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Application Note

Determination of wine colour with UV-VIS


Spectroscopy following Sudraud method

IN VINO VERITAS. A very famous Latin R1

phrase becomes reality in case you prove the


R2
colour of the wine.
Wine is more or less natural product having
all substances inside like sugars, wine acids
and alcohol. Depending on the earth where it R3
0
was grown trace elements have their
influence. Other elements like potassium (K) R7
in combination with the graves will have
influences on the colour. Colour can be white
R4
and red or different depending on theoretical
classification and practical subjective
R6
identification of human eyes. High K
concentration is combined with the red wine R5

because it exists an equilibrium between K, Fig. 2: Flavene is the base of the anthocyan structure, R1 to
tartaric acid and the anthocyan pigments R7 represent organic groups which will generate the
difference among the anthocyanes
complex, which is responsible for the red
colour.
Wine Colour Determination [2]
The definition of Wine Colour allows us to run
analysis of absorption spectra of wine
samples.
Physically, the colour is a light characteristic,
measurable in terms of intensity and
wavelength.
The human eye can reveal a substance as
coloured due to two reasons:
• absorption of all of radiation of the
visible spectra and non-absorption of
the colour under analysis;
Fig. 1: Equilibrium between Anthocyan color and tartaric acid, • absorption of the complementary of
K+ = Potassium, H2T = Tartaric acid, T= and HT- = tartaric the colour under test.
acid salts [1] In the case of grapes and wine, we can
approximately say they are RED, because
The anthocyane is a natural colour which is the anthocyan pigments are absorbing in the
found in plants like in leaves or in fruits like GREEN portion of the visible spectra, giving
the grapes. From these anthocyan complexes to human eye the sensation of colour RED.
are about 250 different structures known.
They have partly in common the structure
(Fig. 2) of the flaven molecule which will be
substituted at 7 possible positions from
simple -OH to complex sugar molecules.

SCA_100_002 www.shimadzu.de
The colour of wine can be defined by three Sudraud Method
terms as follows: I = A420 + A520
1. Intensity or luminosity: related to the And
“amount” of colour; T = A420 / A520
2. Tone or chromaticity: representing
the wine colour shading off; We can observe the A520 becoming smaller
3. Brightness or purity: related to the as much as old the wine is.
clearness. The tone is also varying and is below 1 for
For better understanding the Wine Colour young wines, and greater than 1 when old; in
analysis, have a look on one spectrum of it. particular, for red wines the colour is
The methods to give results of chromatic changing from ruby red up to orange red.
characteristics of wine are: T value can give some indication about the
• tristimolous method: based on X, Y, Z age of wine, and if this is knew, on
values, showing the RED, GREEN and preservation condition and if possible to be
BLUE content to define colour aged again.
(according to CIE);
• Sudraud method: defining the Intensity I
as the sum of absorbance measured at
420nm and 520nm and the Tone T as
the ratio of a.m. absorbance, on a 1cm
cell.

No guarantee is given on technical specification of the described product and/or procedures.


Fig. 5: Result of Sudraud method in a UVProbe software

The given specifications serve purely as technical information for the user.
table, sample see fig. 3.

These values can be also used for


determining the final colour of a red wine,
especially when I is too weak (winery at high
latitudes receiving few rays of sun). In fact,
wines from southern countries are sometimes
used for mixing (technically “cutting”) the
same of the north. (This is possible when
there’s no requirement of origin certification -
DOC, DOCG, AOC, etc. - .) I has the property
to be added to same value of another wine,
Fig. 3: This is the absorption spectrum of a red Italian table so it’s easy to find the percentages.
wine “colore rosso rubino” 10% Volume measured with UV-
1700. Literature:
[1] Bruce Zoecklein, A review of potassium
Absorption spectra of three red wines bitartrate stabilization of wine, Publication
0.8 I-one year old 463-013, 1988, Virginia Cooperative
0.7
II-10 years old Extension Service
III-50 years old
optical density [D]

0.6 Notice the shift in [2] Emanuele Canu. Shimadzu Italy Milano,
wavelength through aging. Wine Colour analysis, Shimadzu internal
0.5 II
document
0.4 III
0.3 I
[3] Sudraud P., Ann. Tech. Agri. 7 (1958) 203
0.2
Instrument:
0.1
UV-1700 and 1 cm liquid cell
350 400 450 500 550 600

wavelength [nm]

Fig. 4: This is a wine and its variation while aging or oxidising


[3].

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