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Inna E.

Fedyunina
Anna E. Vorobyova
Marina S. Belozerova

SPEECH PRACTICE

Manual for graduate students

Belgorod 2020
Белгородский государственный национальный
исследовательский университет
Кафедра английской филологии и межкультурной коммуникации

Inna E. Fedyunina
Anna E. Vorobyova
Marina S. Belozerova

SPEECH PRACTICE
Manual for graduate students

Белгород 2020
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2P-9я73

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Белгородского


государственного национального исследовательского университета

Р е ц е н з е н т ы:
канд. филол. наук, заведующая кафедрой иностранных языков БГТУ им. В. Г.
Шухова
Т.В.Беседина;

канд. филол. наук, доцент кафедры английской филологии и межкультурной


коммуникации института межкультурной коммуникации и международных
отношений НИУ «БелГУ»
Е.А. Виноградова

Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для использования на старших курсах языковых


специальностей и направлений в рамках изучения дисциплин «Практикум по культуре
речевого общения первого иностранного языка», «Практический курс иностранного языка» и
«Углублённый практический курс основного иностранного языка». Целью пособия является
дальнейшее совершенствование у студентов старших курсов языковых специальностей и
направлений навыков устной коммуникации (монологической, диалогической речи и
дискуссии) в результате овладения речевыми образцами, содержащими новые лексические
явления.

УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2P-9я73
Федюнина И.Э., Воробьева А.Е., Белозерова М.С.

Т 77 Speech Practice: Manual for graduate students / И.Э. Федюнина, А.Е.


Воробьева, М.С. Белозерова – Белгород: Изд-во «Белгород» НИУ БелГУ, 2020.-
124 с.

© И.Э. Федюнина, А.Е. Воробьева, М.С.


Белозерова, 2020
© Белгородский государственный национальный

исследовательский университет, 2020


CONTENTS

Предисловие …………………………………………………………………….5

UNIT 1 Higher Education……………………..……………………….....6

UNIT 2 Books and Reading……………………………………………...32

UNIT 3 Music…………………………………………………………...39

UNIT 4 Television …………………………………………..……….…49

UNIT 5 Marriage and Family Life ………………..……………………..63

UNIT 6 Bringing up children ……………………………………….…..70

UNIT 7 Crime and Punishment ………………………………………82

UNIT 8 Health and Medicine …………………………………….……..96

UNIT 9 Tourism …………………………………………………...….108

UNIT 10 The Internet and society .……………………………………..114

CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES………………………………….......122
Предисловие
Настоящее пособие дополняет курс устной речи и призвано лечь в основу
комплекса знаний, которыми студенты старших курсов должны обладать по
окончании изучения дисциплины. В практикум включены тексты для чтения,
снабженные вопросами и заданиями, нацеленными на освоение базовой
лексики по изучаемым темам и совершенствование навыков устной
коммуникации на английском языке. Тексты взяты из аутентичных научных,
публицистических и энциклопедических изданий (в британском и
американском вариантах английского языка) и отражают современную лексику.
Тематика текстов продиктована программой преподавания устной речи
на старших курсах и включает следующие разделы: «Высшее образование»,
«Чтение книг», «Музыка», «Телевидение», «Брак и семейная жизнь»,
«Воспитание детей», «Преступления и формы наказания», «Здоровье и
медицина», «Туризм», «Интернет и общество». Предложенные тексты
отражают актуальные научные, гуманитарные и этические аспекты проблем
современности, а также различные точки зрения ученых и общественности на
них, что позволяет студентам составить комплексное представление об
изучаемом феномене. Содержание текстов рассчитано на студентов с
продвинутым уровнем владения английским языком.
Каждый раздел предполагает ознакомление с лексическим минимумом по
теме с дальнейшим его закреплением в комплексе лексических и
коммуникативных упражнений, что обеспечивает наиболее глубокое,
всестороннее и эффективное овладение лексическим материалом.
Практикум также включает упражнения к аудиозаписям и
видеоматериалам, ознакомление с которыми является частью курса. По
усмотрению преподавателя очередность изучения того или иного раздела
может варьироваться, а задания — видоизменяться в зависимости от
потребностей аудитории. В конце пособия приводится список речевых
образцов, которые призваны послужить опорой студентам в построении
творческих высказываний.

Авторы
UNIT 1
HIGHER EDUCATION
1.1. Active Vocabulary

Courses, Subjects and Activities Structure and People


formal education – официальное faculty / school
образование department
course of study career center
curriculum – учебный план dean
extracurricular activities – student
внеклассные занятия staff – коллектив
to join a club lecturer
range of courses – выбор курсов tutor
field in which you choose to professor
specialize academic advisor – научный
academic discipline руководитель
major
minor Academic year
core course – основной курс timetable / schedule
elective courses full-time study / student
educational course /general part-time study / student
education – программа обучения distant study / student
fundamentals – основные to study from home
предметы semester
advanced study term
social sciences exam
engineering test
computer science entrance exam
technology final exam
history credit
political science sophomore year
sociology
psychology Abilities, Skills and Attitudes
biology strengths and weaknesses
physics grammar/reading/listening/writing/speaking
mathematics skills
economy mental agility – гибкость ума
architecture intellectual skills
archeology memorization skills
journalism critical thinking
ancient languages independent thinking
linguistics ability to learn how to learn
nanotechnologies ability to think quickly / clearly
management proficiency in a specific academic area
business to grasp a subject – понять
accountancy – бухгалтерский учет to learn smth by heart
law to show an improvement/progress in smth
medicine to have a natural talent for smth
literature (to be) a quick learner
chemistry to get full marks in a test / exam
languages outstanding student / top student
A-student
Procedures prepare for a career
to apply for admission – подать prepare yourself for the job market
заявление на поступление take a lot of academic time and energy
strong competition for admission to make oneself more competitive
(undergraduate) applicants – have a passion for a subject
абитуриенты бакалавриата (to be) stimulating / challenging / boring /
to gain entrance – поступать frustrating
to enter There is a room for improvement in (…)
to enroll / to be accepted – to play truant / miss classes - прогуливать
записаться
to be expelled
to graduate
to provide financial aid
to sign up for a course
to meet entry / course requirements
– соответствовать требованиям
вступительного курса
degree requirements – ученая
степень
to get a degree in (…)
to get / win a scholarship
to supply housing / accommodation

1.2. Read and Discuss

HIGHER EDUCATION IN AMERICA

Why study in the US?

High quality courses. The United States has one of the world’s finest university
systems, with outstanding programs in virtually all fields. At the undergraduate level,
excellent programs exist in traditional disciplines, as well as in professional fields. A
close relationship between research and education has brought a number of U.S.
institutions to the forefront of research and technological development. At these
particular universities, students usually learn under the direction of world-renowned
faculty who range from Nobel Laureates to Pulitzer Prize winners.
Wide range of educational opportunities. The U.S is home to over 4,000 colleges
and universities, offering at least ten times as many campuses as in any other country.
With such a wide range of universities and degrees on offer, you're bound to find
something suited to you! Some U.S. colleges and universities teach a broad range of
educational principles; some emphasize practical, employment-related skills; and
others specialize in the arts, social sciences or technical fields. This means you can
usually have a variety of options and educational opportunities if you are looking for
a place to study a particular field. You will often find several schools to choose from,
no matter how specific your needs may be.

Cutting-edge technology. Universities in the U.S. pride themselves on being at the


forefront of technology, research and techniques, and in making the best possible
equipment and resources available to their students. Even if your field does not
directly involve science or engineering, you will have opportunities to become skilled
in using the latest technology to conduct research, as well as obtain and process
information. You will find ways to stay connected with researchers, teachers and
experts in your field all over the world.
Opportunities for research, teaching and training. You may be able to gain
valuable experience through teaching and/or research while you help to finance your
education in the U.S., particularly if you are a graduate student. International students
are some of the most valued teachers and researchers in U.S. universities because
they bring new skills and ideas to the classroom and library or laboratory. This
practical component of your education will prove useful in your future career, and
may give you insights into your field that would not be possible through
undergraduate study alone.

Flexibility. Although many programs are highly structured in that specific


coursework requirements must be met, you will generally be able to find a wide
variety of course choices to meet those requirements. For example, liberal arts
coursework for an undergraduate program will include (among others) classes in
languages and mathematics, but you will often have several options from which to
choose with regard to which language class you take, or which area of mathematics
appeals most to your interests and skills. At the advanced stages of a degree, or if you
are pursuing a graduate degree, you will be able to tailor your coursework to fit your
specific academic goals, needs and interests. When you choose topics for independent
study for a graduate thesis or dissertation, you can emphasise ideas that are important
to you, your field and your country.

Good career prospects. Experience in an international setting is a marketable


commodity. Many employers seek the wide range of knowledge, adaptability and
experience that international students acquire by studying in the USA. Companies in
the U.S. often look to hire employees who not only have multi-cultural language
skills, but those who can also help communicate, negotiate and conduct business
across different cultures. The U.S is not the only country seeking strong candidates
when hiring; international students are in high demand elsewhere, as well.

Campus life experience. When you continue your studies in the U.S., you are
making a choice to broaden not only your educational experience, but your cultural
opportunities as well. Whether you attend a small, private college in a small town or a
university situated in the middle of a large urban area, most universities offer a
variety of student clubs and organisations to match the wide variety of student
interests/hobbies. You have the opportunity to immerse yourself in American culture,
meeting new people and making new friends, through different organisations and
associations. International students often find that the international student office is a
good starting point for campus offerings, as well as the campus student centre. Your
time studying abroad can be enriched by taking part in the social and cultural scene
surrounding you, and you will likely find that U.S. campuses provide a rich variety
academic, cultural and athletic activities that add new experiences to your life.

Support services for international students. Studying in the United States is a


rewarding experience, but navigating your way through day-to-day issues can be a
challenge. Many international students find that the college and university
international student office is a great help in helping them adapt to a culturally and
academically different environment. The aim of the international student office is to
assist students like you, and there is often a wide range of student services that they
can provide. An orientation program upon your arrival is just the start of the many
programs and benefits of the university international student office - throughout your
time in the U.S., they can help answer questions you may have regarding your visa
status, financial situation, housing, employment possibilities, health concerns and
more. If you choose to complete your degree in the U.S, this office often provides
resume and employment assistance as graduation nears.

Higher Education System in America

American degrees are based on a Liberal Arts philosophy, a unique feature of the U.S
higher education system. It requires that students take a wide variety of courses in the
arts and sciences before focusing on one academic area. This is so they gain a well-
rounded education, and can apply their skills to a wide range of careers. The
American Bachelor degree curriculum consists of:

core courses – these are courses taken in mathematics, physical sciences, English,
humanities, and social sciences. These general education courses lay the foundation
of the degree program, though not all colleges have these core courses.

a major – this is the main academic subject you will study. Most students major in
one subject, although at some colleges you can pursue a double major in a related or
different subject. Students declare their major in the first two years of study.

a minor – this is a subject in which a student chooses to take the second greatest
concentration of courses, although not all institutions offer this choice.

electives – these are a student's free choice of additional topics they find interesting.
A degree is designed to be completed in four years, although there is no fixed
timescale. Most undergraduates complete their studies within 6 years of the date they
first enrolled. Studying can then lead to a Bachelor of Arts B.A.), a Bachelor of
Science (B.S.), or sometimes another bachelor's degree such as Bachelor of Fine Arts
(B.F.A.), Bachelor of Social Work (B.S.W.), Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.,) or
Bachelor of Philosophy (B.Phil.) Five-Year Professional Architecture programs offer
the Bachelor of Architecture Degree (B.Arch.) Professional degrees such as law,
medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry, are offered as graduate study after earning at least
three years of undergraduate schooling or after earning a bachelor's degree depending
on the program. These professional fields do not require a specific undergraduate
major, though medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry have set pre-requisite courses that
must be taken before enrolment. For example, if you wish to apply to Harvard to
study medicine, you would need to do your bachelors degree in another subject, while
also taking specific medical school pre-requisite courses. Only once you have
graduated can you then apply to Harvard medical school. In the U.S, a degree is
awarded after a student has completed a required amount of coursework, expressed in
terms known as credits/units or semester hours. Most courses only last 1 semester,
and usually a student will need to accumulate approximately 110 to 130 credits in
order to graduate, with each course on average earning 3 or 4 credits. Continuous
assessment is a feature and each course (class) per term is graded and then converted
into a numeric equivalent called a Grade Point Average on a scale of 0 - 4.0, which
indicates how well a student is performing. Many Bachelor's degree programs in the
United States do not require students to write a final thesis.

Choosing a university in the USA

You should start searching for potential U.S universities or colleges you might like to
attend about 18 months before beginning your studies, as it can take some time to
complete the application process. First, you should have a good idea what course(s)
you would like to study, plus a rough idea of where in the U.S you would like to be
located (e.g. east or west, coast or mainland, temperate or warmer climate, etc.)
The best place to find out more information on particular institutions is their website.
Most universities and colleges have a section dedicated to international students. This
should provide information on student life, accommodation, the admissions process,
entry requirements and more.

Factors to consider:

Academic excellence First of all, be sure the courses provided by the institution are
of high quality, with an excellent standard of teaching. Find out if they are accredited
by governmental agencies, as this provides a certain guarantee of quality.

International student support It’s worth investigating how good the course is for
international students by seeing if the institution has an International Student Program
Director, help with housing, an orientation to the university, city and American
education system, as well as advice services specifically for international students. In
other words, make sure that help will always be there when you need it. A good
course will also provide opportunities to meet American students and will offer social
events and an opportunity to get involved in student activities.

Location Look at a map on the internet to see exactly where the institution is located
and investigate the area it is in. Consider whether it is a place you would like to live
for a prolonged period of time, and the sort of cultural and social activities it offers.
Would you prefer to live in a large urban city, or somewhere in a more rural setting?
Think about what the weather is like there – you may want to avoid places that are
too rainy or warm! Find out if your accommodation will be on the campus, and if not,
how good the transportation links are.

Cost You will also need to take into account financial considerations, as study in the
U.S is expensive and the amount can vary greatly from institution to institution.
Check that the cost is reasonable for the program you receive – although some private
colleges are very expensive, you will receive an excellent service. Some community
colleges are less expensive, but still offer a great service. Many American and
international students who want a university degree attend the first two years at a
community college with lower costs and easier admission policies, and then transfer
for their last two years at a four year university.  Look at the costs carefully to make
sure you are getting value for your money.

Funding The cost of undertaking a degree in the U.S increases each year, and many
students are finding that they are unable to financially support themselves.
International students can expect to pay a total of up to £42,000 in tuition fees, living
expenses and other costs at the top U.S universities and colleges. Unfortunately, there
is very little financial aid available from US sources for international students.
International student scholarships are very difficult to obtain, and therefore the
majority of international students in America must rely almost entirely on themselves
and their relatives for funding. Although there are many universities in the US that
provide financial aid and international student scholarships to international students,
this aid is normally limited and is often more accessible to graduate than
undergraduate students. Furthermore, competition for international student
scholarships and aid is fierce, and institutions are careful to only help the most
deserving international students. Good grades and exam scores are extremely
important in securing an international student scholarship, as they are only awarded
to those with an outstanding academic record. Find out whether any of the schools
that you would like to apply to have grants, loans or scholarships for international
students. If they don’t, and you have not been able to obtain enough funding on your
own.
Applying to university in the USA

When to apply To make sure you complete the application process in time, start
contacting universities and colleges you are interested in attending 12-18 months in
advance. If you are looking to begin studying in autumn 2022, you should start
contacting universities in spring 2021. American universities admit new students
twice a year - although the largest intake is usually in the autumn, students are also
admitted in the spring semester which starts in January. Therefore if you want to start
in January of the year 2023, start researching and contacting universities in July 2021.

How to apply Applying to American universities is a lengthy process. To apply for


a U.S undergraduate programme, you must submit your application directly to the
individual university rather than a centralized body such as UCAS. Each institution
has its own application deadlines and procedures, although 392 American colleges
and universities subscribe to a Common Application Form  in order to help
streamline the undergraduate applications process. Each institution will have a
section on their website for international students who wish to apply for their
undergraduate courses. This should include a link to the application form, which you
can either fill out and submit online, or print off and send via post. If you are using
the common application to apply to a particular institution(s), bear in mind that once
you have filled it in and submitted it, it can not be changed. You will have to contact
the university or college directly if you need to correct a mistake or provide more
information. Check deadlines for applications carefully, and remember that the
application process can take a long time, so make sure to fill in and submit your
application as early as possible.

Entry Requirements for American Universities

Each university and college in the U.S has its own international student entry
requirements – the minimum requirements for grades and standardized tests, e.g. the
TOEFL and SAT, varies from institution to institution. Even within the same
university there may be different admissions requirements, depending on which
major you choose to study. Usually, the higher your grades and test scores, the better
chance you have of getting into one of the top institutions in the U.S.

Admissions tests

Colleges and universities in the U.S ask all their applicants to take one or more
standardized tests. These tests include the SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test), and the
ACT (American College Testing). Applicants who are not Americans are also
required to take the TOEFL (Test of English as Foreign Language). Most
standardized tests are designed to assess your skills, rather than your amount of
knowledge. The questions in these tests evaluate your ability to solve problems, not
your knowledge of facts. The role of standardized tests is to provide institutions a
way of evaluating all their applicants on an equal level. Comparing grades received
for coursework or exams is not always enough because different universities and
colleges have different academic standards. International students applying for a
degree in the U.S will be required to take the TOEFL and the SAT I tests; some
universities will also require the SAT II. There are many institutions that will accept
the ACT in place of the SAT I.

TOEFL In most parts of the world, the TOEFL is a computer-based test. In some
areas, paper-based testing is also available. Paper-based tests are administered on
predetermined dates, whereas computer-based tests can be taken on an appointment
basis. The test consists of mostly multiple-choice questions, although an essay
question is also required. It is strongly recommended that you have some sort of
experience with a TOEFL test preparation program before you sit the TOEFL exam.

SAT There are two versions of the SAT test. The SAT I is called the Reasoning Test
and is designed to evaluate your mathematical and verbal skills. It consists mostly of
multiple-choice questions. The questions in the math sections cover arithmetic,
algebra, and geometry, as well as logical reasoning, probability and counting. In
comparison, the SAT II contains 22 separate tests called Subject Tests. Each subject
test covers a specific area such as world history, Spanish, or chemistry. These tests
are designed to determine your level of knowledge in each area and your ability to
apply that knowledge to answer questions. If the institution you are applying to
requires the SAT II, you will normally be able to choose which subject test(s) you
would like to take. You can sit up to three subject tests in one day. However, you
cannot take SAT I and SAT II on the same day. It’s a good idea to complete a SAT
test preparation course before you sit the actual SAT exam.

ACT The ACT differs from the SAT I in that it is a subject-based test, rather than
an ability or aptitude test. It is made up of multiple-choice questions covering four
areas: English, Mathematics; Reading; Scientific reasoning. Although the SAT I is
more popular, some students prefer to take the ACT instead because they feel more
comfortable with its knowledge-based format.

1.3. Comprehension and Vocabulary Practice

I. Find Russian equivalents for the items below.


outstanding programs
application deadlines and procedures
to complete the application process in time
to submit your application
fill out and submit papers online
to print papers off and send via post
admissions / entry requirements
sit an exam / a test
to take standardised tests
a computer-based test / testing
a paper-based test / testing
a subject-based test
a knowledge-based test
an ability test
an aptitude test
test preparation program
to complete your degree in (…………….) years
prerequisite courses
have a good / a rough idea what you would like to study
traditional disciplines
professional fields
general education courses
credits (=units or semester hours)
a practical component of your education
educational opportunities
to provide a guarantee of quality
You're bound to find something suited to you!
Don΄t let this put you off!
practical, employment-related skills
cutting-edge technology
to use the latest technology
to conduct research
academic, cultural and athletic activities
(to have) an outstanding academic record
to gain a well-rounded education
to navigate your way through day-to-day issues
to gain valuable experience
to broaden your experience
to add new experiences to your life
to adapt to a culturally and academically different environment
a challenge
to finance your education
a reasonable cost for the program you receive
to get value for your money
financial aid
rely almost entirely on yourself for funding
international students
the most valued teachers and researchers
to prove useful in your future career
to meet the requirements
to pursue a degree
to have several options to choose from
to fit your specific academic goals, needs and interests
to choose topics for independent study
a graduate thesis
dissertation
career prospects
to have multi-cultural language skills
conduct business across different cultures
be in high demand
international student office
International Student Program Director
a community college
employment possibilities
to provide employment assistance
to apply your skills to a wide range of careers
Liberal Arts philosophy
professional degrees
Bachelor of Arts (B.A.)
Bachelor of Science (B.S.)
Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.)
Bachelor of Social Work (B.S.W.)
Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng.)
Bachelor of Philosophy (B.Phil.)
Bachelor of Architecture Degree (B.Arch.)

II. Say whether the statements below are true (T), false (F) or not given
(N).

1. Undergraduate students study mainly traditional disciplines.


2. Each university and college in America has a campus.
3. Each educational institution in the US can offer courses held by leading
scientists.
4. Even students with very specific needs and interests can find a suitable school
in America.
5. Whatever your major is, your course of study will include some science or
engineering.
6. If you are a foreign student, one of the ways of financing your education is
teaching.
7. At any stage of a degree you can design your coursework to fit your specific
academic goals.
8. Nowadays, foreign graduates are in greater demand in business than American
graduates.
9. The international student office and the campus student centre are the two
places where foreign students can find help and information.
10.The international student office limits its students services to university life
and studies only.
11.Core courses are more or less the same in all US universities.
12.You need to take pre-requisite courses if you want to study medicine,
pharmacy, dentistry and psychology.
13.All bachelor degrees are to be completed within four years.
14.The words course and class mean the same.
15.SAT tests can be done on predetermined dates only.
16.The SAT II contains, among others, a language test.
17.Undergraduate students have hardly any chance of getting a scholarship.

1.3. Listen and Discuss

Professor Wanted to Learn About Students, So She Became One

You will hear a story of Rebekah Nathan, a university professor who decide to learn
from her own experience what it is like to be a student. So she became a university
student. Listen and answer the questions below.
1. How old is Rebekah Nathan?
2. What is her field?
3. What was the aim of her “experiment”?
4. How many classes did she take as a student?
5. Why were students not interested in their classes?
6. What changes has Rebekah made in her way of teaching?
a)
b)
c)
7. What were the main arguments of other professors against her research?
8. Why were some students reluctant to answer Rebekah s questions?

1.4.Your Opinion
How much are you interested in your classes? Make a sketch of your studies based on
the following points:
- The most difficult to me is…..
- The most interesting for me is….
- (…) makes me bored to death.
- (…) seems totally useless to me.
- The most useful and helpful for me is…
- The most terrible thing for me is/was…..
- I have the greatest fun when…..
- Most of all I like…/I really got a kick out of…
- I really dislike….
- I think now I am really good at (…)
- I must admit I am still hopeless at (…)
- At first I couldnٰt make head or tail of (…)
- In the beginning I had real difficulties in ….
- Now I can...
- Now I know….
- My biggest progress is that…..
- All in all I′d like to say that…
1.5. Read and Discuss
Choosing a Major
1. American university students choose a primary and secondary area of
concentration: a major and a minor. Many students actually change their major
during the course of their university studies. How to decide what and where to study?
For some, the first decision is where—at a large university, or a small college, or a
specialized institution offering programs in engineering or technology or computer
science, for example; in a city or the country; near the beach or in the mountains; near
family or far away; at a school providing financial aid or at a school that offers
specific extracurricular activities, such as the opportunity to play on a soccer team, or
to work on the campus radio or television station, newspaper etc. But for many
others, the search begins with what they might want to study and where the best
places to study that subject might be. Undergraduate applicants to U.S. colleges and
universities often canchoose from the full range of schools and academic majors. Of
course, at highly selective institutions, competition for admission is very strong and
only a small number of outstanding students gain entrance. But, generally speaking,
the array of choices is quite broad.
2. A major is the field in which you choose to specialize during your
undergraduate study. Your choice determines the academic discipline that will take a
lot of your academic time and energy. Upon successful completion, you receive a
bachelor’s degree. Your major offers an opportunity to develop your intellectual skill,
to show your capability in grasping a subject from the fundamentals through
advanced study. What you study is an important personal decision.
When a student chooses a major, he or she enters into a contract with a college
to complete a prescribed course of study. Of course, the college curriculum will
consist not only of courses in the major field. In fact, as much as 50 to 60 percent of
coursework might consist of general education and elective courses, i.e., courses that
the student chooses from a broad range of options. In the U.S. general education seen
as very important. The goal is to develop in each student critical thinking skills and
the ability to learn how to learn, not only proficiency in a specific academic area.
At many institutions, students can choose both a major and a minor area of
study. A minor is usually closely related to the academic major. A growing number
of undergraduate students choose dual majors. The majors can be related or they can
be completely different. Often students will choose more than one major in order to
better prepare for a career. But sometimes they choose a double major because of
personal passion. Students are not starting with each major from the beginning. A
good number of the general education and even elective courses in one major will
count toward the degree requirements for the second major.
All institutions clearly define the expectations and course requirements that
students must fulfill to graduate. Students generally meet each term with an academic
advisor who helps them choose courses that will count toward their degree
requirements. Most institutions also provide tools to help students, such as program
or degree requirement checklists.
3. Some students enter college knowing exactly what they want to study, some
think they know, and some have no idea. Most will change majors at least once.
Some institutions actually prefer that students not declare a major until after they
have started their college education. But students do not have an unlimited amount of
time to choose a major. Usually they have until the end of their sophomore year to
decide and be able to complete their degree on time. Most baccalaureate degrees are
to be completed in four years with 120 semester credits.
4. Some have a passion for a subject. Some have an area in which they excelled
in high school. Some have a career goal that will dictate the major. But many students
just don’t know. Besides, usually only one major cant lead to a specific career. In
fact, choosing a career and choosing a major are two different things. Most educators
agree that in choosing a major, students should consider what they like to do, what
their abilities are, and how they like to learn. Where can they find related
information? Some of the best resources come from colleges and universities
themselves. A large number of institutions post on their Web sites the information
and tools to help students select majors.
5.The most frequently cited advice includes:
 Learn more about yourself. What are your academic strengths and weaknesses?
What do you enjoy? What are your interests / values?
 Take a personality or an interest inventory or assessment (test).
 Visit Web sites of university departments. Look at the majors offered. Analyze
the courses offered and the degree requirements.
 Go to departmental offices on campus and talk with staff and students.
 Visit college career centers and look for reports that list jobs recent graduates
have found.
 After you enroll, try out different courses in different departments.
 If you find yourself in the wrong major, don’t worry. Most students in U.S.
change their majors. Do not stay in a major you don’t like or that is not
challenging and stimulating.
 Don’t confuse a career choice with a major choice. Any major can prepare you
for a number of different job possibilities and, thus, for the job market.

Comprehension and Vocabulary Practice

1.6. The text contains five paragraphs. Below you will see five headlines. Match the
headlines with the paragraphs.
a. What are a major and a minor?
b. Some useful advice on choosing a major
c. How does one choose a major?
d. When does one choose a major?
e. What does the search for a major start with?

1.7. Say whether the following statements are true (T) or False (F).
1. Students seldom change their major during the course of their studies.
2. For some applicants an opportunity to do some extracurricular activities is the
most important point.
1. There are institutions with entrance requirements too high for most applicants.
2. Your major will take more than 60% of your course work.
3. Critical thinking is as important in the US education system as academic skills.
4. A minor is always closely related to a major.
5. An academic advisor is not the only source of information on what course to
choose.
6. Students have to choose their major within the first year of their studies.
7. Major and career are not the same things.
8. Even if it seems to you that your major is not your cup of tea, don`t change it.

1.8. Questions for discussion


1) Is there major/minor system in your university?
2) What is your major / minor?
3) Would you choose your major / minor for practical reasons or from personal
passion? Why?
4) How might your minor be useful to you in your future (in getting a job)?
5) If you would like (or could) change your major now? Would you do it?
Why? Why not? And to what would you change it?

1.9. Project
Divide into three groups. Each group is to cover one of the following topics:
1) What is valued in Russian university education and in your university
particularly? Does it favor general education or specialization? Is attention paid
mainly to developing critical thinking and ability to learn or just academic
proficiency? (Give examples!) Do you like this system or not? Why? What would
you like to change?
2) Describe the university you study at. Give the following information:
a)What schools / faculties does it have? b) What is the entrance procedure? Is it
difficult to meet the entry requirements? Why? c) What extracurricular activities does
the university offer? Do you take part in any of them? d) What sport and fitness
facilities does the university offer?
3) Describe your course of study. What subjects do you study? What core /
elective / educational courses do you take? Which of these do you consider: a) both
useful and interesting; b) the most difficult / challenging / stimulating / frustrating /
boring?; c) useful but not very interesting; d) both useless and boring? (Explain your
point of view!) How many classes a day do you have? Is it much? Is attendance
important? If it is, do you consider it right or not?

1.10.
Idioms and Slang for Studies
There are a lot of idioms and slang words/expressions related to studies. Match
the idioms/words with their meanings / explanations. Find their Russian equivalents.
If there is something you cannot guess, use a dictionary to help you.

Idiom / Slang Meaning / Explanation


1. can`t make head or tail of smth a. What is the matter with you?

2. to pass smth with flying colors b. force somebody to do what you say
or into your way of thinking
3. to blow smth c. to get an excellent mark

4. to chill out d. relax, stop worrying or getting upset


5. What`s eating you? e. a person who is rather arrogant and
thinks he/she is very clever and knows
better
6. to ace in smth f. understand nothing at all
7. to cut classes g. constantly give other people
instructions on how they should live and
do things
8. to get away with it h. totally forget all you learned, can`t
think of any answer
9. to draw a blank on smth i. really angry

10. ticked-off j. very clever

11. brain-box k. not to be punished for doing some


wrong things
12. to beat smb into the line l. be absent from classes, miss classes
13. tell smb what to do m. completely fail
14.Mr/Ms I-Know-All n. to pass really successfully

1.11. Writing
How you would estimate your progress, difficulties and failures in your course
of study? What do you like and dislike? What can you say about your relations with
your groupmates and teachers? Write about two pages on the topic using your active
vocabulary on subjects, abilities and skills, as well as idioms. Be specific, give some
details. (For example: Although I am not a brain-box,I would say I am making not a
bad progress in speaking – I even got full marks in the last discussion. On the other
hand, I can`t see any improvements in grammar. I just can`t make head or tail of
tense forms, and I hate learning rules by heart etc.)

1.12. Conversation
You and your friend are students. It`s up to you to choose whether you study in
the same school/faculty or in different ones. Share your impressions and opinions
(what you like/dislike about your course of study, the difficulties you have,
extracurricular activities etc.) Give some advice to each other on how to improve
your performance and cope with difficulties and problems. ***Use active vocabulary
and idioms!

Listen and Discuss


FOREIGN STUDENTS IN THE U.S.

1.13. Warm-Up
Do you think it would be easy to be a student in a foreign country? Here are
seven common problems that students face when they come to any other foreign
country. Rank them from 1 to 7, with 1 being what you would consider the most
difficult, and 7 the least. Afterwards compare and discuss.
language difficulties (slang, regional differences, academic demands etc.)
education system as it is (different approaches to both studying and teaching,
aims, academic demands, differences in teacher-student relations etc.)
displacement (loneliness, missing family, missing native language, etc.)
cultural behavior (what to wear on this or that occasion, how to behave in
everyday situations etc.)
building relations with local people (fear, misunderstandings, prejudices,
different ideas of social positions, of the man – woman relationships etc.)
money (Is a foreign country more expensive than your native one? In what
respects?)
food (too expensive, poor choice, lack of food you are used to etc.)

1.14. Listen and Discuss


You will hear two education reports about foreign students in the U.S.A. Listen and
say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F).

HISPANIC STUDENTS IN THE U.S.

1. “Latino” is a contemptuous nickname for Hispanic people.


2. In 2000, the number of Hispanic population in the U.S. was 6 mln.
3. School performance of Hispanic students is usually bad.
4. The first study carried out by Pew Hispanic Center focused on educational
differences between Hispanic, white and black students.
5. Less than a half of Hispanics tend to attend public schools.
6. The second study focused on importance of schooling abroad.
7. 40% of Hispanics living in the U.S. didn’t finish education in their native
country.
8. The third report says that the number of Hispanics going to a college in the
U.S. is increasing.
9. Researchers state the difference in number of Hispanic and white college
students.

YOUNG VISITORS FROM MUSLIM WORLD SOAK UP AMERICAN


CULTURE

1. More than 300 students are involved into the program.


2. The students are coming to the US for one academic year.
3. Zara Khaled is 17 years old.
4. Zara learned about the program from Internet.
5. Terrorist attacks on the US created a lot of misunderstanding between Muslim
World and America.
6. The participants of the program are only students from South-East Asia.
7. The students would like to improve their language skills.
8. The program is generally aimed at teaching Muslim students confidence about
American culture and everyday life here.
9. Not all the host families liked to have foreign guests.
10. A lot of students were really upset when they had to leave their host families
and come back home.

1.15. Discussion:Foreign Students in Russia


It’s always difficult to be a student living overseas. Name as many countries or
regions that have a large Hispanic population as you can. Do you know of any
Hispanics studying in your city or university? Or students from African or Muslim
countries? What are the most common stereotypes about them? What do you really
know about their lives? Do you think life is easy for them? Can they become
Russian eventually? Are they accepted? Are they quickly integrating or they gravitate
toward their own countrymen, and spend much of their free time with them? Do they
feel homesick? What aspects of university studies and everyday life are the most
difficult for them? Share your information and opinions to the group.

1.16. Your Opinion: Study overseas: Pros and Cons


Let’s assume you were going to study in the United States or any other foreign
country (or that you have studied there). Take a few minutes to list both the potential
positive and negative things about that experience. Work in pairs or groups. Make
one column for “Potential Positives” and one for “Potential Negatives.” Afterwards,
share the results with the class. Do you the positive aspects of studying in the states
outweigh the negative? Take a class vote.

1.17. Project
Interview a foreign student who is studying in Russia. Ask about both positives
and negatives/difficulties, as well as about the main differences with his/her native
country. But don`t limit the conversation to studies only – try also to get the
information on other important aspect of his/her life – everyday life, living
conditions, relations etc. Record the interview and then show the video at class.

Listening
CHOOSING ACCOMMODATION: DORM OR APARTMENT?
1.18. Warm-Up
Do you live at home or in a dormitory? Are you satisfied with:
- living conditions;
- opportunities to concentrate on your studies;
- people you share your accommodation with?

1.19. You will hear an extract of a TV program devoted to where to live once you
have entered an American college or university. Listen and answer the questions
below.

1. How many students do usually live in dormitory buildings?


2. What does a suite contain?
3. Is each room equipped with a bathroom?
4. What are the two main reasons for students to choose living in a dorm?
5. What are fraternities and sororities?
6. What are the most important questions to be asked before you decide about
your housing?
a)
b)
c)
7. What steps are taken to help foreign students in their housing?

Read and Discuss


1.20. The three texts below give some information on choices of students housing
offered by three American universities. Read the texts and do post-text tasks.

The University of Texas, Austin


Dormitories. Dormitories are on-campus living facilities that provide room and
board. Meals (approximately $20 per week) are served in a cafeteria. Bathroom
facilities are located on each floor. Dorms are convenient for new students because
they are relatively inexpensive and are located close to academic buildings and
libraries. Prices range from $ 3,255 to $ 4,300 for the academic year (fall to spring
semester). The housing is limited.
Private Dormitories (off campus). Private dorms are usually located close to
campus. They consist of one room (single or double), sometimes a shared kitchen
facilities and a bathroom. As a rule private dorms are more expensive than university
ones but may provide more comfortable surroundings. Meals are also served in a
cafeteria. Prices range from $4,400 to $9,400 for room and board per academic year.
Apartments and Houses (off campus). Apartments and individual houses can be
rented on a 9 month or 12 month basis. A person living alone can expect to pay a
minimum of $500 per month for housing, utilities, and food. The average cost is
about $600 per month.

The University of Oregon, Eugene


Private Homes. The University of Oregon provides a homestay program that can place
you in the home of an American family. Most of the families live about 20-30 minutes
from campus by bus. Hosts often have dogs or cats as pets. The student has a private
room with a bed, dresser and desk provided. Hosts provide an evening meal and food
for breakfast during the week, and all meals on weekends. Students are expected to
purchase their own lunches on school days. The cost of the homestay is $390 per
month. Students will have more responsibilities and less freedom in a homestay than
in the dorm.
Dormitories (Residence Halls). The University has both single-occupancy and multiple-
occupancy dormitory rooms, and it is possible to request a roommate if you name the
person. Dormitories provide an excellent opportunity for you to meet other students. The
dorms provide meals, furnished rooms, and access to computer terminals, vending
machines, and washers and dryers. The University requires a nine-month contract for
residence halls. Room and board costs vary from term to term but can be estimated at
$3,500 for a multiple room and $4,500 for a single room.
Apartments. There are many apartments in the Eugene-Springfield area. Many are
located close to campus; however, these usually have higher rental rates than those in the
outlying areas. Apartments usually include a kitchen, living room, bathroom, and
bedroom(s). A studio usually includes a kitchen, bathroom, and combined
bedroom/living room area. The following prices are average monthly rental rates for
apartments in the area: studios, $4 00-$480; one bedroom apartments, $400-$550; two
bedroom apartments, $500-$600; and three bedroom apartments, $600 and up. Many of
these apartments require 9 to 12 month leases, cleaning deposits or fees, and security
deposits, and many do not allow children or pets.
Renting home furnishings is possible. However, buying used items maybe less
expensive. Some rental accommodations (often quads and studios) include utilities
(electricity, water, gas). However most apartments, duplexes and houses don't
include utilities in the rental costs, and you will have to ask and pay for those utilities
yourself. Regular phone service is about $20 to $25 a month; there is a one-time
connection charge of about $20. Long distance calls are extra. You must provide
your own phone. Televisions are not included in most rental units.
Quads. Quads are often available near campus. A quad is a single sleeping room
built around a kitchen which is shared by occupants of three other such sleeping
rooms. Some quad rooms have private bathrooms; others share with other occupants.
Many quads are coed. Rent ranges from $275-$380 a month during the academic
year (Fall, Winter, and Spring) with reduced rates during the summer. A lease is
required for most quads, but the tenant may sell it to someone else if he or she
decides to move out.

The University of North Florida, Jacksonville


Osprey Hall. Osprey Hallis a three-story, lakeside, traditional college residence hall,
for 250 of the University's undergraduate students. Students attending college for the
first time wishing to live on campus are housed in this facility because of the
opportunities it provides for them to meet, study and socialize with other
students.Hardwood furniture enables residents to create individualized room
arrangements.
Osprey Hall residents have the convenience of an in-building laundry facility as well
as a small lounge area on each floor equipped with televisions, microwave ovens and
sink. Electric and water utilities are included in the rent in this complex, as well as
cable television service (including an information channel programmed especially for
students) and local phone service. Students must provide their own phone and
television equipment to access local telephone and cable service. Also available is
student discounted, direct-dial, long-distance service.
Osprey Village Apartments. The University's Apartments house 435 students in one
and two-bedroom furnished apartments with full kitchen and bath. There are seven
three-story Apartment buildings. Apartments are kitchen-equipped. A laundromat
also is located in the complex. Included in the apartment rent is water/sewage, cable
television service (including an information channel programmed especially for
students) and local telephone service. Students must provide their own phone and
television equipment to access local telephone and cable service. Also available is
special student discounted, direct-dial, long-distance service. Apartment residents are
responsible for monthly electric bills. There are one-bedroom and two-bedroom
"townhouse" apartments.
Osprey landing and Osprey Cove. The newest housing options give 900 more
students the opportunity to experience the convenience and fun of living in the UNF
neighborhood. These two, three-building complexes join campus apartments and the
residence hall as a modified suite-style option in which two students share a room
and their own private bath. Rooms have built-in closets, central heat and air
conditioning and movable hardwood furnishings. Rooms also offer a small snack area
in which students may add their own microwave and a refrigerator.There are laundry
rooms in each building, lounges on every level with TVs and cooking facilities, and
space for community activities. Rent includes utilities, cable television service
(including an information channel programmed especially for students), and local
phone service. Students must provide their own phone and television equipment to
access local telephone and cable service. Also available is student discounted, direct-
dial, long distance service.

Comprehension
1.21. Answer the following questions.
1. Which university offers the opportunity to live in a host family.
2. Do students who live in families have the same freedoms and responsibilities as
students who live in dorms?
3. What types of dorms does the University of Texas offer?
4. Which university provides “townhouse apartments”? What are these?
5. What conveniences does Osprey Hall provide? Which of them are included in the
rent?
6. What are quads?
7. What are home furnishing choices in the University of Oregon?
8. Which university has a three-story residence hall?
9. Where can one find an in-building laundry facility?
10.How much is the rent of a two bedrom apartment in the Eugene-Springfield area?
11. For how long can you rent off campus apartments and houses if you are a student
of the University of Texas?

1.22. Make as many comparisons for the three universities as possible.


(Example:Dorms in the University of Texas are cheaper than dorms in the
University of Oregon.)

Conversation
1.23. Imagine your and your friend were planning entering one of the three
universities. One of the most important matters for you is the accomodation, but your
wishes and preferences about it are different. Discuss which university will provide
you the best opportunities. Consider types of accomodation, freedoms and
responsibilities, rent, conveniences etc. Use as much vocabulary as possible.

Group Discussion
1.24. Divide into two groups. One group is concentrating on positive points of living
in the dorm / hostel /rented place, another group is gathering the points for living
home. As soon as you are ready, arrange your discussion. (Don`t forget to support
your point of view and provide examples from your own experience or experience of
some other people you know!)

Accomodation Description
1.25. What housing opportunities can your university offer to its students? Make a
description (15-20 sentences) including: 1) types of accomodation and their location;
2) living conditions (rooms, furniture, facilities, conveniences, services); 3) price and
other expences.

Listen and Discuss

LANGUAGES ADVANCED PLACEMENT PROGRAMME


1.26.You will hear a report on a new education programme introduced in high
schools. Listen and answer the questions below.

1. Which of the four languages will be introduced


a) in 3 years;
b) later?
2. Which of the students will be offered a new language programme?
3. What is China going to contribute
a) in the financial aspect;
b) in the educational aspect?
4. What benefits can students get if they successfully take AP classes?
5. How many schools and students are involved into the experiment?
6. What language is the third most commonly learned after Spanish?
7. How many Chinese students are studying English?
8. How many American students study Chinese?

1.27. Your Opinion


1) What languages are most commonly taught and learned in your country?
Why? Do you agree with this, or do you think some changes should be made in this
respect? What changes? Why?
2) What languages are, in your opinion a) of the highest practical value; b) the
most interesting to learn; c) should be learnt not depending on their practical value,
just because a great deal of interesting and culturally important information is
available in these languages?
3) What languages would you willingly learn if you had time and opportunity?
Why?

1.28. Listen and Discuss


IPOD EXPERIMENT AT DUKE UNIVERSITY
You will hear a report about an educational experiment with using iPods carried out
by Duke University. Listen and answer the following questions.
1. How many students are involved into the experiment?
2. What is the aim of it?
3. What are the functions of an iPod?
4. What is the aim of a Duke website?
5. What key results are expected?
6. What happens if a student breaks or loses his iPod?
7. What are the criteria of experiment success?
8. What ways of using iPod is one of Duke professors planning?

1.29. Role-Play
Imagine you decided to convince the administration of your university to supply the
students with some advanced technical device or facility. Your task is to convince
them that it will be really useful for students, for teachers and for the reputation of the
university on the whole. (Be specific and convincing, giving all practical details
(price, where the device \ facility is going to be installed, what technical support and
service it will need, how exactly it will be used, how to measure the
resultsetc!).Divide into two groups – students representatives and representatives of
the university administration. The first group are gathering all the advantages of
introducing the device, the second group will try to find all possible points against.
As soon as you are ready, play out your discussion.

1.30. Listen and Discuss


ADVICE ON WRITING A DISSERTATION
1.30.1.You will hear two students discussing the problems of writing a dissertation.
For questions 1 – 4, choose ONE correct answer. For questions 5 – 8, choose TWO
correct answers.

1. What does Howard say about the experience of writing his dissertation?
A It was difficult in unexpected ways.
B It was more enjoyable than he'd anticipated.
C It helped him understand previous course work.
2. What is Joanne most worried about?
A Finding enough material.
B Missing deadlines.
C Writing too much.
3. What does Howard say was his main worry a year previously?
A Forgetting what he'd read about.
B Not understanding what he'd read.
C Taking such a long time to read each book.
4. What motivated Howard to start writing his dissertation?
A Talking to his tutor about his problems.
B Seeing an inspirational TV show.
C Reading a controversial journal article.
5. What TWO things does Howard advise Joanne to do in the first month of
tutorials?
A See her tutor every week.
B Review all the module booklists.
C Buy all the key books.
D Write full references for everything she reads.
E Write a draft of the first chapter.
6. What TWO things does Howard say about library provision?
A Staff are particularly helpful to undergraduates.
B Inter-library loans are very reliable.
C Students can borrow extra books when writing a dissertation.
D Staff recommend relevant old dissertations.
E It's difficult to access electronic resources.
7. What TWO things does Joanne agree to discuss with her tutor?
A The best ways to collaborate with other students.
B Who to get help from during college vacations.
C The best way to present the research.
D Whether she can use web sources.
E How to manage her study time.

1.30.2.What types of academic work (essay, dissertation, degree research, projects,


presentations etc.) cause most difficulties to you personally? Why?
With your partner, make up a conversation discussing the most effective ways of
dealing with this or that type of academic work.

1.31. Group Discussion: How fair and effective is language testing?


A number of exams (for example, the TOEFL) are placement tests. They
want to see if the test-taker has got the English language skills and academic skills
to succeed at the university level. Exams in many schools around the world are
usually evaluative tests. That means there is an attempt to evaluate — and give a
grade or mark for — your abilities and work. One principle most language experts
agree on is that language learners encounter plateaus. That is, they get to a point
where their language level doesn’t seem to progress: it is simply maintained.
Sometimes, in fact, the learners’ language abilities can even regress. These cycles
of improvements, plateaus, and regressions are thought to be a natural part of
language acquisition. But let’s have a look at the consequences for academic
grading. What if a hardworking student is simply in a natural plateau stage? What if
a bright student is not making apparent progress? Should that student receive an
average or poor grade? In a group debate, give your opinion. But be sure to back it
up with support.

1.32. Writing
Write an essay (about 250 words) on one of the following statements.
1) Only languages of real practical value should be taught and learned. No
use learning dead languages, or languages that might be beautiful or interesting, but
spoken by a tiny number of people in some far-away tiny region, as well as
languages you know you will never be able to use.
2) When it comes to checking up language skills (especially speaking skills),
computer-based tests are of no use, and bring more harm than good.

Read and Discuss


1.33. Read the article below.
SURVIVING FRESHERS' WEEK
This is a task easier said than done. Many challenges lay ahead of you on your
long journey through your first week at university. Many people are under the
impression that life comes with no guarantees. The purpose of the freshers' week is,
officially, to get all the new students registered on their courses, allow everyone to
get settled into their accommodation, to get timetables sorted out etc. Of course, the
main reason for most people to attend freshers' week is to have a really good time.
Unfortunately, you do have to go through with the registration and boring talks
business. It's painless really. Throughout freshers' week, remember the one golden
rule—enjoy yourself.
Registration • First find out where and when you are due to be registered.
This information will probably have been sent to you in the post before you were due
to go to the university. • Do not worry! All that is required of you during registration
is that you queue up endlessly with thousands of other students, all equally hung over
after the last night's various hall discos and union gigs. Occasionally, you will be
asked to join another queue for no apparent reason. A useful technique for dealing
with such situations from within a beer-induced state of semi-consciousness is to nod
intelligently, respond in the affirmative when questioned, and whatever happens, do
try not to vomit. It soon becomes clear at the end of registration that it was all
worthwhile, when you are finally presented with your passport to student life — the
student union card. • Always have your student union card with you! This card will
get you into many night-clubs cheaply, get you discounts at quite a few shops and
fast food chains, and most importantly, will get you into the Students' Union.
Alcohol •You will probably find that many of the social events arranged in the
first week will involve many students drinking huge amounts of alcohol. Remember:
you are not obliged to drink yourself under the table (or dance on the top of it!) every
night. • In case you have drunk too much, make sure you always have a
campus/town map with you and the number of a reputable taxi firm programmed into
your phone.
Food • Club together with your roommates so you can buy in staple food such as
rice, pasta and noodles in bulk or large quantities at least. • Try to keep some tins of
beans, tomatoes, soup and similar foods in case you run out of everything else. • Cook
more than you need and freeze some for another day – this saves on the fuel you use for
cooking. • Invest in a decent set of sauce pans – cheap ones will only last you so long! •
If your home is quite close to your university, and you're worried about your standard of
cooking and having decent meals, you could ask your parents nicely to cook something,
then store it in a suitable container(s) and freeze back at uni.
Money •Some say that's what student life is all about; learning to live cheaply,
without all the comforts of most home environments. So you will need to budget
carefully. • The best laid budget plans sometimes don’t work out and you may need to
think about getting some paid work. Remember: it’s always a case of ‘first come first
served’ when it comes to jobs on campus too. Your student union, or careers service,
will probably run a ‘job shop’ with opportunities to get some paid work. It’s always a
good idea to get to know the people in the careers service as they might also be informed
of vacation work for students. • Resist all temptation to spend your entire grant cheque
as soon as you receive it. • Put on an extra layer of clothes or two during cold days and
nights, so you don't need to crank the heating up too high. • When applying for your
student loan, specify whether you wish to receive the whole amount immediately, or to
have it divided. • Try to think of the loan option only as a last resort if you are really
short of cash.
Coping With Work If you are really aimed at completing your course and
getting your degree certificate, here are some useful tips: • Do not practice “work
avoidance” technique. Realize from the start that the work still must be done. •
Comparatively little time at university is devoted to tutorials and suchlike, the majority
of the time being consumed by lectures. But you will get used to it and should learn to
use what little tutorial time you have to your best advantage. • It is essential to prepare
for tutorials beforehand. Throughout each week, make a note of any problems you have
had, and mention these in your tutorial. • The exact amount of time depends a lot upon
which course you are doing, but generally, you should aim to be working approximately
these hours: about one hour for each lecture you have had during the day, to go over and
clarify your notes; a couple of hours each week to prepare for tutorials; a minimum of
five hours at the week-end to do problems sheets and various homeworks that have been
set for you during the week. • Don't forget to set aside some (but not too much) time to
relax. A high stress level rarely induces good work.• Always complete work that needs to
be printed on the computers well before its deadline, as it is extremely likely that others
will be working to the same deadline, and it can take up several hours to get it printed. •
Do not let your work pile up and get on top of you! In this case, you just become
needlessly over-stressed and end up only handing in two of the three pieces of work,
poorly done.
Accomodation Most people in their first year will want to live in university-
owned halls or self-catering flats.The advantages of this are numerous, especially in your
first year: • You will have a great opportunity to get to know others • In most halls of
residence, some meals are provided in with the rent, along with all heating and
electricity costs. • Hall fees are usually paid in one lump sum at the beginning of each
term, and so even if you are completely broke near the end of the term, you are
guaranteed warmth and electricity and at least one nutritious meal each day. •
Remember! In university flats meals are not provided in the same way as in halls. There
are usually four cooking rings, a grill and an oven to share among four students to cook
their own meals. But the absolute plus of living in a university flat is that you can get to
know much better a smaller group of people. Naturally, this also means that you're likely
to be knee-deep in garbage, as no-one will ever clear up. Also, there is a high risk of
developing of some pretty nasty psychological warfare tactics when prime-time cooking
hour or bathroom hour starts. • Living in a private house or apartment for your first year
is something to try only after attempts to find a place in halls or flats have failed.
Staying safe • Always let people know where you are going and who with. •
Ask a friend call you at a certain time to check you're all right if you are out alone or
with someone you don't know very well. • If you expect you might have a bit of a wild
night, be sure to carry a condom or two 'just in case' anything happens. • Register with a
GP and dentist; • Wear a pair of comfy shoes for any events where it’s likely you will be
queuing for quite a long time.

1.34. Search the text forEnglish equivalents of the following:


1. В жизни нет никаких гарантий.
2. К несчастью, вам придётся через это пройти.
3. Это не смертельно.
4. золотое правило.
5. стоять в бесконечных очередях
6. кивать с умным видом
7. действенный способ решения проблемы
8. ваш пропуск в студенческую жизнь
9. пить, пока не свалишься под стол
10.в новой обстановке
11.приличная еда
12.психологическая война
13.В этом весь смысл студенческой жизни.
14.Жить по средствам, без домашних удобств.
15.не выбиваться из бюджета
16.не поддаваться искушению
17.тактика отлынивания от работы
18.Большую часть времени займёт…
19.Работу всё равно придётся делать.
20.список проблемных дел и вопросов
21.без нужды портить себе нервы
22.Тут имеется множество плюсов.
23.по колено в мусоре
24.бурная ночь

1.35. Writing: Your set if tips on how to survive university studies


Write a list of tips on surviving at a Russian university (maybe, at your
university). The task can be shared between the members of the group – each
person is responsible for a certain aspect. Present the results. Is there a lot in
common with the tips given to American students in the text above? What was
specific for a Russian university?
UNIT 2
BOOKS AND reading

2.1. Active Vocabulary


Book Genres Reading Habits
children's and adult's books to read silently
travel books to read to a child/oneself to sleep
biography be lost/absorbed in a book
to devour books
romantic novel to dip into / thumb through a book
love story to browse through a newspaper
historical novel to scan/skim a book \ a magazine
crime a bookworm
thriller an avid/alert/keen reader
detective story
war novel Describing a Book
adventure novel a good bed-time reading
science fiction absorbing
fantasy adult
amusing
literary fiction controversial
genre fiction dense
pulp fiction depressing
journal delightful
memoirs dirty
anthology disturbing
compendium dull
logbook obscure
complex
manual
breathtaking
heart-stopping
Structure and Quality of a Book fascinating
paperback gripping
hardback evocative scenes
binding poignant chronicle
cover moralistic
spine nasty
jacket obscene
outrageous
title profound
epigraph whimsical
preface unputdownable = can ҆t put down
the contents list a page-turner
fly leaf macabre
bookplate chilling
blurb compelling
a beautifully printed book enigmatic
a book bound in leather/with gilt edges lightweight
heavy going
a book with dense print I can ҆t get into this book.
a well-thumbed book

Library Facilities
reading room
reference sections
a subject catalogue
an authorcatalogue
a titlecatalogue
on-linecatalogue
the enquiry desk
computer \ online reference
to borrow/renew/loan books
rare books
books vulnerable to theft
to suspend one's membership
to be banned from the library

Vocabulary Practice
2.2. Match a type of a book with its description in the chart below.
Type of book Description
1. journal a.usually a technical book with instructions (e.g.,a
computer manual)
2. memoirs b. - a written record of what you have done each day;
- an academic publication containing articles
reporting research, new theories, etc., published at
regular intervals
3. anthology c. book that records events and times, etc., for example,
all the journeys made by a lorry or ship
4. compendium d. written record of a person ҆s own life, typically by a
politician or military figure
5. manual e. collection of, for example, poems or short stories by
different authors
6. logbook f. collection of detailed, concise information about a
particular subject

2.3.Match an epithet describing a book with its explanation.


Epithet Explanation
1. a poignant chronicle a. mysterious
2. macabre b. a moving and sad description of a
sequence of events
3. chilling c. powerful story that keeps you
interested
4. compelling d. arise memories or images
5. a page-turner e. often cruel and disgusting, concerned
with death
6. enigmatic f. causing great fear
7. evocative scenes g. difficult to stop once you have started
8. compulsive h. not complex; slightly negative
connotation
9. lightweight i. difficult to read
10. heavy going j. can t҆ understand or become involved
11. can ҆t get into it k. very interesting and engaging story

2.4. Fill in the gaps in the sentences below with appropriate epithets.
1. I ҆ve just read a …………………….by General Rogers who led the allied forces
during the recent war.
2. This ………………… is so badly written, I don ҆ know how you can use a video
camera by reading it.
3. I recommend this………………….. If you want to read a typical selection of
French poets, it is excellent.
4. The latest issue of this……………………contains an article by Professor James
Carter, where he presents a new theory of human mind.
5. The book is a………………………….documentation of abuse in a prison.
6. It is a very ………………………… novel; you never really know what is
happening until right at the end.
7. House of the Dead is a …………………….. story of torture and death in a
medieval castle.
8. The novel is a real ………………………… All the time I was reading it I just
couldn ҆t wait to get to the next page.

a. macabre
b. journal
c. page-turner
d. chilling
e. manual
f. enigmatic
g. anthology
h. memoirs
Listen and Discuss
2.5. You will hear four friends chatting about their favourite books. Listen and, for
each book, the following points:
- title;
- author;
- information about the book given in conversation (plot, screened versions etc.);
- feelings and attitudes towards the book.

2.6. Conversation
In groups of four, discuss the books you have read recently and your reading
habits in general. Your conversation is supposed to be emotional and informal.
2.7. Listen and Discuss
TALKING ABOUT E-BOOKS
You will hear a writer talking about e-books. For each question, choose the best
answer (A, B, C or D).
1. Jonathan implies that e-book availability
A is limited compared to printed books;
B is determined by unknown factors;
C is too dependent on technology;
D is not influenced by individual publishers.
2. In talking about how one chooses a printed book, Jonathan
A tries to show how interesting e-books are;
B assumes most people buy printed books;
C implies that we don’t know enough about e-books;
D attempts to define what an e-book is.
3. Jonathan claims that doing away with publishers
A will never become possible on the Internet;
B will produce a lot of poor quality books;
C might reduce the average price of a book;
D could lead to lower e-book prices.
4. It is implied that children are likely to find e-books
A awkward;
B frustrating;
C incomprehensible;
D uninteresting;
5. According to Jonathan, a good e-book is likely to be
A a storybook;
B a dictionary;
C a schoolbook;
D an art book.

2.8. Your Opinion


What books do you prefer – e-books or paper books? Why? What are the
advantages of e-books and paper books? There is an opinion that e-books are going to
completely substitute paper books. Do you think it might happen? Why?

2.9. Listening
MY FIRST NOVEL
You will hear five writers talking about their first novels. Choose from the list below
(A-F) what each writer (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) says. Use the letters only once. ***There is one
extra letter you don ҆t need to use.

A I learnt some of the skills of novel writing in a previous job.


B My earlier style of writing was not suitable for a novel.
C I was determined to write a novel that was true to life.
D I believe I should've been paid more to write this novel.
E This novel benefited from a course of study I attended.
F Being asked to write a novel came as a complete surprise to me.
2.10. Analysing and Creating a Book Review

Read and compare the two reviews of Harry Potter books


below.What is each review aimed at, in your opinion?
Analyse the structure and content of each review. What
information is given in each paragraph?
Sum up the main pluses and minuses of the books given by the
critics.
Analyze both reviews more thoroughly and single out the
linguistic means the critics use to give and support their
opinions and attitudes.

THE ENCHANTING WORLD OF HARRY POTTER

The Philosopher’s Stone is the first in J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series of seven
novels that have made her the most successful literary author of all time, selling in
excess of 400 million copies world-wide. The books are read and enjoyed by children
and adults alike and have also been made into hugely popular films.
Do the Harry Potter books live up to the hype? When I first began reading The
Philosopher’s Stone I was immediately struck by how good - and laugh-out-loud
funny - the humour was. J.K. Rowling has managed to infuse this book with a lovely
wit and charm that will both amuse and delight adults and children.
There are very clearly drawn characters in this book that will remind us of all the
people we have met. Everybody knows or knew a spoilt, overweight boy like Dudley
or a bossy and interfering (yet kind-hearted) girl like Hermione. A large number of
the younger readers will also be able to easily identify with Harry, especially with his
initial feelings of isolation and loneliness, and then great happiness at finally leaving
that life behind in favour of one where he belongs.
Part of the attraction of the book comes from the setting of an English public school,
complete with houses and schoolboy adventures. Hogwarts is a truly magical place,
and the author describes it so vibrantly and true-to-life. It is the place that everybody
wishes they could gone to when they were eleven. And many thrilling adventures
befall the trio of main characters (Harry, Ron and Hermione). Rowling adds some
delightful novelties of her own, such as Quidditch, a seven-a-side ball game played
on broomsticks, and the whole book is pulled together by an excellent story-telling.
The story is full of surprises and jokes and it has an exciting conclusion that gives us
an ultimate feel-good impression.
J.K. Rowling should be particularly awarded for getting so many children reading
and excited by books. But the biggest surprise is the effect that this novel had on the
adult population, both male and female. This unputdownable book is highly
recommended to anybody between the ages of 8 and 80.
So, is all the hype about the Harry Potter books justified? I say YES, the books are
a joy to read and possibly the most rewarding young adult’s book since The Hobbit.

HARRY POTTER: WHAT THE CRITICS ORIGINALLY THOUGHT OF THE


PHILOSOPHER'S STONE
The Harry Potter book series is considered one of the greatest series in the history of
children ҆s fantasy, beginning its commercial life more than twenty years ago. J.K.
Rowling’s first novel, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, introduced readers
to the orphaned boy - raised by his cruel aunt and uncle - who heads off to a magic
school after discovering his wizarding heritage. The plot centers on Harry ҆ struggles
to save the world and revenge an evil wizard Voldemort who had killed his parents.
Initially the title did not receive much critical attention, but soon it became a real
bomb.
However, despite winning multiple awards and enjoying immediate transatlantic
success, not every critic was so much delighted. The Observer, for example,
published a scathing attack on the Harry Potter books, written by Anthony Holden,
who posited that reading the series “is an activity hardly worth the time spent. These
are one-dimensional children's books, Disney cartoons written in words, no more.”
Besides, many religious media gave a high amount of anti-Harry Potter opinions
because they thought the novels were filled with Satanic subtext: “Regardless of how
magic is portrayed in the series, we need to remember that witchcraft in real life can
and does lead to death – of both our bodies and souls”.
Despite these negative reviews, the books have done pretty well and helped
Rowling to become one of the world’s first billionaire authors.
On the whole, the magic world J.K. Rowling's created is a pure cotton candy. It is
not very imaginative. Rowling simply re-uses popular European ideas of magic. Yes,
her books are entertaining, but the lessons are shallow, with no important or serious
problems discussed, and the language is sometimes really primitive. Actually Harry
Potter can be a good Christmas present for children who haven ҆t read it yet. Some
Mums and Dads will enjoy it too. Although no masterpieces, the books are a fine
addition to children ҆s fantasy literature.

2.11. Conversation
You and your partner work for a publishing house. At the moment you have two
books of different genres created by young but promising authors. At the moment
you can publish only one book out of these two. Analyse and discuss both books
from point of view of their quality and marketability (design, composition, plot,
language, characters etc.) and decide which one to publish this time and what should
be changed \ improved about this book before you publish it.

2.12. Listening
A TRAVEL WRITER
You will hear a radio interview with Jessica Tay,a travel writer. Listen and
choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which fits best.
1. What kind of writing did Jessica write first?
A travel articles for teenagers.
B reviews of children's films.
C humorous poetry.
D local news items.
2. What does Jessica say she finds difficult about her work?
A finding exactly the right words to express herself.
B having to travel quickly from one place to the next.
C the constant anxiety of having to get work completed on time.
D understanding a place in a short period of time.
3. What does Jessica enjoy most about her work?
A the opportunity to see unusual places.
B the chance to meet a variety of people.
C the satisfaction of creating a good article.
D the contact she has with her readers.
4. What other field of work has Jessica had experience of?
A promoting consumer goods.
B selling cosmetics.
C entertaining tourists.
D selling airline tickets.
5. What advice does Jessica give to people who'd like to become travel writers?
A develop your own original style of writing.
B find a place that few people have written about before.
C find a different angle to approach your topic from.
D write with a specific type of reader in mind.
6. What does Jessica say about her own future plans?
A She will never stop travelling.
B She hopes to move into TV presenting.
C She would like to start a travel company.
D She intends to try a different sort of writing.
2.13. Conversation
Play out an interview with a writer who specializes in rather a specific area. Cover
the following points; a) How did he \ she got interested in the topic; b) His \ her first
experience in writing; c) His \ her style; d) The main challenges of his \ her work; e)
What he \ she enjoys most about his \ her work; f) Future plans; g) Tips for those who
would like to try writing in a similar area.
2.14. Roleplay
Arrange a group roleplay as a fragment of a TV show \ program. One of you is
going to act as a host \ hostess of the program, the rest – as several popular writers
invited to present and discuss their books that have just been published. (Remember:
the writers create in different genres!) The books have become bestsellers, but, on the
other hand, they are rather contraversial, even outrageous in some ways, and thus
provoke a hot discussion.

UNIT 3
MUSIC
3.1. Active Vocabulary

Musical genres (styles) Wind group:


classical music flute
opera oboe
operetta clarinet
musical bassoon
ballet saxophone
blues Brass group:
ragtime trumpet
jazz French horn
pop tuba
rock percussion
folk synthesizer
country electric instruments
spiritual
background music Describing music
incidental music absorbing
amusing
Musical forms controversial
piece depressing
movement delightful
sonata disturbing
area dull
fantasy energetic
suite fascinating
rhapsody gripping
concerto enigmatic
solo macabre
duet strong driving rhythm
trio breathtaking
quartet heartbreaking
quintet brain-breaking
sextet evocative
chorus touching
soothing
Musical rhythms complex
polka inspiring
waltz a catchy tune
march simple lyrics
blues be lost / absorbed in music
ragtime
jazz Music Career and Success
swing make a successful solo career
bassanova give “live” performances
samba be a great success
disco become the most successful group in
rock (…)
rap become a hit
dominate the scene
Musical instruments a hit record
piano have a worldwide appeal
String group: the magic ingredient
violin a winning strategy
viola to win (attract) the audience
cello be number one in the Top 10
bass
harp
guitar

3.2. Listening
You will hear a small report called Music and Teenagers. Listen and complete the
report by filling in the gaps.

MUSIC AND TEENAGERS


Practically all teenagers in the United States (1)___________ to listen to music
and are devoted to particular artists and musical styles. Hip-hop, rock, rap, country,
jazz, (2) _____________, and ingenious combinations of various styles draw legions
of young fans. The (3) _______________ and portable MP3 and CD players are
among the (4) _______________ innovations that keep teens plugged into their
favorite artists. But teens do more than listen. Some three million young Americans
between the ages of (5) _____________and 18 study music in school, through (6)
______________lessons, or simply on their own, and hundreds, maybe thousands, of
teens participate in informal (7) “__________________”, practicing and creating
songs in the garages of their or their friends’ (8)_____________.
Read and Discuss
MUSIC AND THE AMERICAN TEEN
3.3. Read three brief essays written by American teens about the importance of music
in their lives.

From Ben Ceplecha, 17, Wakefield High School, Raleigh, North Carolina

Music is a huge part of a teenager’s life. Whether it’s playing in a school


band or having an informal “garage band,” music is everywhere in a teen’s life.
We just can’t live without it. I play trombone in the Wakefield High School band,
but I also play electric guitar for my rock band. I have to say music is in my life
all day, every day. I decided to join the school band to learn more about the theory
of music. I wanted to learn more about each note on the page and how they play a
part in every piece I love rock music with a passion! Ever since I was 14 years old
I have been fascinated with how much talent it takes to play the electric guitar,
bass guitar, drums, and sing in front of a huge audience. I have had many
influences on my path to becoming a rock star. Bands like Breaking Benjamin,
Adema, KoRn, and a bunch more motivated me to want to play my guitar in front
of a wide audience. Music has changed my life.

FromElwin Wang, 15, Walt Whitman High School, Bethesda, Maryland

Music can be used to join different cultures, form everlasting friendships,


and even bring out a musician’s soul. It’s no wonder why so many high school
students in America have such a strong passion for music. For me, music is a way
of life. I believe that motivation and inspiration are vital for a successful musician.
My father and mother both immigrated to America from China. For various
reasons, they never had the luxury of learning music. When I was young, my
parents made me learn how to play the clarinet and the piano. Everyday, they
watched over me when I practiced, and [they] scheduled private lessons for me.
For the first few years, I hated spending my time practicing instruments that I
didn’t want to learn. When I started middle school, my parents made me sign up
for the middle school band, and my piano teacher put me in a very good orchestra.
This was the first time where I could see my fellow students playing in harmony.
As the year progressed, I learned more and more. Eventually, I grew independent
enough to practice as soon as I came home from school. The better I got, the
longer I practiced. I finally began to appreciate my parents for pushing me
towards becoming a better musician. Although I do not play in my high school’s
band, I play in the Chinese Music Society of Greater Washington. Our orchestra’s
goal is to bridge cultural differences between Americans and Chinese through
Chinese and American music. As a Chinese-American, I am very proud to
preserve and introduce ancient Chinese music and promote cultural exchange
between Chinese and American people. I believe that I have found a great way to
combine my love of music with my Chinese heritage.
FromKim Cline, 15, Belpre High School, Belpre, Ohio

High school can be a very stressful time in a teenager’s life. Music gives
teens an outlet to express their emotions and comforts them when they feel no one
understands how they feel. The beauty of music is that there is no single type of
music. My passion is for music that tells a story. I also love music that has a new
sound or something that sounds classic and raw, like live performances using
acoustic instruments. Music also has the power to express opinion. Opinions on
politics, religion, and people can be found in some of my music, but the music I
like most is free of any politics since I feel there is too much politics in everything
else. Music should be a unique expression of an artist’s feelings and views on the
world. I like being able to mix the past and the present. Bands from the past let me
get an idea of what life was like before I was born. Music helps me and many
other people my age cope with the daily stresses of high school and helps us avoid
the pressure from our parents. We can listen to some music in our rooms to escape
from the world and to get over things like little fights with our parents. Music
affects every part of my life, the way I dress, my art, my language.

Comprehension
3.4. Say which of the three teens the following statements belong to.
1. We listen to music to escape from arguments with our parents.
2. I am grateful to my parents who made me start playing music.
3. I play in a rock group.
4. Music helps to express your feelings and opinions.
5. Playing and singing for a big audience is not easy.
6. I am interested in the theory of music.
7. I really like playing in an orchestra.

3.5. Your Opinion


Write an essay yourself, using the above as models. It can be about 200 words, or
three to four paragraphs. Tell what music means to you specifically. Give details.

3.6. Listening
THE HISTORY OF THE ELECTRIC GUITAR
You will hear a lecture on the history of the electric guitar. Listen and complete the
chart below.

DATE MAKER NAME OF FEATURES


GUITAR
Orville Gibson
………… similar in shape to a
. ……………………
…………………… The National Guitar made of metal; good for
………… … playing ……………..
.
F. Martin Company The Dreadnought strings made of
………. ……………………..
George Beauchamp The ……………….. used two ……………..
………… shaped like horseshoes to
. increase sound
Adolph The Rickenbacker made
………… Rickenbacker …………………… from…………………
. ….
Les Paul The Log the first to be completely
………… …………………………
..
……………………. The Fender its simplicity made it ideal
………… . Broadcaster for …………………..
.
………… Leo Fender The …………….. easy to carry around
.
………… Ted McCarty The Gibson Les Paul …………….. in colour
.
Leo Fender The Fender ………………………
………… Stratocaster design
.

Listen and Discuss


THE BAND GOLDRUSH
3.7. You will hear an interview with a band Goldrush. Listen and answer the
questions below.
1. How long have Goldrush been playing together as a band?
2. How did Robin ҆s musical career begin?
3. What instruments do the band members play? What is their music style?
4. What bands / musicians influenced them?
5. What bands / musicians have they played with?
6. What places have they visited?
7. Why is visiting the US is an amazing experience for them?
8. How many albums have they made since 2002?
9. What are their future plans?

COUNTRY MUSIC PLAYED BY… A RUSSIAN GROUP


You will hear a story of a band from Russia called Bering Strait. Listen and say
whether the statements below are true (T) or false (F).
1. America music is popular mainly in America itself.
1. Bering Strait consists of 2 men and 4 women.
2. Bering Strait started playing country music in their childhood.
3. Bering Strait came to America in the middle of 1990s.
4. Not being able to speak Russian in America didn ҆t trouble them.
5. During 5 years American record companiesdidn ҆t deal with Bering Strait.
6. Bering Straitgive “live performances”.

A POP SINGER
3.8.You will hear Alex Cortes,a member of a pop group, talking about his life and
music. Listen and complete the sentences below.

1. Alex sings in a group called _______________________ .


2. The country where Alex grew up was _________________.
3. Alex's first impression of his wife was that she looked _________________ and
beautiful.
4. Alex's group is different from most groups because they are totally
____________________.
5. The group converted an old __ ______________ into a studio.
6. Alex describes their style of music as ______________________ .
7. The name of their latest album is __________________ ____.
8. The songs in the latest album deal with the theme of ______________________.

3.9. Conversation
Play out an interview with members of a successful music group, who started their
music career in a foreign country and managed to gain great success. Cover the
following points: a) how did they started playing music; b) what made them go
abroad to seek their fortune; c) what is their music style, what is specific about it; d)
what difficulties and problems did they face in the beginning of their career; e) what
are their winning strategies and “magic ingredients” which help attract the audience.

3.10. Listening
UNCONVENTIONAL MUSIC
You will a student sharing her impressions from a concert planned in her college.
Listen and complete the sentences below.

1. The students' concert will take place (where?)________________


2. Lucy was amazed to see a large _________________made of iron as an orchestral
instrument.
3. The name of Max Sinclair's piece is _______________________ .
4. The piece takes ______________ to play.
5. The concert will consist of _________________ new pieces of music.
6. Another piece of music is arranged to look like a ____________ pitch.
7. Max got the idea for his piece by hearing a _________________ at work.
8. Tim Travis usually plays _______________ in the orchestra.
9. Tim Travis uses a ______________ which is quite heavy to play Max's piece.
10. Max Sinclair's music has been described as ' _____________ modern'.

3.11. Conversation
You and your partner have just visited a concert of unconventional music. Share
your impressions, which are rather different. Discuss the following: a) groups and
solo musicians who took part in the concert; b) music instruments (and other things!)
they used to perform; c) what was the most amusing \ fascinating \ shocking \
disgusting etc.

3.12. Reading
SamanDance
Saman dance (The Dance of Thousand Hands) is one of the most popular dances in
Indonesia. The dance comes fromGayo province, Sumatra. At first, this dance was
just an ordinary everyday game called PokAne.Later it was transformed into a
ritualperformed to celebrate important occasions and significant events in people 's
lives. Later, it was also displayed to celebrate the birth of Prophet Muhammad. The
dance is characterized by its fast-paced rhythm and a perfect harmony between
dancers. These two elements are key figures of Saman, and are among the reasons
why Saman is widely known and practiced in Indonesia, besides being relatively easy
to learn.It is traditionally considered that, as a dance, Saman was created by a cleric
named Sheikh Saman Aceh, who saw the great interest Europeans showed towards
the arts of Indonesia.
Originally, the dance was done by a group of people without involving any
music instruments (this feature made the Saman unique). That's why the dancers were
required to have a high concentration and a serious exercise in order to perform
perfectly. The group was exclusively male because of rather energetic and dynamic
motions. While performing this dance, the players also sang some songs. A song
usually lasted for about 15 - 20 minutes.Boys and young men performed Saman
sitting on their heels or kneeling in tight rows, each wearing a black costume
embroidered with colourfulGayo motifs symbolizing nature and noble values. The
leader sat in the middle of the row and led the singing of verses, mostly in the Gayo
language. The verses were used as guidance and could be religious, romantic or
humorous. The dance movements symbolized the daily lives of the Gayo people and
their natural environment.
Nowadays, Saman dance is usually accompanied by musical instruments and
the rhythmical sounds produced by the dancers themselves. It is often danced by
female dancers as well as by mixed groups consisting of males and females. A typical
Saman performance is usually constituted of the followings general elements. The
dancers enter the stage and immediately form a single line sitting on their knees. The
song then starts to play, with the lyric at the beginning commonly telling the generals
of Gayo culture at medium pace. The dancers then begin to move their hands in a
rhythmic manner, following the movements. As the dance progresses, the movement
is also performed with arms, head, and the upper body, while the pace becomes faster.
The key element is that all players must move at the same time, creating a
homogeneous, continuous line of movement.
There are several types of a traditional Saman.
SamanJejunten is performed by youths at night. SamanJejunten is used as an
opportunity to create new tunes, songs and movements. The new elements admitted
as most beautiful become a part of traditional Saman.
SamanJalu is a festival usually performed to celebrate the anniversary of
Independence of the Republic of Indonesia. SamanJalu is presented on the stage and
judged by a jury. The participating groups are judged by several criteria, including
harmony and synchronization between the performers, discipline, innovation and
mastery of the stage.
Saman Entertainment is aimed at entertaining guests on special occasions. During
such events, Saman dance is often combined with reciting poems. The most
successful poets are highly respected and famous in the area they live.
SamanNjik is performed in a sitting position in rice fields, and is used to celebrate
the harvest time. SamanNjik is performed by young men only, while young women
are watching and choosing the men to share their lives with.
JamuSaman is a whole-night dance usually performed by young people. There are
two kinds of SamanJamu- SamanJamuIngi Sara (performed during one night) and
SamanJamuIngiRoa (tends to be performed for two days and two nights). This long
show is also used as a chance of finding a friend or a partner.
In 2011, UNESCO recognized the traditional Saman dance as a Masterpiece
of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, which needs UNESCO's urgent
protection.However, the frequency of the Saman performances is decreasing. Many
leaders, both men and women, with a perfect knowledge of the Saman are now
elderly and have no successors. Other forms of entertainment and new games are
replacing traditional ones, and many young people are emigrating to continue their
education or look for a job. Lack of funds is also a problem, as Saman costumes and
performances involve considerable expense.

3.13. Mark each of the statements below as True (T), False (F) or Not Given (N).
1. Initially, the Saman was a religious ritual.
2. In SamanJejunten, all the movements are strictly traditional.
3. Sheikh Saman Aceh created Saman to celebrate the birth of Prophet
Muhammad.
4. Historically, the Saman was performed by men only because women were
considered unable to create a real harmony.
5. The content of traditional verses in Saman dance was not only religious.
6. Nowadays, the Saman is performed mainly by females.
7. Saman dancers are required to wear national Gayo clothes while performing.
8. Two types of Saman dance are aimed at helping young people find a partner.
9. Mature and elderly people aren ҆t allowed to take part in JamuSaman.
10. The feature making traditional Saman unique is a homogeneous line of
movememnts.
11. After Samandance was recognized as Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible
Heritage of Humanity, its popularity increased.
3.14. Watch a video of Saman Dance and make notes on the key elements
(movements) of the dance. What, in your opinion, is the most attractive about the
dance? What seems to you the most difficult to perform? Why, in your opinion, the
dance is traditionally performed only by children and very young people? Do you
agree with a common opinion that Europeans are unable to perform the Saman?Why?

3.15. Listening
CARIBBEAN MUSIC
You will hear a short lecture on Caribbean music. Listen and answer the questions.

1. What were the most important historical events in the Caribbean?


2. Name three groups of musical instruments used in the Caribbean music.
3. What types of drums are mentioned in the story?
4. Name the instruments made of everyday objects.
5. What cultures influenced the Caribbean music?
6. Who brought African musical tradition to the Caribbean?
7. What are the most popular styles of the Caribbean Music?
8. What is the most famous style of song in Jamaica? What is its main
peculiarity?
9. What is the most popular music style in Trinidad?

3.16 Project.
Choose a style of music you are really interested in. Prepare a presentation
covering the following points:
- a piece of history (origin of the style, what cultures and other music styles
influenced it etc.);
- a short description of the style (characterize the music and, if this style is divided
into some substyles, say some words about each one);
- music instruments used (if some, or all instruments are not very well known,
provide small a short description, a picture and a sound of each one);
- geography (where is this style most popular);
-the most famous representatives of the style (singers and musicians);
-audience.
Plus to this, present an audio or a video which, in your opinion, is the best
example of this music style.

Sing and Relax


OH, SUSANNAH
3.17. Listen to a song Oh, Susannah written by Stephen Foster. You will hear the
song twice. Complete it while listening.

I come from ________________ with a banjo on my knee,


I’m going to Louisiana
My _______________ for to see.

It rained all night the day I left,


The weather it was _________,
The ___________ so hot, I froze to death.
Susannah, don’t your cry.

Oh, Susannah, don’t you cry for me,


I΄ve come from ______________ with a banjo on my knee.

3.18. Now try to change the content of the song, just for fun. Here is the pattern.
Complete it with whatever names, places and things you wish.

I come from _______________with a ______________ on my knee


I’m going to __________, my true love for to see
It rained all night, the day I left, the weather it was dry
The sun so hot, I froze to death, _________________, don’t your cry.
Oh, _____________ don’t you cry for me.
I’ve come from _____________ with a ______________ on my knee.
UNIT 4
TELEVISION
4.1. Active vocabulary

Television (TV) Programmes


telly (colloq.) programme
the box (BE); the tube (AE) show
portable television (set) daily /weekly / monthly
colour television (set) the news
cable television current affairs
satellite television special report
network factual reportage / live footage (AE)
viewer talk (chat) show
viewing panel discussion
peak viewing hours interview
TV addict documentary
compulsive viewing magazine programme
children's programme
Operating a TV Set cartoon
to switch on/off = to turn on/off educational programme
to turn the sound up/down wildlife programme
to switch (over)/change to another sports programme
programme/channel the weather report/ forecast
to watch television variety show
to see smth on TV musical variety
a test card game show
to correct the picture quiz programme
to have the TV set fixed feature film \ movie (AE)
screened version of a play \ book
Personnel/People in Television thriller
be in television western
announcer serial (a play broadcast in parts)
newsreader/newscaster installment (a part of a serial)
anchorman/woman (AE) sitcom (situation comedy)
presenter soap opera
TV reporter/correspondent commentator commercial
interviewer video clip
speaker a regular character of the programme
quizmaster a regular feature of the programme
camera man/operator
editor Television Techniques
producer to broadcast \ to telecast (AE)
technician to do a live broadcast
soundman to be on the air
a film crew \ a programme crew to go on the air
to be on TV (What's on TV tonight?)
TV-day Segments to appear on the programme
Early Morning to show smthon television
Morning to cover smth
Afternoon news coverage
Early Fringe recorded programme
Early Evening to do a television show
Access Time sound track
Prime Time sound effects
Late Fringe picture
Late Night general view
close-up
caption
still
library film (= archives material)
microphone (mike, neck mike)
screen time

4.2. Read and Discuss.

4.2.1. Television plays multiple roles in American society. It can be a preacher


or an evening companion, a parent in the living room or a teacher in the classroom.
Why do you watch TV? What roles does television play in your life? Name at
least five reasons that make your television-viewing experience an important part of
your life.

1. _____________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________
4. _____________________________________________________________
5. _____________________________________________________________

Compare your answers to some actual responses given by American college


students. Are there any similarities or differences in the ways you interact with
television?
 I like to watch TV when there’s nothing else to do.
 I like to vegetate sometimes.
 I don’t like eating alone.
 It’s easier to do than jog.
 Television keeps me informed and entertained and it beats the hell out of
studying.
 It makes up for the newspaper I fail to read.
 I watch TV to be entertained…also if the TV is on my girlfriend’s mother
thinks we are watching it.
4.2.2.Below you will see several ways to think about TV and its roles in American
society. Look at the chart and read the passages that follow. Match the passages (1-7)
illustrating different roles of TV in American society to the list below (A-G).
A. Agent of socialization
B. Source of news and information
C. Merchandising mechanism
D. Televangelism
E. Family member, friend and companion
F. Teacher, trainer and educator
G. Agent for political and patriotic propaganda

1. For many Americans television is and has been for some time, like a member of
their family. It provides a constant background presence in their homes and is often
highly visible in their living rooms, kitchens, and bedrooms. Television has become
almost a constant companion. Meal times are often planned around the evening’s
programs. Studies suggest that television has contributed to a decline in family
communication.
2. Television has replaced the newspaper as the main source of information in
American culture. That information comes in many forms, including news programs,
newsmagazines, current affairs broadcasts, news specials, talk shows, etc.
3. Television has long been regarded as a window on the world that socializes young
viewers into the views and values of the dominant culture. In a multicultural society it
is crucial that the media models provide fair, accurate, and representative images of
all groups in the culture. How television depicts gender roles, occupations, religious
groups, races, nationalities, the elderly, the impaired, and the disadvantaged, among
other groups, can in large part determine society’s response to these groups.
4. The growth of television technology has brought religion and church services into
the homes of thousands of Americans. For the infirm, shut-ins, and other groups who
cannot get about easily, these broadcasts provide a potentially important service.
5. Commercial television exists because of commercials which address vast television
audiences. Various technological and programming developments have led to the
creation of shop-at-home services.
6. The video revolution has brought major growth in the home education market and
in the application of video in teaching and training in all areas of society. Airline
emergency procedures have become much more meaningful now that video is
frequently used to demonstrate them, replacing the previous instructions from flight
attendants. Cybervision represents a new approach to training for a range of sports
including tennis, golf, and skiing. Cable and satellite technologies have brought the
growth of educational instructional programming, including the Arts and
Entertainment Network, the Learning Channel, and the Discovery Channel.
7. Television technology has increasingly become an agent for political and patriotic
propaganda. The concept is hardly new. Many observers believe the United States
lost the Vietnam War because it was the first “video”, or “living room” war, and
people were convinced by pictures that undermined official government statements.
Television is an integral part of the democratic process. It allows the nation to watch
congressional deliberations and special hearings, provides access at the local level for
diverse individuals and groups to express their own ideas, and generally makes the
process of government more visible to the electorate.
4.2.3. Compare your vision of TV in your country to the ideas in the chart. Is
there any difference? Judging by your personal experience, rank the “Ways to Think
about TV” in the order of importance. Discuss it in group, providing examples from
your television-viewing experience.

4.3. Listen and Discuss


IS TOO MUCH TV BAD FOR YOUR BRAINS?
4.3.1.You will hear a report devoted to the impact TV has on children ҆s ability to
learn and remember things. Listen and answer the questions below.
1. Which four universities were mentioned in the report?
a)
b)
c)
d)
2. How many children were tested in the first university mentioned in the report?
3. What was their age?
4. In what three subjects did these children show low scores?
a)
b)
c)
5. What happens to children who watch too much TV:
a) before age of 3
b) at the age between 6 and 7
c) between 5 and 15?
6. What types of TV programs can make a positive impact on learning abilities?

4.3.2.Your Opinion: What is Good and Bad about Television?


Make an overview of advantages and disadvantages of TV. Try to involve as many
aspects as you can - health (both physical and mental), way of life, relations etc.
Share your opinion to your groupmates.

4.3.3. Project:TV Viewing Habits Survey


Make an overview of your family ҆sTV viewing habits of and interview two more
other families (for example, your friends ҆ ), covering the following points:
- How many TV sets does a family have? If more than one, where are these located?
- What channels and programs are viewed most often \ never? Why?
- Does everybody watch TV alone or the family try to do it together? Why?
- How long, approximately, do family members watch TV?
- During what parts of the day do the family watch TV?
- What do they normally do when commercials are broadcasted?
- Is young children ҆s TV watching limited? If not, why? If it is, then to how long?
Share your overview to your groupmates. Then get together and, based on the
information each person provided, outline the key trends and make a general TV
viewing habits overview.

4.4. Read and Discuss

THE PROBLEM WITH AMERICAN TV IS THAT THERE’S SO MUCH OF IT!

4.4.1. In the text there are seven numbered gaps. Choose from the paragraphs
A-H (below) the one which fits each gap (1-7) in the text. There is one paragraph you
do not need to use.

1.

The majority of Americans watch commercial television. These stations


receive most of their programming from commercial networks, the oldest and biggest
of which are: ABC (the American Broadcasting Company), CBS (the Columbia
Broadcasting System), NBC (the National Broadcasting Company) and Fox, or FBS
(the Fox Broadcasting Company). Each of the networks may own as many as 12 TV
stations and have contracts with privately owned stations – called affiliated stations –
that carry the network’s programming under various financial arrangements.

2.

The local television business relies on sales to local and regional advertisers.
Local television stations also have their own news teams, reporters, and film crews.
Usually, local television stations will offer between half an hour to two hours of
local, city, and state news, weather and business information in addition to the
national network news programs. The most-successful local TV stations are those
owned and operated by a major network.
3.

Cable television has grown in recent years to become an important component


of the television landscape. Cable is in more than two-thirds of America’s TV homes.
Cable consumers usually choose programming from basic cable services, which are
part of one monthly fee, and premium cable services which are available individually
to customers at an extra monthly or per-use fee.

4.

Two basic cable channels – CNN and MTV – have made their mark both on
American society and on global culture. The Cable News Network (CNN), the brain
child of Ted Turner, was the first channel in the world to provide a twenty-four-hour
news service. This format enables CNN to provide more timely news in greater
detail, often offering live, unedited coverage. CNN mastered continuous coverage of
breaking news events such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks. Today CNN appears
in more than 200 countries around the globe, more than one billion people have
access to its service.

5.

Besides basic programming, cable offers a wide range of special channels,


known as premium channels, and other services. These include movie channels such
as HBO (Home Box Office) and Showtime; pay-per-view (PPV) programs and
interactive (two-way) services that enable consumers to use their televisions to bank,
shop, play games, and access the Internet.
Not all TV stations are in it for the money (at least not overtly). Nearly 400 TV
stations are considered noncommercial operations. These stations, owned primarily
by governmental organizations, universities and school boards, and religious
organizations, form the backbone of the Public Broadcasting System (PBS).

6.

PBS is especially well-known for the quality of its many education TV


programs, National Geographic specials, and Scientific American Frontiers form the
bases for some. Programs for children such as Barney & Friends continue PBS’s
tradition of quality TV for preschoolers, and established series such as Live from
Lincoln Center broadcast the best in music and opera, live and free. The highest-rated
PBS series of all time was Ken Burn’s The Civil War.
In the late 1990s the ability of television to be delivered via communication
satellites changed the television industry dramatically. In less than a decade, direct
broadcast satellite television service (DBS) has grown to become an important
competitor to cable television.
7.

Television in the U.S. is by far the most powerful communications medium.


With new technologies in systems still being developed, TV’s influence and scope
are limitless. What’s in store for television? Considering the dramatic rise in cable
and satellite television coverage, and the increased use of pay-per-view TV,
television looks likely to remain the dominant medium in the fields of information
and entertainment.

A Satellite television has been a leader at using innovative technology.


Currently DBS transmission standards are already digital, meaning that
satellite pictures are pristinely clear. Some of the other innovative services
that DBS has introduced include digital recorders like TiVo that allow users
to record programming directly to a computer hard disk and innovative
satellite-to-home broadband Internet service.

B PBS is an ongoing alternative to commercial TV. Although public


television stations must often survive on very limited budgets, their level of
quality, whether in national and international news, entertainment, or
education, is excellent. Almost a whole generation of children throughout
the world are familiar, for example, with Sesame Street and the characters of
The Muppet Show.

C A typical basic cable system today includes a thirty-six to seventy-two


channel lineup. Topping the list of basic cable services are such cable
channels as CNN, MTV, the USA Network, Bravo, Nickelodeon, Lifetime,
ABC Family, Comedy Central, Black Entertainment Television (BET), the
Weather Channel, Turner Network Television (TNT).

D Commercial stations – 77 percent of the total number of TV stations –


make their money by selling time on their stations to advertisers.
Noncommercial stations are not allowed to sell advertising; they were set for
educational, civic, and religious groups. They survive strictly through
donations from individuals, businesses, and the government.

E The organizational structure of a TV station varies according to the size


of the organization, but there are some general areas common to most TV
stations. TV stations are generally divided into five divisions, each division
having its own head who reports directly to the station manager. The five
areas are sales, engineering, business, programming, and news. Each of these
areas is vital for the efficient operation of a TV station.

F The Music Television Network (MTV) is the second basic cable service
to dramatically change the world’s cultural landscape. MTV and its global
offsprings, including MTV Russia, reach about 400 million homes
worldwide, creating a global village, and giving the world a common
language. Besides music, MTV runs a variety of special programs on issues
ranging from drug addictions to racism and social activism.

G Weaker local TV stations include independents (independent stations),


which are neither owned, nor affiliated with the networks. These stations are
free to run any programming they choose, but normally they rely on their
libraries of movies and local broadcasts of local professional sports.
Independent stations appear to be a vanishing breed; there are less than 50
stations which don’t affiliate with the networks.

H The networks with their financial and professional resources have


several advantages. They are able to purchase the distribution rights, for
example, to the most recent films and series. They can attract the best artists
and performers. Above all, they are able to maintain large news-gathering
organizations throughout the nation and throughout the world. All of the
networks have nationwide news programs. Among the most popular are
CBS’s 60Minutes.

4.4.2. Read the whole text again and answer the questions below:
1. What are the advantages of network TV compared to independent stations?
2. What are the differences between basic cable and premium services?
3. How have CNN and MTV influenced culture worldwide?
4. Why has nonprofit, non-commercial public broadcasting system been so
successful in the past two decades? What should be the goal of public
television? Should the government support it?
5. What is DBS? What accounts for its growing popularity?
6. In terms of the idea of diversity and multiculturalism, what are cable’s main
advantages over traditional broadcasting?

4.5. Project:TV in My Country


Make a research to create an overview of the television in your country. Cover the
following points: a) Is the television in your country mainly commercial or not? b)
The most popularTV stations and channels and what issues they focus on; c) How do
TV channels, stations etc. raise finance and attract the audience? d) Broadcasting
technologies and services; e) Key problems the television is facing nowadays.
***After you have presented your projects, try to sum up what is in common and
what are the differences between the television in America and in your country.
4.6. Listening

INTERACTIVE TV
You will hear a part of a radio programme about interactive television. For each
question below, choose the best answer.
1. What does interactive television entail?
A more people having Internet access
B superior television services
C improved web browsing
D a larger number of operators
2. In several years’ time it is likely that
A the Internet will be a mass medium
B interactive TV will be widely adopted
C conventional television will be phased out
D every home worldwide will be online
3. The growth of interactive TV may
A be slower in the UK than in the US
B lead to people buying more
C overtake the growth of the PC Internet
D not live up to expectations
4. What are the drawbacks to interactive TV?
A Image quality is not as good as on a PC
B There is a huge amount of advertising
C You can only download information
D There are no news programmes.
5. What does the future hold for interactive TV?
A It is doomed to failure.
B It is too soon to say.
C It seems to promise confusion.
D It may be too young to attract customers.

4.7. Read and Discuss

TV PROGRAMMING STRATEGY

4.7.1.Nowadays TV production and programming is considered to be a major


industry. Billions of dollars are spent by advertisers to tap TV’s vast audiences.In the
US, TV broadcasters divide the day into nine segments.
Early Morning: 6:00 am to 9:00 am
Morning: 9:00 am to Noon
Afternoon: Noon to 4:00 pm
Early Fringe: 4:00 pm to 6:00 pm
Early Evening: 6:00 pm to 7:30 pm
Access Time: 7:00 pm or 7:30 to 8:00 pm
Prime Time: 8:00 pm to 11:00 pm
Late Fringe: 11:00 pm to 11:30 pm
Late Night: 11:30 pm to 6:00 am
4.7.2. TV programming is the selection and scheduling of programs for a
particular part of the day at a station or network. In the chart below, match
programming strategies with day-parts.

Day-parts Programming strategies


1. Early Morning A. In this time period, the networks run a mixed bag of
programs, including syndicated sitcoms, exercise, talk, and
game shows. In this day-part, audiences include twice as
many women as men and twice as many children as teens.
2. Morning B. During the interval between the evening news and
prime time, the networks and affiliates usually program game
shows, or syndicated sitcoms.
3. Afternoon C. This period is a tough day-part to schedule. The teens
are home from school, often pressuring one-set households
for MTV. From 5:00pm to 6:00pm, the network affiliates
usually run local news or news-feature shows. Stations often
run popular old sitcoms to increase the ratings.
4. Early Fringe D. The stations hope to get the highest ratings during this
day-part, and commercials sell at the highest rate. This is a
high-stakes game. The networks support this programming
with extensive promotion, both on-air and in print.
5. Early Evening E. Traditionally, this time slot is reserved for late news,
sports, and weather, usually carried at 11:00pm.
6. Access Time F. This day-part is traditionally dominated by news and
talk shows such as NBC’s Today and ABC’s Good Morning
America. On Saturdays the networks run children’s shows in
this day-part, while on Sundays it’s news and interviews.
7. Prime Time G. The beginning of this day-part is the time for all kinds
of late shows. By 1:00am, when most of people are asleep,
the insomniacs are watching old movies. The ratings are low,
so national advertisers stay away.
8. Late Fringe H. This day-part is the time for soap operas, those spicy
sagas never to be missed, and talk shows. Women make up 70
to 75 percent of this afternoon audience. Stations not carrying
soaps on this day-part usually go with movies, talk and
interview shows, syndicated series (usually old network
returns), and game shows. On weekends sports prevail in this
day-part.
9. Late Night I. This is the time of the evening news when the networks
trot out their big news guns along with their highly paid
correspondents – for thirty minutes of national and
international coverage.

4.7.3. Project Make a research to create an overview of a TV channel ҆s programming


strategy. Choose some Russian TV channel and analyze its programming strategy.
Give your opinion on how effective the strategy is. What are strong and weak points?
What changes, in your opinion, should be made to make the programming strategy
more effective and attract more audience? Present your project at class. Do your
group mates share your opinion?
4.8 Headline Makers: What is it like to be Famous?
4.8.1.You will hear two reports on incidents which had made headlines. Listen and
complete the reports filling in the gaps.

MAN THROWS AWAY £20 000 IN TOWN CENTRE


A mysterious man started a riot in a busy town centre by hurling £20 000 in
banknotes into the air. Traffic was stopped at 11.00 in Alexandra Road, Aberystwyth,
Mid wales, as money rained down from the sky. Local shopkeeper, Anthony Jones,
55, said: “I couldn ҆t understand it, so I asked my neighbor _________________.
They saw people on their hands and knees grabbing money. “No one knew
______________”, he said. “They were just stuffing it _________________.”
Passer-by Eleanor Morris said: “ I wondered what _____________________ because
the traffic was in a complete standstill”. Flower seller Gadwyn Thomas saw the man
who was wearinga red Welsh _______________. “I asked him _________________
all his money, but he didn ҆t answer. He just laughed”. Police asked Gadwyn if she
_______________. “I told them I ҆d never seen him before. He certainly wasn ҆t from
around here.”DufedPowis police later confirmed that a forty-year-old man
fromAberystwyth had been questioned. “He refused to tell us _____________”, a
spokesman said, “so it ҆s a complete mystery. He wanted to know if we
__________________ arrest him, but giving away money isn ҆t against the law.”

LOOK, MUM! I ҆VE BOUGHT A CAR ON EBAY FOR £9.000!


4.8.2.Read the article below describing extravagant behavior of an actress Davina
Moody. Then listen to a reporter interviewing Davina and sum up the differences
between what mass media say about her and what she says herself.
4.9. Listening
You will hear an interview with Barbara Darby, a casting director in the film industry.
For questions below, choose one answer (A, B, C or D) which fits best.
1. According to Barbara, a casting director needs above all
A to learn from experience.
B to be a good communicator.
C to have a relevant qualification.
D to have a natural feel for the job.
2. Barbara says that she looks for actors who
A can play a variety of roles.
B complement each other.
C accept her way of working.
D think deeply about a part.
3. At which stage in the casting process does Barbara meet the actors?
A before she goes to see them performing live
B once the director has approved them
C before a final short list is drawn up
D as soon as a final selection is made
4. What led Barbara to become a casting director?
A She was doing similar work in the theatre.
B She realized she had the skills needed.
C It was recommended by a colleague.
D It had always been her ambition.
4. Barbara explains that what motivates her now is a need for
A personal satisfaction.
B professional recognition.
C a glamorous lifestyle.
D financial security.
5. What made Barbara give up her job for a while?
A She'd become tired of travelling.
B She was ready to try something new.
C She felt she'd been put under too much pressure.
D She found that she was no longer as committed to it.
4.10. Listening
You will hear Rita Lewis, a television researcher, talking about her job. Listen and
complete the statements below.
1. The subject that Rita studied first at university was ______________________ .
2. Before getting her present job, Rita studied a subject called ________________.
3. On the day she tells us about, the country where Rita was working was
___________.
4. There were a total of ___________ people in Rita's team on that day.
5. The animal which Jamie had to photograph was a sort of ___________________.
6. The camera crew had to film Jamie as he climbed over the edge of a
_____________.
7. Rita's lunch consisted of sandwiches with _____________________ inside.
8. Jamie had to hold a ___________ to help him see the crocodiles as he crossed a
river.
9. A special light which the crew was using, known as a __________ , stopped
working.
10. Rita says that Jamie looks really _________when you see him crossing the river
on the programme.

4.11. Conversation
Play out an interview with a person who works in a TV program \ channel which
focuses on rather a specific topic, so to do this job one needs a number of specific
professional and personal (maybe even physical) skills. Cover the following points:
a) How did he \ she got interested in (involved into) the job? b) did he \ she get any
specific training course, education etc. to do the job? c) what are the most enjoyable
sides of the job? What are the challenges (difficulties, problems, dangers)? c) Some
words about the day (project etc.) he \ she remembered most; d) some tips for those
who would like to do a similar job; e) plans for future.
4.12. Project: Creating Your Own TV Channel \ TV Programme \ TV Show
Imagine you were going to create your own TV channel \ TV programme \ show.
Present it covering the following points.
If it is a TV channel:
-Title, logo and motto (“philosophy”);
-What is unique about your TV channel; what are its advantages comparing to other
similar channels?
-Programming strategy;
-Who are your target audience and how are you going to attract the audience:
-How are you going to raise finance? If you are going to broadcast commercials, what
will make your channel attractive for advertisers, sponsors etc?
If it is a TV programme (especially a reality show or a game show show!), then
plus to the points given above include the following:
-The key aim and idea;
-The plot and the main elements;
-The criteria for selecting participants;
-What exactly the participants will do;
-Safety (control) measures in case something goes wrong.
Present your project to your group mates, who are going to act as potential
investors. Be ready to answer their comments and questions.

UNIT 5
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY LIFE
5.1.Active Vocabulary

Forms of Relations Reactions,Emotions, Feelings, States


relations by birth amazement
relations by marriage surprise
marriage astonishment
family ties horror
spouse misery
a well-matched couple disappointment
be married appalled
be single astounded
get married disgusted
bridegroom ecstatic
bride thrilled
fiancée put out
newlyweds offended
former marriage hurt someone's feelings
ex-husband furious
ex-wife speechless with anger
divorced taken aback
divorcee upset
split up dismayed
live separately disheartened
current marriage crushed
civil marriage horror-stricken
same-sex marriage be in good mood
marriage of convenience be in bad temper
arranged marriage uneasy
shotgun wedding anxious
a love match lonely
nuclear family scared
extended family miserable
sham marriage depressed
live together guilty
cohabit with smb upset
go out together (go out with smb) furious
date smb (be smb's date) tired
court smb happy
boyfriend exhausted
girlfriend excited
partner worried
have relationships relaxed
traditional family nervous
stepfamily disappointed
a foster child dissatisfied
foster family confused
a single parent bored
a broken home irritated / annoyed
a family feud ashamed
despaired
Equality and prejudice enthusiastic
consider smb inferior/superior \ as humiliated
an equal embarrassed
equality of opportunities enraged
conventional/unconventional elated
attitudes/beliefs tensed
acceptable/unacceptable proud of smb/smth
patterns/modes of behavior jealous
be prejudiced against smb grumpy
discriminate against smth a close bond between smb
sexual discrimination be kindred spirits
be faithful be infatuated wth smb
to commit adultery besotted with smb
genuine misunderstanding
discord
split up
a bumpy relationship

5.2. Listen and Discuss


AMERICAN FAMILIES
You will hear a report on basic problems and changes in American families
nowadays. Listen and fill in the gaps.

There have been many ………………………(1) in American families in the past few
years. So there are many different kinds of families today. There are
fewer…………………………….(2) families in the United States today than in the
past. The traditional family includes a man and a woman who are
……………………….(3) and their…………………………(4). Fewer
than…………………(5) percent of American homes have these traditional families.
One major influence on families is the high ………………………(6) of marriages
that end in………………..(7) More …………………………(8) parents are raising
their children today. There is also a high rate of ……………………….(9) women
having babies.
Research has found that the marriage……………………(10) in the United States is
dropping. More men and women are choosing to………………………………(11)
and have children, but not ………………………………(12) Population experts say
that the number……………………………(13) parents in the United States
increased more than 70% in the past ………………………(14) years.
Another kind of American family is the ……………………….(15). A stepfamily
includes a married man and a woman and at least one child from a
……………………….(16) marriage or relationship. Many stepfamilies include
children of both the man and woman from earlier marriages and children from their
…………………………(17) marriage.
…………………………….(18) families are also a part of American life. A child
who does not have parents is placed in the ……………………..(19) of a foster
family until the child can be ………………………(20). Adoption is a legal process
by which a child becomes ……………………….(21). Many men and women who
are not able to ……………………………(22) children will adopt a child instead.
Some people who have given……………………(23) to their own children choose to
give a home to other children through adoption. Studies also show an increase in the
number of children who have parents of the same sex. Sometimes, one of the adults is
the ……………………….(24) parent of the child. Sometimes the children are
adopted.
So, as you can see, the traditional family in the United States is changing. However,
many Americans say it is not important if family members are………………………..
(25) through biology or not. The important thing in a family is love.

5.3 Your Opinion


Look again through the report above and list up the changes American families
are undergoing nowadays. What, in your opinion, are the reasons for these changes?
Is the situation the same in your country? If not, what are the differences? Is anything
can be done to save a traditional family? Or is it not necessary?

5.4.IDIOMS FOR RELATIONS

Look through the chart below and match the idioms with their meanings /
explanations.

Idiom Meaning / Explanation


1.to follow smb ҆s footsteps a.to make smb do what you tell him \
her to do, or force smb into your way of
thinking, often in a rather strict and
aggressive way
2. tobeat smb into the line b.to make smb terribly angry and
irritated
3.to chill out c. to have relations with a lot of ups and
downs
4.to point the finger at smb for smth d.to follow smb ҆s way of life, model of
behavior etc.
5.to drive smb mad e.to offence or hurt smb ҆s feelings
6.to have a stormy relationship f.to blame smb of smth
7.to break smb ҆s heart g.to stop worrying or being angry and
relax
8.to reach a crossroads in life h.to be about to make an important
choice or decision
9.to badger smb i.never leave smbin peace trying to
make this person do smth
10.to tell smb what to do j. constantly give other people
instructions on how they should live and
do things

5.5. Read and Discuss


The article below focuses on the advantages of being shy.
What are the most common problems and difficulties shy people face?
Are you shy? If you are, say in what situations this trait of character gives you most
problems / difficulties.

10 ADVANTAGES OF BEING SHY:
WAYS IN WHICH BEING SHY CAN WORK TO YOUR ADVANTAGE

People who are shy often have problems with adapting to their surroundings and
making relations with other people in a world that is dominated by more outgoing
and extroverted types. It always seems to them that everyone else is doing much,
much better. At times like these, it would be not bad to consider some of the benefits
or advantages of being shy. So here are some of them.

1. Modesty is Attractive. Most shy people are modest; they are not shouting all over
the world how great they are. But a lot of people have nothing against modesty, it
looks really attractive to them.

2. Thinking Before You Act. If you are shy, you probably tend to look before you
leap. This trait can be helpful when it comes to important life decisions. Thinking
carefully and planning will help you to avoid stupid unnecessary risk and set realistic
goals.

3. Making People Feel Comfortable. If your shyness is not extreme, it can make
you more approachable to others. People feel comfortable around you when they see
that you are not trying to dominate or show off.

4. Calming Effect on Others. Shy people usually look calm and quiet, they seldom
shout or argue, so they can sometimes have a positive calming effect on those who
are too energetic or tensed.
5. Being a Good Listener. If you are shy, you surely don҆t like talking about yourself,
so you can be an extremely good listener. It will help other people to open up to you,
and they will be grateful for it.

6. More Trustworthy. If you are shy, you don't show off telling everybody how
great you are. So other people may find you more believable and trustworthy.

7. Ability to Fight Difficulties. If you are shy, then you constantly have to struggle
against shyness. It surely means that you developed excellent skills of fighting, and it
will help you to cope with any life's difficulties.

8. Deeper Friendships. If you are shy, it might be difficult for you to make friends.
But on the other hand, if you really manage to make a friend, this friendship is surely
for a long time, maybe forever. Remember: What is easy to make, is also easier to
break!

9. Successful at Solitary Work. Many jobs require the ability to focus and
concentrate in a solitary environment. If you are shy, a job of this kind is just for you!
That҆s where you can be great success. Nobody will interrupt you, and besides, you
will avoid doing important things while the others are looking.

10. Enjoy Success More Fully. Research shows: if you are shy, your brains react
more strongly to both negative and positive things. So, on one hand, you are likely to
feel more depressed after failures than more outgoing people. But on the other hand,
you will get double pleasure from your success!

6.6. Your Opinion


1. Do you agree with the list of advantages given in the article?
2. Would you like to add some more points to the list? What are they?
3. Choose any trait of character from the list below that is usually considered to
be negative or inconvenient (especially when it comes to building, keeping and
saving relations) and make your own list of 10 advantages of having this trait,
each item containing no for more than 2-3 sentences.
10 advantages of being: aggressive
rude
stupid
cunning
stubborn
deceitful
greedy
showy
impertinent
nagging
***While doing this task, please, use your creativity and sense of humour!

5.6. Conversation
You are a psychologist talking to a teenager (a boy or a girl) who is sure that he/she is
grown-up enough to make decisions, choose friends and way of life e.t.c. But it
seems impossible while living with parents and grandparents. The parents are trying
to control his/her each step and forbid to bring a girlfriend / boyfriend home because
they don`t like him /her. Grandparents are constantly telling what to do and care of
him / her too much. The parents are also here to obtain your opinion and advice. Ask
questions to get details and give your recommendations.
5.7. Listen and Discuss
You will hear Alec and Penny, spouses, discussing their relationship and the way
they arrange their everyday life. Listen and complete the chart below.
Alec Penny
What is his \ her
job?
Importance of
work

Domestic
arrangements (who
does what)
Domestic helpers

Financial
arrangements

What other people


say about their
family life and how
Alec and Penny
feel about it

5.8. Listen and Discuss


You will hear an interview with Kathy, a British woman who lives in Greece and is
married to a Greek man. She is talking about the differences between family life in
Britain and Greece. Listen and choose one most suitable answer for each item below
1. In comparing British and Greek families, Kathy thinks that
A the British have fewer children;
B more British couples get divorced than Greek ones;
C Greek families are more affected by employment patterns;
D Greek families are closer-knit.
2. Being surrounded by family members
A was the usual condition of Kathy’s childhood;
B was a rare experience for Kathy before her marriage;
C makes Kathy feel she needs more space;
D has appealed to Kathy since her son was born.
3. Kathy sometimes gets frustrated in Greece because
A she feels lonely;
B she is not allowed to make her own decisions;
C family members are constantly asking her for help;
D family members are constantly giving her advice.
4. As a working mother, Kathy
A has had to change her schedule every week;
B has had to find a babysitter;
C finds life easier in Greece than Britain;
D is forced to rely on the family for help.
5. Kathy thinks that Dimitris’ brother’s mother-in-law
A is being used by her family;
B is too ill to be expected to cook;
C enjoys her household duties;
D would be better off in a nursing home.

5.9. Conversation
You and your partner are discussing your family life. You both have recently got
married, and there are already certain problems, some of these are rather serious. One
of the reasons is that you and your spouses come from different cultures and have
different family values, priorities etc. Share your problems and try to find some
solutions.

5.10. Project
Step 1.Watch a video documentary about different forms of marriages. Make notes
on the following points: a) social and economic factors behind this form of marriage;
b) what is their idea of love and the idea of a family; c) the key principles this form of
marriage is based on.
Step 2.Make an outline of the concept of family life (finding a partner, arranging a
marriage, family values, bringing up children, roles of a man and a woman in a
family etc.) in any two societies \ cultures where this concept is substantially
different. Arrange it as a presentation and present it to the group.

UNIT 6
BRINGING UP CHILDREN
6.1.Active Vocabulary

A happy child is: A happy parent is:


kind-hearted loving
good-natured caring
loving affectionate
friendly kind \ kind-hearted
affectionate good-natured
confident friendly
balanced approving
secure reassuring
getting along with others responsive
gregarious thoughtful
sociable considerate
communicative understanding
outgoing sensitive
unselfish sympathetic
hard-working \ industrious sensible
self-disciplined reasonable
self-possessed self-restrained
alert patient
motivated tolerant
conscientious open
active outgoing
persevering firm
enthusiastic consistent
polite just
considerate
thoughtful An unhappy (difficult) parent is:
helpful
able to cope with problems impulsive
amiable indulging
rapturous pampering \ babying
blissfully happy unreasonable
full of the joys of spring selfish
walk on air self-indulging
self-interested
An unhappy (difficult) child is: self-willed \ willful
obedient inconsistent
submissive partial
disciplined sentimental
repressed permissive
depressed loveless
distressed indifferent
confused impersonal
frustrated insensitive
disturbed disapproving
neglected unjust
self-centered unfair
unsociable impatient
lonely intolerant
timid insensible
shy unreasonable
fearful unwise
sulky inconsistent
indifferent nagging
impersonal fussy
listless cold
irresponsive harsh \tough
insensitive cruel
hurt bullying
humiliated aggressive
stubborn destructive
uninterested violent
unmotivated repressing
inactive demanding
bored restraining
unable to cope with difficulties moralizing
irritable \ annoyed uncompromising
anxious off-hand
restless pompous
naughty pretentious
willful puerile
inconsistent officious
impulsive ostentatious
undisciplined fickle
unruly nit-picking
misbehaving \ delinquent obnoxious
disobedient pushy
resentful taciturn
arrogant impetuous
insolent haughty
impudent aloof
inconsiderate self-important
intolerant gullible
disrespectful disdainful
unrestrained
destructive
picky
rude
offensive
repulsive
scornful
revolting
loathsome
abhorrent

6.2. Listen and Discuss


WORDS OF WISDOM
You will hear ten people talking about so-called words of wisdom they heard from
their family, friends etc. Listen and complete the chart below.

Name Words of Wisdom Given by whom?


Elaine
Lizzie
Justin
Claire
Henry
Simon
Fiona
Chris
Sue
Martyn

6.3. Your Opinion


1) Try to subdivide the words of wisdom above into three categories, according to
how you feel about them: a) the ones you consider really clever, practical and useful
and always (or often) follow them; b) the ones you think are true and might be useful,
but you personally wouldn ҆t follow these; c) the ones you consider stupid, useless etc.
and not worth following. ***Support your opinion!
2) What are the words of wisdom you remembered best in your life? By whom were
these given? Do you ever follow these? Why? \ Why not?
3) Do you think other people ҆s experience (including the one of our parents and
grandparents) can be really useful for us, or everybody should live his \ her own life,
getting and using his \ her experience?

6.4. Listening
SUBSTANCES ABUSE
You will hear a lecture about substance abuse among high school students in the US.
During the lecture the speaker uses the term ATOD to refer collectively to alcohol,
tobacco and other drugs. For questions 1-9, complete the sentences with a word or a
short phrase.
1. A far higher percentage of American high school students have tried
_____________________ than have sampled illicit drugs.
2. American schools have been using education programmes to combat substance
abuse for ____________________________________ .
3. It is a common ___________________ among teenagers that everyone in their age
group uses ATOD .
4. Many young people find it more difficult to talk to parents and teachers once they
reach______________________ .
5. __________________, such as film stars or pop stars, may encourage teenagers to
try ATOD.
6. Teenagers are less likely to try a drug if they believe it could cause them long-term
__________________.
7. Explanations of the consequences of ATOD are not_____________ if they are too
dramatic and frightening.
8. Another factor that discourages ATOD use is the development of high
_____________________________ .
9. Some teenagers worry about___________________if they refuse to drink, smoke
or take drugs.

6.5. Listen and Discuss


CHILDHOOD MEMORIES
You will hear six people ҆s childhood memories. While listening, make notes on the
most important information. Then choose one of these and make a short outline of
how, in your opinion, the relations between this person and his \ her parents affected
his \ her personality and future, as if you were a psychologist. (Try to use as many
vocabulary items and idioms as you can, for example “Her father was too
demanding, pushing, harsh and partial, tending to beat her into the line, which might
have made her shy, reserved, unsociable and unsatisfied” etc. Then discuss your
ideas with your partner.

6.6. Read and Discuss

AT THE END OF THEIR TETHER


In the text below there are seven numbered gaps. Choose from the paragraphs A-H
(below) the one which fits each gap (1-7) in the text. There is one paragraph you do
not need to use.

In New York City, parents are usually arrested for trying to kill their children, not
for trying to save them. So when the police were tipped off that a couple in Bronx
were keeping their daughter chained to a radiator, they moved in, figuring that they
would be rescuing the girl and preventing the tragedy.
1.
None of this would be especially remarkable, except that, by the end of the week,
fewer people were praising the courts for saving the child than were defending the
natural rights of parents to lash their children to radiators.

2.

In spite of these good intentions, they wound up in a court room that has seen parents
who threw their children out windows, dipped them in boiling water, beat them with
electrical cords. The Marreros, who had never had any trouble with the law, were
accused of unlawful imprisonment and endangering the welfare of a child.

3.

As the story of their response to this danger unfolded in the tabloids, it forced other
parents to wonder whether, given the same choices, they might have not done the
same thing. Friends and neighbors were accustomed to seeing Linda in chains –
including, the girl claims, the police themselves.

4.

To hear her story, they may not have been far wrong. She dropped out of school in
sixth grade, after throwing a teacher down the stairs, and started selling crack at 13.
She was placed in a home for troubled girls, but fled after the first day. So her parents
sent her to live with her grandfather in Puerto Rico.

5.

Maria and Eliezer say they never wanted their daughter to be mixed up with a scene
where violence and intimidation were seen as the norm. They had petitioned the city
for help, had called the welfare agencies and urged the courts to intervene, but, as the
spokeswoman for the Child Welfare Administration said, nothing was done.

6.

The lack of support from the authorities left the parents to their own meager
resources. “They say what I did was cruelty”, said Maria. “But when I begged them
for help, they denied it to me. How can they say I was cruel?”

7.

After two nights in jail, Maria and Eliezer returned home as heroes.Linda,
meanwhile, had left the foster-care center and turned up in a local crack house. She
said she had not been doing drugs – she just went to see her friends, dance, listen to
music, as though this were a natural place for a teenage girl ҆s pajama party. “I ҆m
desperate now”, her father told the Daily News after he tracked her down. “I ҆m going
to the hardware store to buy another chain”.

A Last week, Linda seemed to have reached the same conclusion. “My
mother preferred seeng me here, chained, that dead in tan alley”, she said,
lending a whole new meaning to the notion that parents should set limits for
their children. She even said she would be willing to be chained again. “As
long as I am with them, I wouldn t҆ mind”.

B Maria and Eliezer Marrero were hauled off in hahdcuffs; bail was set at
$ 100 000, a sum fit for a murderer. And their daughter Linda, 15, landed in
a foster-care center in the nearby borough of Oueens.

C Linda and her brother told the reporters that she had caslled them in the
summer and that when officers came to investigate, they found her locked
up. Their response was to tell her mother, “Good job, just keep her away
from the phones”. “They told me I was the lost cause”, Linda recalls.

D “Children like Linda do sometimes fall through the cracks”, she


admitted. “We really haven ҆t faced it before, and I ҆d be hard-pressed to name
a specific program that specializes in the children. To do their job properly
would take a hige increase in funds.”

E In her statement to the police, Linda claimed that she had tried to kick
her drug habit, but that, as all her friends were involved, she couldn ҆t just
walk away from it. Her parents, she insisted, were more concerned for her to
return to education than support her intention to keep off drugs.

F There was an irony in that charge, since it was being leveled at parents
driven to despair as they watched their daughter seduced by the ghetto ҆s
most beguiling drug. “We are not criminals”, said Maria. “There was
nothing else to do”.

G Her exile, however, was short-lived, and, when she returned to New
York, she began staying out all night with a dangerous crowd. One time she
disappeared fro three weeks and was returned, bruised and beaten, by two
gun-toting drug dealers demanding money that they said she owed them.

H The Marreros ҆ parenring skills had been stretched to the limit. The had
tried everything to keep Linda in school, off drugs and out of the local crack
house. Whene all these failed, Elizer, a building superintendent, went down
to a local hardware store and bought a 4,5 meter chain.If the Marreros could
not drive drugs from their door, the could at least lock their daughter behind
it.
6.7. Answer the questions below as fully as possible in your own words.

1) What principally were the Marreros trying to protect their daughter from?
2) Why is the charge of “Endangering the welfare of a child” described as ironical?
3) What did Linda do while her parents were in jail?
4) What do you think will happen to Linda in the future? Why?

6.8. Discussion
What is your opinion on trying to save and improve teenagers like Linda? Is there any
use spending a great deal of money, nerves and efforts to save somebody who seems
to be “the lost cause” and appears to enjoy his \ way of life? Discuss it with the
group.

6.9. Conversation
Work in groups of four, taking the roles of Linda ҆s parents, a psychologist and a
specialist from a house for troubled girls Linda escaped from. You are to discuss
what can be done. The parents and the psychologist are sure that some solvation can
(and should) be found. Thespecialist from a house for troubled girls is less optimistic,
being sure that there are really “the lost causes” which are to be left to their own fate,
as such children are just naturally unable to live a normal life – they a sort of enjoy
the way of life they are having and, thus, are hopeless.

6.10. Read and Discuss

RAISING A DIFFICULT CHILD:KIDS WHO ARE “MORE” OF


EVERYTHING

Is your child stubborn, grumpy, sensitive, angry, wild or just plain difficult?Here are
some of the descriptions professionals use when describing a child who strains his or
her parents’ coping abilities:
-has a high activity level, gets into things all the time, behaves wildly;
-is distractible, impulsive;
- is intense, loud;
- is stubborn, disobedient;
-is highly sensitive, either emotionally or to sound, light or other sensory
input;doesn’t like new situations, people, food or clothes, or refuses to give things up
once used to them;
- is negative and complaining.
The way these traits show up in any particular child is different.Does she refuse to
take a bath or go to bed? Will he eat nothing but macaroni and cheese? Do the tags in
her shirts or the seams in her socks drive her crazy? Is he having a very hard time
sharing his belongings? Is he aggressive toward peers and perhaps toward you when
you say “No”? Can she focus on TV but not your directions? Is she non-stop
movement, or consumed by moodiness or always fearful?
Of cause, nobody wants to give their child a label. Nobody wants to hear that their
child is a “problem” child. Children with that label are often written off as
troublemakers and banished to the back of the class where they’re forgotten amongst
the shuffle. Yet, some kids do have trouble knowing when and how to behave, so it is
up to their parents to teach them. A “difficult” child is a child who doesn’t know
when certain behaviors are appropriate. Sometimes, they act out and cause trouble.
Sometimes, they get into fights with other kids or skip school entirely.
Here are some recommendations on what to do to improve the situation.
Make sure that it is not you who is the root of the problem. Use so-called
"Problem Parent" Questionnaire - a list of questions to determine if you are a
“problem parent,” cloning the “problem child.
Define the reason.Children normally don't act out just to act out. There are some
things to look for in a child who’s being difficult. Younger children can become very
upset over something large like the death of a family member or pet. Because the
child doesn't understand what's going on, they act out. Behavioral problems are
almost always a sign of some deeper problem. For example, children who suffer from
learning disorders like dyslexia or attention deficit disorder often end up acting out
because they feel overwhelmed with nobody to turn to. Or, your child may scream,
“You’re not the boss of me!,” but what he’s really telling you is “I’m not you,” and
it’s sometimes done in ways that leave you at a loss. So, always look to find the
underlying cause of behavioral problems in children.
Deal properly with your child ҆s behavioral problems.Explain how a child should
act and how they should not. Parenting a “problem child” can be difficult. Parents
need to know how to deal with the situation. Firstly, be aware that most children are
not bad and they just act out because they can’t understand or express what they’re
feeling. When a child acts out, it’s often best to ignore the behavior until it’s stopped.
Then, you have to address it calmly and rationally. Never let anger rule how you deal
with a child because it can do more damage. Reward positive behavior as well. That’s
the perfect way to teach kids what’s appropriate and what’s not.
Help kids express emotions. Communication with your child is vital in these
situations. You have to get through to them that what they are doing is not acceptable
but you also have to let them know that you are listening. Try and get them to open
up about what’s bothering them. Express that you know something is wrong and that
you love them and want to make it better. Do not raise your voice and let them know
that what they are doing is truly bothering you. Always reinforce, no matter what,
that you love your child.
Do not label your child.Labels have a lot of negative power. Variously referred to
by experts as difficult, sensitive, challenging, quirky or spirited, some children just
have atypical temperaments and can become much easier to manage when you learn
just how broad the range of “normal” is.One more destructive aspect of labeling is
thatmany negative labels seem to say that those qualities are forever immutable and
hopeless: loud, wild, nosy, stubborn, picky and so on. Focusing on your child’s
strengths is a much better approach.
Cooperate and work on the problem together.There are lots of support groups and
forums out there. Many parents have been through this before and understand what
you’re going through. They can offer help and great parenting tips for those who need
help. Even better, most of them are public forums so you can get all the help you
need right when you need it. One more important thing is to collaborate with school
psychologists and pediatricians and teachers. Certain kinds of kids – the overactive,
the very stubborn, the very persistent or the very picky – may drive one parent up the
wall but won’t be a problem elsewhere, including school.Some kids are constantly
struggling with their mother over any trifle thing, but may behave much better with
the father. The mother then may feel frustrated, confused, inadequate or guilty, and
parents start blaming each other, which is certainly not the way out. Rather than
placing blame on one parent, on a child, on a teacher and so on, everyone who is
concerned about the child’s behavior needs to work together to improve the situation.

6.11. Your Opinion and Discussion


1) Watch a video explaining how to deal with difficult behavior in children and list
up the key recommendations given. Add them to those given in the article above.
2) Make a research to sum up the key principles (rules) of bringing up and treating
children used by a traditional approach, which actually dominated till recent times
(the main points to cover are: parent-child relations; duties of a child in a family;
“standards” of a child ҆s everyday behavior; desirable personal features of a child;
recommended ways of dealing with “problem” children).
3) Form two groups to discuss the effectiveness of a nowadays ҆ approach to
handling childrenand a traditional one. The first group focuses on supporting a
nowadays ҆ approach, the second group are to give their points in the favor of a
traditional one.

6.12. Conversation
You are a psychologist talking to a parent concerned with problems the family is
having with a teenage child. The situation both at school and at home seems to be far
from perfect. Besides, it becomes clear that each member of the family has his / her
own idea of bringing up. As a result, the child is treated in all possible ways – from
constant indulgency to a “military-like” approach. Discuss the problem and give
recommendations.

6.13. Read and Discuss

SINGLE PARENTING

Today single parent families have become even more common than the so-called
"nuclear family" consisting of a mother, father and children. Today we see all sorts of
single parent families: headed by mothers, fathers, and even by a grandparent raising
their grandchildren.
Life in a single parent household — though common — can be quite stressful for the
adult and the children. The single parent may feel overwhelmed by the
responsibilities of juggling caring for the children, maintaining a job and keeping up
with the bills and household chores. And typically, the family's finances and
resources are drastically reduced following the parents' breakup.
Single parent families deal with many other pressures and potential problem areas
that other families may not face.
Stressors faced by single parent families
 Visitation and custody problems.
 The effects of continuing conflict between the parents.
 Less opportunity for parents and children to spend time together.
 Effects of the breakup on children's school performance and peer relations.
 Disruptions of extended family relationships.
 Problems caused by the parents' dating and entering new relationships.
The single parent can help family members face these difficulties by talking with
each other about their feelings and working together to tackle problems. Support from
friends, other family members and places of worship can help too. But if family
members are still overwhelmed and having problems, it may be time to consult an
expert or a licensed mental health professional.

Your Opinion

1) How common is it for children to come from single-parent


families in your country?
2) How are single parents viewed by your society?
3) How well do you think a single parent can bring up a child?
4) Do you think children from single-parent families suffer because
of it?
5) What problems do single parents face? How can they overcome
these problems?
6) Can single fathers be as good at parenting as single mothers?
7) How can absent fathers be made to face up to their
responsibilities? How much maintenance should they pay? Should
they be punished by law if they refuse?
8) The number of single mothers is increasing all over the world.
How can this be prevented? Better sex education? Tougher laws
for absent fathers? Suggest your idea on this.
9) Do you think the state should support single parents and give them
priority for receiving housing, etc.?
10) Do you think people should be able to have as many
children as they want?

6.14. Role Play

“WHAT`S YOUR PROBLEM?”


You can arrange your role play in the form of a TV show / TV program (the title of it
is up to you). The topic of the show / program is personal problems and problems in
family relations.

List of participants` roles:


Master of the show / program (a person who handles the program);
One or two family relations experts (psychologists)
Guests (ordinary people who have problems in their personal or family life)
Each of the guests will be sharing their problems to the audience. The task of the
experts and other guests is to give advice on how to solve the problem and, maybe
explain this person`s mistakes in his/ her behaviour and attitudes. They also can share
their own experience if they have ever had similar problems or situations.
Here are possible roles and situations for the participants and problems to discuss
(of course you can add what you wish to this list or change something!):
1. A parent (mum or dad) of a teenager. A boy/girl is getting bad grades at
school, teachers complain a lot; besides, his/her behaviour at home and
relations with parents/ grandparents are also getting worse. All efforts to
improve the situation don`t help.
2. A grandparent (grandpa or grandma) who has problems with a grandchild
(grandson or a granddaughter) he /she is looking after. (You can invent
yourself what exactly the problems are). The child`s parents seem to be too
busy at work to help.
3. A teenager (a boy or a girl) who is sure that he/she is grown-up enough to
make decisions, choose friends and way of life e.t.c. But it seems impossible
while living with parents and grandparents. The parents are trying to control
his/her each step and forbid to bring a girlfriend / boyfriend home because they
don`t like him /her. Grandparents are constantly telling what to do and care of
him / her too much.
4. A woman who is constantly feeling stressed. She is a single mum with three
children, so she has to work a great deal to support them, and she can`t relax
even after work because the children demand her care and attention. She starts
getting irritated, often shouts at them, which of cause makes the things still
worse.
5. A couple (husband and wife) who are constantlyquarrelling about nearly all
important aspects of family life: leading role in the family, how to plan family
budget, how to bring up children e.t.c. Actually they really love each other, but
the point is they were brought up in families with different values and
lookouts.
UNIT 7
CRIME AND PUNISHMENT
7.1.Active Vocabulary

Courts Legal procedure


trial court to file a complaint /a counter complaint
common pleas court to answer/challenge the complaint
municipal and county court to notify the defendant of the lawsuit
mayors' court to issue smb a summons
court of claims to issue a warrant of arrest (a search
court of appeals warrant)
the Federal Сourt to indict smb for felony
district court to bring lawsuit
the US Supreme Court to take legal actions
juvenile court to bring the case to court
to bring criminal prosecution
Cases to make an opening statement
lawsuit the prosecution
litigation the defence
dispute to examine a witness
a civil case direct examination
acriminal case cross-examination
a framed-up case to present evidence
direct evidence
Offences circumstantial evidence
felony relevant evidence
misdemeanor material evidence
murder incompetent evidence
manslaughter irrelevant evidence
homicide admissible evidence
rape inadmissible evidence
assault corroborative evidence
arson irrefutable evidence
robbery presumptive evidence
burglary documentary evidence
theft / larceny objection
kidnapping circumstances (aggravating, circumstantial,
embezzlement extenuating)
bribery to detain smb
forgery detention
fraud to go before the court
swindling to appear in the court
perjury
slander Penalties or sentences
blackmail bail
abuse of power to release smb on bail
disorderly conduct to give a verdict of guilty/not guilty
speeding a jail sentence
petty offence send smb to the penitentiary/jail
house-breaking to impose \ pass a sentence on smb
shoplifting to serve a sentence
mugging a penitentiary term = a term of
contempt of court imprisonment
subpoena life imprisonment
hard labour
Participants of the legal manual labour
procedure probation
parties to a lawsuit to be on probation
claimant/plaintiff (in a civil case) to place an offender on probation
defendant, offender (in a criminal to grant probation/parole
case) to release smb on parole
attorney for the plaintiff (in a civil to be eligible for parole
case)
prosecutor (in a criminal case); A court room
attorney for defence the judge's bench
jury the jury box
Grand jury the dock
to serve on a jury the witness’ stand / box
to swear the jury the public gallery
to convene
witness
alibi
a credible witness
a probation officer
bailiff

7.2. Vocabulary Practice


TYPES OF COURTS
Match each of the following types of court (1-9) with the explanation of what
happens there (a-i).

1. appellate court=court of appeals a. a court where a person under the age of


18 would be tried
2. crown court b. the court of primary jurisdiction,
where a case is heard for the first time
3. high court c. a court where small crimes are tried in
the UK
4. juvenile court d. a court where law students argue
hypothetical cases
5. lower court=court of first instance e. a court where a case is reviewed which
has already been heard in a lower court
6. magistrates ҆ court f. a court where cases involving limited
amount of money are heard
7. moot court g. a court where serious criminal cases
are heard by a judge and a jury in the UK
8. small-claims court h. a court where a group of specially
chosen people examine legal problems of
a particular type, such as employment
disputes
9. tribunal i. the highest court in a jurisdiction, the
court of last resort

7.3.Reading
Read the text and complete the spaces using the items below.
CRIMINAL COURT PROCEEDINGS
When the police have enough evidence to_____________(1) a suspect, they can
prosecute the case themselves if it is a_______________(2)and the suspect admits it.
Otherwise, they have to refer it to the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS), who will
decide if there is enough evidence to proceed with the case or, if there is not,
to________________(3).
Once a suspect has been formally charged, one of two things may happen. They
can be_______________(4), which means they can go home until they are called to
attend court, or they can be remanded in custody. In England and Wales, a person
is_______________(5) until proven guilty in a court, and cannot be kept in custody
before the trial unless there is a danger that they will_______________(6) – that is,
not return to court – or that they will commit other offences if granted bail.
At their first appearance, the suspect (now called the______________(7)) will
usually be asked to plead____________(8) or not guilty. If the plead guilty, then the
court will_____________(9). If not, then a date for trial will be set.
In a Crown Court trial, the prosecution lawyer presents the evidence against the
defendant. The defendant ҆s solicitor can challenge the evidence and present
a____________(10). A jury made up of 12 members of the public listens to all the
evidence and then discusses it in private before reaching a____________(11) of
guilty or not guilty. If they cannot agree, the judge can allow a______________(12),
if 10 out of the 12 jurors agree.
If the defendant is found not guilty, they are____________(13) and are free to
leave. If he or she is convicted, that is found guilty of the offence, they can
be______________(14) immediately, or called back to court for sentencing at a later
date.

majority verdict, defendant, acquitted, realized on bail, charge,pass sentence,


innocent, defence, sentenced, drop the charges, abscond, guilty, verdict, minor
offence

7.4. Listening
ROBBERY AT A COACH PARTY
You will hear a police officer questioning a crime witness. Listen and answer the
questions below.
1. What is the name of the witness?
2. What was stolen?
3. How many people took part in the robbery?
4. Where exactly did it happen?
5. Give the information on a robber:
a) age
b) appearance
6. Why couldn 't the robber take Rita 's bag at once?
7. Why did the driver let the robber go?
8. What did the police officer 's recommend to the tourists?

7.5. Conversation
You are a police officer questioning a person who was a witness or \ and a victim to
a crime \ an accident. Cover the following points: a) what exactly happened; b) what
the witness was doing at the crime scene; c) description of a criminal \
criminals.After finishing up questioning, explain the witness the key things about
criminal court proceedings as it is the first time he \ she has been involved into a
criminal case.

7.6. Listen and Discuss


CLOSE CIRCUIT TELEVISIONS
You will hear a radio programme about the use of closed circuit televisions (CCTVs).
Listen and choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for each of the items below.
1. The reporter thinks that
A a novelist's predictions are coming true
B her every move is being watched
C all public places should have CCTVs
D the authorities are watching people by means of hidden cameras
2. Norman Clark thinks that CCTV is
A effective in preventing crime
B effective in detecting crime
C ineffective in preventing and detecting crime
D less effective than is generally believed
3. Research done on CCTV use shows that
A the cameras watch people who are not criminals
B the resulting tapes are inadequately monitored
C very few arrests are made as a result of recording people
D professional criminals know how to avoid the cameras
4. The reporter thinks that the use of CCTV
A saves money for the police
B leads to blackmail
C provides useful evidence for use in trials
D should be controlled by law
5. In general, the reporter's attitude to CCTV is used is
A angry
B neutral
C concerned
D paranoid
7.7. Your Opinion
What is your personal experience with CCTVs? What are advantages and
disadvantages of using these? In what situations, in your opinion, can they be really
useful and helpful? In what situations are they of no use or might even do harm? Try
to support your point from your own experience or from the experience of some other
people you know.

7.8. Listen and Discuss


You will hear five people explaining what they think about crime prevention. For
questions 1-5, choose which of the opinions (A – F) each speaker expresses.

A. Police can't be expected to fight crime without support.


B. Some people have their priorities wrong when it comes to preventing crime.
C. Education can change people's chance of being the victim of crime.
D. Not everyone knows what difficulties the police face.
E. It's not really a serious problem.

Speaker 1 _____
Speaker 2 _____
Speaker 3 _____
Speaker 4 _____
Speaker 5 _____

7.9. Discussion
Divide into two groups to discuss effectiveness of the police work in your city \
region country on the whole (make a research previously if necessary; you can also
use your own experience or experience of some other people you know to be able to
give specific examples and support your opinion). Cover the following points: a)
crime prevention; b) technical facilities; crime investigation; police – members of the
public communication etc. The first group is to focus on negative points, the second
one is trying to explain the reasons and emphasize positive poins.

7.10.A Crime Report


7.10.1.You will hear a crime report. Listen and fill in the gaps in the article below.
7.10.2.Read the two pieces of Hugo Fenton story below and complete the story.
7.11. Make your own report on a crime trying to stick to the style represented in the
articles above.

7.12. Listening
WHITE-COLLAR CRIMES
You will hear DrPaulos, a professor in a law school, talking about so-called
white-collar crimes. Listen and answer the questions below.
1. What are the three reasons for an increasing number of white-collar crimes?
a.
b.
c.
2. Who is basically committing white-collar crimes nowadays?
3. What categories of individuals and institutions were affected most by Enron
scandal?
4. What are the most harmful categories of white-collar crimes?
5. What is especially dangerous about fraud with credit cards?
6. In what respect can banks be blamed for identity theft towards their clients?
7. What are phishing frauds? Name the two most common types of phishing
frauds.
a.
b.
8. In what cases do banks refuse to repay money loss?
9. What is bin raiding?

7.13. Project
Make a research on one of the most famous white-collar crimes committed by a
company (like, for example, Enron in the US or MMM in Russia) or an individual \ a
group of individuals and prepare a presentation. Cover the following points: a) How
it all started; b) What kind of crime was committed and how exactly it was done
(what was the “scheme”; c) How long was it going on and what were the results? d)
What categories of individuals \ institutions suffered most e) What was the outcome
of the trial (if there was any); f) Current situation (are the criminals still alive? Are
they still in prison or have been released? What are they doing at present time?)

7.14. Listening
You will hear a news report about a “criminal family” - mother and son. Fill in the
gaps in the text below with one or two words, or a short phrase.
The mother and son team were caught while attempting to carry out an act of (1)
________________ . The police found a passport belonging to a missing woman in
the suspects' (2) _______________ . They were also carrying a gun, several
suspicious documents and a large quantity of (3) _________________ in a stolen car.
The pair are thought to have (4) ______________ and possibly murdered several of
the people named in the documents. Police in Las Vegas suspect the mother and son
of having burnt down a house in order to make a false (5) _______________ claim.
Various police forces had (6) ______________the pair's movements, but had been
unable to catch them. The woman had spent time in prison after being (7)
_________of enslavement.
7.15. Conversation
You and your partner are police officers who are now discussing the problems in the
area of the city you are responsible for. The key points to discuss are: a) increasing
rate of both street and white-collar crimes; b) lack of technical devices and facilities
which could be really effective and useful in crime investigation (some of those you
possess are not always as useful as they were expected to be, and it is important to
understand why); unwillingness of people to collaborate with the police.
Analyze also which aspect of the police work has been successful and efficient
recently. Then try to work out the ways of solving problems and improving the
situation.

7.16. Listening
WILDLIFE DEALER IMPRISONED
You will hear a news report on Simon Chane, a wildlife dealer. Listen and say if the
information below is true (T), false (F) or not given (N).
1. Simon Chane spent two years in Brazilian prison.
2. He is being charged with 6 crimes.
3. Chane was sentenced to a 3000 000-pound fine.
4. He was smuggling wild animals from Brazil.
5. Chane used delivery boxes to transport animals.
6. Three years ago he was imprisoned in Brazil.
7. The British police was taking part in arresting Simon Chane.
8. The trial took place in the UK.
9. The Komodo dragon and the Madagascar tortoise cost 30 000 pounds
combined.
10.Money laundering results in 5 years of imprisonment plus 50 000- pound fine.

7.17. Role play


Step 1. Listen to the procedure of arresting and a suspect, and then a procedure of
taking fingerprints. Put down and memorize the key steps of each procedure.
Step 2. Play out the arrest, “booking-in” andtaking fingerprints of Simon Chane.
Step 3. Play out the trial, including examining the defendant and the witnesses, the
arguments given by both defence and prosecution and sentencing the defendant.

7.18. Fill the gaps in the table below. Suggest an appropriate punishment for
each crime.

Сrime Criminal Verb

assassination an assassin to assassinate


abduction
bigamy
child abuse
cybercrime
domestic violence
drunk driving
hit and run
libel
riot
smuggling
trafficking
treason
trespassing
voyeurism

7.19. Discuss the statements (1-9) made by the accused. Choose for each
statement a type of crime from the table below. What punishment should follow
for each crime according to the Criminal Code of Russian Federation?

blackmail burglary embezzlement bigamy forgery espionage


piracy murder bribery

1. “I arrived home late and found that I’d forgotten my keys. I didn’t want to wake
my wife up, and I saw there was a ladder in the garden of the house next door. I got
the ladder and climbed in. We've just moved to the house and I didn’t realize I was in
the wrong street”.
2. “I was walking my dog when I saw a gun lying on the ground. I picked it up - it
was still warm – and at that moment I saw the body lying in the long grass. I went
across to look and it was my business partner. That’s when the police arrived”.
3. “I opened the bank account in a false name as a way to help my employer pay less
tax- It’s perfectly legal. I kept meaning to tell him, but somehow I just forgot. I
bought the villa in France with my own money. It was an inheritance”.
4. “OK, so there are a hundred and twenty-three copies of ‘Four Weddings and a
Funeral’. That’s perfectly true, but I had no intention of selling them. I’m a collector.
“Well, this obviously isn’t my suitcase. I’ve never seen these things before in my
life”.
5. “I didn’t know she was still alive, I thought she’d died in a car accident. I couldn’t
believe it when I saw her walk into the room. Surely you don't think I did this just to
get your money?”
6. “You misunderstand me. When I offered him the money I meant it as a gift. I know
that life can be difficult for a young man on a police salary, especially if he has a
family, young children etcetera. It isn’t easy and I know that. I just wanted to help. I
didn’t expect him to do anything in return”.
7. “After leaving the office I realized I’d forgotten my umbrella. I went back in to get
it. When I went in I noticed that the photocopier was still turned on. It had been
working very badly all day, and I decided to quickly see what was wrong with it
before going home. I made a few test copies of documents that were in the office; I
didn’t even look at what I was copying. The machine seemed to be working much
better. I put the copies in my briefcase - intending to use the other side as notepaper. I
don’t believe in wasting paper. At that moment Mr Sanders came out of his office”.
8. “I painted them for pleasure. I had no intention of deceiving people. I never said
they were painted by other people. Yes, I did include the signatures of other artists
but that’s because I wanted them to be perfect copies”.
9. “Mr Wills sent me the money to help me in my business venture – I’m trying to
start a design agency. He sent me checks every month for $1200. A couple of times
he sent extra money when I had special expenses. It was always understood that he
would participate in the profits of the business when it was running. We didn’t write
anything down, it was an oral agreement. The photographs I have of him with his
secretary have no connection with these payments”.

7.20. Read and discuss.

TYPES OF PUNISHMENT

There are several kinds of punishment available to the courts. Crimes are
punished according to their seriousness. More serious crimes are given harsher
penalties. In declaring a sentence a judge may take into account the following: prior
criminal record, the age of the offender and other circumstances surrounding the
crime, including cooperation with law enforcement officers, the amount of loss to
victims, whether a weapon was used in the crime, the age or helplessness of the
victims.
Punishment may include:
–a fine
–term of imprisonment (time in jail or prison)
–probation or parole
–community service
For criminal offences FINES are often used when the offence is not a very
serious one and when the offender has not been in trouble before.
For more serious crimes the usual punishment is IMPRISONMENT. The length of
sentences varies from a few days to a lifetime. However, a life sentence may allow
the prisoner to be released after a suitably long period if a parole board agrees that his
detention no longer serves a purpose. In some countries, such as the Netherlands,
living conditions in prison are fairly good because it is believed that deprivation of
liberty is punishment in itself and should not be so harsh that it reduces the
possibility of the criminal re-educating and reforming himself. In other countries,
conditions are very bad. Perhaps because of an increase in crime or because of more
and longer sentences of imprisonment, some prison cells have to accommodate far
more people than they were built to hold. Britain and the United States are trying to
solve the shortage of space by allowing private companies to open prisons.
PROBATION is the suspension of jail time. An offender on probation is
ordered to follow certain conditions set forth by the court, often under the supervision
of a probation officer. Offenders are ordinarily required to refrain from subsequent
possession of firearms, and may be ordered to remain employed, live at a directed
place, obey the orders of the probation officer. Offenders on probation might be fitted
with an electronic tag (or monitor), which signals their whereabouts to officials. Also,
offenders have been ordered to submit to repeated alcohol/drug testing or to
participate in alcohol/drug or psychological treatment, or to perform community
service work.
PAROLE is the supervised release of prisoners before the completion of their
sentence in prison. They may be returned to prison if they violate the conditions of
their parole. Conditions of parole often include things such as obeying the law,
avoiding contact with the parolee’s victims, obtaining employment, and maintaining
required contacts with a parole officer. Parole should not be confused with probation,
as parole is serving the remainder of a sentence outside of prison, where probation is
given instead of a prison sentence and as such, tends to place more rigid obligations
upon the individual serving the term.
CORPORAL PUNISHMENT is a form of physical punishment that involves
the deliberate infliction of pain as retribution for an offence, or for the purpose of
disciplining or reforming a wrongdoer. This kind of punishment is still employed in
Malaysia, Singapore, Pakistan, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Courts may sentence
offenders to be caned or whipped. As well as corporal punishment, some Islamic
countries such as Saudi Arabia and Iran use other kinds of physical penalties such as
amputation or mutilation.
COMMUNITY SERVICE requires the offender to do a certain amount of
unpaid work usually for a social institution such as a hospital.
RESTRICTING FREEDOM in the form of house arrest as a new alternative
type of
punishment in the Russian Federation has now been adopted in connection with
coming into force of new provisions in the Criminal and Criminal Correctional
Codes.

PURPOSES OF PUNISHMENT

1. The purpose of punishment means that the sentence should be designed to


deter people from committing offences for fear of the consequences. These days,
more and more sentences are designed to ensure that the offender is made aware of
the harm he has done. Steps are also taken in appropriate cases to ensure that the
offender understands the full effect of the harm he has caused, and apologizes to the
victim for it.
2. The purpose means that the sentence should, wherever possible, take into
account the personal circumstances of the defendant and look to his future. A large
number of offenders need treatment rather than punishment. Many offenders who are
mentally ill, or who are addicted to alcohol or dangerous drugs, are not sent to prison,
but are ordered to receive treatment in hospitals or drug rehabilitation centers.
Punishment may be designed to reform and rehabilitate the wrongdoer so that they
will not commit the offenсe again. This kind of punishment should not be confused
with
deterrence, the goal here is to change the offender’s attitude to what they have done,
and make them come to accept that their behaviour was wrong.
3. The purpose means that the punishment should in some way pay the
offender back for the harm he has done. Firstly, this will give satisfaction to the
victim. Some would dearly like to get their own back in an act of vengeance. They
must not do this. A victim of crime must never “take the law into his own hands”. If
that were acceptable there would be even more violence and public disorder.
Secondly, it is the way in which the public as a whole can show their feelings of
disapproval for the crime and the offender who committed it.

CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

The death penalty by hanging for murder and some other crimes was first
suspended in 1965, and was completely abolished in 1969 in Great Britain. But
opinion polls consistently show that over half of the public is in favour of the death
penalty, especially for terrorist offences and the murder of policemen.
The general public seems to support harsh treatment of criminal offenders, and argues
that more sympathy and aid should be given to the victims of crimes. The UN has
declared itself in favour of abolition, Amnesty International actively campaigns for
abolition, and the issue is now the focus of great debate.
Supporters of capital punishment believe that death is a just punishment for
certain serious crimes. It deters people from committing such crimes. It must not be
abolished. Opponents argue that execution is cruel and uncivilized. The death penalty
can only be imposed for especially grave crimes against life and may not be imposed
against women, men under eighteen years of age.
The goal of punishment under the new Criminal Code in Russia is the re-
establishment of social justice, the rehabilitation of the convicted person, and the
prevention of the commission of new crimes (Art. 43 CC). The widely used Soviet
punishment of banishment was abolished toward the end of the perestroika period,
but the 1996 Criminal Code still includes the death penalty and other common forms
of punishment: fine, prohibition to engage in a profession, confiscation of property,
and deprivation of liberty among others. The death penalty can only be imposed for
especially grave crimes against life and may not be imposed against women, men
under eighteen years of age at the time of the commission of the offence, or men over
sixty years of age at the time of judgment (Art. 59 CC). Whereas fifteen years was
the maximum period of imprisonment under the old code, the 1996 Code introduces
life imprisonment as an alternative to the death penalty.

Reasons “for”
 It protects unarmed policemen, young children, civilized society;
 “Life sentence”: ten years of “good conduct” and then freedom to live on the
proceeds of crime;
 Suspension of capital punishment encourages crime;
 Violent criminals seem to be heroic figures, glorified in Mass Media;
 They expect and receive VIP treatment.
Reasons “against”
 Capital punishment doesn’t deter criminals from committing serious offences;
 This has been proved many times in the past: relaxation of harsh laws has
never led to increase in crime rate;
 It’s absurd: capital punishment has never protected anyone;
 Hanging, electric chairs are barbaric practices, unworthy of human beings;
 In most civilized countries capital punishment is either suspended or abolished.

Your opinion.

1) What do you think is the purpose of prison?


2) Do you think prison is a place for punishment, rehab, or both?
3) What is the attitude of your society to prison? Do you share this view?
4) Are there any alternatives to prison?
5) Consider the pros and cons of Home Detention Curfew scheme.
6) Do you think it’s right to let prisoners out on a scheme like this?
7) Do you support the idea of capital punishment? Give reasons.
UNIT 8
HEALTH AND MEDICINE

8.1. Active Vocabulary


Health problems Medical Care
fight off a cold healthcare
go down with flu national insurance
come down with a cold family doctor / GP (general practitioner)
have a bug/ a virus go private
take temperature
suffer from take blood pressure
die of/from listen to chest
diabetes examine a patient
bronchitis send to the hospital
heart disease give injections
skin cancer/breast cancer have a needle
chickenpox put a bandage on
mumps fit smb in for an operation
TB put a leg in plaster
prescribe total bed rest
AIDS/ HIV take medication
be HIV-positive sick note
cholera dosage
hepatitis donate blood
heart attack/failure blood transfusion
rash kidney transplantation
lump have physiotherapy
spots get contact lenses
have a filling
indigestion
manipulate spine and bones
diarrhea acupuncture
painful joints homeopathy
blisters aromatherapy
sunburn chiropractic
sore throat herbal medicine
my nose is bunged up be on the mend
my head is throbbing be back on one’s feet again
my arm hurts be over the worst
get over
my wrist aches fight off the disease
a sprained/ dislocated ankle recover from
rheumatism xenotransplants
I have a stiff neck suppress immune system
feel under the weather test-tube babies
be poorly in vitro fertilization
usual aches and pains surrogate mother
cuts and bruises embryo
feel dizzy midwife
feel out of sorts obstetrics
look off-color gynecology
nauseous feeling multiple birth
be feverish hormone therapy
tremble all over
allergic to smth
be pregnant
breastfeeding
be sensitive to pills
suffer from hemophilia
suffer from dehydration
stomach ulcer
blood clotting
blood pressure
side effects
asthma attack
gastro-intestinal hemorrhage
brain hemorrhage
vomiting
tarry stools
anorexia nervosa
bulimia nervosa
infertility
germs
rejection of donor organs

8.2. Vocabulary Practice

1. Complete the word formation table


verb noun adjective
pregnant
breastfeed
sensitive
clot
drug
dehydration
ulcer
effect
2. Paraphrase the following sentences using the Active vocabulary
1) I was feeling quite as if I had a high temperature
2) The drugs always gave her a feeling that she wanted to vomit
3) I felt as if my head was spinning and went and lay down for an hour
4) My nose was blocked so I got a spray from the chemist
5) I got a pain in my neck from driving a long time
6) She was shaking and looked unwell, so the doctor prescribed her to stay in bed

3.Here are pictures of things to do with health and medicine. Give definitions to each
of them. What causes these medical problems?

8.3. Read and Discuss.

THE ISSUES AND ETHICS OF ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION

What is Organ Transplantation?

An organ transplant is a surgical operation where a failing or damaged organ in


the human body is removed and replaced with a new one. An organ is a mass of
specialized cells and tissues that work together to perform a function in the body. The
heart is an example of an organ. It is made up of tissues and cells that all work
together to perform the function of pumping blood through the human body. Any part
of the body that performs a specialized function is an organ. Therefore eyes are
organs because their specialized function is to see, skin is an organ because its
function is to protect and regulate the body, and the liver is an organ that functions to
remove waste from the blood.
A graft is similar to a transplant. It is the process of removing tissue from one
part of a person’s body (or another person’s body) and surgically reimplanting it to
replace or compensate for damaged tissue. Grafting is different from transplantation
because it does not remove and replace an entire organ, but rather only a portion.

Not all organs are transplanted. The term “organ transplant” typically refers to
transplants of the solid organs: heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, pancreas and intestines.
Animal and artificial organs may also serve as transplantable organs. Other types of
transplants that are less invasive or may require specialized procedures, include:

• Skin transplants or grafts


• Corneal transplants (corneas are the outer layer of the eye)
• Bone marrow transplants
The Transplant Process

When a person falls ill because one of his or her organs is failing, or because
the organ has been damaged in an accident or by disease, the doctor first assesses
whether the person is medically eligible for a transplant. If so, the doctor then refers
the individual to a local transplant center. The transplant center evaluates the patient’s
health and mental status as well as the level of social support to see if the person is a
viable candidate for an organ transplant. If the patient is a transplant candidate a
donor organ must be found. There are two sources for donor organs. The first source
for organs removes them from recently deceased people. These organs are called
cadaveric organs. A person becomes a cadaveric organ donor by indicating that they
would like to be an organ donor when they die. This decision can be expressed either
on a driver’s license or in a health care directive. In Minnesota, designating your
organ donation desires on a driver’s license is legally binding.

In some states, when a person dies and he or she has not indicated organ
donation preferences, the family is asked if they would be willing to donate their
relatives’ organs. Some states’ hospitals have policies requiring family consent for
organ removal, regardless of whether organ donation wishes are written down.
Therefore, many organ donation advocacy organizations encourage people to discuss
their organ donation preferences with their families to assure that their wishes are
known and followed.

The second source for donor organs is a living person. Living donors are often
related to the patient, but that is not always the case. Spouses and 96 close friends
frequently donate organs to ailing loved ones. Some people who wish to donate their
organs may decide to donate to a stranger. A few not-for-profit organizations
maintain lists of willing living donors. For example, the National Marrow Donor
Program maintains a list of people willing to donate bone marrow to a stranger and
there are a variety of non-related living kidney donor organizations that maintain
regional lists of willing donors. Individuals who wish to donate one of their organs to
a stranger may also initiate a nondirected donation (NDD). Nondirected donors
approach either a transplant center or a nationally sponsored organ procurement
organization and offer one of their organs for transplant to anyone who may need it.
Distributing cadaveric organs. If a person does not have a readily available living
donor or is ineligible for a living donation because their predicted outcome is
questionable, they are placed into a waiting pool for an organ from a cadaver by their
transplant center. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) maintains the list
for the national waiting pool. When donor organs become available after a person
dies an organ procurement organization (OPO) takes the organs into custody. The
OPO then matches the donor organs with the appropriate transplant patients by
gathering information about the donor organs and entering it into a computer
program. The program takes this information and compares it to information about
the patients in the waiting pool. The computer then generates a ranked list of
transplant patients who can receive the donor organs. Information that factors into
this ranked list include:

• Organ type, blood type and organ size.


• Distance from the donor organ to the patient.
• Level of medical urgency (not considered for lung transplant candidates).
• Time on the waiting list.
After the generation of the ranked list, the donated organ is offered to the first
patient’s transplant center. However, the first person on the ranked list may not
receive the organ. Additional factors to be evaluated before the organ procurement
organization selects the appropriate candidate are:

• Is the patient available and willing to be transplanted immediately?

• Is the patient healthy enough to be transplanted?

Once the appropriate candidate is located, the organ procurement organization


takes the organ and delivers it to the transplant center where the transplant will be
performed. This entire process must occur very quickly as organs are only
transplantable for a short time period after they’ve been removed. When the
transplant patient is ready for the donor organ, the transplant center then surgically
removes and replaces the failed or failing organ through the following general
procedure:

1. Make an incision in the body near the failing organ.

2. Cut the arteries and veins that run to the organ.

3. Remove the organ through the incision.

4. Take the new organ and insert it into the body through the incision.

5. Connect the new organ to the arteries and veins.

6. Close the incision.

After the transplant, the patient embarks on a long road to recovery. If surgery
goes well, the patient still must face the possibility of rejection. Rejection is the
process where the body fights off the newly implanted organ. Rejection is harmful to
transplant success because the body fights off the new organ as it would a virus or
bacteria. In fact, the body’s immune system treats the organ as it would any other
harmful foreign invader. The immune system makes proteins called antibodies that
go to the transplanted organ and try to kill it. In order to hold back the antibodies that
threaten the new organ, transplant patients have to take powerful immunosuppressant
drugs to keep the level of antibodies down low enough for the organ to integrate into
the body and start working.

Organ Shortage: Ethical Questions

Transplantable organs are scarce. Knowing that there are more people who
need organs than there are organs available, how would you answer the following
questions? Are your answers based on a belief of equal access or maximum benefit
distribution?

1. Should someone who has received one organ transplant be given a second
transplant? Or should people who have not had a transplant be given priority over
those who have already had one? 2. Should people whose lifestyle choices (smoking,
drinking, drug use, obesity, etc.) damaged their organ be given a chance at an organ
transplant? 3. Should suicidal individuals be given an organ transplant? What if they
attempted suicide in the past but are not currently contemplating suicide? 4. Should
people who have young children be given an organ transplant over a single person?
Over an elderly person? Should age and whether or not a person has children even
matter? 5. Should people who can’t afford expensive anti-rejection drugs be passed
over for a transplant? Should people who don’t have insurance and can’t pay for a
transplant be allowed to go on the national waiting list? 6. Should condemned
prisoners receive organ transplants? What if they are serving a life sentence without
parole?

ANIMAL-TO-PEOPLE TRANSPLANTS

8.4. Your opinion.

1) What do you think of using animal organs for transplants?


2) Having read the article, do you think animal transplants seem too
risky?
3) Pigs are now being genetically manipulated to carry human genes.
Do you think this is ethical? Do animals have rights?
4) What social and ethical problems do you suppose animal
transplants raise?
8.5. Role-play the situation: You are on the board of doctors. There are three
patients waiting for a kidney transplant. Each one shares the same unusual
blood type – suitable human donors appear very rarely. One of the doctors
claims that he can save only one of these men with a trial animal transplant.
The consequences of the operation are not known. You have to decide:
 whether to agree to animal transplant
 which patient will undergo the operation

8.6. Listen and discuss

You will hear a story about a white mum who gave birth to black and white twin boys
after a test-tube bungle at a fertility clinic. After listening answer the questions:
1) What child is the biological child of Donna Fassano?
2) What did Donna originally plan to do with her black child?
3) What final test must Debbie and Robert take before receiving their
child?
4) Why did Donna feel she had a right to keep her black child?

8.7. Study the facts below and discuss:


1) What do you know about the problem of infertility and treatments
available?
2) What problems might arise from these treatment?
3) Do you think IVF is natural? Do you support the idea of test-tube
babies?
8.8. Act out the situation: Imagine you are the managers at a city hospital. You
have received the memo. Discuss it. Work in groups of four.

8.9. Read and discuss

Warm-up:
1) Can someone be too thin? What are some dangers associated with lack of
food?
2) What do you know about anorexia?

Skim read the article below and be ready to comment on the problem.
Your opinion

1) What causes anorexia?


2) Is it a physical or mental illness, or both?
3) Should parents bear the responsibility for the pressure to be thin?
4) Should eating disorders be treated against the will of the anorexics?
5) Is it possible to be completely cured of anorexia?
6) Menorexia: a strange tendency with growing scale. What are the reasons for
men becoming more interested in the way they look?

8.10. Debate the following issue: images in the media are to blame for the
growth in anorexia among teenagers.

8.11. Listen and speak

You will hear an interview with a Uele from the Congregational Church of Samoa,
who promotes the use of condoms to fight the deadly virus that causes AIDS. Listen
and answer the questions:
1) Why does the Uele support the use of condoms?
2) Does the church support him?
3) What does Dr. Rob Moodie think the church can do?
4) Papua New Guinea has the most HIV sufferers in the South Pacific – true or
false?
5) Why is important to talk more openly about sex in the fight against AIDS?

8.12. Group talk. Follow the instruction below.

8.13. Watch the video about the ethical concerns of EUTHANASIA in


different countries.

Consider the following aspects:


1) What attitude to this problem do the countries mentioned have?
2) What do you think of intentional mercy killing? Is euthanasia morally and
ethically abhorrent and should be viewed as a violation of God’s gift of life or
not?
3) Do you see the difference between passive euthanasia (generally associated
with allowing a person to die) and active euthanasia (generally associated with
killing a person)?
4) Is it a good idea to prolong life through the use of modern technological
advances, such as respirators and kidney machines?
5) What is a living will?
6) What is justified euthanasia? Under what circumstances does it occur in the
Netherlands?

UNIT 9
TOURISM

9.1. Active Vocabulary


On the road Tourism
a give-way sign escape the crowd
have the right of the way wander off the beaten track
sound/hoot/toot your horn get back to nature
jump a red light
a promising choice
reckless driving
drink-driving the country boasts smth
breathalyzer test hordes of people
on-the-spot fine tourism sector
tailback seek smth out of the ordinary
pile-up wealth of wildlife
towaway zone large tracts of the country
road rage
virgin rainforest
skid
head-on collision flora and fauna
air bags ecotourism
clamped wheels unwind
recharge
Travel and accommodation discerning traveler
scheduled flight taste of the bush
charter flight
4x4 vehicle
route via
fare type guided tours
Apex fare stunning locations
Budget fare unbeatable prices
Non-refundable rambles
pay a cancellation fee unrivalled programme
a stopover waterfront villas
all-in package
flight only awe-inspiring
extras heartland
go on a cruise backpacker
the holiday of a lifetime tranquil
book a berth dark tourism
a shared cabin macabre
a single cabin compelled
a double cabin morally wrong
upper deck
morbid fascination
get away from it all
in the middle of nowhere memorialisation
unlimited mileage
go as you please
self-catering accommodation
chalet
guest house
inn
bed-and-breakfast (B&B)
half board
full board
to rough it
to lounge around
to be out in the wilds
to sleep under the stars
be your own boss
keep on the move
just drift along
a cosy atmosphere
an exhilarating experience
trekking holiday
camping trip

9.2. Vocabulary Practice

1.What kind of holiday do you associate the pictures with? Would you like to go on
holidays like these?
2. Respond to the comments as in the example using the Active vocabulary instead of
the underlined expressions.

3. Fill the gaps in the sentences below

4. Express the sentences more briefly

5. Use the correct expressions in the sentences below.


6. Complete the collocations

7. Look at these extracts from travel and tourism ads and say what they mean

8. Fill the gaps using the words in brackets

9.3. Read and speak

Warm-up:
 What kind of holidays do you enjoy?
 When you visit a foreign country do you take interest in its culture?
 What sort of traveler are you?
Your opinion

1) Do you think the writer’s criticisms are fair or unfair?


2) What advantages does tourism bring?
3) What are the negative aspects of tourism?
4) Should certain sites be out of bounds to tourists?
5) Can we say that tourism in most cases equals vandalism?

9.4. Listening

Dark Tourism

Before you listen:


 What do you think Dark tourism mean?
 Have you ever visited any places where tragedies happened?
 Why do people go there? What do people get out of it?
 Have you been to this type of dark tourism spot or would you like to visit a site
like this?
 Do you see this kind of tourism as exploiting suffering?

After you listen:


 When did a catastrophic nuclear accident in Chernobyl happen?
 Is such dark tourist destination as Chernobyl Rob’s typical sightseeing trips?
 Why does it make him curious?
 Robben Island in South Africa is one dark tourism destination. It's where
Nelson Mandela was imprisoned for 18 years. In which year was it finally
closed as a prison?
a) 1991 b) 1996 c) 1999
 What is a morbid fascination?
 What are the plans towards the disaster site of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear
power plant in Japan?
 What does Doctor Phillip Stone, a director of the Institute for Dark Tourism
Research, say about this type of tourism?
 What about the ethics of dark tourism – is it wrong to make this trip? What is
your view on the question?

9.5. Maximize the information about the world's most popular dark
tourism destinations.

9.6. Group talk.


UNIT 10
The internet and society

10.1. Active Vocabulary

instant messaging hack into


chat rooms destroy files
newsgroups
anti-virus software
e-commerce
attachments update
browsing/surfing the Web e-mail address
sound files bounce
transmit graphic images garbled text
ISP (Internet Service Provider) delete
downloading inbox
uploading
install
spam
cookies online/offline
offensive material e-signature
bookmark e-learning
home page e-enable
access websites e-books
subscribe to dotcom
screen out
at-sign
server is down
proxy server to censor
carbon footprint digital content
to pry from Internet denier
research tool technologically literate/ illiterate
to be left abject and bereft sprawling society
to post blogs/blogger Internet bubble
energy-sapping component
bulging multimedia files to pitch the Internet in space
rationed threshold high-speed network
verbose comments bandwidth
to post away semantic web
to surf/cruise the net to digitize
net junkie celestial boundaries
digital jingle
online identity theft
pre-keypad world
public online persona online privacy
10.2. Vocabulary Practice
1.Some of these words exist in the language of Internet, others do not. Tick the
appropriate box.

2. Match the words on the left with their explanations.

3.Use the correct words to fill the gaps.

4. Explain what the words in bold mean.


10.3. Read and discuss

Warm-up:

 How often do you use the Internet? Are you addicted to it?
 What advantages does the Internet have over other media, such as TV,
magazines and newspapers?
 Could it be possible for you to survive for 100 hours with no access to the
Internet?
 Would it be possible for you to survive for 100 hours with no access to the
outside world except through the Internet?
Comprehension check:
1) How many volunteers were there?
2) How did they obtain what they needed?
3) How could people contact Emma?
4) What did she do to stop herself going mad?
5) In what way did the experiment affect Emma?
6) How did Helen Petrie describe the feelings of the volunteers?

10.4. Read and speak

What Will the Internet Look Like 40 Years in the Future?


Websites are old hat, everything is portable and we’ll be able to browse space. The
Guardian director of digital content imagines our online life in 2049.

By Emily Bell

Microsoft’s Bill Gates was an early “Internet denier” before the


company launched its Internet Explorer browser.
In 1995 I was part of a press party that was flown out to Microsoft, where a
rueful executive told us, “I’m in charge of the product that Bill Gates said
would never happen.” It was the launch of Microsoft’s first web browser,
Internet Explorer. Gates, the richest and most powerful chief executive in
the world — and a highly technologically literate one at that — had been an
“Internet denier” in terms of its transformative nature.
For me there were two memorable aspects of that trip; one was an
audience with Gates, with his customary homecut hair and stained shirt. He
told the press, “If you can imagine something that might happen
technologically, it will probably happen in the next 10 years; if you can’t
imagine 244 it, it might take a generation.” The other was an Internet
Explorer T-shirt, which I wore throughout an extended labour two years
later. At the time it was an apt metaphor for any kind of technical project
delivery.
Forecasting the future of the Internet is a horrible business, even in the
short term. Those who can do it most successfully are among the richest
people on the planet. Being asked what the Internet will look like in four
years’ time is a stretch. Being asked what it will look like in 40 years is
bewildering.
So many early predictions about the Internet and world wide web turned
out to be wrong. It was going to be a goldmine with limited use — in fact, it
has turned out to be almost the exact opposite: a sprawling society, rather
than a market, with unlimited use.
Every forecast about the future of the Internet has, more or less, turned
out either to be an outrageous underestimate or a hopeless overestimate.
The Internet “bubble” that burst in 2000 was concrete monetary proof of
this, as was the rise of Google as a service that would empower everybody
and imperil the world’s media industries.
Last year Google’s Vint Cerf, commonly dubbed the “father of the
Internet”, visited the Guardian. When asked what he thought the future of
the Internet would look like, he became very animated and started to talk
about building the Internet “out into space”. Under Gates’s rule, this pitches
the Internet in space as a 30-year project.
What is commonly acknowledged in circles who spend all their time
thinking about the Internet is that we are starting another wave of major
development — this time powered by a general growth in high-speed
network and bandwidth, and the proliferation of new devices that make
everything portable. That “everything” includes your identity, your
location, your ability to make and transmit and receive stuff instantaneously
from your friends, or the world. Tim Berners-Lee, the creator of the world
wide web, is engaged now in the “semantic web”, which will give us the
ability to find and link everything digitised far more easily and quickly.
Indeed, many think the concept of “websites” is already old hat, as we
move into a cloudy world of surreal capability.
If you have an iPhone or an Android, or any of the new generation of
“things that fit in a pocket”, which are set to replace mobile phones, then
you will know how this might start to change the Internet and how people
use it. “The technology is changing and people are staying the same,” a
wise developer suggested to me when I raised the prospect of the Internet at
80 not 40.
We might, however, be on the brink of an age where Internet technology
does indeed change many aspects of our lives: engagement in politics,
constructing and conducting relationships, culture, knowledge. The
dizzying prospect is that everyone is potentially part of the network, rather
than on the receiving end. And who knows, Cerf could be right. In 40 years,
the Internet might stretch across celestial boundaries. A case of ET Skype
home.
Your opinion
1) What has the Internet changed in our lives?
2) What is its future according to the article? Is it predictable?
3) How will the Internet develop over the next few years?

10.5. Listening
The Dark Side of the Internet
Listen to a radio programme with Michael K. Bergman, an American academic
and entrepreneur, one of the foremost authorities on this other Internet. Answer
the following questions:

1) What is freenet? Who stands behind it?


2) What is the dark web/the deep web? What does it conceal?
3) How do the inhabitants and rulers of the deep web take advantage of
average Internet users?
4) What are the dangers of the dark web?
5) How is your privacy in the net affected?
6) How big is the modern Internet? Can it be measured? Give details.

10.6. Read and speak

Don’t Take My Internet Away


As the web’s carbon footprint grows exponentially, would you be willing to sacrifice your posts for
the planet?
By Leo Hickman

Which “essential” of modern living — excluding real essentials such as clean


water, sanitation, hospitals, schools, ample food, warm clothing, etc — would you be
least willing to do without? The car? The dishwasher? The mobile phone? The cheap
flight? Face masks? Britain’s Got Talent?
There’s one thing I can think of that, as Charlton Heston once so eloquently
said of his shotgun, you would have to pry from my cold, dead hands — the Internet.
It’s not an exaggeration to say that I can’t now imagine life without it. It’s been a
constant presence throughout my working life and I do sometimes genuinely wonder
what being, say, a journalist must have been like without having a research tool as
powerful and immediate as the Internet by your side. Just imagine it: picking up a
telephone and actually ringing someone for information. Or going to the bother of
getting your coat and walking down to the local library.
I think many of us would be left abject and bereft if the Internet was somehow
taken from us. (In addition to, say, 40 hours of community service, perhaps some
criminals should also be stripped of the basic human right to cruise YouTube, post
blogs or send tweets? I know what would make me ponder over the impact of my
crimes more.)
So, we should have a genuine sense of dread and fear today that some Internet
bigwigs are being quoted as saying that a “perfect storm” is now threatening the very
future of the Internet. The problem, it seems, is that the Internet is so successful that,
like some kind of Malthusian vision of hell, it could soon implode in on itself, having
outstripped all available energy supplies.
“In an energy-constrained world, we cannot continue to grow the footprint of
the Internet … we need to rein in the energy consumption,” said Subodh Bapat, vice-
president at Sun Microsystems. “We need more data centres, we need more servers.
Each server burns more watts than the previous generation and each watt costs more.
If you compound all of these trends, you have the perfect storm.”
The carbon footprint of the Internet is growing exponentially. The report says
that the Internet is now “leapfrogging other sectors like the airline industry that are
more widely known for their negative environmental impact”.
One study by Rich Brown, an energy analyst at the Lawrence Berkeley
National Lab in California, commissioned by the US environmental protection
agency, suggested that US data centres used 61 bn kilowatt hours of energy in 2006
— 1.5 % of the entire electricity usage of the US.
Earlier this year, Google caused quite a stir when it revealed that the carbon
footprint of the average Google search was 0.2 grams of carbon dioxide. The amount
sounds trivial until you learn that more than 200 m Google searches are made every
day globally. Google is now even considering floating its energy-hungry data centres
out at sea so that it can use wave and tidal power to provide the electricity needed to
run the servers and sea water to help keep them cool. But can such innovations keep
up with growing demand? (YouTube is, apparently, one of the most energy-sapping
components of the Internet so God only knows what the carbon footprint of Susan
Boyle’s popular little turn is now that it’s reached the “100 million views”
landmark?)
Might we now have to ration our use of the Internet to ensure its very survival?
If so, what would be considering a fair share of the Internet? Thirty minutes of
browsing a day per person? Fifty megs of download a day? Just as we are being
asked to “do our bit” for the environment by flying less, using public transport more,
eating less meat and the like, might we now be asked to download fewer bulging
multimedia files? Or pay more for the privilege once we pass our rationed threshold?
Might Cif editors start deleting overly verbose comments to cut Comment is free‘s
electricity bill and, thus, lower its burgeoning environmental impact?
So, if you want the Internet — and humanity itself no less — to survive, you
can do your bit by not posting a comment below. If, however, you want to see the
flames of environmental fury tear across the surface of our planet, then post away.
But on your head be it.

Your opinion
1) Answer the question the author asks in the first paragraph.
2) Do you agree this kind of punishment would be effective: “perhaps some criminals
should also be stripped of the basic human right to cruise YouTube, post blogs or
send tweets”?
3) What is the footprint of the Internet? What is its impact on world energy
consumption?
4) Is the growing worldwide use of the Internet favouring the environment?
Why/why not? Give details.
5) What are the arguments for including Internet addiction in the manual of mental
disorders? What does it lead to?
6) What are the most striking statistics of Internet addiction consequences?
7) How does the Internet affect addicts’ lives?
8) What do you think makes the Internet so attractive to many?
9) What is your opinion of this statement: “Most of the subsequent debate we have
had about our online lives has asked whether we are too much in thrall to the great
invention of our age, whether we are becoming extensions of our keyboards, bloggers
not talkers, twitterers not thinkers”?
10) Define the words e-bandoned and e-solated.
11) What is the life of an Internet refusenik like? Are there any benefits?

10.7. Read the letter written to a newspaper advice column. Discuss with a
partner possible solutions for the problem.
Conversational Phrases

Reacting to news
Oh, really!
I didn`t know about it!
Never thought about it!
I can`t imagine! / I can`t believe it!
I`m really surprised / shocked.
It`s amazing / surprising / incredible / great / terrible! e.t.c.
Looks like that.
You must be joking / kidding!
You are pulling my leg!
Oh, not again!
No wonder.
Really? Glad to hear it.

Reacting to questions and requests


Honestly – I have no idea. Sorry.
Sorry. I`d be glad to, but…
Goodness knows.
Well, let me think…
Well, that`s a problem. But don`t worry, we`ll manage somehow.
Well, I can`t say just now / I don`t remember / I don`t know for sure. I`ll ask and tell
you.
Ah, it`s quite simple. No problem.
Don`t even think of it!
Don`t even ask me!
No way! It won`t go!

Telling a story
Well, I`d like to say some words about …
I`ll start with …
To begin with, …
First - how it all began / started/.
It all started not bad, but then…
And what do you think happened next?
Can you imagine? / Can you believe it?
I didn`t really know what to do.
So, as I already said / as I said before…
Anyway, …
I was really shocked / surprised / amazed / bored / disappointed e.t.c.
Well, it was the most exciting thing ever happened to me!
That`s how it was / That`s how it happened.
I must say I`ve never regretted it.
That was something!
So, what else to say here?

Giving opinions and advice


To begin with, …
First of all…
Besides…
What`s more…
I also think / believe that…
On one hand…
On the other hand…
For every plus there is a minus.
And don`t forget that…
As for me… / In my opinion… / To my mind…
If you ask me…
I see it like this: …
The point / the problem / the most interesting thing here is that…
I doubt if… / I doubt that…
And one more thing.
All in all…
I don`t deny that (…), but…
If I were you, I would / wouldn`t…
Look, why not try (…) ?
Why don`t you (…)?
You`d better (…)

Agreeing, approving
You are absolutely right.
Right you are!
Well, I agree. / I quite agree here.
Wow, that`s great! / That`s a great idea! / Good idea! I like it.
No doubt.
It goes without saying.
Certainly / naturally / Of cause / Sure / Exactly.
I would do the same.
Well, looks like this.

Disagreeing, criticizing
Do you really think so? I am not sure.
Do you really think / believe that…?
I wouldn`t say so.
Are you sure? I doubt it.
Are you crazy?
You are killing me!
Who told you that?
Why do you think so?
What a rubbish!
Nothing of that kind.
But it is just unfair / stupid / silly / terrible! e.t.c.
Well, I don`t deny that (…), but…
I don`t think you are right here.
I see nothing interesting / exciting in (…)
Look, what do you find in (…)
Well, say / think whatever you wish, but…
(That`s) easier said than done.
OK, do as you wish, but don`t say I didn`t warn you!
And you think it`s a good idea?
Why waste time on (…)?
Are you really going to (…)?
I don`t think it will go. / I don`t think it will work.
Don`t be stupid / silly!

Interrupting
Sorry for interrupting, but…
Excuse, I just wanted to add / ask something.
Can I add sоmething here?
Excuse me, just a moment. May I ask a question?

Asking for opinions, advice, help and information


So what do you think of it?
So what do you say?
Do you think it is worth trying?
Don`t you agree?
What would you advise?
Do you think it will go?
Do you think it will work?
Look, I seem to have a problem.
I want / need your advice.
Have you ever heard about (…)
Do you happen to know / remember (…)?
Have I got it right?

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