1981-’82
2. 1982-’83
3., 1983-’84
4. 1985-86

Directions (Q 11-15): Examine the following bar chart showing the output of a certain public
sector undertaking during various financial years and give appropriate answers to questions

1400
Production (in tons)

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
75-76 76-77 77-78 78-79 79-80 80-81 81-82
Year

11. The production during ‘75-‘76 was what percent of production in ‘78-79?
1. 36.4 %
2. 53.7 %
3. 54.3%
4. None

12. During which year was the percent increase in production highest?
1. ‘76-’77
2. ‘78-’79
3. ‘80-’81
4. ‘75-’76

13. The average production over this seven period was


1. 730 tonnes
2. 747 tonnes
3. 715 tonnes
4. None

14. What is the percent increase in production from ‘75 -’76 to ‘81 - ’82?
1. 600
2. 500
3. 1000
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Institute for Competitive Exams
4. 300

15. The percentage of decrease in production from ‘78-’79 to ‘79-’80 is


1. 10
1
2. 11
9
8
3. 88
9
4. 20

Directions (Q 16-20): Study the following graph carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Export & Imports Of Ximnadu For Five Year Period

13750

14000
12500

16000
14000
9000

12000

8600
7750
7000

10000
6750
6500

Import
6000

8000
Export
6000
4000
2000
0
78-79 79-80 80-81 81-82 82-83

16. The percentage increase in imports between 1978-79 and 1982-83 was
1. 70%
2. 100%
3. 140%
4. 300%

17. The percentage change in trade gap (Imports – Exports) between 1981-82 and 1982-83 was
approximately
1. Increase of 10%
2. Decrease of 10%
3. Increase of 20%
4. Decrease of 25%

18. The percentage increase in trade gap between 1979-80 end 1980-81 was
1. 30%
2. 130%
3. 230%
4. 330%

19. Which of the following statements is true?


1. In all the years exports are greater than imports

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Institute for Competitive Exams
2. Trade gap is continuously increasing
3. Trade gap is continuously decreasing
4. Trade gap first increases and then exhibits a decreasing trend.

20. If oil imports constituted 20% of, the total imports in 1980
1980-81,
81, then what percent of the trade
gap was due to oil (assuming that no oil was exported)
1. 20%
2. 30%
3. 43%
4. 50%

Directions (Q 21-25): Study the following graph carefully and answer the questions that follow.

State Z unemployment rates

12.3
14
12
8.8
8.3
7.9

7.8
7.8
7.7

9.1
7.3

10
8

7.8
6.4
6.2

8 Males
6 Females
4
2
0
1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

Rates are based on male and female labor forces, respectively.

21. For how many of the years shown was the unemployment rate for females less than the
unemployment rate for males?
1. One
2. Two
3. Three
4. Four

22. For how many of the years from 1977 through 1982, both inclusive, did the unemployment rate
for males increase over the corresponding rate of unemployment for males in the previous year?
1. One
2. Two
3. Three
4. Four

23. In State Z in 1982, the total labor force was 1 million, of which 55 percent were males. If the
unemployment rate for males is defined as the ratio of the number of unemployed males to the
number of males in the labor force, what was the approximate number of unemploye
unemployed males in State
Z in 1982?
1. 70,000
2. 55,000
3. 50,000

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Institute for Competitive Exams
4. 40,000

24. What was the unemployment rate (including both males and females) in State Z during 1977?
1. 7.8%
2. 8.3%
3. 15.6%
4. Can’t be determined

25. Which of the following statements about unemployment in State Z can be inferred from the
graph?
I. The same number of females were unemployed in 1981 as in 1980.
1
II. The unemployment rate for males in 1982 was more than 1 times the rate for males in 1976.
2
III. From 1978 to 1979, the number of unemployed males increased
1. None
2. I only
3. II only
4. III only

Answer Key: DI - BAR CHART


1: 24441 6: 34314 11: 41422 16: 22243 21: 24143

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Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Line Chart


Directions (Q 1-7): This is your assignment covering Tabular form of data
data representation. Study
the graph and solve the following questions.

Sales / Net Profits of Company (in lakhs)


70
61.5 61.5 64
60
50 52
47.6
40
37.4
Sales
30 29.1
Net Pr.
20
15.4 14.3 15.6
10
3.5 5.2
0 2.1 0
-3.2 -4.2
-10 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

1. In which year was the net profit as a percentage of the sales revenue the greatest?
1. 73
2. 74
3. 79
4. 80

2. Which was the year in which the sales revenue registered the highest percentage growth compared
to that of the previous year?
1. 1974
2. 1976
3. 1978
4. 1980

3. What was the cumulative net profit/loss of the first five years for which particulars are shown?
1. 2.2 lakhs
2. (-) 1.2 lakhs
3. (-) 1.8 lakhs
4. 3.2 lakhs

4. Which was the year in which the expenses of the company were the highest?
1. 1980
2. 1979
3. 1978
4. 1976

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5. If a tax of 55% was paid on gross profit before the net profit was arrived at, what was the
combined gross profit for the years 1979 and 1980? (in Rs. lakhs)
1. 66
2. 62
3. 46
4. 38

6. If the net profit in 1981 was 18% more than in 1980, and this was approximately 20% of the sales
turnover in that year, the sales turnover in 1981 was (in Rs. lakhs)
1. 78
2. 84
3. 102
4. 92

7. If, in the year 1980, the expenditure on advertisement was 2.5% of the sales turnover, what was its
percentage on the net profit for that year?
1. 18
2. 10.5
3. 13.5
4. 9.5

Directions (Q 8 – 12): Study the graph and answer the following questions.

Sale of TV Sets By Companies A & B

12000

10000

8000

6000 A
4000
B
2000

0
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr

8. Which company sold more number of TV sets in 1985?


1. A
2. B
3. Both were equal
4. Cannot be determined

9. Compared to the first four months of 1985, Company B sold, in the first four months of 1986
1. 1000 sets more
2. 1000 sets less
3. equal number of sets
4. 8000 sets more
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Institute for Competitive Exams
10. Which was the worst three month period for Company A in terms of business?
1. Jan – Mar 85
2. Mar – May 85
3. April – June 85
4. May – July 85

11. What was the difference in the numbers of sets sold by the two companies in the first four months
of 1986?
1. 2000 sets
2. 40000 sets
3. 6000 sets
4. 7000 sets

12. The difference in the numbers of sets sold by company B in the first eight months and the second
eight months in the graph was
1. 2000 sets
2. Nil
3. 3000 sets
4. 4000 sets

Directions (Q 13 – 20): Study the graph and answer the following questions.

Monthly Imports & Exports - 1985-86


400
395
Rs. Millions

390
385
380
375 Import
370
365
Export
360
355
350
APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR

13. What was the total value of exports during the period April-Sept, 85? (in Rs. million)
1. Rs. 1885
2. Rs. 2632
3. Rs. 2257.5
4. Rs. 2295

14. The gap between monthly import and export was greatest in
1. Aug & Sep
2. Sep & Dec
3. Dec & Jan
4. Aug & Nov
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Institute for Competitive Exams
15. In the first three months of 1986, imports exceeded exports by
1. Rs. 27.5 m
2. Rs. 20 m
3. Rs. 17.5 m
4. Rs. 32.5 m

16. During the financial year 1985-86,


1. Imports exceeded exports by Rs. 100 m
2. Imports exceeded exports by Rs. 60 m
3. exports exceeded imports by Rs. 250 m
4. exports and imports were of equal value

17. In how many months did the import exceed export?


1. 8
2. 3
3. 7
4. 5

18. For the month when exports and imports were of equal value, the import bill was
1. Rs. 760 m
2. Rs. 377.5 m
3. Rs. 380 m
4. Rs. 387.5 m

19. The three-month period when import was greatest was


1. Jan – Mar
2. Aug – Oct
3. July – Sep
4. May – July

20. In which quarter of the financial year was the difference between import and export values the
least?
1. First
2. Second
3. Third
4. Fourth

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Institute for Competitive Exams
Directions (Q 21 –25): Study the graph and answer the following questions.

Power Supply Position in India (in Billion KWH)

200
170
175
150 137 145
129
118 120 151
125 102 109
88 124 130
100 84 115 Requirement
78
97 99 105
75 86 Supply
75 83
50 66
25
0
74-75 75-76 76-77 77-78 78-79 79-80 80-81 81-82 80-83 83-84 84-85

21. What was the percentage increase in supply of power between 1980-81 and 1984 – 85?
1. 56%
2. 145%
3. 43%
4. 85%

22. The cumulative shortfall between requirement and supply from 1980 to the end of 1985 was (in
billion Kwh)
1. 56
2. 85
3. 45
4. 76

23. The requirement of power in 1984-85 was how many times the availability of supply in 1978-79?
1. 2.6
2. 1.75
3. 2.75
4. 2.0

24. The percentage of growth in power requirement from 1979-80 to 1984 – 85 was less than the
percentage of growth in power requirement from 1974 – 75 to 1979 – 80 by what figure?
1. 3
2. 4
3. 15
4. 7

25. Between 1979-80 and 1983-84, the power generation has generally lagged behind power demand
by how many years?
1. 1

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 21
Institute for Competitive Exams
2. 2
3. 3
4. 4

Answer Key: DI – LINE CHART


1: 41331 6: 42223 11: 41343 16: 21331 21: 34242

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Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Pie Chart


Directions (Q 1-7): Answer the following questions on the basis of information given.

ZINC: USER SEGMENTS

Chemicals 10%
Others 2%

Semi
manufacturers
7% Galvanizing
48%

Zinc Alloys 15%

Brass/Bronze
Products 18%

(BINANI ZINC) HINDUSTAN ZINC


12 MONTHS 12 MONTHS
(Rs Crore) March 2000 March 1999 % Change March 2000 March 1999 % Change
Sales Turnover 255.91 233.50 9.60 1515.62 1309.39 15.75
Operating Profit 59.10 49.80 18.67 259.63 219.91 18.07
Interest 22.09 20.11 9.85 10.45 15.24 (31.4)
Gross Profit 37.01 29.69 24.65 249.18 204.67 21.74
Depreciation 13.17 20.35 67.01 57.20
PBT 23.84 9.34 155.25 182.17 147.47 23.53
Tax 2.75 0.99 91.75 68.50
Net Profit 21.09 8.35 152.57 90.42 78.97 14.50

ZINC: DEMAND-SUPPLY SCENE


(In Tonne) Domestic Demand Domestic Production
1997-98 238000 174000
1998-99 252000 172000
1999-00 270000 180000
2000-01 290000 190000
2001-02 310000 200000

Short fall in demand & production is met through imports There is a monopoly of zinc producers in
the country

1. If Binani & Hindustan Zinc are the only two producers of zinc in the country then what was the
price per kilogram for zinc in 1998-99 assuming Binani & Hindustan zinc prices are same
1. Rs. 89.72
2. Rs. 184.72
Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 23
Institute for Competitive Exams
3. Rs. 1010.82
4. None of these

2. Which of the following explains the reason for only 14.5% increase in. Net profit for Hindustan
zinc despite a 15.25% increase in sales turnover while with only a 9.6% increase in turnover Binani
zinc improved profit by 152%
I. Binani has much lower depreciation in 99-00 than Hindustan Zinc. Depreciation decreased for
Binani white it increased for Hindustan zinc
II. Hindustan zinc paid nearly 50% tax while Binani paid only about 10% tax
III. Income from forest component is much higher as a percentage of sales turnover for Binani zinc
than it is for Hindustan zinc
1. I & II
2. II, III only
3. I, II & III
4. I only

3. The process of Galvanising requires high quality zinc and all the imported zinc is consumed by
this user segment. The remaining requirement of Galvanising Industry is met through domestic
production. In which year was the maximum percentage of demand of zinc met by domestic
producers of zinc for galvanising industry
1. 1999-00
2. 1997-98
3. 1998-99
4. None of these

4. Demand of Zinc for which industry/ combination of industries can be met by the imported zinc in
1999-00
1. Brass/ Bronze & Zincalloys
2. 50% demand & Galvanising & zinc Alloys
3. Chemicals & zinc Alloys
4. Brass/ Bronze & semi manufacturers

5. Which of the following is the greatest Ratio?


1. Gross profit to sales turnover for Binani Zinc in 1999-2000
2. Gross profit to sales turnover for Hindustan zinc in 1999-2000
3. Net profit to operating profit for Binani in 1998-1999.
4. Net profit to operating profit for Hindustan in 1998-1999

6. Suppose the Chemical industry requires low grade zinc which can be imported at half the average
price of zinc produced domestically. The import duty is 20% on value of goods imported and
transportation is another 10% . What is the foreign exchange outflow if all demand of chemical
industry is met through import
1. $ 32 mn
2. $ 4o mn
3. $ 60 mn
4. None of these

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 24
Institute for Competitive Exams
7. What is the average production of zinc in the country for the five year period.
1. 183200 kg
2. 178900 kg
3. 184200 kg
4. None of these

Directions (Q 8-13): These questions are based on following graph.


Share of world population
12.5% G-
7 nations

57.5%
30% G-15
Other
nations
nations

The G-7 Pop. 1990 (millions) GNP per capita ($)


Canada 26 19,030
France 56 17,820
Germany 62 20,440
Italy 58 15,120
Japan 123 23,810
U.K 58 14,610
U.S.A. 250 20,910
The G-15 Pop. 1990 (millions) Real GNP per capita ($)
Algeria 25 2,230
Argentina 32 2,767
Brazil 143 2,540
Egypt 51 640
India 839 350
Indonesia 180 500
Jamaica 2.5 1,260
Malaysia 18 2,160
Maxico 85 1,958
Nigeria 114 250
Peru 21.5 1,010
Senegal 7.5 850
Venezuela 19.5 2,450
Yugoslavia 24 2,920
Zimbabwe 10 650

8. Which G-7 country has the highest GNP?


1. Japan
2. USA
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Institute for Competitive Exams
3. Canada
4. None of these

9. The lowest GNP of any G-15 nation is what percent of the highest GNP of any other G-15 nation?
1. 1.7%
2. 5.3%
3. 4.3%
4. 2.9%

10. What is the total GNP of the other world countries if their average GNP per capita is 1140.
1. $340 8600
2. $348 9000
3. $468 9600
4. None of these

11. Which of the following is false about the data given.


1. Using information given in the above table we can conclude that total GNP of USA is greater than
total GNP of other nations put together
2. Total GDP of Malaysia is less than total GDP of Egypt.
3. Per capita GDP of only five G-15 nations is more than 15% of the per capita GDP of UK
4. None of these

12. The average GDP of G-7 nations is


1. $18820
2. $14820
3. $17820
4. None of these

13. Which of the following can be inferred form the data given.
I. GNP of each G-7 nation is greater than GNP of any G-15 nation.
II. The variance in population of G-7 nations is greater than the variance in population of G-15
nations.
III. The population in other nations is about 4.5 times the total population in G-7 nations.
IV. France has a GDP greater than that of Italy.
1. I Only
2. II & III
3. I, III, IV
4. IV & II

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 26
Institute for Competitive Exams
Directions (Q 14-18): These questions are based on following pie graph.

Spending Pattern of an Average Worker


Comparison of spending patterns 100% = Rs.3500

Saving
Miscellan
5%
eous
10%
Food
Repaymen 35%
t of Loans
12%

Social
Religious
activity
8%
Semidura Rent
bles 20%
10%

Spending Pattern of Mr. Hard worker


Saving
10%
Misc 5%
Food 25%
Social
Religious
7%
Durables
7%

Entertain- Rent 18%


ment 8%
Semidurab
les 20%

14. For the categories which are common for both, for which category does Mr. Hard Worker spend
more than the average worker?
1. Rent
2. Durables
3. Semi-durables
4. Entertainment

15. How much does Mr. Hard worker spend on categories which are not included in the spending
pattern of an average worker?

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 27
Institute for Competitive Exams
1. Rs.100
2. Rs.225
3. Rs.525
4. Rs.450

16. The additional savings of 5% of Mr. Hard worker come from his savings under
1. Food
2. Repayment of loans
3. Misc.
4. Cannot be attributed to any particular category

17. If the salary of Mr. Hard worker is increased by 20% and his expenses under all the heads remain
the same, what will be his percentage savings?
1. 10%
2. 15%
3. 20%
4. 25%

18. Which of the following is definitely true?


I. Mr. Hard worker has a smaller family than the average worker.
II. Mr. Hard worker has not borrowed any money.
III. Mr. Hard worker spends less on necessities and more on comforts.
1. I only
2. II only
3. I, II and III only
4. None of these

Directions (Q 19-25): The following questions are to be answered on the basis of the pie-chart
given below.

Person’s monthly salary distributed over different expense heads

Petrol Entertainment
10% 15%

Food
15%

Savings
23%
House Rent
Clothes
30%
7%

19. For a person, whose monthly salary is Rs. 6,000 p.m., how many items are there on which he has
to spend more than Rs. 1000 p.m.?
1. 1
2. 1
Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 28
Institute for Competitive Exams
3. 3
4. 4
20. For the same person, an expenditure of Rs. 1800 p.m. takes place on
1. Petrol
2. House Rent
3. Food
4. Clothes

21. The annual savings for such a person will be approximately


1. Rs. 5,000
2. Rs. 10,000
3. Rs. 15,000
4. Rs. 16,560

22. The monthly salary for a person who follows the same expense pattern, but has a petrol expense
of Rs. 500 p.m., is
1. Rs. 2,500
2. Rs. 3,000
3. Rs. 5,000
4. Rs. 6,500

23. The percentage of money spent on clothes and towards saving is equal to which other single item
of expense?
1. Petrol
2. House Rent
3. Food
4. Entertainment

24. What is the angle made at the centre of the pie-chart by the sector representing the expense on
petrol?
1. 30°
2. 45°
3. 36°
4. 90°

25. Given that the pie- chart for a salary of Rs. 6,000 p.m., what would be the ratio of the radius of
this pie-chart to a pie- chart for a person with a salary of Rs. 1500 p.m.?
1. 2: 1
2. 1: 2
3. 1: 2
4. 2 2 : 1

Answer Key: DI - PIE CHART


1: 13212 6: 14144 11: 24333 16: 33312 21: 43232

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 29
Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Miscellaneous
Directions: Solve the following data interpretation questions.
Distribution of Work Hours in a Factory
Number of Workers Number of Hours Worked
20 45-50
15 40-44
25 35-39
16 30--34
4 0-29
80 TOTAL 3100

1. What percentage worked 40 or more hours?


1.43.75
2.25
1
3. 33
3
4. 40

2. The number of workers who worked from 40 to 44 hours is X times the number who worked up to
20 hours, where X is
15
1.
16
3
2. 3
4
3. 4
4. 5

3. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the table?


I. The average number of hours worked per worker is less than 40
II. At least 3 worked more than 48 hours.
III. More than half of all the workers worked more than 40 hours.
1. I only
2. II only
3. I and II only
4. I and III only

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 30
Institute for Competitive Exams
1967-70 Government Data
RECEIPTS

44.9 Corp. Tax


Indiv 19.7 Corp.
Employment Tax, Unemployment & Other Insurance
etc.

Excise Tax

Customs, Estate, Gift Tax

4.7 Cust
Indiv. Income Tax
8.5 Excise
22.1 Employment

OUTLAYS

3% Space Programme

3% Agriculture
3% Commerce & Transport
47%
5% Health Security
Education & Manpower
Pensioners
29% Others
2% Defence
4% International Affairs
4%

4. If the annual average receipts from the corporation income tax during the years 1967-70
1967 equal x,
then the average annual receipts during this period were about
x
1.
4
2. x2
3. 3x
4. 5x

5. The average annual combined outlay for pensioners, education and manpower, and health and
income security was roughly what fraction of the average annual outlay?
outlay
1
1.
4

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Institute for Competitive Exams
1
2.
3
2
3.
5
1
4.
2

6. What category received the second smallest average annual outlay during
1967-70?
1. excise taxes
2. other
3. space programme
4. international affairs

Distribution of Test Scores in a Class


Number of Students Number of Correct Answers
10 36 to 40
16 32 to 35
12 28 to 31
14 26 to 27
8 0 to 25

7. What percent of the class answered 32 or more questions correctly?


1. 20
2. 26
1
3. 32
2
1
4. 43
3

8. The number of students who answered 28 to 31 questions correctly is x times the number who
answered 25 or fewer correctly, where x is
2
1.
3
2. 1
3
3.
2
7
4.
4

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 32
Institute for Competitive Exams
Speed of a car over a 3-hour period

Time Since Start (in minutes)


30 60 90 105 120 150 180
Speed at time (in mph)
50 55 60 62.5 67.5 65 60

1
9. How fast was the car travelling 2 hours after the start?
2
1. 60 mph
2. 62.5 mph
3. 65 mph
4. 67.5 mph

10. During the last hour of the time period shown on the table, the speed of the car
1. decreased by 10 mph
2. decreased by 7.5 mph
3. decreased by 5 mph
4. stayed the same

11. Which of the following statements about the speed of the car during the 3 hour period can be
inferred from the table?
I. The average speed was 60 mph.
II. The car slowed down during the fifth half-hour of the time period.
III. The slowest speed the car travelled at was 50 mph.
1. II only
2. III only
3. I and III only
4. II and III only

Expectation of Life at Various Stages in India


Age 1951-60 1961-70
Males Females Males Females
0 41.9 40.6 47.1 45.6
10 45.2 43.8 49.0 48.1
20 37.0 35.8 40.2 39.7
30 29.0 27.9 31.9 31.7
50 16.5 17.5 18.3 18.9

12. Which of the following statements is correct with regard to the table given?
1. A male at the age of 30 in the period 1941- 50 could expect to live up to the age 56.6 on an average
2. The life expectancy of males increase steadily up to the age of 40 and then decreases
3. A male at the age of 30 on an average could expect to live up to a greater age than he could expect
when he was less than a year old
4. Females at all ages have a lower life expectancy than males of the corresponding ages

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 33
Institute for Competitive Exams
13. In which year and which age group did the life expectancy of males differ very little from that
females?
1. in 1951-60, age of 30
2. in 1941-50, age of 50
3. in 1960-70, age of 30
4. in age 1961-70, age of 50

14. From the given table we cannot conclude that


1. Female upto 30 year of age have a lower life expectancy than males on an average
2. Females life expectancy has shown an improvement over the year at all stages
3. Three are more females being murdered than males
4. A male at the age of 10 and a female at the age of 20 years could expect to live up top the man
same age approximately

15. By how many years on an average has the life expectancy of the Indian people at the age of 30
improved in 1961-70 as compared to 1951-60?
1. 6.7
2. 5
3. 2.35
4. 3.35

Index of Industrial production (Base: 1970 = 100)

Industry group 1976 1977 1978


Beverage industries 262.6 347.0 387.9
Manufacture of paper, etc. 111.8 112.8 121.0
Tobacco industries 109.8 107.7 112.5
Manufacturing Mining and 130.3 135.1 144.4
Quarrying 136.8 139.9 142.1
Electricity 160.3 165.4 183.6
Footwear 91.0 90.6 80.4
Leather and fur products 102.8 104.2 71.5

16. Which industry in the table has shown the maximum growth in the period 1970-77?
1. Electricity
2. Manufacturing
3. Tobacco
4. None of these

17. A decline in production was in 1977 compared to the previous year by the industries of
1. Footwear
2. Footwear and Leather
3. Tobacco and Footwear
4. Leather and Fur

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 34
Institute for Competitive Exams
18. A decline production has been shown in 1978 compared to 1970 by the industry of
1. Tobacco and footwear
2. Footwear
3. Leather and fur and Footwear
4. None

19. Among the following, which industry has shown minimum percentage change in 1978 over 1977?
1. Manufacturing
2. Beverage industry
3. Mining and quarrying
4. Paper

Percentages of villages which are not electrified

U 38
T 38
S 42
R 12
Q 28
P 20

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

20. If the central government desires to give aid for speedy electrification starting from stages with
least electrification, which state will get fourth rank in the order of priority?
1. R
2. Q
3. P
4. T
5. U

21. Which state has twice the percentage of villages electrified in comparison to state S?
1. R
2. U
3. P
4. Q
5. T

22. In case of state P, What percent of village are electrified?


1. 65
2. 25
3. 35
4. 75
5. none

23. How many states have at least 60% or more electrified villages?
1. 5
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Institute for Competitive Exams
2. 3
3. 4
4. 2
5. 1

24. Which states has the maximum percentage of electrified villages?


villages
1. P
2. Q
3. R
4. S
5. T

India’s Foreign Exchange Reserves


7000
6000
5000
4000
3000 FOREX
2000
1000
0
1971-72 1972
1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976--77

25. Increase in which of the following years was approximately 25% of that in the revious year?
year
1. 1975-76
2. 1973-74
3. 1971-72
4. 1972-73
5. none

26. In which year did the export has lowest percent increase over its preceding year?
year
1. 1974-75
2. 1975-76
3. 1972-73
4. 1976-77
5. none

27. What is the ratio


atio of the number of year’s which have below average export to number of those
which above average export?
1. 1: 2
2. 2: 1
3. 1: 1
4. 1: 3
5. none

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 36
Institute for Competitive Exams
28. In which of the following pairs of year the increase in export over previous year approximately
the same?
1. 73-74 and 74-76
2. 75-76 and 76-77
3. 71-72 and 72-73
4. 74-75 and 75-76
5. none

29. The export in 75-76 was roughly how many times that of the export in 73-74?
1. 1.29
2. 2
3. 1.50
4. 1.80
5. none

No. of employees working in various departments of a factory


Dept. Year Production Sales Purchase Admn & Acctt. Res. & Devp.
1976 150 25 50 45 75
1977 225 40 45 62 70
1978 450 65 30 90 73
1979 470 73 32 105 70
1980 500 80 35 132 74
1981 505 75 36 130 75

30. In which year did the total number of employees reach approximately twice the total number of
employees the factory had in the year 1986?
1. 1981
2. 1980
3. 1979
4. 1978
5. 1977

31. In which department did the number of employees approximately remain the same during the
years?
1. Production
2. Sales
3. Research and Development
4. Research and Account
5. Purchase

32. In which year was the number of employees working in production department less than 50% of
the total employees?
1. 1977
2. 1978
3. 1979
4. 1980
5. none
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Institute for Competitive Exams
33. In which of the following years each department had more number of employees than it had in
the immediately preceding year?
1. 1980
2. 1979
3. 1978
4. 1977
5. none

34. Which department had less than 10% of the total employees all through the years 1976 to 1981?
1. Purchase
2. Sales
3. Research
4. Admn. and Acctt.
5. None

35. x = 9y for
1. x = production employees in 1977; y = sales employees in 1976
2. x = production employees in 1978; y = purchase employees in 1976
3. x = purchase employees in 1977; y = production employees in 1981
4. both 1 & 2 above
5. None of these

ANSWER KEY: DI: Miscellaneous


1: 12142 6: 44332 11: 33342 16: 34315 20: 14231 25: 25115 30: 35124

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Institute for Competitive Exams

DI: Compound
Directions (Q 1-10): Study the following graphs and answer the questions that follow.

Sail's Steel Production as a % of total supply


22
20
18
PERCENTAGE 16
DEMAND
14
12
10
96-97 97-98 98-99 99-2000 2000-01 2001-02

Demand - Supply (production) figures for Steel in India

35000
30000
25000
in tonnes

20000
15000
DEMAND
10000
5000 SUPPLY
0
96-97 97-98 98-99 99-2000 2000-01 2001-02
Year

1. What is the total production of SAIL for the first three years of the given period?
1.10200 tonnes
2. 14000 tonnes
3. 10800 tonnes
4. None of these

2. The largest quantity of steel produced by SAIL in a single year has been
1. 5220 tonnes
2. 5600 tonnes
3. 4600 tonnes
4. None of these

3. Which of the following years witnessed the highest percentage change in production of steel in the
country?
1. 2001-02
2. 1998-99
3. 2000-01
4. 1997-98
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Institute for Competitive Exams
4. What has been the average per annum steel production by SAIL in the given six year period?
1. 5620 tonnes
2. 5800 tonnes
3. 4310 tonnes
4. None of these

5. Which of the following years witnessed the highest percentage change in production of steel by
SAIL?
1. 1997-98
2. 1998-99
3. 1999-2000
4. None of these

6. SAIL should increase its capacity by how many tonnes in order to meet the shortfall between
demand and supply in 2001-02?
1. 3200 tonnes
2. 12400 tonnes
3. 1460 tonnes
4. 4000 tonnes

7. If there had been a 10% increase in the production capacity of SAIL in 2001-02 , instead of a
decrease then what would have been the shortfall in supply in that year?
1. 3200 tonnes
2. 2835 tonnes
3. 1210 tonnes
4. 3060 tonnes

8. What was the total production of all steel producing units, except SAIL, in 1998-99?
1. 23220 tonnes
2. 14500 tonnes
3. 24780 tonnes
4. None of these

9. If the demand of low carbon steel in 1998-99 is 10,000 tonnes and 40% of SAIL’s total production
is of low carbon steel then what is the demand of low carbon steel which is being met by other
producers, assuming that the total demand of low carbon steel is met?
1. 6468 tonnes
2. 7648 tonnes
3. 8488 tonnes
4. None of these

10. What has been the average steel production per annum in the country for the whole six year
period given in the graph above?
1. 26,333 tonnes
2. 34,684 tonnes
3. 28, 464 tonnes
4. None of these

Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 40
Institute for Competitive Exams
Directions (Q 11-20): Study the following data and answer the questions that follow?
Percentage Share of Women's Magazine Market
15% Elle
10% Femina
Society
25%
Cosmo
50%
Elle

MAGAZINE Readers per issue Price per issue


FEMINA 4 20
SOCIETY 3.5 20
COSMOPOLITAN 2.5 50
ELLE 3 70
Total Women’s Magazine market size per month = 400,000
Total Readership = Circulation x Readers per issue

11. What is the share of Elle in terms of value of the women’s magazine market?
1. 10 %
2. 23.7 %
3. 14.8 %
4. None of these

12. What is the total amount of revenue of Femina for one year?
1. Rs. 4.8 crores
2. Rs 6.4 crores
3. Rs 4.6 crores
4. None of these

13. The ratio of revenue of Elle to the revenue of Cosmopolitan is


1. 9: 10
2. 8: 11
3. 11: 13
4. 14: 15

14. What is the total number of readers of women’s magazines?


1. 12.4 lakhs/month
2. 14.2 lakhs/month
3. 16.8 lakhs/month
4. None of these

15. The total readership of Femina outnumbers the combined readership of Society and Elle by
1. 1.9 lakhs
2. 2.2 lakhs
3. 3.3 lakhs
4. None of these
Data Interpretation #3094, Sector 37D, Chandigarh. Phone: 98151 40596, 98551 71046 Page 41
Institute for Competitive Exams
16. The readers per copy of Elle should increase by what percent so that the total readership of Elle
matches the total readership of Cosmopolitan?
1. 20%
2. 25%
3. 35 %
4. 30%

17. What is the total number of copies of Society sold per annum?
1. 11.2 lakhs
2. 16 lakhs
3. 8.8 lakhs
4. 12 lakhs

18. If Cosmopolitan reduces its price by half its market share doubles by eating into the market share
of Femina. In the new scenario what is the difference in annual revenue of Femina and
Cosmopolitan?
1. 18 lakhs
2. 22 lakhs
3. 24 lakhs
4. 28 lakhs

19. Decent Indian Women, a social organisation committed to saving the cultural heritage of India
file a PIL against Cosmopolitan for display of a semi-nude model on the cover and got its publication
banned. If half of the readers of Cosmopolitan shift to reading Elle then what is the new total
readership of Elle?
1. 2.7 lakhs
2. 2.4 lakhs
3. 1.95 lakhs
4. None of these

20. If all the magazines start publishing fortnightly instead of monthly then what is the percentage
increase in revenue per annum, assuming that the circulation of the magazines remains same?
1. 100%
2. 200%
3. 125%
4. None

Answer Key: DI - COMPOUND


1: 12431 6: 44131 11: 21423 16: 24331

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