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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Chapter 9
Bistable Multivibrators

1. Design a fixed-bias bistable multivibrator using Ge transistors having h FE(min) = 50,


V CC = 10 V and V BB = 10 V, V CE(sat) = 0.1 V, V BE(sat) = 0.3 V, I C(sat) = 5 mA and
assume I B(sat) = 1.5I B(min) .

Solution:
VCC  VCE (sat) 10  0.1 V 9.9 V
RC   
IC 2 5 mA 5 mA
 1.98 kΩ
V  (VBB )
R2  
I2
1
Choose I 2  IC 2
10
 0.5 mA
0.3  10 10.3 V
 R2   =20.6 kΩ
0.5 0.5 mA
I 5 mA
I B 2 min  C2  =0.1 mA
hFE min 50
If Q 2 is in saturation
I B 2  1.5 I B 2 min
= 0.15 mA
I1  I 2  I B 2
= 0.5 mA+0.15 mA  0.65 mA
V  V 10  0.3 9.7 V
RC  R1  CC    14.92 kΩ
I1 0.65 mA 0.65 mA
R1  ( RC  R1 )  RC
14.92  1.98  12.94 kΩ .

2. For a fixed-bias bistable multivibrator shown in Fig. 9p.2 using n–p–n Ge transistor
V CC = 10 V, R C = 1 kΩ, R 1 = 10 kΩ, R 2 = 20 kΩ, h FE(min) = 40, V BB = 10 V. Calculate:
(a) Stable-state currents and voltages assuming Q 1 is OFF and Q 2 is ON and in
saturation. Verify whether Q 1 is OFF and Q 2 is ON or not. (b) the maximum load
current.

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig. 9p.2 The fixed-bias bistable multivibrator

Solution:
Assume V CE(sat) = 0.1 V, V BE(sat) = 0.3 V

Calculate V B1 to verify whether Q 1 is OFF or not.


R2 R1 0.1  20 (10)10
VB1  VCE (sat)  (VBB )  
R1  R2 R1  R2 10  20 10  20
 0.066  3.333  3.267 V
Hence Q 1 is OFF
VC1  VCC  10 V
To verify whether Q 2 is in saturation or not:
Calculate I B2 , I C2
To calculate I B2 .
Consider the cross-coupling circuit shown in Fig.2.1.

Fig. 2.1 Circuit to calculate the base current of Q 2

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

VCC  V 10  0.3 9.7 V


I1    =0.88 mA
RC  R1 1  10 11 kΩ
V  VBB 0.3  10 10.3
I2     0.515 mA
R2 20 20
I B 2  0.88  0.51
 0.37 mA
To calculate I C2
Consider the cross-coupling network shown in Fig. 2.2.

Fig. 2.2 Circuit to calculate the collector current of Q 2

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

VCC  VCE (sat)


I3 
RC
10  0.1
  9.9 mA
1K
VCE (sat)  VBB
I4 
R1  R2
10.1
 =0.336 mA
30 K
IC 2  I3  I 4
 9.9  0.34  9.56 mA
IC 2 9.56 mA
I B 2min   =0.24 mA
hFE min 40
I B 2  I B 2min
Hence Q 2 is verified to be in saturation.
VC 2  0.1 V, VB 2  0.3 V .
V C1 = V CC – I 1 R C
= 10 – (0.88)1
= 9.12 V
Hence the stable-state currents and voltages are as follows:
V C1 = 9.12 V, V B1 = –3.267 V
V C2 = 0.1 V I B2 = 0.37 mA, I C2 = 9.56 mA

To find the maximum load current or minimum load resistance, consider Fig.2.3.

Fig. 2.3 Circuit to calculate maximum load current

I L is maximum (I L(max) ) when I B2 is I B2(min)

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

I B2(min) = 0.2 mA
I 2 = 0.51 mA
I 1(min) = I 2 +I B2(min)
=0.51+0.24
=0.75 mA
V C1(min) = I 1(min) R 1 +V σ
 0.75  10  0.3
 7.8 V
VCC  VC1(min) 12  7.8
I   4.2 mA
RC 1
I Lmax =I – I 1(min) = 4.2 mA – 0.75 mA
=3.45 mA
7.8 V
RL (min) =  2.26 kΩ.
3.45 mA

3. Design a self-bias bistable multivibrator shown in Fig.9p.2 with a supply voltage of –


12 V. A p-n-p silicon transistors with h FE(min) = 50, V CE(sat) = –0.3 V, V BE(sat) = –0.7 V
and I C2 = –4 mA are used.

Fig. 9p.2 Self-bias bistable multivibrator

Solution:
1 1
Assume V EN = VCC   12  4 V
3 3
I C2 = –4 mA

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

4 mA
I B2(min) =  0.08 mA
50

Choose I B2 = 1.5I B2(min) = –0.12 mA


(I C2 +I B2 ) = –4 – 0.12 = –6.12 mA

VEN 2 4 V
RE    0.97 kΩ
I C 2  I B 2 4.12 mA

VCC  VCE (sat)  VEN 2


RC 
IC
12  0.3  4 7.7 V
   1.925 k
4 mA 4 mA
1 1
Let I 2  I C 2   4 mA  0.4 mA
10 10
VBN 2  VEN 2  V  4  0.7  4.7 V
VBN 2 4.7 V
R2    11.75 kΩ
I2 0.4 mA
Choose R 2 = 12 k 
Find I 2 for this R 2
V 4.7 V
I 2  BN 2   0.392 mA
R2 12.0 K
VCC  VBN 2
RC  R1 
I2  I B2
12  4.7 7.3 V
   14.26 kΩ
0.392  0.12 0.512 mA

( RC  R1 ) = 14.26 kΩ
R 1 = ( RC  R1 )  RC  14.26  1.925  12.33 kΩ
Choose R 1 =12 k 
Note: Choose the nearest standard values.

4. A self-bias bistable multivibrator uses Si transistors having h FE(min) = 50. V CC = 18 V,


R 1 = R 2 , I C(sat) = 5 mA. Fix the component values R E , R C , R 1 and R 2.
Solution:
1 1
Assume V EN = VCC   18  6 V
3 3
and I C(sat) = 5 mA

5 mA
I B2(min) =  0.1 mA
50
Choose I B2 = 1.5I B2(min) =0.15 mA

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

(I C2 +I B2 ) = 5 + 0.15 = 5.15 mA
VEN 2 6V
RE    1.16 kΩ
I C 2  I B 2 5.15 mA
VCC  VCE (sat)  VEN 2
RC 
IC
18  0.3  6 11.7 V
   2.34 kΩ
5 mA 5 mA
VBN 2  VEN 2  V  6  0.7  6.7 V
V  VBN 2
RC  R1  CC
I 2  I B2
V  VBN 2 R (V  VBN 2 )
RC  R1  CC  1 CC
VBN 2 VBN 2  R1 I B 2
 I B2
R2
R (18  6.7) 11.3R1
2.34  R1  1 
6.7  0.15 R1 6.7  0.15 R1
0.15 R12  4.25 R1  15.67  0
(4.25) 2  4  0.15  15.67
R1  4.25 
2  0.15
R1  R2  14 kΩ .

5. For a Schmitt trigger in Fig. 9p.4 using n–p–n silicon transistors having h FE(min) = 40,
the following are the circuit parameters: V CC = 15 V, R S = 0, R C1 = 4 kΩ, R C2 = 1 kΩ,
R 1 = 3 kΩ, R 2 = 10 kΩ and R E = 6 kΩ. Calculate V 1 and V 2 .

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig. 9p.4 The Schmitt trigger circuit


Solution:
From the given data, if Q 2 is in the active region, typically, V BE2 = 0.6 V and let h FE = 40.
To calculate V 1 :
R E (1+h FE ) = 6(1+40) =246 kΩ
R '  R2 / /( RC1  R1 )  10 k / /(4 k +3 k)  4.11 k
R2 10
V '  VCC   15   8.82 V
( RC1  R1  R2 ) 4  3  10
R (1  hFE )
V EN 2  (V '  V BE 2 ) ' E
R  R E (1  hFE )

246
VEN 2  (8.82  0.6)   8.08 V
4.11  246
V1  VEN 2  V 1  8.08  0.5  8.58 V

To calculate V 2 :
R2 10
   0.769
R1  R2 3  10
R C 1 ( R1  R 2 )
Rt 
R C 1  R1  R 2
4 (3  1 0 )
Rt   3 .0 5 k Ω
4  3  10

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

 Rt  0.769  3.05  2.35 kΩ


1 41  6
RE"  (1  ) RE   6.15 kΩ
hFE 40
R2 10
Vt  V '  VCC   15   8.82 V
( RC1  R1  R2 ) 4  3  10
(V '  V 2 ) (8.82  0.5)
I C1    0.978 mA
 Rt  R "
E 2.35  6.15
V2  VBE1  I C1 RE"
V2  0.6 V  (0.978 mA)(6.15 kΩ)
 0.6 V  6.01 V  6.61 V
Hence for the given Schmitt trigger
V 1 = 8.58 V
V 2 = 6.61 V

6. The self-bias transistor bistable multivibrator shown in Fig. 9p.3 uses n–p–n Si
transistors. Given that V CC = 15 V, V CE(sat) = 0.2 V, V σ = 0.7 V,
R C = 3 k  ,R 1 = 20 k  ,R 2 = 10 k  ,R E = 500 Ω. Find:

(i) Stable-state currents and voltages and the h FE needed to keep the ON device in
saturation.
(ii) f (max) , if C 1 = 100 pF.
(iii) The maximum value of I CBO that will still ensure one device is OFF and the other is
ON.
(iv)The maximum temperature up to which the multivibrator can work normally if I CBO at
25°C = 20 µA.

Fig. 9p.3 The given self-bias bistable multivibrator

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Solution:
(i) To calculate I B2 , consider the base circuit of Q 2, Fig. 6.1.

Fig.6.1. Circuit to calculate V thb and R thb of Q 2 .

From Fig. 6.1,


R2 15  10 150
Vthb  VCC  =  = 4.54
RC  R1  R2 3  20  10 33
V
10  (3  20) 230
Rthb  R2 ( RC  R1 ) =  =6.96 k
3  20  10 33

(ii) To calculate I C2 , consider the collector circuit of Q 2 , Fig. 6.2.


.

Fig. 6.2. Circuit to calculate V thc and R thc of Q 2

R1  R2 15  (20  10) 450


Vthc  VCC  =  =13.6 V
RC  R1  R2 3  20  10 33
3  30 90
Rthc  RC (R1  R2 ) =  =2.72 k
33 33

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Now let us draw the base and collector circuits of Q 2 , Fig. 6.3.

Fig. 6.3. Circuit to calculate I B2 and I C2

Writing the KVL equations of the input and output loops


4.54 – 0.7= (6.96+0.5) I B2 + 0.5I C2 (1)
13.6 – 0.2 = 0.5I B2 + (2.72+0.5) I C2 (2)
Eqs. (1) and (2) are simplified as
3.84 = 7.46I B2 + 0.5I C2 (3)
13.4 = 0.5I B2 + 3.22I C2 (4)
Solving Eqs. (3) and (4) for I B2 and I C2 we get
I B2 = 0.263 mA
I C2 = 3.75 mA
3.75
h FE = = 14.25
0.263
The h FE that keeps the ON device in saturation is 14.25.

V EN2 = ( I B2 + I C2 )R E = (0.263+3.75)0.5 = 2 V
V CN2 = V EN2 + V CE(sat) = 2 + 0.2 = 2.2 V
V BN2 = V EN2 + V = 2 + 0.7 = 2.7 V.
R2 2.2  10 22
V BN1 = VCN 2    =0.733 V
R1  R2 20  10 30
V BE1 =V BN1 – V EN2 = 0.733 – 2 = –1.26 V
Hence Q 1 is OFF
 V CN1 should be V CC. But actually it is less than V CC .

VCC  V BN 2 15  2.7
I1= =  0.534 mA.
RC  R1 3  20
V CN1 = V CC – I 1 R C = 15 – (0.534)(3) =13.4 V.

R1  R2 (20  10)103
f max    750 kHz
2 R1 R2 C1 2  20  103  10  103  100  1012

(iii) V BE1 was calculated as –1.26 V. This voltage exists at the base of Q 1 to keep Q 1
OFF. Till such time the voltage at B 1 of Q 1 is 0 V, let us assume that Q 1 is OFF, Fig.
6.4.To calculate R B and hence I CBO R B , short V EN (though I E1 = 0, there exists a

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

voltage V EN at the first emitter) and V CE(sat) sources. From Fig. 6.4, it is seen that R B is
the parallel combination of R 2 and (R 1 +R E ).

Fig. 6.4. Circuit to calculate I CBO R B

10  20.5
RB  R2 ( R1  RE )   6.72 kΩ
10  20.5
Until I CBo(max) R B = V BE1, Q 1 will be OFF.

1.26 V
 I CBo(max) =  0.187 mA  187  A
6.72 kΩ

(iv) I CBo at 25°C = 20 µA

I CBo (max) 187


  9.35
I CB 0 20
9.35 = 2n

log 9.35 0.97


n=   3.23
log 2 0.3
T
n
10
T2  25
 3.23
10
T2  25  32.3  57.3C

7. (a) Design a Schmitt trigger shown in Fig. 9p.4 with UTP of 8 V and LTP of 4 V. Si
transistors with h FE = 40 and I C = 5 mA are used. The supply voltage is 18 V. The
ON transistor is in the active region for which V BE = 0.6 V, V CE = 2.0 V. (b) Calculate
R e1 for eliminating hysteresis.

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig. 9p.4 The Schmitt trigger circuit


Solution:
Till UTP is reached Q 1 is OFF and Q 2 is ON and in active region. Just at V 1 (UTP) Q 1
goes ON and Q 2 goes OFF. Just prior to this, Q 2 is ON and Q 1 is OFF, Fig. 7.1.

Fig. 7.1 Circuit when Q 1 is OFF and Q 2 is ON

V 1 = UTP = V BN2 = 8 V
I E = I C2 = 5 mA
V EN = V EN2 = V BN2 – V BE2
V EN2 = 8 – 0.6 = 7.4 V.
V 7.4
RE  EN 2 
IE 5 mA

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

= 1.48 kΩ
Choose R E = 1.5 k 
If Q 2 is in the active region and V CE = 2 V
I C2 R C2 = V CC – V CE – V EN2

18  2.0  7.4 8.6 V


 RC 2    1.72 kΩ
5 5 mA
Choose R C2 = 1.75 k 
1
I2  I C 2  0.5 mA
10
V 8V
R2  BN 2  =16 kΩ
I2 0.5 mA
I C 2 5 mA
I B 2 min    0.125 mA
hFE 40
I B 2  1.5  I B 2 min  1.5  0.125  0.1875 mA
I B 2  I 2  0.1875 mA+0.5 mA  0.6875 mA
VCC  VBN 2 18  8 10
( RC1  R1 )     14.55 kΩ
( I B 2  I 2 ) 0.6875 0.6875
R1  14.55 kΩ  RC1

At LTP = 4 V, consider the Fig. 7.2.

Fig. 7.2 Circuit at LTP

V BN2 = V BN1 = 4 V = LTP = V 2


Let I 1 be the current in R 2
VBN 2 4V
I1    0.25 mA
R2 16 kΩ
V2  VBE1 4  0.6
I C 1  I E1  
RE 1.5 kΩ

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

I C1 = 2.27 mA
Writing the KVL equation of the outer loop consisting of R C1 , R 2 and R 1 ,

V CC = (I C1 +I 1 )R C1 +I 1 (R 1 +R 2 ) = (I C1 +I 1 )R C1 +I 1 (14.55 k  – R C1 +R 2 )
V CC = I C1 R C1 +I 1 (14.55 k  +R 2 )
V  I (14.55  R2 )
RC1  CC 1
I C1
18  0.25(14.55  16) 10.36
   4.56 kΩ
2.27 2.27
R C1 = 4.56 k 
R 1 = (R C1 – R 1 ) – R C1 =14.55 – 4.56 = 9.99 k 

Choose R 1 = 10 k  and R C1 = 4.5 k  .


The designed Schmitt trigger circuit is shown in Fig. 7.3 with component values.

Fig. 7.3 Designed Schmitt trigger

(b) To eliminate hysteresis R e1 is added in series with the emitter of Q 1, Fig. 7.4, such that
V 1 – V 2 = V H = (I C1 +I B1 )R e1
4V
R e1 =  1.76 k 
2.27 mA

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig. 7.4 R e1 connected to eliminate hysteresis

8. (i) Design a Schmitt trigger in Fig.9p.5 with UTP of 8 V and LTP of 4 V. Si transistors
with h FE = 40 and I C = 4 mA are used. The supply voltage is 12 V. The ON transistor
is in saturation for which V BE = 0.7 V, V CE(sat) = 0.2 V. (ii) Calculate R e1 for
eliminating hysteresis. (iii) Find R e2 to eliminate hysteresis.

Fig. 9p.5 The given Schmitt trigger circuit


Solution:
(i) Till UTP is reached, Q 1 is OFF and Q 2 is ON and in saturation region. Just at
V 1 (UTP) Q 1 goes ON and Q 2 goes OFF. Just prior to this, Q 2 is ON and Q 1 is OFF,
Fig. 8.1.

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig. 8.1 Circuit when Q 1 is OFF and Q 2 is ON


V 1 = UTP = V BN2 = 8 V
I E = I C2 = 4 mA
V EN = V EN2 = V BN2 – V BE2
V EN2 = 8 – 0.7 = 7.3 V.
V 7.3
RE  EN 2   1.825 kΩ
IE 4 mA
If Q 2 is in the saturation region and V CE = 0.2 V
I C2 R C2 = V CC – V CE – V EN2
12  0.2  7.3 4.5 V
 RC 2    1.125 kΩ
4 4 mA
1
I 2  I C 2  0.4 mA
10
V 8V
R2  BN 2  =20 kΩ
I2 0.4 mA
I 4 mA
I B 2 min  C 2   0.1 mA
hFE 40
I B 2  1.5  I B 2 min  1.5  0.1  0.15 mA
I B 2  I 2  0.15 mA  0.4 mA  0.55 mA
VCC  VBN 2 12  8 4
( RC1  R1 )     7.27 kΩ
(I B2  I2 ) 0.55 0.55
R1  7.27 kΩ  RC1
At LTP = 4 V, consider Fig. 8.2.

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Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig. 8.2 Circuit at LTP

V BN2 = V BN1 = 4V = LTP = V 2


Let I 1 be the current in R 2
VBN 2 4V
I1  = =0.2 mA
R2 20 kΩ
V2  VBE1 4  0.7
I C1  I E1    1.8 mA
RE 1.825 kΩ
Writing the KVL equation of the outer loop consisting of R C1 , R 2 and R 1 ,
V CC = (I C1 +I 1 )R C1 +I 1 (R 1 +R 2 )
V CC = (I C1 +I 1 )R C1 +I 1 (7.27 – R C1 +R 2 )
V CC = I C1 R C1 +I 1 (7.27+R 2 )
V  I 1 (7.27  R2 )
RC1  CC
I C1
12  0.2(7.27  20) 10.36
RC1    3.6 kΩ
1.8 2.27
R 1 =(R C1 – R 1 ) – R C1
R 1 = 7.27 – 3.6 = 3.67 k 
(ii) To eliminate hysteresis R e1 is added in series with the emitter of Q 1 , Fig. 8.3, such
that
V 1 – V 2 = V H = (I C1 +I B1 )R e1
4V
R e1 = =2.22 kΩ
1.8 mA

© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 2010 18


Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

Fig. 8.3 R e1 connected to eliminate hysteresis


(iii) To eliminate hysteresis R e2 is added in series with the emitter of Q 2, Fig. 8.4, such
that

Fig. 8.4 R e2 connected to eliminate hysteresis

VCC R2 12  20
V'    8.8 V
RC1  R1  R2 3.6  3.67  20

20  7.27
R ' =R 2 //(R C1 +R 1 ) =  5.33 kΩ
27.27
We know,
(1  hFE ) RE
V2  (V '  VBE 2 )   V
R '(1  hFE )( Re 2  RE )
41  1.825
4  (8.8  0.7)   0.5
5.33  (41)( Re 2  1.825)

© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 2010 19


Pulse and Digital Circuits Venkata Rao K., Rama Sudha K. and Manmadha Rao G.

606
3.5 
80.1  41Re 2
143.5R e2 =325.65
R e2 =2.26 k  .

© Dorling Kindersley India Pvt. Ltd 2010 20