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CS 3001 ConcreteConcrete EngineeringEngineering ReinforcedReinforced ConcreteConcrete #2#2 1 Dr. Rabin Tuladhar March
CS 3001
ConcreteConcrete EngineeringEngineering
ReinforcedReinforced ConcreteConcrete #2#2
1
Dr. Rabin Tuladhar
March 14, 2011

(REVIEW) Cracking Moment M = M cr

l M
l
M
 

c

c

D
D
D
 
d n st
d
n
st
D   d n st
   

ct

strain profile

ct =f ct.f

st

stress profile

ct : tension strain in concrete

at cracking

f’ cf : concrete flexure tensile strength st : tension stress in steel

- When tensile stress of concrete reaches flexural tensile strength of concrete (f’ ct.f ), flexure cracks appear at extreme tension fibre

- Steel starts to take tensile stress

Cracking moment is given by:

), flexure cracks appear at extreme tension fibre - Steel starts to take tensile stress Cracking

2

(REVIEW) Ultimate Moment M = M u

crushing

l
l

cu = 0.003

d n =k u d d M st
d n =k u d
d
M
st

strain profile

f’ c st stress profile
f’ c
st
stress profile
C z T Forces
C
z
T
Forces

cu : maximum compressive strain in concrete = 0.003 f’ c : nominal compressive strength of concrete

- Compressive strain in extreme compression fibre in concrete reaches ultimate value (0.003) and concrete crushes in compression

- Moment at this stage is called as flexural ultimate moment (M u )

Strain compatibility condition (assuming that concrete is crushing)

0.003

=

st

=

cu

d

d

n d

n

d

n

3

(REVIEW) Ultimate Moment M = M u

Can be idealized as equivalent rectangular stress block

crushing

l M
l
M
f’ c cu = 0.003 d n =k u d d st st strain profile
f’ c
cu = 0.003
d n =k u d
d
st
st
strain profile
stress profile

Equivalent rectangular stress block

2 f’ c k u d z f s
2 f’ c
k u d
z
f s

The non-regular shaped stress block can be replaced by an equivalent rectangular stress block such that:

C

-The total volume of the “equivalent

stress block is equal that of the “true” stress block

T - the centroid of the “equivalent” and “true” stress blocks are located at the same height from the NA

4

(REVIEW) Modes of Failure

a) Tension failure – Under reinforced section

- reinforcement yields before concrete crushes ( st > sy )

- Concrete crushes cu = 0.003

- This is ductile failure mode b k d 2 u cu = 0.003 2
- This is ductile failure mode
b
k
d
2
u
cu = 0.003
2 f’ c
k d
k d
u
C
k d
u
u
D d
d
A st
f
T
sy

C

= T

'

f b k d

2

c

u

= A

st

f

sy

A f st sy k = u ' f b d 2 c
A
f
st
sy
k
=
u
'
f b d
2
c

st > sy

strain

stress

force

M = T z = A f (d k d 2) u st sy u
M
= T
z
=
A
f
(d
k
d 2)
u
st
sy
u

k

u d

2

5 (REVIEW) Modes of Failure b) Compression failure – Over reinforced section - Concrete crushes
5
(REVIEW) Modes of Failure
b) Compression failure – Over reinforced section
- Concrete crushes ( cu = 0.003)
- Reinforcement has not yield yet ( st < sy )
- This is brittle failure and should be avoided
b
k
d
2
u
cu = 0.003
2 f’ c
k d
C
k d
k d
u
u
u
d
d
k
d
2
u
A
st
st < f sy
T
D
st < sy
strain
force
stress
6
b) Compression failure – Over reinforced section ' Here, C = f b k d
b) Compression failure – Over reinforced section
'
Here,
C
=
f b k d
2
c
u
  1
k
And,
T = A
= A
E
since
<
=
E
u
=
E
st
sy
st
s
st
s
cu
st
st
st
st
s
k
u
Equilibrium of horizontal forces
C
=
T
'
f
b
k d
= E
A
2
c
u
st
st
s
 1
k
Solving this quadratic equation we can get
'
u
f
b
k d
= E
A
k u and we can find nominal flexural
2
c
u
st
s
cu
k
u
strength
Taking moment about the force C
Nominal moment capacity (M u ),
M
=
T
z
=
A
(d
k
d
2)
7
u
st
st
u
(REVIEW) Modes of Failure
c) Balance failure – Balanced section
-
Concrete and steel reach ultimate strain simultaneously
cu = 0.003
and st = sy
b
k
d
2
ub
cu = 0.003
2 f’ c
k
d
k
d
ub
C
ub
d
D
d
k
d
2
ub
A
st
f
T
sy
st = sy
strain
stress
force
From the strain profile
sy
0.003
cu
=
cu
k
=
=
=
0.545
d
k
d
k
d
ub
+
0.003
+
0.0025
ub
ub
8
cu
sy
At balance failure, Nominal moment capacity at balance section (M ub ), M = T
At balance failure,
Nominal moment capacity at balance section (M ub ),
M
= T
z
=
A
f
(d
0.5 0.545
d )
ub
st
sy
From force equilibrium,
C
= T
'
f b k
d
= A
f
c
2
ub
st
sy
'
f
f
sy
Reinforcement ratio ( b ) at balanced section is given by:
'
f c
A st
9
bd
f sy

A

st

=

A st = 2 c k ub bd

2

c

k

ub

A st = 2 c k ub bd

bd

b

=

=

b = = 2 k ub
b = = 2 k ub

2

k

ub

Example #3 Evaluate reinforcement ratio at balance point ( b ) for D500N steel assuming f c ’ = 40 MPa)

cu = 0.0030.0030.0030.003 k u d d st = sy
cu = 0.0030.0030.0030.003
k u d
d
st = sy

strain

10

Failure mode a) If < ( also k u < k ) Tension Failure (under
Failure mode
a) If
<
(
also k
u < k
)
Tension Failure (under reinforced section)
b
ub
b) If
>
(
also k
> k
)
Compression Failure (over reinforced section)
b
u
ub
Neutral axis depth ratio (k u )
b
b
k u d
k u d
d
d
D
D
A st
A st
a) k u = 0.15-0.3
b) k u = 0.45-0.55
ductile behaviour
brittle behaviour
• To achieve under-reinforced section, reinforcement ratio ( ) is kept in the
range between 0.01 – 0.02
• Corresponding range of k u is 0.15 – 0.3
11
• Sections with k u greater than 0.4 should be avoided
Modes of failure (M = M u ) c =0.003 Extreme compression fibre k ub
Modes of failure (M = M u )
c =0.003
Extreme
compression
fibre
k ub
Tension failure
st > f sy
d
Balanced
st = f sy
failure
compression failure
Centroid of
st < f sy
tension steel
st < sy
st = sy
st > sy
st > sy < b k u < k ub Under reinforced
st > sy
<
b
k u < k ub
Under reinforced

Tension failure

st < sy > b k u > k ub Over reinforced
st < sy
>
b
k u > k ub
Over reinforced

Compression failure

= reinforcement ratio = A st /bd

b = reinforcement ratio for balanced failure

K ub = neutral axis depth for balanced failure st = sy b k ub
K ub = neutral axis depth for
balanced failure
st = sy
b
k ub
Balanced failure
12

Modes of failure (M = M u )

Modes of failure (M = M u ) 13

13

Flexural deformation and curvature 1 Rotation per unit length, is called as curvature ( )
Flexural deformation and curvature
1
Rotation per unit length, is called as curvature ( )
=
=
x
R
Change in angle:
d
Hence,
(
+
)
0
st
0
=
=
=
For small deflections, the curvature equals the slope of the average strain diagram
14

= (

= ( 0 x + st x )

0

x

+

st

= ( 0 x + st x )

x

)

x

d

d

n

Ductility - Ductility allows large deformations to occur under overload conditions before eventual failure -
Ductility
- Ductility allows large deformations to occur under overload conditions
before eventual failure
- Ductile members give warning of the impending failure
- Under reinforced beams are more ductile
u
=
Ductility:
y
where,
u : curvature at the ultimate
failure moment Mu
y : curvature at the yield moment
My
cu
=
u d
n
Moment-Curvature plot for an under reinforced beam
15

Flexural Strength of RC Beams

When evaluating (assessing) strength of a given beam

b d D Ast
b
d
D
Ast

Known sectional

properties

FIND

beam b d D Ast Known sectional properties F I N D Flexural Strength = ?

Flexural Strength = ?

- Assume the type of the failure mode

- And then check if the assumption is correct

- Find the flexural strength

When designing a new section for the required strength

Required

Strength

b=? Design D=? d = ? Ast= ?
b=?
Design
D=?
d = ?
Ast= ?

- Design a section such that it guarantee tensile failure at ultimate limit state

16

Evaluation of Nominal Flexural Strength

Example #4: Evaluate nominal moment and design moment capacity of the beam shown below. fc’
Example #4: Evaluate nominal moment and design moment capacity
of the beam shown below. fc’ = 32 MPa. fsy = 500 MPa, =0.8
k
d
2
250mm
u
cu = 0.003
0.85f’c
k d
k d
u
C
u
450mm
400mm
d
k
2
u d
3D24
T
st

st

strain

stress

17